The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)
An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.

SWM1, a developmentally regulated gene, is required for spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (1/2975)

Meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is followed by encapsulation of haploid nuclei within multilayered spore walls. Formation of this spore-specific wall requires the coordinated activity of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of its components. Completion of late events in the sporulation program, leading to spore wall formation, requires the SWM1 gene. SWM1 is expressed at low levels during vegetative growth but its transcription is strongly induced under sporulating conditions, with kinetics similar to those of middle sporulation-specific genes. Homozygous swm1Delta diploids proceed normally through both meiotic divisions but fail to produce mature asci. Consistent with this finding, swm1Delta mutant asci display enhanced sensitivity to enzymatic digestion and heat shock. Deletion of SWM1 specifically affects the expression of mid-late and late sporulation-specific genes. All of the phenotypes observed are similar to those found for the deletion of SPS1 or SMK1, two putative components of a sporulation-specific MAP kinase cascade. However, epistasis analyses indicate that Swm1p does not form part of the Sps1p-Smk1p-MAP kinase pathway. We propose that Swm1p, a nuclear protein, would participate in a different signal transduction pathway that is also required for the coordination of the biochemical and morphological events occurring during the last phase of the sporulation program.  (+info)

Identification and characterization of genes required for hyphal morphogenesis in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. (2/2975)

In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, germination of an asexual conidiospore results in the formation of a hyphal cell. A key feature of spore germination is the switch from isotropic spore expansion to polarized apical growth. Here, temperature-sensitive mutations are used to characterize the roles of five genes (sepA, hypA, podB-podD) in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. Evidence that suggests that the hypA, podB, and sepA genes are required for multiple aspects of hyphal morphogenesis is presented. Notably, podB and sepA are needed for organization of the cytoskeleton at sites of polarized growth. In contrast, podC and podD encode proteins that appear to be specifically required for the establishment of hyphal polarity during spore germination. The role of sepA and the pod genes in controlling the spatial pattern of polarized morphogenesis in germinating spores is also described. Results obtained from these experiments indicate that the normal pattern of germ-tube emergence is dependent upon the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton.  (+info)

Contaminations occurring in fungal PCR assays. (3/2975)

Successful in vitro amplification of fungal DNA in clinical specimens has been reported recently. In a collaboration among five European centers, the frequency and risk of contamination due to airborne spore inoculation or carryover contamination in fungal PCR were analyzed. The identities of all contaminants were specified by cycle sequencing and GenBank analysis. Twelve of 150 PCR assays that together included over 2,800 samples were found to be contaminated (3.3% of the negative controls were contaminated during the DNA extraction, and 4.7% of the PCR mixtures were contaminated during the amplification process). Contaminants were specified as Aspergillus fumigatus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Acremonium spp. Further analysis showed that commercially available products like zymolyase powder or 10x PCR buffer may contain fungal DNA. In conclusion, the risk of contamination is not higher in fungal PCR assays than in other diagnostic PCR-based assays if general precautions are taken.  (+info)

The essential role of yeast topoisomerase III in meiosis depends on recombination. (4/2975)

Yeast cells mutant for TOP3, the gene encoding the evolutionary conserved type I-5' topoisomerase, display a wide range of phenotypes including altered cell cycle, hyper-recombination, abnormal gene expression, poor mating, chromosome instability and absence of sporulation. In this report, an analysis of the role of TOP3 in the meiotic process indicates that top3Delta mutants enter meiosis and complete the initial steps of recombination. However, reductional division does not occur. Deletion of the SPO11 gene, which prevents recombination between homologous chromosomes in meiosis I division, allows top3Delta mutants to form viable spores, indicating that Top3 is required to complete recombination successfully. A topoisomerase activity is involved in this process, since expression of bacterial TopA in yeast top3Delta mutants permits sporulation. The meiotic block is also partially suppressed by a deletion of SGS1, a gene encoding a helicase that interacts with Top3. We propose an essential role for Top3 in the processing of molecules generated during meiotic recombination.  (+info)

Distinct steps in yeast spore morphogenesis require distinct SMK1 MAP kinase thresholds. (5/2975)

The SMK1 mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for spore morphogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In contrast to the multiple aberrant spore wall assembly patterns seen even within a single smk1 null ascus, different smk1 missense mutants block in a coordinated fashion at intermediate stages. One smk1 mutant forms asci in which the four spores are surrounded only by prospore wall-like structures, while another smk1 mutant forms asci in which the spores are surrounded by inner but not outer spore wall layers. Stepwise increases in gene dosage of a hypomorphic smk1 allele allow for the completion of progressively later morphological and biochemical events and for the acquisition of distinct spore-resistance phenotypes. Furthermore, smk1 allelic spore phenotypes can be recapitulated by reducing wild-type SMK1 expression. The data demonstrate that SMK1 is required for the execution of multiple steps in spore morphogenesis that require increasing thresholds of SMK1 activity. These results suggest that quantitative changes in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling play a role in coordinating multiple events of a single cellular differentiation program.  (+info)

Studies on basidiospore development in Schizophyllum commune. (6/2975)

The time required for synthesis of the spore components and the effect of different environmental conditions on basidiospore production were studied in the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Both exogenous glucose and storage materials were used in the synthesis of spore components, which took 40 to 45 h to complete. A temperature of 30 degrees C, the presence of 5% CO2, a continuous supply of glucose, or a lack of exogenous glucose, had no effect on the rate of spore production. Light, however, was required for sporulation. Darkness inhibited sporulation between karyogamy and the initiation of meiosis: complete inhibition occurred after 48 h in the dark. Spores were produced 5 h after release from dark inhibition.  (+info)

Nuclei, septation, branching and growth of Geotrichum candidum. (7/2975)

A study was made of growth, septation and branching in Geotrichum candidum, a mould which forms physiologically complete septa. A correlation was observed between septation and branch initiation; branches were almost invariably formed just behind septa. Primary branches and their parent intercalary compartments initially increased in length at an exponential rate before eventually attaining a constant rate of extension. The whole branching system (which eventually contained seven tips) produced by an intercalary compartment increased in length exponentially until it attained a total length of at least 1-5 mm. The total length and the number of nuclei of undifferentiated mycelia increased exponentially at the same specific growth rate. The results suggest that nuclei divide just before or just after arthrospore formation.  (+info)

Early expression of the calmodulin gene, which precedes appressorium formation in Magnaporthe grisea, is inhibited by self-inhibitors and requires surface attachment. (8/2975)

Fungal conidia contain chemicals that inhibit germination and appressorium formation until they are well dispersed in a favorable environment. Recently, such self-inhibitors were found to be present on the conidia of Magnaporthe grisea, and plant surface waxes were found to relieve this self-inhibition. To determine whether the self-inhibitors suppress the expression of early genes involved in the germination and differentiation of conidia, the calmodulin gene was chosen as a representative early gene, because it was found to be expressed early in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum trifolii differentiation. After calmodulin cDNA and genomic DNA from M. grisea were cloned, the promoter of the calmodulin gene was fused to a reporter gene, that for green fluorescent protein (GFP), and transformed into the M. grisea genome. Confocal microscopic examination and quantitation of expression of GFP green fluorescence showed (i) that the expression of the calmodulin gene decreased significantly when self-inhibition of M. grisea appressorium formation occurred because of high conidial density or addition of exogenous self-inhibitors and (ii) that the expression level of this gene was restored when self-inhibition was relieved by the addition of plant surface waxes. The increase in fluorescence correlated with the percentage of conidia that formed appressoria. The induction of calmodulin was also confirmed by RNA blotting. Concanavalin A inhibited surface attachment of conidia, GFP expression, and appressorium formation without affecting germination. The high correlation between GFP expression and appressorium formation strongly suggests that calmodulin gene expression and appressorium formation require surface attachment.  (+info)

There are three main forms of anthrax:

1. Cutaneous (skin) anthrax: This is the most common form of the disease and causes skin lesions that can progress to severe inflammation and scarring.
2. Inhalational (lung) anthrax: This is the most deadly form of the disease and causes serious respiratory problems, including fever, chills, and difficulty breathing.
3. Gastrointestinal (GI) anthrax: This form of the disease causes symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.

Anthrax can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood tests and imaging studies. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, but the effectiveness of treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the timing of treatment.

Prevention of anthrax primarily involves vaccination of animals and control of animal products to prevent the spread of the bacteria. In addition, public health measures such as surveillance and quarantine can help prevent the spread of the disease to humans.

The medical management of anthrax involves a combination of antibiotics, supportive care, and wound management. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing serious complications and death.

The symptoms of microsporidiosis vary depending on the site of infection and the severity of the disease. In some cases, microsporidiosis may be asymptomatic or present with mild symptoms such as fever, headache, fatigue, and muscle aches. In more severe cases, microsporidiosis can cause significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in individuals with compromised immune systems, such as those living with HIV/AIDS or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy following an organ transplant.

Microsporidiosis is diagnosed through a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and histopathological examination of tissue samples. Treatment of microsporidiosis typically involves antimicrobial medications, such as azole antifungals or polyene macrolide antibiotics. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissues or repair damaged organs.

Preventive measures for microsporidiosis include avoiding exposure to contaminated water or food, practicing good hygiene, and avoiding close contact with individuals who are infected with microsporidia. Vaccines against microsporidia are not available, but research is ongoing to develop effective vaccine candidates.

In summary, microsporidiosis is a disease caused by microsporidia that can affect various parts of the body and cause a range of symptoms. Diagnosis and treatment of microsporidiosis are challenging due to the difficulty in identifying the parasite and the lack of effective treatments. Prevention of microsporidiosis primarily relies on avoiding exposure to contaminated sources and practicing good hygiene.

Infections caused by protozoa (single-celled organisms) that affect animals. Protozoa can cause a wide range of diseases in animals, including coccidiosis, giardiasis, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis. These infections can be transmitted through the feces of infected animals, contaminated food or water, or through the bite of an infected insect.

Some common protozoan infections found in animals include:

1. Coccidiosis: a parasitic infection caused by coccidia, which can affect the intestines and other organs of animals such as dogs, cats, and livestock.
2. Giardiasis: an intestinal infection caused by Giardia, which can affect both domestic animals and wildlife.
3. Leishmaniasis: a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania, which can affect animals such as dogs and cats as well as humans.
4. Toxoplasmosis: an infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can affect a wide range of animals, including cats, dogs, livestock, and wildlife.

Protozoan infections in animals can cause a variety of symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and lethargy, and can be diagnosed through laboratory tests such as fecal examinations or blood tests. Treatment may involve antiparasitic drugs, supportive care, and management of secondary infections. Prevention measures include vaccination, sanitation, and control of insect vectors.

The symptoms of encephalitozoonosis vary depending on the severity of the infection and may include:

* Seizures
* Weakness and paralysis
* Loss of coordination and balance
* Vision loss or blindness
* Confusion and disorientation
* Change in behavior

Encephalitozoonosis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Laboratory tests may include serologic tests to detect antibodies against the parasite or PCR to detect the parasite's DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or urine. Imaging studies, such as MRI or CT scans, may be used to evaluate the brain and detect any lesions or abnormalities.

Treatment of encephalitozoonosis typically involves supportive care and antiparasitic medications. Supportive care may include managing seizures, providing fluids and nutrition, and maintaining a clean and safe environment. Antiparasitic medications, such as fenbendazole or praziquantel, are used to kill the parasite and prevent further damage to the CNS.

Prevention of encephalitozoonosis includes avoiding contact with infected animals, proper sanitation and hygiene, and avoiding consumption of undercooked meat or contaminated water. In animals, regular testing and monitoring for the parasite can help prevent the spread of infection.

Overall, encephalitozoonosis is a rare and potentially severe infection that requires prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent long-term neurological damage and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

There are several subtypes of chondrosarcoma, including:

1. Grade 1 (low-grade) chondrosarcoma: This is a slow-growing tumor that is less likely to spread to other parts of the body.
2. Grade 2 (intermediate-grade) chondrosarcoma: This type of tumor grows more quickly than grade 1 and may be more likely to spread.
3. Grade 3 (high-grade) chondrosarcoma: This is an aggressive tumor that can grow quickly and spread to other parts of the body.

The symptoms of chondrosarcoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include pain in the affected area, swelling, and limited mobility. Treatment for chondrosarcoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for chondrosarcoma varies depending on the grade of the tumor and the effectiveness of treatment.


* American Cancer Society. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
* Mayo Clinic. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from
* National Cancer Institute. (2020). Chondrosarcoma. Retrieved from

Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, and external spores, also ... Alete spores show no lines. In monolete spores, there is a single narrow line (laesura) on the spore. This indicates the mother ... Eudicots have tricolpate spores (i.e. spores with three colpi). Envelope-enclosed spore tetrads are taken as the earliest ... microscopic view, no spores are visible) Spores and elaters from a horsetail. (Equisetum, microscopic view) Fossil plant spores ...
"What are fungal spores?". University of Worcester. Retrieved 6 August 2019. "Pillows: A Hot Bed Of Fungal Spores". Science ... "Aspergillosis , Types of Fungal Diseases , Fungal Diseases , CDC". 2021-05-10. Retrieved 2022-09-02. Asan A. ( ... an infection spread widely through the body Fungal infections from Aspergillus spores remain one theory of sickness and ... Ancient spores which grew on the remains of food offerings and mummies sealed in tombs and chambers may have been blown around ...
They feed on fungal spores. They seem to be recent immigrants to Northern Europe possibly introduced by the import of sawmill ...
mycetoma A fungal disease of the skin, usually of the foot. mycobiont The fungal part of a lichen. mycobiota Aggregate fungal ... colony A massed group of hyphae and spores of a single species, especially if all are grown from a single spore (e.g. in a lab ... mycosis Fungal diseases of humans and animals (rarely, plants as well). -mycota The recommended ending of the name of fungal ... spore wall The layered wall defining a spore. Considered to have five layers. From within to outwards: the thin interior ...
Webster's greatest contribution to the science of mycology was in determining the mechanism for fungal spore discharge in ... He is recognised for determining the physiological mechanism underpinning fungal spore release, though is probably best known ... Noblin, X.; Yang, S.; Dumais, J. (1 September 2009). "Surface tension propulsion of fungal spores". Journal of Experimental ...
doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02497-7. Ingold CT (1971). Fungal spores: their liberation and dispersal. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp ... Dispersal is also used to describe the movement of propagules such as seeds and spores. Technically, dispersal is defined as ...
Fairs, A.; Wardlaw, AJ; Thompson, JR; Pashley, CH (2010). "Guidelines on ambient intramural airborne fungal spores". Journal of ... This finding was based, in part, on evidence for functional mating type (MAT) genes that are involved in fungal sexual ... Although many eukaryotes are able to reproduce sexually, as much as 20% of fungal species had been thought to reproduce ... A British study determined that Aspergillus- and Penicillium-type spores were the most prevalent in the indoor air of ...
These fungal spores then penetrate the leaf. In the spring, it produces conidia in pycnidia. The release of these spores begins ... The Ascochyta pisi spores are viable on crop debris, although they do not survive for more than a year. Other Ascochyta blight ... The spores have a short distance dispersal during the growing season. Crop rotation alone is not a recommended management ... More than one fungal species can cause this disease. Other pathogens that cause Ascochyta blight, besides Ascochyta pisi, ...
These fungal spores are produced quite infrequently; after the disease infects needles, it will not produce symptoms or ... Due to these obstacles, it is important to examine the spores directly after infection (while spores are being produced) in ... Because Cyclaneusma is an ascomycete it produces two spore types, an asexual (conidiomata) and sexual (ascomycota) spore. ... These spores will disperse from fruiting bodies of the pine either through the wind or remain on the needle for prolonged ...
Fungal spores in the xylem travel to nearby trees through these root grafts and can rapidly kill many trees simultaneously. ... Spore mats develop in the spring or fall for 2-3 weeks. The center of spore mats produce chains of barrel shaped spores, called ... Therefore, avoid pruning or felling oak trees when fungal spores and beetles are active. In the Mid-West avoid injuring oaks ... The disease results from fungal spores clogging xylem vessels and preventing water and nutrient flow. Mycelia growth between ...
Spore discharge in land plants. Oxford University Press. 1971. Fungal spores: their liberation and dispersal. Oxford University ... A full revision combining both works in the light of much further research appeared as Fungal Spores, Their Liberation and ... Spore Liberation (1965), not a revision of the former, summarised fields of recent research to reveal how spore liberation was ... Fungal Spores, Their Liberation and Dispersal (Oxford University Press, 1971). C.T. Ingold, The Biology of Fungi (Hutchinson, ...
... although great variability in spore size has been noted. The spores are sessile (growing directly from the surface of the ... Deacon J. (2005). Fungal Biology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers. pp. 31-32. ISBN 1-4051-3066-0. Brodie HJ. (1948). " ... The spores of C. stercoreus are roughly spherical and relatively large, with typical dimensions of 20-35 x 20-25 µm, ... After dispersal, the spores germinate and grow into homokaryotic hyphae, with a single nucleus in each compartment. When two ...
Taste: Fungal. Odor: Fungal. Microscopic features: Spores ellipsoid, 15 - 20 (21) x 10 - 14 x 8 - 10(11) μm. Cheilocystidia ... Gills: Gray in young specimens, turning black as the spores mature. Spore print: Jet black. Stipe: 4 to 22 cm long and .5 to 2 ... Basidia four spored, 30 - 35 micrometers long. Panaeolus antillarum Panaeolus antillarum Fungi portal List of Panaeolus species ...
Resting spores can be smooth or ornamented. Olpidium species infect a wide variety of plants, animals, protists, and fungi and ... Olpidium is a fungal genus in the family Olpidiaceae. Members of Olpidium are zoosporic pathogens of plants, animals, fungi, ... Fungal Biology. 122 (9): 837-846. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2018.04.012. PMID 30115317. Barr, Donald J.S. (1990). "An outline for ... Fungal Diversity. 92: 43-129. doi:10.1007/s13225-018-0409-5. Index Fungorum v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
This method of spore dispersal in the Nidulariaceae was tested experimentally by George Willard Martin in 1924, and later ... 1995). "Fungal interactions with the explosive RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine)". Journal of Industrial ... The action ejects the peridioles out of the so-called "splash cup", where it may break and spread the spores within, or be ... For example, species in the ollum clade all have spore lengths less than 15 µm, while all members of the pallidum group have ...
"Orange Goo on Alaska Shore Was Fungal Spores". Fox News. August 18, 2011. Retrieved August 18, 2011. "Alaska "Orange Goo" Rust ... but subsequent examination resulted in a declaration that the substance consisted of spores from a possibly undescribed species ... Spores Confirmed". NCCOS News. National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science. 9 February 2012. Retrieved 7 March 2012. An "orange ...
... this ensures widespread dispersal of the fungal spores. The fungus is a species complex with several different pathotypes, each ... Some resting spores remain dormant in the soil for two or more years. Epizootic outbreaks of disease in grasshopper populations ... After the insect cadaver has fallen to the ground, the resting spores overwinter in the soil. A portion of them germinate in ... Entomophaga grylli is a fungal pathogen which infects and kills grasshoppers. It is the causal agent of one of the most ...
Taste: A slightly unpleasant nutty fungal taste. Odor: Nutty, slightly unpleasant. Spore print: Dark walnut brown. Microscopic ... Wild Panaeolus foenisecii showing banded cap stipe and gills Panaeolus foenisecii spores magnified Panaeolus foenisecii spores ... Panaeolus foenisecii at Rough Spored Panaeoloideae spore comparison Wikimedia Commons has media related to ... Gills: Broad, adnate, brown with lighter edges, becoming mottled as the spores mature. Stipe: 3 to 8 cm by 1 to 3 mm, fragile, ...
"Crepidotus affinis E. Horak". The Global Fungal Red List. Retrieved 21 June 2022. Horak, Egon (2018). Fungi of New Zealand. ... Volume 6: Agaricales (Basidiomycota) of New Zealand (e-book ed.). Brown spored genera p.p. Crepidotus, Flammulaster, Inocybe, ... Fungi of New Zealand Nga Hekaheka o Aotearoa Volume 6. Utrecht, The Netherlands: Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute. ...
The hyphae and spores block the conductor vessels. Affected plants may superficially appear healthy, as they continue to grow, ... Unfortunately fungal infections are not uncommon in cultivated plants. A variety of phytopathogens may infect Vanda orchids. ...
Its spores are thin-walled, and have seven lobes. Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi ( ... Lobulicium is a fungal genus in the family Atheliaceae. The genus is monotypic, containing the single species Lobulicium ...
They can sometimes carry fungal spores on their bodies. A few Tarsonemus species are herbivores (attacking crop or ornamental ... They are mostly fungivores and some are economically important pests of commercial mushroom cultures and laboratory fungal ...
Isolated weather events decrease the concentration of airborne fungal spores; a few days later, number of spores increases ... "The effect of meteorological factors on the daily variation of airborne fungal spores in Granada (southern Spain)". ... spores in Zagreb (Croatia) and effects of some meteorological factors". Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine. 11 ( ... Rural areas generally favor higher airborne fungal dissemination. Proximity to large bodies of water such as rivers and lakes ...
Retrieved 2020-01-20.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Batsakis, Anthea (8 July 2016). "Deadly fungal spores stab ... was educated at the University of Bristol where he graduated with a BSc in Botany and Zoology in 1980 and a PhD in the Fungal ...
Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans fungal spores. Hence, the potential to help prevent the spread of fungi that cause human ... Quaternary ammonium ion-containing polymers (PQA) have been proven to effectively kill cells and spores through their ... when embedded on a surface has been shown to have antifungal activity by interacting with the fungal membrane and thereby ...
Synopsis of fossil fungal spores, mycelia and fructifications. American Association of Systematic Palynologists Contributions ... "Paleomycology: Discovering the fungal contemporaries of dinosaurs". Cornell Mushroom Blog. Cornell University. Retrieved 27 ...
Other lingzhi products include processed fungal mycelia or spores. Lingzhi is also used to create mycelium bricks, mycelium ... It lacks gills on its underside, and instead releases its spores via fine pores (80-120 μm) in yellow colors. The lingzhi ... Rogers, Robert (2011). "Ganoderma lucidum". The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms & Lichens of North ... It also contains phytochemicals found in fungal materials, including polysaccharides (such as beta-glucan), coumarin, mannitol ...
... spore print is orange; spores themselves are very small with only faint ornamentation. The widespread but only punctual records ... Ochricompactae" (PDF). Fungal Diversity. 28: 15-40. Lebel T, Dunk CW, May TW (2013). "Rediscovery of Multifurca stenophylla ( ...
... these proteins are the main component of the hydrophobic sheath covering the surface of many fungal spores. Genomic sequencing ... "Surface hydrophobin prevents immune recognition of airborne fungal spores". Nature. 460 (7259): 1117-21. Bibcode:2009Natur. ... Nakari-Setälä T, Azeredo J, Henriques M, Oliveira R, Teixeira J, Linder M, Penttilä M (July 2002). "Expression of a fungal ... The most well characterised class I hydrophobin is EAS, which coats the spores of the fungus Neurospora crassa, followed by ...
It is transmitted through the inhalation of fungal spores. It is found mainly in the United States in the Mississippi River and ... There are three fungal species that cause ringworm in dogs. About 70 percent of infections are caused by Microsporum canis, 20 ... There are several fungal diseases that are systemic in nature, meaning they are affecting multiple body systems. Blastomycosis ... One of the most common fungal diseases in dogs is ringworm, or dermatophytosis, an infection of the skin, hair, or nails. ...
Spores produced by Buglossoporus range in shape from ellipsoid, to cylindrical, to spindle-shaped. They are hyaline, thin- ... Fungal Diversity. 80: 1-31. doi:10.1007/s13225-016-0364-y. S2CID 34923876. Reid, D.A. (1976). "Notes on polypores. 2". Memoirs ...
... is a fungal genus in the family Agaricaceae. Circumscribed by mycologist Else Vellinga in 2011, it is a monotypic ... phylogenies and two new white-spored genera". Mycologia. 103 (3): 494-509. doi:10.3852/10-204. PMID 21193599. v t e (Articles ...
... spores ellipsoidal, smooth, hyaline." The cup-like shape of the fruit bodies allows the spores of the fungus to be disseminated ... Poronidulus is a fungal genus in the family Polyporaceae. It is a monotypic genus, and contains the single polypore species ...
The hymenium (spore-bearing tissue) is on the outside surface of the cap, rather than the inside, as is usual for cup-shaped ... Caripia is a fungal genus in the family Marasmiaceae. The genus is monotypic, containing the single species Caripia montagnei, ... The thin-walled spores are narrowly pip-shaped, inamyloid, and measure 5-6 by 2.5-3.3 µm. Another stalked cup fungus, ... Compared to the structurally related fungal metabolite fusaric acid, it protects plants better, but lacks cytotoxic, ...
Induction of sporulation is difficult with routine fungal media used in the most of clinical laboratories, but it can be ... and the method of spore discharge. The name "vasiformis" came from the flask-shape of sporangiophore. Since 1953, it has been ...
The spores are thick walled, smooth, and spindle shaped, with dimensions of 11-15 by 4-5 µm. Longer spores up to 18 µm long may ... Deacon J. (2005). Fungal Biology. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers. pp. 262-3. ISBN 1-4051-3066-0. Morris MH, ... The spore-bearing cells, the basidia, are four spored and measure 26-35 by 10.5-11.5 µm. Cystidia are non-fertile cells ... The characteristic feature of the mycorrhiza is the presence of a sheath of fungal tissue that encases the terminal, nutrient- ...
The fungal pathogens that cause the disease chytridiomycosis ravage the skin of frogs, toads, and other amphibians, throwing ... Each sporangium produces a single tube to discharge spores. Zoospores of B. dendrobatidis, which are typically 3-5 µm in size, ... Characteristics of the organisms were suggestive of encysted zoospores; they may have embodied a resting spore, a saprobe, or a ...
The majority of fungal biomass is found in the humus and litter layers of soil. Most truffle fungi produce both asexual spores ... Spore dispersal is accomplished through fungivores, animals that eat fungi. These fungi have significant ecological roles in ... "Spore release and dispersal". Australian National Botanic Gardens. Archived from the original on 14 November 2016. Retrieved 5 ... The dispersal of sexual spores then shifted from wind and rain to utilizing animals. The phylogeny and biogeography of the ...
Infections by C. echinulata are thought to arise from inhalation of fungal spores and are not communicable. Relatively few case ... It has been reported occasionally an agent of mucormycosis following the inhalation of fungal spores. Czapek's agar is a ... Cunninghamella echinulata is a fungal species in the genus Cunninghamella. It is an asexually reproducing fungus and a ... Cunninghamella echinulata reproduces asexually and solely via yellow-brown, spiny, single-spored sporangioles that, due to the ...
As the fungus begins to produce spores, affected tissues become dark grey-brown and hairy as a result of the superficial ... Choanephora cucurbitarum is a fungal plant pathogen that causes fruit and blossom rot of various cucurbits. It can also affect ... Fungal plant pathogens and diseases, Eudicot diseases, Zygomycota, Fungi described in 1875, All stub articles, Zygomycota stubs ...
The spores are smooth, hyaline (translucent), and inamyloid. Walter Jülich created the family Mycorrhaphiaceae to contain the ... Fungal Biology. 121 (9): 798-824. doi:10.1016/j.funbio.2017.05.010. PMID 28800851. Mossebo, D.C.; Ryvarden, L. (2003). "The ...
Often found on wood in lumberyards, the fruiting body grows for only one year, and produces spores in late summer and autumn. ... Fungal tree disease stubs). ... The spores are white, cylindrical, and smooth. Similar species ...
... may also persist as dormant spores in the environment for prolonged periods. Microsporum canis species have a ... of the fungus from brushed pet hair can aid in detection of either an actively growing fungus or a passive carriage of fungal ... an ectothrix-type infection where the fungus envelopes the exterior of the hair shaft without the formation of internal spores ...
... fungal MeSH B05.295.249.500 - spores, fungal MeSH B05.295.500 - mycelium MeSH B05.295.500.400 - hyphae MeSH B05.340.915 - usnea ... spores, fungal MeSH B05.930.176 - candida MeSH B05.930.176.326 - candida albicans MeSH B05.930.176.400 - candida glabrata MeSH ...
The saprobic phase is initiated by the production of haploid yeasts, which fuses with another spore and produce the n+n hyphae ... Ustilaginomycetes)". Fungal Diversity. 13: 167-173. Begerow, D., Göker, M., Lutz, M., Stoll, M. (2004). "On the evolution of ... This teliospore is a specialized resting spore that can survive outside their host. The teliospore is released from the host, ... Almost all of the Ustilaginomycotina will then sporulate inside the host, and this happens with the spore becoming thick-walled ...
Algal and fungal spores reach these rocks by air from the surrounding areas. These spores grow and form symbiotic association, ... The spores of xerophytic mosses, such as Polytrichum, Tortula, and Grimmia, are brought to the rock where they succeed lichens ... These climatic conditions favor growth of bacterial and fungal populations, resulting in increase in decomposition activities. ...
Teliospores (sexual spores) are the survival spores that overwinter in the soil. Basidiospores are the spores that are able to ... Fungal plant pathogens and diseases, Soybean diseases, Pucciniales, Fungi described in 1914, Taxa named by Hans Sydow, Taxa ... Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a fungus which has a spore moved by wind, called urediniospore. These spores are quite different from ... Pustules are visible after 10 days and they can produce spores for three weeks. The disease reaches its climax when the crop ...
The spore print is white, and the smooth, elliptical spores are 4-6 by 3-5 µm in size. The basidia (spore-bearing cells) are ... Cerniglia CE (1997). "Fungal metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Past, present and future applications in ... The variety cremoricolor is found in eastern North America and has longer spores than the nominate variety, measuring 7-12 by ... Species in this subsection have elongated spores, and typically lack cystidia on the sides of gills. A 2009 phylogenetic ...
The fungi that are now included in the fungal class Geoglossomycetes were previously considered by mycologists to be a family ( ... and that the hyaline spored genera (e.g. Leotia, Microglossum, and Spathularia) were not allied within the same clade as the ... Cannon PF, Kirk PM (2007). Fungal families of the world. Wallingford, UK: CAB International. ISBN 978-0-85199-827-5. (Articles ... darker-spored genera (Geoglossum and Trichoglossum). Schoch et al., using a six-gene phylogeny including ribosomal DNA and ...
The spores are roughly spherical, amyloid, and typically measure 8-11 by 7-9.5 µm. The mushroom is common in China, where it ... Fungal Diversity. 64: 123-31. doi:10.1007/s13225-013-0260-7. Deng WQ, Li TH, Xi PG, Gan LX, Xiao ZD, Jiang ZD (2011). "Peptide ...
Cicadas are believed to become infected by fungal spores as the nymphs dig tunnels to the soil surface days before their ... During Stage II infection, the fungus produces a different kind of spore: resting spores that have thick walls and are not ... which produces spores. Because of this method of spreading of Stage I spores, cicadas infected with M. cicadina have been ... Instead, the resting spores lie dormant in soil and will infect the next generation of cicadas during their next 13 or 17 year ...
Thus, fungal and human cells are similar at the molecular level, making it more difficult to find a target for an antifungal ... Bacterial spores on the other hand cannot be killed by iodine, but they can be inhibited by iodophors. The growth of ... Alcohols are not quite efficient when it comes to spores. The mode of action is by denaturing the proteins. Alcohols interfere ... It is also highly effective against bacterial spores. The mode of action is by breaking the bonds present in these ...
In the places where the pathogen is present, windy conditions are what most favor dispersal of fungal spores. These regions ... In Mexico, most spores are produced in the winter prior to active growth, while most lesions were found 6 months later after ... There are no signs of the pathogen visible to the naked eye so observation of fungal structures have to be performed with a ... The early development of the fruit is a critical time for fungal infection and this overlap with thrip damage exacerbates the ...
... is the name given to a group of fungal isolates that are known to be virulent against Scarabaeidae, a family ... majus) and its name is derived from characteristically very large spores (typically 2.5-4 µm x 10-14 µm long) for the genus ...
The Iraqi government had weaponized 6,000 liters of B. anthracis spores and 12,000 liters of botulinum toxin in aerial bombs, ... one fungal strain, five types of virus, and four toxins. Of these, three-anthrax, botulinum and aflatoxin-had proceeded to ...
... that the powdery appearance on the killed silkworms is caused by the production of millions of infectious white fungal spores ...
This is due to the fact horses are highly sensitive to respirable dust in hay especially to the mould, fungal spores and ... mould and fungal spores thereby improving the hygienic quality of hay and dramatically reducing airborne respirable dust by up ... Importantly, studies[vague] have shown homemade hay steamers to have some beneficial effect in reducing dust and mould spores ...
However, single spore isolates (or isogenic lines) display a great amount of variation in many of these features; thus, these ... Chytrids are one of the early diverging fungal lineages, and their membership in kingdom Fungi is demonstrated with chitin cell ... It is generally accepted that the resulting zygote forms a resting spore, which functions as a means of surviving adverse ... The resulting zygote germinates into a resting spore. Sexual reproduction is common and well known among members of the ...
Spores germinate at a higher rate in the presence of Musa root secondary metabolites from susceptible cultivars than those from ... cubense Pronunciation (help·info) is a fungal plant pathogen that causes Panama disease of banana (Musa spp.), also known as ... List of banana and plantain diseases Drenth, André; Guest, David I. (2016-08-04). "Fungal and Oomycete Diseases of Tropical ... Fusarium oxysporum is a common inhabitant of soil and produces three types of asexual spores: macroconidia, microconidia and ...
The airborne asexual spores of P. chrysogenum are important human allergens. Vacuolar and alkaline serine proteases have been ... Utrecht, the Netherlands: CBS-KNAW- Fungal Biodiversity Centre. pp. 1-398. Andersen B, Frisvad JC, Søndergaard I, Rasmussen IS ... Like the many other species of the genus Penicillium, P. chrysogenum usually reproduces by forming dry chains of spores (or ... Matsuda Y, Awakawa T, Abe I (September 2013). "Reconstituted biosynthesis of fungal meroterpenoid andrastin A". Tetrahedron. 69 ...
Preparation of Fungal Spore Suspensions. Spores were obtained by cultivating the tested fungi on the PDA plates for 7 days and ... Effect on the Spore Production. A total of 2.5 μl spore suspension (1.0 × 106 conidia/L) were distributed evenly onto the PDA ... Fungal Isolation and Identification. Figures 1A,B showed that the fungal strain Y7 appearance was white in the adjustment ... The spore germination inhibition rates were calculated using the following equation, where nt is the number of spore production ...
Fungal spores trigger mutual cleaning behaviour. "Our experiments indicate that the defence against pathogens may be an ... If the scientists sprayed spores of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus into the beetle nests, the workers showed enhanced ... plan to investigate whether the saliva of the ambrosia beetles might contain antibiotic substances that kill the spores of ...
... including major human fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. While it has been well ... or where sexual reproduction is favored over asexual reproduction by mixing genetic materials and producing spores that are ... Author Summary Unisexual reproduction has been reported in several fungal species that have been traditionally thought to ... Fungal spores Is the Subject Area "Fungal spores" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Drawing from recent work on the germination of Bacillus subtilis spores, we propose that many microorganisms exit dormancy in ... Surface hydrophobin prevents immune recognition of airborne fungal spores. Nature 460, 1117-1121 (2009). ... Coluccio, A. E., Rodriguez, R. K., Kernan, M. J. & Neiman, A. M. The yeast spore wall enables spores to survive passage through ... Elucidating the pathogenesis of spores from the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 77, 3491-3500 ( ...
fungal spores. It is endemic in the southwestern United States, with the highest number of cases occurring in Arizona and ... spores. This soil-dwelling fungus is endemic to arid regions of Mexico, Central and South America, and the southwestern United ... spores. However, because there are currently no proven preventive measures for coccidioidomycosis, additional research into ... and temperature might have resulted in increased spore dispersal, and disruption of soil by human activity, such as ...
20 (26) Fungal Bloom. 10 (24) Fungal Spore. Fungal Root Far Shiverpeaks. Far Shiverpeaks wildlife. 28 (30) Mountain Pinesoul. ... Sentient Spore Vabbi. Vabbi wildlife. 22 (26) Mirage Iboga. 22 (26) Storm Jacaranda. 22 (26) Enchanted Brambles. 22 (26) ... 15 (25) Nettle Spore. Sentient Vine 15 (25) Parasitic Growth. 20 (26) Cave Aloe. 20 (26) Corrupted Aloe. ...
The infection affects the lungs first, because it is acquired by inhaling fungal spores. In the absence of therapy, and ... Researchers discuss strategic actions to stimulate research on fungal diseases in the context of the WHO fungal pathogens ... Tags: Antifungal, B Cell, Blood, Brain, Cell, Central Nervous System, Cryptococcosis, Drugs, Fungal Infection, Labor, Lungs, ... Cryptococcosis is a rare and deadly fungal infection that affects the lung and brain and usually only occurs in people with ...
Fungal spores. *Insect and mite feces. *Insect bites and stings (their venom) ...
Euwallacea perbrevis is an ambrosia beetle that vectors fungal pathogens causing Fusarium dieback in Florida avocado trees. ... 106 spores/mL suspensions of Fusarium sp. nov., AF-8 and Graphium sp. were individually plated on 47 mm (diam) Petri dishes ... Fungal Cultures. Six E. perbrevis fungal associates-Fusarium sp. AF-6 (AF-6), Fusarium sp. AF-8 (AF-8), Fusarium sp. nov., ... Volatile Emissions and Relative Attraction of the Fungal Symbionts of Tea Shot Hole Borer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) † by Paul ...
The doctor made skin examination (ectoparasite) sarcoptes and fungal spores was not seen. The unususal think is the legs of the ... It can take several tries to find the right anti-fungal therapy for a specific patient. The food allergy test is a good idea. ... Oral anti-fungal medications such as ketaconazole and itraconazole will usually eliminate the yeast with three to four weeks of ... So if there has been improvement when on anti-fungal medications and then recurrence of the problems it may be necessary to use ...
Heavy winter rains have wakened the fungal spores in our soil.. YAHOO!News May 1 2023 - 04:00 ... A rare fungal outbreak at an Escanaba paper mill has now temporarily shut down the mills operations, idling hundreds of ... Metanail Serum Pro is an important nail and foot solution that fights nail fungal infections. This serum feeds, soothes, and ... Fortunately, we have many toenail fungus supplements that help get rid of fungal infections in the toes. ...
Transition cows are particularly sensitive to molds, fungal spores and mycotoxins.. Mycotoxin sources. The presence of ... These typically include fungal endophytes that produce mycotoxins, which protect the plant in some way, such as ergovaline and ...
Spore formation is a function of the fungal partner only and the form that the spores occur in reflects the type of fungus ... Many are simply a single whole spore, while in others the spore may be divided up into 2 or more subsections. ... Spores come in a great variety of sizes, shapes and forms. They are, for instance, much larger in the genus Pertusaria than in ... In perithecia, the spore bearing body is not open - as in apothecia - but is in a chamber, with only a small opening to the ...
In addition, most studies involve exposure of animals to fungal spores or spore extracts while neglecting the influence of ... Fungal-diseases; Fungal-infections; Fungi; Inhalation-studies; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Respiratory- ... The understanding of fungal inhalation and allergic sensitization has significantly advanced with the use of small animal ... Recent literature examining the potential for hyphae and fungal fragments to induce or exacerbate allergy is discussed. Innate ...
NIAID-supported research of various fungal diseases seeks to understand the organisms that cause the diseases and better ways ... The fungus causes infection mainly in the lungs through inhalation of fungal spores. Most people who breathe in the fungal ... Infection generally occurs by breathing Coccidioides spores into the lungs and, unlike most serious fungal diseases, healthy ... Fungal Disease-Specific Research. NIAID-supported research for fungal diseases includes studying the basic biology of the ...
These small, smooth hair protect plants from insects and stop fungal spores from germinating ...
Webinars Fungal Library Pocket Guide FedEx Labels Become A Client. COCs Standard Mold Asbestos Bacteria USP 797 USP 800 Radon ... Usually identified on spore trap samples where it is seen every few weeks. (Spores have very distinctive morphology.) Our ... Tetraploa species comprise a very small proportion of the fungal biota. This genus is somewhat related to Triposporium and ...
The trees grew smashingly, but people didnt know they had spread fungal spores and other soil microbes along with the trees. ... It became such a world traveler because humans spread the mushrooms spores around like glitter at a kids glitter party. ... Mushrooms in turn make tiny spores that easily disperse and can grow into new mycelia. ... but because they lacked a historical baseline for fungal diversity, nothing could be proved. Most scientists simply assumed the ...
The arrival of soybean rust pathogen in the U.S. was likely due to spores being blown by winds from northern South America and ... Interpretive Summary: Soybean rust caused by the obligate fungal plant pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi is regarded as the most ... Analysis of rain deposition of soybean rust spores, aerobiology model output and field observations of soybean rust spread in ... Title: Predicting soybean rust incursions into the North American continental interior using crop monitoring, spore trapping, ...
Categories: Spores, Fungal Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 40 ...
This disease occurs after inhalation of aerosolized fungal spores from the environment. Although the precise reservoir is ... Talaromycosis (formerly penicilliosis) [cited 2021 Jun 10]. ...
... scientists use geography to integrate data and insight from five different disciplines to understand the rise of this fungal ... Microscopic fungal spores called coccidioidomycosis attach to soil particles that can become airborne when wind whips up or the ... For those who live in the Southwest, scientists are seeing an arresting rise in a rare fungal lung infection and its impact to ...
Daily asthma severity in relation to personal ozone exposure and outdoor fungal spores. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996;154:633- ... The effect of outdoor fungal spore concentrations on daily asthma severity. Environ Health Perspect 1997;105:622-35.doi:10.1289 ... Diagnostics in allergic diseases by correlating pollen/fungal spore counts with patient scores of symptoms. Grana 1981;20:219- ... Short-Term effect of pollen and spore exposure on allergy morbidity in the Brussels-Capital region. Ecohealth 2016;13:303-15. ...
infection is by inhalation of the fungal spores. In severely immunocompromised patients, primary Aspergillus sp. pneumonia ... capacity to minimize fungal spore counts via maintenance of a) HEPA filtration, b) directed room airflow, c) positive air ... such patient-care areas are built to minimize fungal spore counts in air by maintaining a) filtration of incoming air by using ... suggesting that the patients were probably exposed to fungal spores when they were allowed outside their rooms (530). Copper-8- ...
You can inhale fungi spores, or they can land on you. As a result, fungal infections tend to start in the lungs or on the skin. ... Fungal Diseases webpage from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases covers fungal diseases caused by a ...
Fungal spores are the inoculum for most of the common diseases. Additional fungal structures, such as chlamydospores and ... Fungal smut or rodents were identified as causes of low seed yield in some cases. Thousand seed weight varied from 11.7 g ( ... According to Sokol and Stross (1992) the germination of most seeds, spores of ferns, lichens, mosses, and related plants is ...
Due to fungal or bacterial contamination six samples were not assessable during the cool season and 22 samples during the warm ... Therefore, the decontamination procedure was not able to inactivate the mould spores completely, and consequently, more culture ... As in most cases fungal contamination hampered the identification of MAP cultures and we suspect that the higher air ... C until cultivation to avoid undesired bacterial and fungal growth and to ensure consistent sample handling. FC of individual ...
Online Fungal Spore Analyst Course. Become A Fungal Spore Analyst!. Mold Testing Kits. Mold & mildew growing in your home. are ... bluish or yellowish spores which give them their characteristic colours. Spores from this species of mold are found everywhere ... Penicillium chrysogenum spores. Penicillium is a group (Genus) of moulds found everywhere world-wide. It is the mould that ... He graduated from the University of Kent at Canterbury, UK, with a Masters degree in Fungal Technology and a PhD in ...
It is a self-inhibitor produced by fungal spores to prevent germination. In addition, it is used to establish phenolic ...
  • Sarah Gregory] Dr. Tribble, what are trauma related invasive fungal infections? (
  • Although these immunocompromised infants are at increased risk during most of their hospital stay, they are at the highest risk of acquiring invasive fungal infections during the first weeks of life, when the most invasive therapies are performed and remain in place. (
  • Pathogenesis and invasive fungal infections in very low birth weight infants. (
  • Rising rates of invasive fungal infections may be linked to global climate change. (
  • The understanding of fungal inhalation and allergic sensitization has significantly advanced with the use of small animal models, especially mouse models. (
  • This disease occurs after inhalation of aerosolized fungal spores from the environment. (
  • Euwallacea perbrevis is an ambrosia beetle that vectors fungal pathogens causing Fusarium dieback in Florida avocado trees. (
  • Ants of the tribe Camponotini, commonly known as carpenter ants, seem especially susceptible to fungal pathogens of the genus Ophiocordyceps, including one species that compels infected ants to bite into various erect plant parts just before they die. (
  • Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens. (
  • As a next step, the researchers plan to investigate whether the saliva of the ambrosia beetles might contain antibiotic substances that kill the spores of Aspergillus fungi. (
  • They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. (
  • Cryptococcosis is a rare and deadly fungal infection that affects the lung and brain and usually only occurs in people with impaired immunity. (
  • The infection affects the lungs first, because it is acquired by inhaling fungal spores. (
  • NIAID-supported research for fungal diseases includes studying the basic biology of the organisms that cause these diseases to developing vaccines and better ways to diagnose, treat, and prevent infection. (
  • NIAID-supported researchers are identifying the fungal pathways responsible for human infection and determining how the immune system responds to and clears Aspergillus infections. (
  • For those who live in the Southwest, scientists are seeing an arresting rise in a rare fungal lung infection and its impact to human health has grown dramatically. (
  • There is no doubt that Allocordyceps represents a fungal infection of a Camponotus ant," he said. (
  • True to its name, the fungal infection produces lesions with a scab-like appearance on leaves and fruit. (
  • This type of fungal infection won't kill a tree, but it can severely weaken it. (
  • If apple trees are already showing signs of cedar-apple rust, it's no longer possible to control the fungal infection. (
  • The ministry said mucormycosis, or black fungus, is a complication caused by a fungal infection. (
  • All of these factors place them at high risk for fungal infection. (
  • A confirmed case was defined as 1) necrotizing soft-tissue infection requiring antifungal treatment or surgical debridement in a person injured in the tornado, 2) with illness onset on or after May 22, and 3) positive fungal culture or histopathology and genetic sequencing consistent with a Mucormycete. (
  • Future studies will require animal models that accurately reflect natural fungal exposures and identify environmental factors that influence immune development and thus promote respiratory fungal allergy and disease. (
  • In the second hut, the oil contained natural fungal spores. (
  • If the scientists sprayed spores of the pathogenic fungus Aspergillus into the beetle nests, the workers showed enhanced cleaning of their nestmates. (
  • People breathe in numerous Aspergillus spores every day without becoming sick. (
  • Current monitoring lures contain quercivorol, a fungus-produced volatile, but the exact attractant is unknown since lures contain a mixture of p -menth-2-en-1-ol isomers and both α- and β-phellandrene. (
  • Fortunately, we have many toenail fungus supplements that help get rid of fungal infections in the toes. (
  • Spore formation is a function of the fungal partner only and the form that the spores occur in reflects the type of fungus involved. (
  • As we already know, two main types of fungus are involved - and it will come as no surprise that each can be identified by its manner of spore production. (
  • The name Penicillium comes from the resemblance of the spore producing structures (conidiophores) of the fungus to a paintbrush (penicillus is the Latin word for paintbrush). (
  • image: Oregon State University research has identified the oldest known specimen of a fungus parasitizing an ant, and the fossil also represents a new fungal genus and species. (
  • CORVALLIS, Ore. - Oregon State University research has identified the oldest known specimen of a fungus parasitizing an ant, and the fossil also represents a new fungal genus and species. (
  • And as the earliest fossil record of fungal parasitism of ants, it can be used in future studies as a reference point regarding the origin of the fungus-ant association. (
  • Removing the growths, called juniper galls, that spread the spores is one way to control the spread of the fungus. (
  • Earlier studies had shown that spores from a specific Metarhizium strain could make a big enough dent in a mosquito population to raise the possibility of using the fungus to reduce infective bites among humans [2]. (
  • Canker diseases can be fungal or bacterial in origin. (
  • Candida auris is a newly emerging fungal species that is difficult to identify and is often resistant to multiple antifungal drugs. (
  • Spores from this species of mold are found everywhere in the air and soil. (
  • The new fungal genus and species shares certain features with Ophiocordyceps but also displays several developmental stages not previously reported, Poinar said. (
  • It's a family of fungal species, which are specialized to live inside insects. (
  • The approach involves the fungal species Metarhizium , which kills a variety of insects. (
  • Metanail Serum Pro is an important nail and foot solution that fights nail fungal infections. (
  • Sarah Gregory] During the recent war in Afghanistan, invasive fungal wound infections, or IFIs, among U.S. combat casualties were associated with risk factors related to the mechanism and pattern of injury. (
  • Prior to studies of and broad institution of antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk preterm infants, the incidence of fungal infections had been rising in infants born at less than 1000 g, with the ensuing resuscitation and survival of more and more infants. (
  • For these reasons, fungal infections are often difficult to eradicate in the preterm infant and, in cases of candidemia, central venous catheter removal is critical for clearance and survival. (
  • The pathogenesis of fungal infections in preterm infants involves adherence, colonization, and dissemination (as shown in the image below). (
  • On June 3, a local physician notified the Springfield-Greene County Health Department and the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (MODHSS) of two patients hospitalized with tornado injuries who had suspected necrotizing fungal soft-tissue infections. (
  • MODHSS initiated active surveillance for such infections at hospitals and laboratories serving patients injured in the tornado, and CDC began assisting MODHSS with identification of fungal isolates. (
  • By June 10, eight patients with necrotizing fungal soft-tissue wound infections caused by Mucormycetes (formerly Zygomycetes) were identified. (
  • Recent literature examining the potential for hyphae and fungal fragments to induce or exacerbate allergy is discussed. (
  • These paraphyses are composed of fungal hyphae and often have coloured tips. (
  • Soredia are small bundles of algal cells in a fungal hyphae mesh. (
  • These spores are all microscopic in size and float easily in the air. (
  • Microscopic fungal spores called coccidioidomycosis attach to soil particles that can become airborne when wind whips up or the soil is disturbed. (
  • Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris, while the fungal isolates were Rhizopus sp. (
  • Heavy winter rains have wakened the fungal spores in our soil. (
  • and could significantly inhibit the conidial germination, spore production, mycelium growth, and colony expansion and thus was able to reduce the pathogenicity of Penicillium sp. (
  • Drawing from recent work on the germination of Bacillus subtilis spores, we propose that many microorganisms exit dormancy in response to cell wall muropeptides. (
  • People catch mucormycosis by coming in contact with the fungal spores in the environment. (
  • Although cutaneous mucormycosis often is opportunistic, affecting patients with diabetes, hematologic malignancy or solid organ transplant ( 1 ), A. trapeziformis often is associated with immunocompetent hosts after traumatic implantation of fungal spores ( 2 ). (
  • Transition cows are particularly sensitive to molds, fungal spores and mycotoxins. (
  • These typically include fungal endophytes that produce mycotoxins, which protect the plant in some way, such as ergovaline and lolitrem B, as well as Fusarium mycotoxins, such as zearalenone or deoxynivalenol (DON). (
  • Spore producing bodies come in several forms, 3 of which are relatively common: Apothecia, Perithecia and Pycnidia. (
  • In perithecia, the spore bearing body is not open - as in apothecia - but is in a chamber, with only a small opening to the outside world. (
  • We can see a large, orange, cup-shaped ascoma with developing perithecia - flask-shaped structures that let the spores out - emerging from rectum of the ant," Poinar said. (
  • We see freestanding fungal bodies also bearing what look like perithecia, and in addition we see what look like the sacs where spores develop. (
  • These structures are called conidiomata and the spores they produce are called conidiospores. (
  • Both these structures release ascospores - spores produced within an ascus (a sack). (
  • The spores can trigger allergic reactions in individuals sensitive to mould. (
  • In addition, most studies involve exposure of animals to fungal spores or spore extracts while neglecting the influence of hyphal or subcellular fragment exposures. (
  • Just to confuse you, some (about 8,000) Ascomycetes also produce spores not in an ascus, but on the sides of (or at the tips of) special hyphal filaments. (
  • Pycnidia are reproductive bodies which release conidiospores - spores produced from the end or side of special hyphal filaments called conidia. (
  • Today I'm talking with Dr. David Tribble about his article on fungal wounds after combat trauma in Afghanistan. (
  • Murine models of airway fungal exposure and allergic sensitization. (
  • Innate immune recognition of fungal elements and their contribution to lung allergic inflammation in animal models are also reviewed. (
  • Spores that can be transported long distances in the atmosphere spread the disease. (
  • They are commonly called the blue or green moulds because they produce enormous quantities of greenish, bluish or yellowish spores which give them their characteristic colours. (
  • But killing off the mosquitoes required very large quantities of fungal spores and usually took a couple of weeks. (
  • This fungal disease primarily affects mature conifers. (
  • Soybean rust caused by the obligate fungal plant pathogen Phakopsora pachyrhizi is regarded as the most destructive foliar disease of soybean (Glycine max). (
  • Preventive spraying with fungicide, liquid copper, or bio fungicides-especially if the disease is common in your area-can prevent the spores from affecting apple trees. (
  • These growths eventually spread fungal spores, so removing them can prevent the spread of the disease. (
  • Ascomycetes are so called because they produce their spores in a bag or ascus. (
  • One of the ways they differ from Ascomycetes is that they produce their spores on a basidium, a special structure which normally holds four spores at its top. (
  • Growths on Eastern red cedars develop and release fungal spores that go on to infect apple trees, causing leaf damage and hindering fruit production. (
  • Is the Subject Area "Fungal spores" applicable to this article? (
  • A study was made of the trend of ophthalmic fungal corneal keratitis in the greater Cairo area of Egypt and its association with climate records during the same period. (
  • Data on diagnosed cases of fungal keratitis were collected from records of ophthalmic departments of Cairo University hospital and atmospheric temperature and humidity for the greater Cairo area were obtained from online records. (
  • To achieve this, individual fungal cells must work together to coordinate their behavior, but how they do this has, up until now, been unknown. (
  • The most common fungal partners in Lichens are the Ascomycetes. (
  • the spores can be dispersed by high winds. (
  • The other main group of fungal partners are Basidiomycetes. (
  • Analysis of rain deposition of soybean rust spores, aerobiology model output and field observations of soybean rust spread in 20007 and 2008 showed a strong correspondence between spore collections and model predictions for the continental interior of north America where the primary product of soybeans occur. (
  • The analysis further suggests that spore trapping and aerobiology modeling can reduce the reliance on costly field plot monitoring in the continental interior of North America while maintaining the effectiveness of the ipmPIPE system for management of soybean rust. (