Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Methemoglobinemia: The presence of methemoglobin in the blood, resulting in cyanosis. A small amount of methemoglobin is present in the blood normally, but injury or toxic agents convert a larger proportion of hemoglobin into methemoglobin, which does not function reversibly as an oxygen carrier. Methemoglobinemia may be due to a defect in the enzyme NADH methemoglobin reductase (an autosomal recessive trait) or to an abnormality in hemoglobin M (an autosomal dominant trait). (Dorland, 27th ed)Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Toothache: Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.Aminobenzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID that contain one or more amino groups attached to the benzene ring structure. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the aminobenzoate structure.Batrachotoxins: Batrachotoxin is the 20-alpha-bromobenzoate of batrachotoxin A; they are toxins from the venom of a small Colombian frog, Phyllobates aurotaenia, cause release of acetylcholine, destruction of synaptic vesicles and depolarization of nerve and muscle fibers.Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Benzocaine: A surface anesthetic that acts by preventing transmission of impulses along NERVE FIBERS and at NERVE ENDINGS.ChloraminesPharmaceutical Vehicles: A carrier or inert medium used as a solvent (or diluent) in which the medicinally active agent is formulated and or administered. (Dictionary of Pharmacy, 1986)para-Aminobenzoates: Benzoic acids, salts, or esters that contain an amino group attached to carbon number 4 of the benzene ring structure.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Dental Pulp Test: Investigations conducted on the physical health of teeth involving use of a tool that transmits hot or cold electric currents on a tooth's surface that can determine problems with that tooth based on reactions to the currents.Procaine: A local anesthetic of the ester type that has a slow onset and a short duration of action. It is mainly used for infiltration anesthesia, peripheral nerve block, and spinal block. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1016).Tosyl CompoundsAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Parabens: Methyl, propyl, butyl, and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid. They have been approved by the FDA as antimicrobial agents for foods and pharmaceuticals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed, p872)Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Dibucaine: A local anesthetic of the amide type now generally used for surface anesthesia. It is one of the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics and its parenteral use is restricted to spinal anesthesia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1006)Anesthesia, Local: A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Anesthesia, Dental: A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Oral Sprays: Pharmacologic agents in the form of a mist or spray delivered into the body through the mouth.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.PaintPain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Cryoanesthesia: ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Riot Control Agents, Chemical: Chemical substances which are employed during a riot in order to control or disperse the rioting parties.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Ethyl Chloride: A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Piperaceae: A family of flowering plants in the order Piperales best known for the black pepper widely used in SPICES, and for KAVA and Betel used for neuroactive properties.Household Products: Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.Ear Cartilage: Cartilage of the EAR AURICLE and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL.Protective Clothing: Clothing designed to protect the individual against possible exposure to known hazards.Deodorants: Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Powder Diffraction: Method of using a polycrystalline powder and Rietveld refinement (LEAST SQUARES ANALYSIS) of X-RAY DIFFRACTION or NEUTRON DIFFRACTION. It circumvents the difficulties of producing single large crystals.SulfathiazolesNebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Automobiles: A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Fumigation: The application of smoke, vapor, or gas for the purpose of disinfecting or destroying pests or microorganisms.Common Cold: A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Stevia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain stevioside and other sweet diterpene glycosides. The leaf is used for sweetening (SWEETENING AGENTS).Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Ointments: Semisolid preparations used topically for protective emollient effects or as a vehicle for local administration of medications. Ointment bases are various mixtures of fats, waxes, animal and plant oils and solid and liquid hydrocarbons.Fluocinolone Acetonide: A glucocorticoid derivative used topically in the treatment of various skin disorders. It is usually employed as a cream, gel, lotion, or ointment. It has also been used topically in the treatment of inflammatory eye, ear, and nose disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p732)Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fibrin Tissue Adhesive: An autologous or commercial tissue adhesive containing FIBRINOGEN and THROMBIN. The commercial product is a two component system from human plasma that contains more than fibrinogen and thrombin. The first component contains highly concentrated fibrinogen, FACTOR VIII, fibronectin, and traces of other plasma proteins. The second component contains thrombin, calcium chloride, and antifibrinolytic agents such as APROTININ. Mixing of the two components promotes BLOOD CLOTTING and the formation and cross-linking of fibrin. The tissue adhesive is used for tissue sealing, HEMOSTASIS, and WOUND HEALING.Respiratory Protective Devices: Respirators to protect individuals from breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors.Chlorofluorocarbons, Methane: A group of methane-based halogenated hydrocarbons containing one or more fluorine and chlorine atoms.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Occlusive Dressings: Material, usually gauze or absorbent cotton, used to cover and protect wounds, to seal them from contact with air or bacteria. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Pregnadienediols: Doubly unsaturated pregnane derivatives with two hydroxy groups substituted anywhere on the rings or side chains.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Pesticides: Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Nasal Surgical Procedures: Surgical operations on the nose and nasal cavity.Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Acaridae: Family of MITES, in the superfamily Acaroidea, order Astigmata. They are frequently found in cereal-based foodstuffs including GRAIN and FLOUR.Fungicides, Industrial: Chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of fungi in agricultural applications, on wood, plastics, or other materials, in swimming pools, etc.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Butorphanol: A synthetic morphinan analgesic with narcotic antagonist action. It is used in the management of severe pain.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Chlormequat: A plant growth regulator that is commonly used on ornamental plants.Cryosurgery: The use of freezing as a special surgical technique to destroy or excise tissue.Consumer Product SafetyPhotoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Lycium: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain CEREBROSIDES and SCOPOLETIN.Carica: A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Ventilation: Supplying a building or house, their rooms and corridors, with fresh air. The controlling of the environment thus may be in public or domestic sites and in medical or non-medical locales. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Tobacco Use Cessation Products: Items used to aid in ending a TOBACCO habit.ThiepinsInsecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Chlorofluorocarbons: A series of hydrocarbons containing both chlorine and fluorine. These have been used as refrigerants, blowing agents, cleaning fluids, solvents, and as fire extinguishing agents. They have been shown to cause stratospheric ozone depletion and have been banned for many uses.Martinique: An island in the Lesser Antilles, one of the Windward Islands. Its capital is Fort-de-France. It was discovered by Columbus in 1502 and from its settlement in 1635 by the French it passed into and out of Dutch and British hands. It was made a French overseas department in 1946. One account of the name tells of native women on the shore calling "Madinina" as Columbus approached the island. The meaning was never discovered but was entered on early charts as Martinique, influenced by the name of St. Martin. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p734 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p339)Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedDihydroergotamine: A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Chitosan: Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Herbicides: Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Tryptamines: Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.2-Propanol: An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Pediculus: Lice of the genus Pediculus, family Pediculidae. Pediculus humanus corporus is the human body louse and Pediculus humanus capitis is the human head louse.Methyl n-Butyl Ketone: An industrial solvent which causes nervous system degeneration. MBK is an acronym often used to refer to it.Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Milk Ejection: Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Lice Infestations: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)Dried Blood Spot Testing: Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Scalp DermatosesViscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Drug Storage: The process of keeping pharmaceutical products in an appropriate location.Nerium: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Lasers, Solid-State: Lasers which use a solid, as opposed to a liquid or gas, as the lasing medium. Common materials used are crystals, such as YAG (YTTRIUM aluminum garnet); alexandrite; and CORUNDUM, doped with a rare earth element such as a NEODYMIUM; ERBIUM; or HOLMIUM. The output is sometimes additionally modified by addition of non-linear optical materials such as potassium titanyl phosphate crystal, which for example is used with neodymium YAG lasers to convert the output light to the visible range.Hair Preparations: Hair grooming, cleansing and modifying products meant for topical application to hair, usually human. They include sprays, bleaches, dyes, conditioners, rinses, shampoos, nutrient lotions, etc.Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane: An organochlorine insecticide that is slightly irritating to the skin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed, p482)PaperTechnology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Oxymetazoline: A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)Hemostasis, Surgical: Control of bleeding during or after surgery.Flame Ionization: Pyrolysis of organic compounds at the temperature of a hydrogen-air flame to produce ionic intermediates which can be collected and the resulting ion current measured by gas chromatography.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Sapindaceae: The soapberry plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Some members contain SAPONINS.Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary: A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.PhthalazinesRhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Patient Medication Knowledge: Patient health knowledge related to medications including what is being used and why as well as instructions and precautions.
... s are available in creams, ointments, aerosols, sprays, lotions, and jellies. Examples include benzocaine, ... Benzocaine or lidocaine are typically used for this purpose as they are available OTC (lidocaine is more powerful than ... benzocaine). The duration of topical anesthesia might depend on the type and amount applied, but is usually about half an hour ...
... also makes oral anesthetics, such as its cherry flavored throat spray and soother that provides temporary pain relief ... In the US the Cēpacol lozenges have benzocaine while the mouthwash has Cetylpyridinium chloride "CEPACOL SORE THROAT". DailyMed ... The major active ingredients of the sugar-free lozenges are cetylpyridinium chloride, benzocaine (which produces the numbing ... The major active ingredient in the sore throat sprays is dyclonine hydrochloride. In Australia, Cēpacol lozenges contain ...
and they provide Cetacaine in three methods: liquid, gel, and spray. Cetacaine is an anesthetic that is a Benzocaine based drug ... Spray: Cetacaine spray should be applied for only one second and dosage should not exceed an application spray longer than 2 ... "Postmarket Drug Safety Information for Patients and Providers - Public Health Advisory: Benzocaine Sprays marketed under ... Its main competitors have been Benzocaine and other Benzocaine based drugs. The use of Cetacaine has allowed for faster in and ...
Current Spray Products: Cherry Throat Spray, MAX Wild Berry Targeted Throat Spray, Menthol Throat Spray, Warming Honey Lemon ... Other Chloraseptic formulas are based on benzocaine. Chloraseptic was invented and originally made by Robert Schattner; it was ... Throat Spray, Cherry On-The-Go Throat Spray, Citrus Throat Spray. Current Lozenge Products: MAX Wild berry, TOTAL Wild Cherry, ... Its active ingredient is phenol (just in Sore Throat Spray, not in Sore Throat Lozenges), a compound whose antiseptic ...
"Benzocaine Topical Products: Sprays, Gels and Liquids - Risk of Methemoglobinemia". Drugs.com. Retrieved March 20, 2014. "FDA ... Benzocaine. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2007: 2844-5. Sultan Healthcare. Topex®metered spray ( ... Cetacaine® (benzocaine 14%, tetracaine 2% and butamben 2%) spray, gel and liquid prescribing information. Pennsauken, NJ; 2006 ... The topical use of higher concentration (14-20%) benzocaine spray products applied to the mouth or mucous membranes has been ...
Topical antipruritics in the form of creams and sprays are often available over the counter. Oral anti-itch drugs also exist ... or benzocaine in topical creams or lotions Nalfurafine, an orally-administered, centrally-acting κ-opioid receptor agonist ...
Topical antipruritics in the form of creams and sprays are often available over-the-counter. Oral anti-itch drugs also exist ... Local anesthetics, such as benzocaine topical cream (Lanacane) Phototherapy is helpful for severe itching, especially if caused ...
Benzocaine, lidocaine, and prilocaine all produce this effect, especially benzocaine. The systemic toxicity of prilocaine is ... Clinical techniques include: Surface anesthesia is the application of an LA spray, solution, or cream to the skin or a mucous ... Benzocaine Chloroprocaine Cocaine Cyclomethycaine Dimethocaine/Larocaine Piperocaine Propoxycaine Procaine/Novocaine ... or spray of anaesthetic dissolved in DMSO or other solvents/carriers for deeper absorption Infiltration Brachial plexus block ...
"Lidocaine/prilocaine spray for premature ejaculation". Drug and therapeutics bulletin. 55 (4): 45-48. April 2017. doi:10.1136/ ... It is generally safe to use in those allergic to tetracaine or benzocaine. Lidocaine is an antiarrhythmic medication of the ... Topical lidocaine spray 2% viscous lidocaine Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when lidocaine is used as a local ...
Unlike many other ants, which bite and then spray acid on the wound, fire ants bite only to get a grip and then sting (from the ... External, topical treatments include the anesthetic benzocaine, the antihistamine diphenhydramine, and the corticosteroid ... Many ants bite, and formicine ants can cause irritation by spraying formic acid; myrmecine ants like fire ants have a dedicated ...
Topical, PO, rectal, spray and vaginal.. No data available.. Musculoskeletal disorders; soft-tissue disorders; sore throat.. As ... These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Buccal spray.. Not available.. Neuropathic pain and spasticity as part of MS.. As per dronabinol. ...
For these purposes PVP-I has been formulated at concentrations of 7.5-10.0% in solution, spray, surgical scrub, ointment, and ...
Topical, PO, rectal, spray and vaginal.. No data available.. Musculoskeletal disorders; soft-tissue disorders; sore throat.. As ... These topical anesthetics contain anesthetic drugs such as lidocaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, and prilocaine in a cream, ... Buccal spray.. Not available.. Neuropathic pain and spasticity as part of MS.. As per dronabinol. ...
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Benzocaine skin cream, ointment, solution, or spray. What is this medicine?. BENZOCAINE (BEN zoe kane) causes loss of feeling ... an unusual or allergic reaction to benzocaine, para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Childrens Chloraseptic Sore Throat Spray 0.71%w/v Oromucosal Spray benzocaine. Prestige Brands (UK) Ltd Retired 15-Feb-19. ... Honey & Lemon Flavour Ultra Chloraseptic Anaesthetic Throat Spray 0.71%w/v Oromucosal Spray benzocaine. Prestige Brands (UK) ... Honey & Lemon Flavour Ultra Chloraseptic Anaesthetic Throat Spray 0.71% w/v Oromucosal Spray benzocaine. Prestige Brands (UK) ... Blackcurrant flavour Ultra Chloraseptic Anaesthetic Throat Spray 0.71% w/v oromucosal spray benzocaine. Prestige Brands (UK) ...
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04/07/2011 - Drug Safety Communication: Benzocaine Sprays3 - FDA] [04/07/2011 - Drug Safety Communication: Benzocaine Gels, ... application of benzocaine or after additional use. The development of methemoglobinemia after treatment with benzocaine sprays ... Benzocaine Topical Products: Sprays, Gels and Liquids - Risk of Methemoglobinemia. [Posted 04/07/2011] ... Safety Alerts for Human Medical Products > Benzocaine Topical Products: Sprays, Gels and Liquids - Risk of Methemoglobinemia ...
Find user ratings and reviews for dextromethorphan-benzocaine-glycerin mucous membrane on WebMD including side effects and drug ... Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of dextromethorphan-benzocaine-glycerin mucous membrane ...
etil klorida/CE  durasi cepat 2.Macam teknik anestesi lokal 1. spray. cocain 2%. pantocaine. benzocaine . ... dll . Procaine 2. Bahan-bahan anestetikum lokal : Golongan Ester 1. Tetracaine 4.A. Benzocaine 5. Amethocaine 3. ... 4. Etil khlorida . eksodonsia gigi decidui yang luksasi/goyang .semprotan/spray .insisi abses. ...
Benzocaine sprays marketed under different names, including Hurricaine, Topex, and Cetacaine. FDA Public Health Advisory [US ... This FDA announcement alerts clinicians to reports of adverse events associated with benzocaine sprays and includes ...
Benzocaine sprays marketed under different names, including Hurricaine, Topex, and Cetacaine. FDA Public Health Advisory [US ... This FDA announcement alerts clinicians to reports of adverse events associated with benzocaine sprays and includes ...
If you are using an aerosol or spray form of this medicine, do not spray it directly on your face. Instead, use your hand or an ... For benzocaine and for benzocaine and menthol combination. * For topical dosage forms (aerosol solution, cream, lotion, ... Benzocaine may be absorbed through the skin of young children and cause unwanted effects. There is no specific information ... For topical dosage forms (aerosol solution, film-forming gel, jelly, ointment, and spray solution): * For pain and itching ...
Cetacaine spray (14% benzocaine, 2% butamben, 2% tetracaine). * Lidocaine 1% with 1:100,000 epinephrine ... Next, lightly spray the gingivolabial sulcus of the upper lip with Cetacaine to dull the sensation of the lip in preparation ...
Benzocaine. Camphor Rhuli Spray - S. C. Johnson Wax Calamine. Benzocaine. Camphor. Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Histamed - ... Benzocaine. Camphor. Menthol Noivy - Hilarys Distibution Calamine. Benzocaine. Camphor. Menthol. Zinc Oxide Calamatum - Purdue ... Benzocaine. Pheniramine Maleate. Phenol Calasthetic - Adcock Ingram Calamine. Benzocaine. Pyrilamine Maleate Solpic - ... Benzocaine. Chloroxylenol. Pyrilamine Maleate. Zinc Oxide Calamycin - Pfeiffer Company Calamine. Benzocaine. Diphenhydramine ...
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  • Oral Over-the-Counter Benzocaine Products: Drug Safety Communication - Risk of Serious and Potentially Fatal Blood Disorder Internet Document : 23 May 2018. (deepdyve.com)
  • It's also available as a generic medication or a store brand, and may come in the form of a gel, spray, ointment or lozenge. (deardoctor.com)
  • Overapplication of oral anesthetics such as benzocaine can increase the risk of pulmonary aspiration by relaxing the gag-reflex and allowing regurgitated stomach contents or oral secretions to enter the airway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anesthetics, such as benzocaine , work to block the propagation of the pain along the nerve endings, numbing the area. (wisegeek.com)
  • A topical analgesic can come as a cream, gel, lotion , spray, or patch and is applied to the skin to provide temporary relief from the discomfort of muscle aches, arthritis , shingles, or minor medical procedures. (wisegeek.com)
  • FDA urges consumers and health care professionals to report adverse reactions involving benzocaine or other medicines to the FDA's MedWatch program . (fda.gov)
  • Patients and healthcare professionals are urged to report any further adverse events involving benzocaine to the FDA MedWatch program. (deepdyve.com)
  • Since 2006, Health Canada has received 7 reports of serious adverse reactions linked to topical benzocaine, including 4 reports of MHb. (jcda.ca)
  • Read user comments about the side effects, benefits, and effectiveness of dextromethorphan-benzocaine-glycerin mucous membrane. (webmd.com)