The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)
An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.

Influence of crossdrafts on the performance of a biological safety cabinet. (1/3436)

A biological safety cabinet was tested to determine the effect of crossdrafts (such as those created by normal laboratory activity or ventilation) upon the ability of the cabinet to protect both experiments and investigators. A simple crossdraft, controllable from 50 to 200 feet per min (fpm; 15.24 to 60.96 m/min), was created across the face of the unit. Modifications of standardized procedures involving controlled bacterial aerosol challenges provided stringent test conditions. Results indicated that, as the crossflow velocities exceeded 100 fpm, the ability of the cabinet to protect either experiments or investigators decreased logarithmically with increasing crossdraft speed. Because 100 fpm is an airspeed easily achieved by some air conditioning and heating vents (open windows and doorways may create velocities far in excess of 200 fpm), the proper placement of a biological safety cabinet within the laboratory--away from such disruptive air currents--is essential to satisfactory cabinet performance.  (+info)

Transient gene asymmetry during sporulation and establishment of cell specificity in Bacillus subtilis. (2/3436)

Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis is initiated by an asymmetric division generating two cells of different size and fate. During a short interval, the smaller forespore harbors only 30% of the chromosome until the remaining part is translocated across the septum. We demonstrate that moving the gene for sigmaF, the forespore-specific transcription factor, in the trapped region of the chromosome is sufficient to produce spores in the absence of the essential activators SpoIIAA and SpoIIE. We propose that transient genetic asymmetry is the device that releases SpoIIE phosphatase activity in the forespore and establishes cell specificity.  (+info)

Secretion, localization, and antibacterial activity of TasA, a Bacillus subtilis spore-associated protein. (3/3436)

The synthesis and subcellular localization of the proteins that comprise the Bacillus subtilis spore are under a variety of complex controls. To better understand these controls, we have identified and characterized a 31-kDa sporulation protein, called TasA, which is secreted into the culture medium early in sporulation and is also incorporated into the spore. TasA synthesis begins approximately 30 min after the onset of sporulation and requires the sporulation transcription factor genes spo0H and spo0A. The first 81 nucleotides of tasA encode a 27-amino-acid sequence that resembles a signal peptide and which is missing from TasA isolated from a sporulating cell lysate. In B. subtilis cells unable to synthesize the signal peptidase SipW, TasA is not secreted, nor is it incorporated into spores. Cells unable to produce SipW produce a 34-kDa form of TasA, consistent with a failure to remove the N-terminal 27 amino acids. In cells engineered to express sipW and tasA during exponential growth, TasA migrates as a 31-kDa species and is secreted into the culture medium. These results indicate that SipW plays a crucial role in the export of TasA out of the cell and its incorporation into spores. Although TasA is dispensable for sporulation under laboratory conditions, we find that TasA has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. We discuss the possibility that during the beginning of sporulation as well as later, during germination, TasA inhibits other organisms in the environment, thus conferring a competitive advantage to the spore.  (+info)

Heat resistance of native and demineralized spores of Bacillus subtilis sporulated at different temperatures. (4/3436)

Demineralization reduced heat resistance of B. subtilis spores, but the pattern and magnitude of the reduction depended on sporulation temperature and on heating menstruum pH. The differences in heat resistance of native spores caused by sporulation temperature almost disappeared after demineralization. Demineralized spores were still susceptible to the heat-sensitizing effect of acidic pH.  (+info)

Bacillus subtilis spore coat. (5/3436)

In response to starvation, bacilli and clostridia undergo a specialized program of development that results in the production of a highly resistant dormant cell type known as the spore. A proteinacious shell, called the coat, encases the spore and plays a major role in spore survival. The coat is composed of over 25 polypeptide species, organized into several morphologically distinct layers. The mechanisms that guide coat assembly have been largely unknown until recently. We now know that proper formation of the coat relies on the genetic program that guides the synthesis of spore components during development as well as on morphogenetic proteins dedicated to coat assembly. Over 20 structural and morphogenetic genes have been cloned. In this review, we consider the contributions of the known coat and morphogenetic proteins to coat function and assembly. We present a model that describes how morphogenetic proteins direct coat assembly to the specific subcellular site of the nascent spore surface and how they establish the coat layers. We also discuss the importance of posttranslational processing of coat proteins in coat morphogenesis. Finally, we review some of the major outstanding questions in the field.  (+info)

SodA and manganese are essential for resistance to oxidative stress in growing and sporulating cells of Bacillus subtilis. (6/3436)

We constructed a sodA-disrupted mutant of Bacillus subtilis 168, BK1, by homologous recombination. The mutant was not able to grow in minimal medium without Mn(II). The spore-forming ability of strain BK1 was significantly lower in Mn(II)-depleted medium than that of the wild-type strain. These deleterious effects caused by the sodA mutation were reversed when an excess of Mn(II) was used to supplement the medium. Moreover, the growth inhibition by superoxide generators in strain BK1 and its parent strain was also reversed by the supplementation with excess Mn(II). We therefore estimated the Mn-dependent superoxide-scavenging activity in BK1 cells. Whereas BK1 cells have no detectable superoxide dismutase (Sod) on native gel, the superoxide-scavenging activity in crude extracts of BK1 cells grown in Mn(II)-supplemented LB medium (10 g of tryptone, 5 g of yeast extract, and 5 g of NaCl per liter) was significantly detected by the modified Sod assay method without using EDTA. The results obtained suggest that Mn, as a free ion or a complex with some cellular component, can catalyze the elimination of superoxide and that both SodA and Mn(II) are involved not only in the superoxide resistance of vegetative cells but also in sporulation.  (+info)

Specific binding of the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase to the upstream region of Bacillus thuringiensis protoxin genes. (7/3436)

During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis produces inclusions comprised of different amounts of several related protoxins, each with a unique specificity profile for insect larvae. A major class of these genes designated cry1 have virtually identical dual overlapping promoters, but the upstream sequences differ. A gel retardation assay was used to purify a potential regulatory protein which bound with different affinities to these sequences in three cry1 genes. It was identified as the E2 subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase. There was specific competition for binding by homologous gene sequences but not by pUC nor Bacillus subtilis DNA; calf thymus DNA competed at higher concentrations. The B. thuringiensis gene encoding E2 was cloned, and the purified glutathione S-transferase-E2 fusion protein footprinted to a consensus binding sequence within an inverted repeat and to a potential bend region, both sites 200-300 base pairs upstream of the promoters. Mutations of these sites in the cry1A gene resulted in decreased binding of the E2 protein and altered kinetics of expression of a fusion of this regulatory region with the lacZ gene. Recruitment of the E2 subunit as a transcription factor could couple the change in post exponential catabolism to the initiation of protoxin synthesis.  (+info)

Negative regulation by the Bacillus subtilis GerE protein. (8/3436)

GerE is a transcription factor produced in the mother cell compartment of sporulating Bacillus subtilis. It is a critical regulator of cot genes encoding proteins that form the spore coat late in development. Most cot genes, and the gerE gene, are transcribed by sigmaK RNA polymerase. Previously, it was shown that the GerE protein inhibits transcription in vitro of the sigK gene encoding sigmaK. Here, we show that GerE binds near the sigK transcriptional start site, to act as a repressor. A sigK-lacZ fusion containing the GerE-binding site in the promoter region was expressed at a 2-fold lower level during sporulation of wild-type cells than gerE mutant cells. Likewise, the level of SigK protein (i. e. pro-sigmaK and sigmaK) was lower in sporulating wild-type cells than in a gerE mutant. These results demonstrate that sigmaK-dependent transcription of gerE initiates a negative feedback loop in which GerE acts as a repressor to limit production of sigmaK. In addition, GerE directly represses transcription of particular cot genes. We show that GerE binds to two sites that span the -35 region of the cotD promoter. A low level of GerE activated transcription of cotD by sigmaK RNA polymerase in vitro, but a higher level of GerE repressed cotD transcription. The upstream GerE-binding site was required for activation but not for repression. These results suggest that a rising level of GerE in sporulating cells may first activate cotD transcription from the upstream site then repress transcription as the downstream site becomes occupied. Negative regulation by GerE, in addition to its positive effects on transcription, presumably ensures that sigmaK and spore coat proteins are synthesized at optimal levels to produce a germination-competent spore.  (+info)

Castaing, J.-P., Lee, S., Anantharaman, V., Ravilious, G. E., Aravind, L. and Ramamurthi, K. S. (2014), An autoinhibitory conformation of the Bacillus subtilis spore coat protein SpoIVA prevents its premature ATP-independent aggregation. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 358: 145-153. doi: 10.1111/1574-6968.12452 ...
Bacteria are one of the premier biological forces that, in combination with chemical and physical forces, drive metal availability in the environment. Bacterial spores, when found in the environment, are often considered to be dormant and metabolically inactive, in a resting state waiting for favorable conditions for them to germinate. However, this is a highly oversimplified view of spores in the environment. The surface of bacterial spores represents a potential site for chemical reactions to occur. Additionally, proteins in the outer layers (spore coats or exosporium) may also have more specific catalytic activity. As a consequence, bacterial spores can play a role in geochemical processes and may indeed find uses in various biotechnological applications. The aim of this review is to introduce the role of bacteria and bacterial spores in biogeochemical cycles and their potential use as toxic metal bioremediation agents.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Components of the bacterial spore germination apparatus are crucial for survival and for initiation of infection by some pathogens. While some components of the germination apparatus are well conserved in spore-forming species, such as the spoVA operon, each species may possess a different and possibly unique germinant recognition mechanism. The significance of several individual proteins in the germination process has been characterized. However, the mechanisms of how these proteins perform their functions and the network connecting these proteins in the complete germination process are still a mystery. In this study, we characterized a Bacillus subtilis superdormant spore population and investigated the abundance of 11 germination-related proteins. The relative quantities of these proteins in dormant, germinating and superdormant spores suggested that variation in the levels of proteins, other than germinant receptor proteins may result in superdormancy. Specifically, variation in the ...
Bacillus subtilis, as a model spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium, has been extensively used for spore germination research. Within this field, nutrient-dependent germination with specific germinant receptors (GerA, responding to L-alanine or L-valine; GerB and GerK, acting together to start spore germination process in response to AGFK) has been the most studied. There are three different variants of the GerAA subunit (299T/302S, 299A/302P, 299A/302S) of the GerA germination receptor present in B. subtilis subs. subtilis laboratory strains. According to our research, the 299A/302P one, unlike the others, interferes with the spores ability to germinate in L-alanine as assessed by the measurement of DPA release upon stimulation with the germinant. Multiple genetic manipulations described in this work followed by spore germination tests, together with secondary structure predictions led us to the following conclusions. First, position 302 of GerAA protein is crucial in terms of GerA germination
casSAR Dugability of P52969 | Su-2 | Small, acid-soluble spore protein 2 - Also known as SAS2_SPOUR, Su-2. SASP are bound to spore DNA. They are double-stranded DNA-binding proteins that cause DNA to change to an a-like conformation. They protect the DNA backbone from chemical and enzymatic cleavage and are thus involved in dormant spores high resistance to UV light.
Methods for enhancing destruction and killing of bacterial spores via phagocytosis, where phagocytosis of bacterial spores is enhanced by using a glycoconjugate. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of modifying a surface of a bacterial spore to increase adherence to a phagocyte; and ingesting the adherence-increased spore with the phagocyte, thereby destructing and killing the spore by blocking spore-induced phagocyte cell death, while increasing phagocyte activation level and production of antimicrobial and cytocidal agents such as NO and inflammatory cytokines. The adherence of spore to a phagocyte is increased after the surface thereof is coated with a glycoconjugate to form a glycoconjugate-coated spores. The glycoconjugate-coated spores also increase ingestion of the spores by phagocytes and facilitate phagosome-lysosome fusion, which in turn results in destruction and killing of bacterial spores via phagocytosis. The method enhances
The Bacillus subtilis spore coat is composed of at least 15 polypeptides plus an insoluble protein fraction arranged in three morphological layers. The insoluble fraction accounts for about 30% of the coat protein and is resistant to solubilization by a variety of reagents, implying extensive cross-linking. A dodecapeptide was purified from this fraction by formic acid hydrolysis and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. This peptide was sequenced, and a gene designated cotX was cloned by reverse genetics. The cotX gene encoding the dodecapeptide at its amino end was clustered with four other genes designated cotV, cotW, cotY, and cotZ. These genes were mapped to 107 degrees between thiB and metA on the B. subtilis chromosome. The deduced amino acid sequences of the cotY and cotZ genes are very similar. Both proteins are cysteine rich, and CotY antigen was present in spore coat extracts as disulfide cross-linked multimers. There was little CotX antigen in the spore coat soluble ...
Bakterid moodustavad endospoore enda sees. Spoorid on ümbritsetud õhukese kihiga ehk eksiiniga. Eksiini all paikneb paks valguline spoorimantel ehk eksospoorium, mis on läbitungimatu mitmetele suurtele toksilistele molekulidele. See kest on peamiselt üles ehitatud valgujääkidest. Lisaks paiknevad seal ka ensüümid, mis on bakteri arengu käigus tekkinud. Spoori kesta all asub korteks (koor, koorik), mis koosneb peptidoglükaanist. Korteks tagab resistentsuse ekstreemsetes kliimatingimustes. Neljanda kihina paikneb korteksi all tuuma sein, mis ümbritseb endospoori tuuma ehk protoblasti. Tuuma sein sisaldab kromosomaalset DNA-d, mida ümbritsevad kromatiinisarnased valgud ehk SASP-d (inglise: small acid-soluble spore proteins). Lisaks sisaldab tuuma sein ribosoome ja teisi ensüüme, kuid nad ei ole metaboolselt aktiivsed.[5] Kaltsium-dipikolinaat moodustab kuni 15% endospooride kuivmassist. Dipikoliinhape ja kaltsium kaitsevad spoori kuuma eest ning viimane neist ka oksüdeerivate ...
Since the distribution of anthrax causing spores through the U.S. Postal System in the autumn of 2001, numerous methods have been developed to detect spores with the goal of minimizing casualties. During and following an attack it is also important to detect spores on surfaces, to assess extent of an attack, to quantify risk of infection by contact, as well as to evaluate post-attack clean-up. To perform useful measurements, analyzers and/or methods must be capable of detecting as few as 10 spores/cm2, in under 5-minutes, with little or no sample preparation or false-positive responses, using a portable device. In an effort to develop such a device, we have been investigating the ability of surfaceenhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to detect dipicolinic acid (DPA) as a chemical signature of bacilli spores. In 2003 we employed SERS to measure DPA extracted from a 10,000 spores per μL sample using hot dodecylamine. Although the entire measurement was performed in 2 minutes, the need to heat the ...
Endospore Stain The endospore stain is a differential stain used to visualize bacterial endospores. Endospores are formed by a few genera of bacteria, such as Bacillus . By forming spores, bacteria can survive in hostile conditions. Spores are resistant to heat, dessication, chemicals, and radiation. Bacteria can form endospores in approximately 6 to 8 hours after being exposed to adverse conditions. The normally-growing cell that forms the endospore is called a vegetative cell. Spores are metabolically inactive and dehydrated. They can remain viable for thousands of years. When spores are exposed to favorable conditions, they can germinate into a vegetative cell within 90 minutes. Endospores can form within different areas of the vegetative cell. They can be central, subterminal, or terminal. Central endospores are located within the middle of the vegetative cell. Terminal endospores are located at the end of the vegetative cell. Subterminal endospores are located between the middle and the end ...
Rapid isolation and identification of spores from various environmental samples is necessitated because anthrax spores can be used as biological weapons. The hydrophobic nature of spores may allow for their rapid concentration and partial purification from contaminating materials. In this study, spores from four taxonomic groups of Bacillaceae were isolated, purified and characterized for hydrophobicity by hexadecane partitioning, surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy, and steady-state fluorescence by spectroscopy. The morphology of spores was similar within taxonomic groups and dissimilar between groups. Spore hydrophobicity ranged from 0.3% to 65% and all spores had fluorescence emission peaks at 335 nm and 450 nm. The excitation maxima for the peak at 450 nm were shifted to higher wavelengths for the least hydrophobic spores. Regression analysis demonstrated a correlation between the taxonomic identity, as established by fatty acid analyses, and hydrophobicity. Hydrophobicity can
Early in the process of spore formation in Bacillus subtilis a septum is formed that partitions the sporangium into daughter cells called the forespore and the mother cell. The daughter cells each have their own chromosome but follow dissimilar programs of gene expression. Differential gene expression in the forespore is now shown to be established by the compartmentalized activity of the transcription factor sigma F. The sigma F factor is produced prior to septation, but is active only in the forespore compartment of the post-septation sporangium. The sigma F factor is controlled by the products of sporulation operons spoIIA and spoIIE, which may be responsible for confining its activity to one of the daughter cells. ...
During Bacillus subtilis sporulation, the SpoIIIE DNA translocase moves a trapped chromosome across the sporulation septum into the forespore. The preferential assembly of SpoIIIE complexes in the mother cell provided the idea that SpoIIIE functioned as a DNA exporter, which ensured translocation orientation. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Becker and Pogliano reinvestigate the molecular mechanisms that orient the activity of SpoIIIE. Their findings indicate that SpoIIIE reads the polarity of DNA like its Escherichia coli homologue, FtsK ...
Genes encoding proteins in a common regulatory network are frequently located close to one another on the chromosome to facilitate co-regulation or couple gene expression to growth rate. Contrasting with these observations, here, we demonstrate a functional role for the arrangement of Bacillus subtilis sporulation network genes on opposite sides of the chromosome. We show that the arrangement of two sporulation network genes, one located close to the origin and the other close to the terminus, leads to a transient gene dosage imbalance during chromosome replication. This imbalance is detected by the sporulation network to produce cell-cycle coordinated pulses of the sporulation master regulator Spo0A∼P. This pulsed response allows cells to decide between sporulation and continued vegetative growth during each cell cycle spent in starvation. The simplicity of this coordination mechanism suggests that it may be widely applicable in a variety of gene regulatory and stress-response settings ...
We are particularly interested in understanding the molecular mechanisms of spore germination, which dormant spores undergo when stimulated to return to the vegetative state. We are also interested in the composition and assembly of the spore coat and exosporium, and aim to define the structures and functions of the various proteins that form this primary protective barrier.. We use a range of approaches to gain insight to spore biology at the molecular level, including genetic, biochemical, crystallographic and advanced imaging techniques.. Overall, our objective is to consider fundamental insights to spore structure and physiology in the context of public health, food safety, counter-terrorism and environmental decontamination, and to determine how such information might then be applied to improve current capabilities in these sectors.. Enquiries concerning post-graduate research opportunities, industrial collaborations, or general information concerning the groups activities, should be ...
Spore-forming bacteria are common contaminants of food, and represent a major source of food poisoning and food spoilage (1, 2). Bacterial cells in their vegetative or sporulated forms can be found in the environment and therefore can be natural contaminants of raw materials. The sporeformers display many physiological and enzymatic capacities. The spores are metabolically inactive, but they are commonly resistant to physical and chemical treatments applied in the food industry. In contrast, vegetative cells are more sensitive to stress, are physiologically active, and can produce degradative enzymes or toxins, form biofilms, and differentiate into resistant spores.. The aim for industrials is to limit or even avoid the presence of sporeformers in their final products and on food lines. To do so, curative means can be used, such as cleaning and whitening processes on raw materials or physical treatments, in order to reduce the load of sporeformers. Preventive means are also used in order to ...
Receptor-based detection of pathogens often suffers from non-specific interactions, and as most detection techniques cannot distinguish between affinities of interactions, false positive responses remain a plaguing reality. Here, we report an anharmonic acoustic based method of detection that addresses the inherent weakness of current ligand dependant assays. Spores of Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus anthracis simulant) were immobilized on a thickness-shear mode AT-cut quartz crystal functionalized with anti-spore antibody and the sensor was driven by a pure sinusoidal oscillation at increasing amplitude. Biomolecular interaction forces between the coupled spores and the accelerating surface caused a nonlinear modulation of the acoustic response of the crystal. In particular, the deviation in the third harmonic of the transduced electrical response versus oscillation amplitude of the sensor (signal) was found to be significant. Signals from the specifically-bound spores were clearly distinguishable ...
Bacterial spore formers have been the focus of intense study for almost half a century. The most heavily studied of these is Bacillus subtilis, an internationally recognized model organism, whose physiology, biochemistry and genetics have been studied for many years. Under nutrient rich conditions, B. subtilis grows and multiplies by a process of cell expansion followed by division at mid-cell to generate identical daughter cells; however, B. subtilis also has the ability to form spores, dormant cells which are resistant to many of the chemical and physical challenges that normally kill bacteria. Although many of the basic aspects of this process are now well understood, bacterial sporulation still remains a highly attractive model for studying various cell processes at a molecular level. There are several reasons for this interest. First, some of the more complex sporulation steps are not fully understood or are only described using controversial models. Second, the extensive attention lavished on
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Recent experiments suggest that in the bacterium, B. subtilis, the cue for the localization of small sporulation protein, SpoVM, that plays a central role in spore coat formation, is curvature of the bacterial plasma membrane. This curvature-dependent localization is puzzling given the orders of magnitude difference in lengthscale of an individual protein and radius of curvature of the membrane. Here we develop a minimal model to study the relationship between curvature-dependent membrane absorption of SpoVM and clustering of membrane-associated SpoVM and compare our results with experiments. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: ...
A microbiological study on treated waste from a microwave unit can be done for various test organisms like Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphlococcus aureus, E Coli, Candida albicans, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Geo Bacillus Sterothermophilis to name a few.. • The bacterial spores are most resistant to heat and their inactivation indicates that the system is capable of inactivating virtually all types of micro organisms.. • Self contained Biological Indicator ampoules, with a spore population of 105, for bacillus subtilis or Geo Bacilus Stero thermophilis are readily available in the market.. • These SCBI ampoules for Geo Bacilus Stero thermophilis can be placed in the Maser Bin , amidst waste to be treated. Once treated, suspension from these ampoules are incubated at 370 C for 48-72 hours and observed for growth, if any.. • No growth after incubation, indicates that the organisms are inactivated and hence the required disinfection achieved successfully. ...
During the process of sporulation, a/α diploids degrade about 50% of their vegetative proteins. This degradation is not sporulation specific, for asporogenous diploids of a/a mating type degrade their vegetative proteins in a fashion similar to that of their a/α counterparts. Diploids lacking carboxypeptidase Y activity, prc1/prc1, show about 80% of wild-type levels of protein degradation, but are unimpaired in the production of normal asci. Diploids lacking proteinase B activity, prb1/prb1, show about 50% of wild-type levels of protein degradation. The effect on degradation of the proteinase B deficiency is epistatic to the degradation deficit attributable to the carboxypeptidase Y deficiency. The prb1 homozygotes undergo meiosis and produce spores, but the asci and, possibly, the spores are abnormal. Diploids homozygous for the pleiotropic pep4-3 mutation show only 30% of the wild-type levels of degradation when exposed to a sporulation regimen, and do not undergo meiosis or sporulation. ...
osw mutant spores are sensitive to digestion by β-glucanases.AN120 (wild type) and the indicated osw mutant strains were sporulated and the survival of the spo
A longstanding challenge in developmental biology is to understand how organisms construct large structures that ultimately help define how that organism looks. We are approaching this problem by examining the morphogenesis of a simple organism, a bacterial spore, and are trying to understand how it achieves its characteristic morphology. Spores are dormant cell types that are encased in a thick protein shell, termed the coat. Spores are highly resistant to environmental insults, and this resistance is due, in part, to the protective properties of the coat. Assembly of the basement layer of the coat depends on a tiny protein, called SpoVM, which anchors the coat onto the surface of the developing spore. We have discovered that SpoVM localizes properly by preferentially embedding in convex, or positively curved, membranes, such as those found on the surface of the spore. SpoVM then recruits a novel cytoskeletal protein, called SpoIVA, which polymerizes by hydrolyzing ATP to form a stable ...
Members of this protein family represent a subset of those belonging to Pfam family PF00188 (SCP-like extracellular protein). Based on currently cuttoffs for this model, all member proteins are found in Bacteria capable of endospore formation. Members include a named but uncharacterized protein, YkwD of Bacillus subtilis. Only the C-terminal region is well-conserved and is included in the seed alignment for this model. Three members of this family have an N-terminal domain homologous to the spore coat assembly protein SafA ...
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I am about to inoculate a few jars but they were kinda warm from being in my car today and i was wondering if it would be ok to proceed. What temperature is the highest the spore can be placed in
For serious infections caused by Bacillus and Clostridia species the contagion is often the spore not the vegetative bacillus and represents an intervention poi...
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The life cycle of a fungus includes a fruiting structure that produces spores, the spores themselves and the germination of spores into a new fungus. The exact mechanism differs between sexual and...
The terms mold and mildew actually refer to the same thing. Both refer to a colony of fungus that grows in damp, dark areas. Mildew is usually used when referring to a slimy, flat colony, but this has more to do with amount of moisture in the area than the type of mold. For this reason, a mold air purifier is the same as a mildew air purifier - in both cases, removal of spores from the air is the key element. Molds produce spores as a way to spread. These tiny seeds cannot be seen by the naked eye, except when there are so many they will appear as a smoky cloud. The spores range in size from 1 to 100 microns in size. They are single cells expelled by the colony, usually when conditions for growth change. A colony will grow (often invisibly) until it begins to deplete the available resources Read more [...] ...
The Genus Clostridium Consists Of Over 295 Species Of Gram- Positive, Rod-shaped Bacteria. These Are Mostly Anaerobes And Present Ubiquitously In The Environment Due To Their Ability To Form Heat, Radiation And Chemical Resistant Spores. In This Book, The Authors Present Current Research In The Stud... Lees verder ...
Ion-control gene spo0M (6.5-fold); pksA (6.7-fold), which codes for a transcriptional regulator of polyketide synthase; and yceD (3.7-fold), which is similar to
MichaelXYs links at least indicate that the bacterial load in the air is relatively small. (And after all, why wouldnt it - most bacteria dont produce spores specifically meant for airborne spreading as far as I know) I thought fungal spores, on the other hand, wouldve been much more common in the air, but at least quick googling* gave me values ranging from 50 to 500 CFU/m3, which is quite close to the amount of bacteria ...
The Developmental Research Program has been one of the most valuable and productive of the SPORE components. The development of innovative translational researc...
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Kerstin Voelz investigates how fungal pathogens circumvent and hijack innate immune responses to establish disease using a zebrafish larval model. In particular she aims to decode how fungi initiate spore germination, why the immune system sometimes fails to inhibit this process and how this can be prevented ...
Amostras de resíduos da colheita de milho, como palhas, caules e folhas, foram pré-tratadas em um processo de duas etapas, sendo a primeira com soluções ác...
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Zinc release is the first quantitatively significant event detected during the triggering of Bacillus megaterium KM spore germination. Of the total spore Zn2+ pool 25% is released from non-heat-activated spores within 4 min of triggering germination. During this period only 10% of the spore population becomes irreversibly committed to germinate. The investigation of a putative role for Zn2+ in the germination trigger mechanism has established a relationship between the rate and extent of Zn2+ release and the stimulation of spore germination by heat activation. Furthermore, a correlation can be demonstrated between the extent of zinc release from spore populations and the time required to obtain 50% commitment of these populations to germinate over a wide temperature range. These findings have been used to expand a recently published model for the triggering of bacterial spore germination. ...
There is still great interest in controlling bacterial endospores. The use of chemical disinfectants and, notably, oxidizing agents to sterilize medical devices is increasing. With this in mind, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and peracetic acid (PAA) have been used in combination, but until now there has been no explanation for the observed increase in sporicidal activity. This study provides information on the mechanism of synergistic interaction of PAA and H2O2 against bacterial spores. We performed investigations of the efficacies of different combinations, including pretreatments with the two oxidizers, against wild-type spores and a range of spore mutants deficient in the spore coat or small acid-soluble spore proteins. The concentrations of the two biocides were also measured in the reaction vessels, enabling the assessment of any shift from H2O2 to PAA formation. This study confirmed the synergistic activity of the combination of H2O2 and PAA. However, we observed that the sporicidal activity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inactivation of chemical and heat-resistant spores of Bacillus and Geobacillus by nitrogen cold atmospheric plasma and comparison to thermal and chemical based methods. AU - van Bokhorst-van de Veen, H.. AU - Xie, H.. AU - Esveld, D.C.. AU - Abee, T.. AU - Mastwijk, H.C.. AU - Nierop Groot, M.N.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - Bacterial spores are resistant to severe conditions and form a challenge to eradicate from food or food packaging material. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) treatment is receiving more attention as potential sterilization method at relatively mild conditions but the exact mechanism of inactivation is still not fully understood. In this study, the biocidal effect by nitrogen CAP was determined for chemical (hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide), physical (UV) and heat-resistant spores. The three different sporeformers used are Bacillus cereus a food-borne pathogen, and Bacillus atrophaeus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus that are used as biological indicators for ...
Heat shock of dormant spores of Bacillus stearothermophilus ATCC 7953 at 100 or 80 degrees C for short times, the so-called activation or breaking of dormancy, was investigated by separating the resulting spores by buoyant density centrifugation into a band at 1.240 g/ml that was distinct from another band at 1.340 g/ml, the same density as the original spores. The proportion of spores at 1.240 g/ml became larger when the original dormant spores were heated for a longer period of time, but integument-stripped dormant spores were quickly and completely converted to spores with a band at 1.240 g/ml. The spores with bands at both 1.240 and 1.340 g/ml were germinable faster than the original dormant spores and thus were considered to be activated. The spores with a band at 1.240 g/ml, which were considered to be fully activated, were apparently permeabilized, with a resulting complete depletion of dipicolinic acid, partial depletion of minerals, susceptibility to lysozyme action, permeation of the ...
Nutrient germination of spores of Bacillus species occurs through germinant receptors (GRs) in sporesinner membrane (IM) in a process stimulated by sublethal heat activation. Bacillus subtilis spores maximum germination rates via different GRs required different 75C heat activation times: 15 min for L-valine germination via the GerA GR and 4 h for germination with the L-asparagine glucose fructose K mixture via the GerB and GerK GRs, with GerK requiring the most heat activation. In some cases, optimal heat activation decreased nutrient concentrations for half-maximal germination rates. Germination of spores via various GRs by high pressure (HP) of 150 MPa exhibited heat activation requirements similar to those of nutrient germination, and the loss of the GerD protein, required for optimal GR function, did not eliminate heat activation requirements for maximal germination rates ...
Spores of foodborne pathogens such as Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium perfringens and Bacillus cereus are widely distributed in nature. Presence of those spores in food products, particularly C. botulinum spores in vacuum packed, ready-to-eat low-acid products, is a great safety concern. The research here described is a first effort towards understanding the role of the spore coat proteins in the inactivation of bacterial spore using high pressure processing. This study proposes a coat protein solubilization methodology using non-ionic detergents minimizing protein damage and compatible with spectroscopy methods. The methodology developed here was compared with approaches proposed in the literature with respect to protein yield, protein fractions identified, amino acid composition and suitability with spectroscopy techniques for the further analysis of coat proteins. Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 spore coat proteins were solubilized (n=3) using octyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (OGP) at room ...
Effective killing of Bacillus anthracis spores is of paramount importance to antibioterrorism, food safety, environmental protection, and the medical device industry. Thus, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of spore resistance and inactivation is highly desired for developing new strategies or improving the known methods for spore destruction. Previous studies have shown that spore inactivation mechanisms differ considerably depending upon the killing agents, such as heat (wet heat, dry heat), UV, ionizing radiation, and chemicals. It is believed that wet heat kills spores by inactivating critical enzymes, while dry heat kills spores by damaging their DNA. Many studies have focused on the biochemical aspects of spore inactivation by dry heat; few have investigated structural damages and changes in spore mechanical properties. In this study, we have inactivated Bacillus anthracis spores with rapid dry heating and performed nanoscale topographical and mechanical analysis of inactivated spores using
Free Online Library: Decontamination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores on selected surfaces by chlorine dioxide gas. by Journal of Environmental Health; Health, general Environmental issues Anthrax Analysis Case studies
The ability of Clostridium perfringens to form spores plays a key role during the transmission of this Gram-positive bacterium to cause disease. Of particular note, the spores produced by food poisoning strains are often exceptionally resistant to food environment stresses such as heat, cold, and preservatives, which likely facilitates their survival in temperature-abused foods. The exceptional resistance properties of spores made by most type A food poisoning strains and some type C foodborne disease strains involve their production of a variant small acid-soluble protein-4 that binds more tightly to spore DNA than to the small acid-soluble protein-4 made by most other C. perfringens strains. Sporulation and germination by C. perfringens and Bacillus spp. share both similarities and differences. Finally, sporulation is essential for production of C. perfringens enterotoxin, which is responsible for the symptoms of C. perfringens type A food poisoning, the second most common bacterial foodborne disease
A newly published research study by scientists at the UK Institute of Food Research (IFR) has identified part of the mechanism by which the resistant endospores of the dangerous foodborne pathogen Clostridium botulinum (the cause of botulism) are able to germinate.. It is known that spore germination is initiated when certain small molecules (germinants) are recognised by a specific germinant receptors (GR) located in the inner membrane of the spore. The IFR researchers were able to identify two active GRs in the spores of Cl. botulinum, which respond to amino acid germinants and act in synergy, but are unable to function alone. Other GRs form a complex that seems to play a role in controlling the speed of germination.. The authors of the study say that understanding the germination mechanism of Cl. botulinum spores is essential if new control measures to prevent germination and subsequent toxin production by vegetative cells in food are to be developed. They suggest that it may be possible to ...
Author summary The anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a prominent pathogen in hospitals worldwide and the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Numerous risk factors are associated with C. difficile infections (CDIs) including: antibiotics, advanced age, vitamin D deficiency, and proton pump inhibitors. Antibiotic use disrupts the intestinal microbiota allowing for C. difficile to colonize, however, why these other risk factors increase CDI incidence is unclear. Notably, deficient intestinal calcium absorption (i.e., increased calcium levels) is associated with these risk factors. In this work, we investigate the role of calcium in C. difficile spore germination. C. difficile spores are the infectious particles and they must become metabolically active (germinate) to cause disease. Here, we show that calcium is required for C. difficile germination, specifically activating the key step of cortex hydrolysis, and that this calcium can be derived from either within
To conceal criminal activity of a bioterrorist or agroterrorist, the site of pathogen generation is often treated with sterilants to kill the organisms and remove evidence. As dead organisms cannot be analyzed by culture, this study examined whether DNA from sterilant-treated Bacillus cereus spores was viable for amplification. The spores were exposed to five common
Inactivation kinetics for Bacillus subtilis endospores for (△) pure argon, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen, () argon + 0.135% vol. oxygen + 0.2% vol. nitrogen i
Author Summary Positive auto-regulation of a transcriptional activator during cell differentiation or development often allows the rapid and robust deployment of cell- and stage-specific genes and the routing of the differentiating cell down a specific path. Positive auto-regulation however, raises the potential for inappropriate activity of the transcription factor. Here we unravel the role of a previously characterized anti-sigma factor, CsfB, in a negative feedback loop that prevents ectopic expression of the sporulation-specific sigma factor σG of Bacillus subtilis. σG is activated in the forespore, one of the two chambers of the developing cell, at an intermediate stage in spore development. Once active, a positive feedback loop allows the rapid accumulation of σG. Synthesis of both σG and CsfB is under the control of the early forespore regulator σF, and CsfB may help prevent the premature activity of σG in the forespore. However, CsfB is also produced under σG control in non-sporulating
1. When Bacillus subtilis was grown in a medium in which sporulation occurred well-defined morphological changes were seen in thin sections of the cells. 2. Over a period of 7·5hr. beginning 2hr. after the initiation of sporulation the following major stages were observed: axial nuclear-filament formation, spore-septum formation, release of the fore-spore within the cell, development of the cortex around the fore-spore, the laying down of the spore coat and the completion of the corrugated spore coat before release of the spore from the mother cell. 3. The appearance of refractile bodies and 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the development of heat-resistance began between 5 and 6·5hr. after initiation of sporulation. 4. The appearance of 2,6-dipicolinic acid and the onset of refractility appeared to coincide with a diminution of electron density in the spore core and cortex. 5. Heat-resistance was associated with the terminal stage, the completion of the spore coat. 6. The spore coat was composed of ...
The spo0J gene of Bacillus subtilis is required for the initiation of sporulation. We show that the sporulation defect caused by null mutations in spo0J is suppressed by a null mutation in the gene located directly upstream from spo0J, soj (suppressor of spo0J). These results indicate that Soj inhibits the initiation of sporulation and that Spo0J antagonizes that inhibition. Further genetic experiments indicated that Soj ultimately affects sporulation by inhibiting the activation (phosphorylation) of the developmental transcription factor encoded by spo0A. In addition, the temperature-sensitive sporulation phenotype caused by the ftsA279 (spoIIN279) mutation was partly suppressed by the soj null mutation, indicating that FtsA might also affect the activity of Soj. Soj and Spo0J are known to be similar in sequence to a family of proteins involved in plasmid partitioning, including ParA and ParB of prophage P1, SopA and SopB of F, and IncC and KorB of RK2, spo0J was found to be required for normal ...
This study identified a functional spo0A ORF in enterotoxigenic Clostridium perfringens type A. To evaluate the function of spo0A, an isogenic spo0A knock-out mutant was constructed. The spo0A mutant was unable to form endospores and produce enterotoxin, however, these defects could be restored by c …
Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are in need of specific nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials (8). The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex (Figure 3). The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enable the spore to hold the core during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The cortex containing peptidoglycan protects the spore from radiation, heat and ...
O:13:\PanistOpenUrl\:36:{s:10:\\u0000*\u0000openUrl\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000idc\;N;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000fmt\;s:7:\journal\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000doi\;s:0:\\;s:6:\\u0000*\u0000pii\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000pmid\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000atitle\;s:145:\THERMAL DEATH KINETICS OF BACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES AT ULTRA HIGH TEMPERATURES. I. LABORATORY DETERMINATION OF TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS.\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000jtitle\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000stitle\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000date\;s:4:\1977\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000volume\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000issue\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000spage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000epage\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000pages\;s:0:\\;s:7:\\u0000*\u0000issn\;s:0:\\;s:8:\\u0000*\u0000eissn\;s:0:\\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000aulast\;s:6:\DAVIES\;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000aufirst\;s:2:\FL\;s:9:\\u0000*\u0000auinit\;N;s:10:\\u0000*\u0000auinitm\;N;s:5:\\u0000*\u0000au\;a:3:{i:0;s:12:\UNDERWOOD HM\;i:1;s:9:\PERKIN ...
Spores of Bacillus subtilis are being used as probiotics and competitive exclusion agents for animal consumption. Commercial production media often include relatively expensive components of animal origin that are a potential source for the presence of adventious agents, therefore undesirable for use in production scale. In this study a new animal-free component, chemically defined medium, was tested for B. subtilis spore production. Medium composition was optimized with respect to vitamin composition, carbon, nitrogen and calcium concentrations. A fed-batch bioprocess was developed, being the effect on sporulation of the carbon to nitrogen ratio at the end of the exponential growth phase studied. The developed strategy consisted of an initial and a final batch phase and an intermediate fed-batch phase with the addition of a feeding solution containing glucose and calcium and the addition of a feeding solution of ammonium sulphate, using an exponential and a constant feeding profile,
Bacillus anthracis forms one endospore per cell. Its spores form when its non reproductive cells are deficient of certain nutrients . The spores are oval in shape and sporulation occurs within 48 hours. Bacillus anthracis requires oxygen to sporulate. Spores can tolerate heat, cold, dehydration, radiation and even antibacterials [8]. The formation of spore commences when cells septate asymmetrically to create a forespore and a mother cell. After septation, the mother cell swallows the forespore and covers it with different layers. The spore is made up of several layers. These layers are the coat, the exosporium and the cortex. Figure 3 reveals these layers through a transmission electron micrograph. The innermost layer is the core. It contains proteins which holds the chromosome. Half of the spore is composed of the spore coat. The flexibility of the spore coat enables the spore to hold the core especially during germination. It protects the spore from harmful chemicals and aids germination. The ...
SUMMARY: Germinating spores of Streptomyces viridochromogenes excreted a substance into the surrounding medium which inhibited germination of another sample of the spores. The germination inhibitor (GI) was produced during submerged culture after exponential growth had ceased. The GI was purified 51-fold following extraction from growth liquor with chloroform. It was soluble in alcohol and water and had a molecular weight of less than 1000. The GI blocked growth and respiration of some Gram-positive bacteria and was an inhibitor of the membrane bound, but not solubilized, calcium-dependent ATPase of germinated spores and mycelia of the producing organism. Several sodium-potassium activated ATPases were also inhibited. All four activities (respiration, growth, germination inhibition. ATPase) co-purified during column and thin-layer chromatography. The GI activities released during germination and produced during growth were identical. A role for the GI antibiotic in regulation of dormancy of spores of
Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and nitrogen sources, a single endospore forms within some of the bacteria. The process is called sporulation.[9]. When a bacterium detects environmental conditions are becoming unfavourable it may start the process of endosporulation, which takes about eight hours. The DNA is replicated and a membrane wall known as a spore septum begins to form between it and the rest of the cell. The plasma membrane of the cell surrounds this wall and pinches off to leave a double membrane around the DNA, and the developing structure is now known as a forespore. Calcium dipicolinate, the calcium salt of dipicolinic acid, is incorporated into the forespore during this time. The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[10]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between the two layers and the bacterium adds a spore coat to the outside of the forespore. In the final stages of endospore formation the newly forming ...
Under conditions of starvation, especially the lack of carbon and nitrogen sources, a single endospore forms within some of the bacteria. The process is called sporulation.[13] When a bacterium detects environmental conditions are becoming unfavourable it may start the process of endosporulation, which takes about eight hours. The DNA is replicated and a membrane wall known as a spore septum begins to form between it and the rest of the cell. The plasma membrane of the cell surrounds this wall and pinches off to leave a double membrane around the DNA, and the developing structure is now known as a forespore. Calcium dipicolinate, the calcium salt of dipicolinic acid, is incorporated into the forespore during this time. The dipicolinic acid helps stabilize the proteins and DNA in the endospore.[14]:141 Next the peptidoglycan cortex forms between the two layers and the bacterium adds a spore coat to the outside of the forespore. In the final stages of endospore formation the newly forming ...
Bacillus subtilis forms dormant spores upon nutrient depletion. Under favorable environmental conditions, the spore breaks its dormancy and resumes growth in a process called spore germination and outgrowth. To elucidate the physiological processes that occur during the transition of the dormant spore to an actively growing vegetative cell, we studied this process in a time-dependent manner by a combination of microscopy, analysis of extracellular metabolites, and a genome-wide analysis of transcription. The results indicate the presence of abundant levels of late sporulation transcripts in dormant spores. In addition, the results suggest the existence of a complex and well-regulated spore outgrowth program, involving the temporal expression of at least 30% of the B. subtilis genome. Copyright © 2007, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.. ...
Researchers at the US Department of Energys Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a device, dubbed ThraxVac, that can collect and kill anthrax and other bacterial spores. The patent-pending device has been licensed to Circle Group Holdings, Inc, a public company based in Mundeen, Illinois.. ThraxVac vacuums up anthrax and other bacterial spores, then tricks the spores into germinating through heat and moisture, making them vulnerable to injury. The newly activated spores are then bombarded with alpha particles, which kill the spores, rendering them non-toxic.. Carl Czajkowski, a Brookhaven Lab scientist, and Barbara Panessa-Warren, a biology consultant for Brookhaven, thought of the idea for the invention together in 2001 shortly after several anthrax incidents in the US were widely reported.. We thought there must be a better way to clean up anthrax, other than using harsh chemicals that are dangerous to humans and to the environment. Also, chemicals often cant do the job ...
Display systems to present biologically active molecules on the surface of microorganisms have become an increasingly used strategy to address biotechnological issues [1, 2]. For biomedical applications surface display systems have been mostly used for the identification of neutralizing epitopes, the development of whole cell diagnostic tools, or vaccine delivery [3, 4]. More recent is a strategy to engineer bacterial endospores (spores) to display heterologous proteins on their surface [5]. Endospore-forming bacteria are Gram-positive microorganisms belonging to different genera and including more than 1,000 species [6]. The common feature of these organisms is the ability to form a quiescent cellular type (the spore) in response to harsh environments. The spore can survive in this dormant state for long periods, resisting to a vast range of stresses such as high temperature, dehydration, absence of nutrients, presence of toxic chemicals. When the environmental conditions ameliorate, the spore ...
The effects of shock waves on bioaerosols containing endospores were measured by combined laser absorption and scattering. Experiments were conducted in the Stanford aerosol shock tube for post-shock temperatures ranging from 400 K to 1100 K. Laser intensity measurements through the test section of the shock tube at wavelengths of 266 and 665 nm provided real-time monitoring of the morphological changes (includes changes in shape, structure and optical properties) in the endospores. Scatter of the visible light measured the integrity of endospore structure, while absorption of the UV light provided a measure of biochemicals released when endospores ruptured. For post-shock temperatures above 750 K the structural breakdown of Bacillus atrophaeus (BA) endospores was observed. A simple theoretical model using laser extinction is presented for determining the fraction of endospores that are ruptured by the shock waves. In addition, mechanisms of endospore mortality preceding their disintegration due ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and proteins. Biosamples were prepared and deposited onto porous silver substrates. LIBS data from the individual laser shots were analyzed by principal-components analysis and were found to contain adequate information to afford discrimination among the different biomaterials. Additional discrimination within the three bacilli studied appears feasible.. © 2003 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
During the sporulation process of ,I,Saccharomyces cerevisiae,/I,, meiotic progression is accompanied by ,I,de novo,/I, formation of the prospore membrane inside the cell. However, it remains to be determined whether certain species of lipids are required for spore formation in yeast. In this study, we analyzed the requirement of the synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and ergosterol for spore formation using strains in which the synthesis of these lipids can be controlled. When synthesis of PE and PC was repressed, sporulation efficiency decreased. This suggests that synthesis of these phospholipids is vital to proper sporulation. In addition, sporulation was also impaired in cells with a lowered sterol content, raising the possibility that sterol content is also important for spore formation.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autoregulation of SafA assembly through recruitment of a protein cross-linking enzyme. AU - Fernandes, Catarina G.. AU - Moran, Charles P.. AU - Henriques, Adriano O.. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - The coat of Bacillus subtilis spores is a multiprotein protective structure that also arbitrates many of the environmental interactions of the spore. The coat assembles around the cortex peptidoglycan layer and is differentiated into an inner and an outer layer and a crust. SafA governs assembly of the inner coat, whereas CotE drives outer coat assembly. SafA localizes to the cortex-coat interface. Both SafA and its short form C30 are substrates for Tgl, a coat-associated transglutaminase that cross-links proteins through ε-(γ-glutamyl)lysyl isopeptide bonds. We show that SafA and C30 are distributed between the coat and cortex layers. The deletion of tgl increases the extractability of SafA, mainly from the cortex. Tgl itself is mostly located in the inner coat and cortex. The ...
Bacillus subtilis is a non-pathogenic soil bacterium and the prevalent model organism for all low GC Gram-positive bacteria. When B. subtilis cells are starved, they initiate a developmental program that culminates in the formation of highly resistant endospores (also referred to as spores). Endospore formation (sporulation) constitutes a relatively simple developmental system in which the generation of distinct cell types can be investigated experimentally. In previous work in the laboratory of Prof. Richard Losick at Harvard University, we have used a variety of genomics techniques to identify most, if not all, of the genes that are specifically turned on during the process of sporulation in B. subtilis. However, the function of many of these newly-identified genes remains undetermined.. 1. B. subtilis spore coat composition and assembly during sporulation. In my laboratory, our characterization of newly-identified sporulation genes focuses on genes involved in the formation of the outermost ...
Spores of bacteria of Bacillus species are extraordinarily resistant to all manner of harsh treatments, and largely because of this resistance, spores of some Bacillus species are major agents of food spoilage and food-borne and other diseases (eg-Bacillus anthracis). The conversion of a dormant Bacillus spore into a vegetative bacterium by the process of spore germination is also a relatively simple differentiating system that is readily amenable to both biochemical and genetic analysis. While much has been learned in recent years on the mechanisms of spore resistance and germination, there is still much that is unknown. Dr. Setlows laboratory has ongoing multidisciplinary research projects attempting to determine: 1) the mechanisms involved in the extraordinary resistance of spores to heat and oxidizing agents; 2) the mechanism(s) of spore germination and its heterogeneity; and 3) the structure and organization of the inner membrane of spores. Methods used in these projects include: 1) ...
Most isolates from low background radiation sites showed a significant reduced or no response to exposure to either source of radiation, whereas the stimulatory effect of experimental exposure to radiation appeared to increase in magnitude as prior exposure to radiation increased. We propose that the enhanced spore germination and hyphal growth seen in the exposure trials is induced by prior long term exposure to radiation and these factors could be important in controlling the decomposition of radionuclide-bearing resources in the environment.. The Opened International University of Human Development Ukraine ...
3,740,318 COMPOSITION OF MAITER AND PROCESS Bruce W. Churchill, Comstock Township, Kalamazoo County, Robert Steel, Kalamazoo, and David R. Buss, Portage, Mich., assignors to The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Mich. No Drawing. Filed Feb. 19, 1971, Ser. No. 117,056 Int. Cl. C12d 13/06 U.S. Cl. 195-65 9 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE A microbiological process for preparing alkaline protease using asporogenous bacteria of the genus Bacillus. This process produces protease with substantially no viable bacterial spores. The protease enzyme is useful as an additive to detergents. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Bacterial fermentations are used extensively to prepare alkaline protease. The removal or destruction of bacterial spores in preparing protease enzymes by bacterial fermentations has been recognized as a necessary and difficult task. It is considered unwise to add large quantities of bacterial spores to detergents where they could contamimate the wash water and perhaps end up on the clothes. ...
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Endospore formation in the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis initiates in response to nutrient depletion and involves a series of morphological changes that result in the creation of a dormant spore. Early in this developmental process, the cell undergoes an asymmetric cell division that produces the larger mother cell and smaller forespore, the latter destined to become the mature spore. The mother cell septal membrane then engulfs the forespore, at which time an essential channel, the so-called feeding-tube apparatus, is thought to cross both membranes to create a direct conduit between the cells ...
Water in spores and bacteria is highly fluid It has long been known that the ability of spores to survive has to do with the low water content in the spore core, where the bacterial cells DNA and most enzymes are stored. Many scientists previously thought that this water was transformed to a solid state, a so-called glass. This glass would protect the enzymes and lock down all cell machinery. This seems to be what happens in other hardy life forms, such as plant seeds. What we have discovered is that the water in the spore is nearly as fluid as in regular bacteria, while the enzymes are largely immobile. We therefore think that spores heat resistance and ability to shut down their cell machinery can be ascribed to the fact that certain critical enzymes do not function in the low water content in the spore core. But much more work is needed to figure out the details of the mechanism, explains Bertil Halle, professor of physical chemistry, who, together with Erik Sunde, a Ph D student in his ...
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Exposure to outdoor fungal spores can cause acute respiratory effects in vulnerable individuals such as people with asthma, a Victorian study shows. And the finding that fungal spore counts are related to adverse effects on lung function and airway inflammation suggests they should be included in aeroallergen monitoring systems, according to Melbourne University researchers. In .... ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Role of aerobic sporogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus) in food products]. by Kovacs Csaba et al.
Bacillus cereus is a spore-forming bacterium that can be frequently isolated from soil and some food. Bacillus cereus spores are harmful. Ecolab can help with Bacillus cereus prevention.
FtsH is an ATP- and Zn2+-dependent metalloprotease anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane by two transmembrane segments. It is the unique membrane-bound AAA-protease in bacteria that performs a variety of regulatory functions. In B. subtilis, an ftsH knockout exhibits a pleiotropic phenotype such as filamentous growth, sensitivity towards heat, osmotic shock and cells are unable to sporulate. Recently, it has been shown that ftsH knockout cells fail to entry sporulation stage II due to lack of a sufficient amount of Spo0A~P and the first substrate of FtsH identified in B. subtilis is the Spo0E phosphatase, a negative regulator that dephosphorylates Spo0A~P. However, the sporulation frequency in a spo0E ftsH double mutant strain was only partly restored, we hypothesized that FtsH might degrade additional substrate proteins involved in sporulation. To identify these proteins, two different strategies were applied. By using the 2D gel technique, the proteomes of an ftsH wild-type strain was compared ...
Chemoheterotrophic Bacterium Bacillus Subtilis B-3157. Microbiological Preparation of Deuterium Labeled Purine Ribonucleoside Inosine from Bacillus Subtilis B-3157
Exosporium Spore coat Spore cortex Core wall The position of the endospore differs among bacterial species and is useful in ... The spore is sometimes surrounded by a thin covering known as the exosporium, which overlies the spore coat. The spore coat, ... In 1995, Raul Cano of California Polytechnic State University found bacterial spores in the gut of a fossilized bee trapped in ... Astrophysicist Steinn Sigurdsson said "There are viable bacterial spores that have been found that are 40 million years old on ...
Bacterial spores : current research and applications. Norfolk: Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230-00-3.CS1 maint: extra ... ISBN 0-8493-7765-X.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Type strain of Streptomyces humidus at BacDive - the Bacterial ...
Bacterial spores are considered to be resistant. Solutions are bacteriostatic or bactericidal according to their concentration ... Its activity depends on the surfactant concentration and also on the bacterial concentration (inoculum) at the moment of the ... Other biomolecular complexes within the bacterial cell can also undergo dissociation. Enzymes, which finely control a wide ... developmental and reproductive toxicology Potential hormonal effects Assessment of the potential for development of bacterial ...
Horneck, G.; Bücker, H.; Reitz, G. (1994). "Long-term survival of bacterial spores in space". Advances in Space Research. 14 ( ... Because of their ubiquity and resistance to spacecraft decontamination, bacterial spores are considered likely potential ... NASA - Spaceflight Alters Bacterial Social Networks (2013) Rothschild, L. J.; Mancinelli, R. L. (2001). "Life in extreme ... Niger Spores". Applied Microbiology. 15 (2): 285-291. doi:10.1128/AEM.15.2.285-291.1967. PMC 546892. PMID 4961769. Hawrylewicz ...
They are more similar to bacterial Pol I than they are to mamallian Pol γ. Retroviruses encode an unusual DNA polymerase called ... Deoxy- ribonucleic acid polymerase in spores of Bacillus subtilis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 241 (7): 1478-82. doi: ... Liao Y, Li Y, Schroeder JW, Simmons LA, Biteen JS (December 2016). "Single-Molecule DNA Polymerase Dynamics at a Bacterial ... Xu ZQ, Dixon NE (December 2018). "Bacterial replisomes". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 53: 159-168. doi:10.1016/ ...
2001). "Protection of bacterial spores in space, a contribution to the discussion on panspermia". Origins of Life and Evolution ... "Turn up the Heat: Bacterial Spores Can Take Temperatures in the Hundreds of Degrees". A variation of the panspermia hypothesis ... Dehel, T. (2006-07-23). "Uplift and Outflow of Bacterial Spores via Electric Field". 36th COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 16- ... Nicholson, Wayne L.; Schuerger, Andrew C.; Setlow, Peter (21 January 2005). "The solar UV environment and bacterial spore UV ...
Setlow P (April 2007). "I will survive: DNA protection in bacterial spores". Trends in Microbiology. 15 (4): 172-80. doi: ... Food-borne botulism results, indirectly, from ingestion of food contaminated with Clostridium spores, where exposure to an ... it is ingestion of toxin rather than spores or vegetative bacteria that causes botulism.[90] Botulism is nevertheless known to ... The spores that produce the toxin are heat-tolerant and will survive boiling water for an extended period of time.[93] ...
Bacterial spore detection by [Tb3+(macrocycle)(dipicolinate)] luminescence. Cable, M. L., Kirby, J. P., Sorasaenee, K., Gray, H ... An Anthrax Smoke Detector: Online Detection of Aerosolized Bacterial Spores. Lester, E. D.; Ponce, A., IEEE Engineering in ... A Second-Generation Anthrax "Smoke Detector": An Inexpensive Front-End Monitor that Detects Airborne Bacterial Spores. Lester, ... Bacterial diversity in hyperarid Atacama Desert soils. Connon, S. A., Lester, E. D., Shafaat, H. S., Obenhuber, D. C., Ponce, A ...
It is not effective against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and bacterial spores. Longer expositions may inactivate some viruses. ...
g) Bacteria and bacterial filaments. h, i) Different bacterial individuals showing great varieties of shapes and morphological ... d) Primary root densely covered by spores and protists. e, f) Protists, most likely belonging to the Bacillariophyceae class. ... bacterial flagellin receptor) and EF-Tu (bacterial EF-Tu protein), which use signal transduction pathways to initiate the ... The best-characterized PRR in A. thaliana is FLS2 (Flagellin-Sensing2), which recognizes bacterial flagellin,[74][75] a ...
... is spread by bacterial spores found within feces. Surfaces may become contaminated with the ... Common hospital disinfectants are ineffective against C. difficile spores, and may promote spore formation, but various ... Thus, these spores survive in clinical environments for long periods. Because of this, the bacteria may be cultured from almost ... Once spores are ingested, their acid-resistance allows them to pass through the stomach unscathed. Upon exposure to bile acids ...
"High-level disinfection kills all organisms, except high levels of bacterial spores" and is done with a chemical germicide ... Disinfection does not necessarily kill all microorganisms, especially resistant bacterial spores; it is less effective than ... against asexual spores but not necessarily dried chlamydospores or sexual spores), and virucidal. High level disinfectant means ... It is also known to bind to bacterial DNA, alter its transcription, and cause lethal DNA damage. It has very low toxicity to ...
All disinfectants kill bacteria (called bactericidal). Some also kill fungi (fungicidal), bacterial spores (sporicidal) or ... Respiratory viruses and fungal spores are spread via the air. Good home hygiene means engaging in hygiene practices at critical ...
It does not form spores, and is considered anaerobic or microaerophilic. In 2009, the species A. naeslundi was split. Bacteria ... It has also been isolated from women with bacterial vaginosis. A. naeslundii appears Gram-positive and pleomorphic by ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Africa, Charlene; Nel, Janske; Stemmet, Megan (2014). "Anaerobes and Bacterial ... the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase v t e. ...
Disinfection involves the removal of all pathogens other than bacterial spores. Sterilization is defined as the removal or ... destruction of ALL microorganisms including bacterial spores. Cleaning is the first and simplest step in preventing the spread ... The following changes in the bacterial count after drying the hands were observed: The field of infection prevention describes ... Disinfection is less effective than sterilization because it does not kill bacterial endospores. Sterilization is a process ...
Hong, H. A.; Duc, L. H.; Cutting, S. M. (2005). "The use of bacterial spore formers as probiotics". FEMS Microbiology Reviews. ... Spores are activated in the acidic environment of the stomach and begin germinating and proliferating in the intestine. ... Bacillus coagulans is a Gram-positive rod (0.9 by 3.0 to 5.0 μm in size), catalase positive, spore-forming, motile, and a ... Bacillus coagulans is a lactic acid-forming bacterial species. The organism was first isolated and described as Bacillus ...
Hydrogen peroxide is used to help eliminate bacterial spores in the alcohol; it is "not an active substance for hand antisepsis ...
Chlorine-based compounds are effective against a wide variety of microorganisms including bacterial spores. They are listed by ... They are effective against a wide variety of microorganisms including bacterial spores. Chlorine-releasing compounds first came ...
H2O2 demonstrates broad-spectrum efficacy against viruses, bacteria, yeasts, and bacterial spores. In general, greater activity ... Lower levels of concentration (3%) will work against most spores; higher concentrations (7 to 30%) and longer contact times ...
Botulism spores can survive in unproperly canned or ill-prepared foods. Even ingesting trace amounts of the spores can lead to ... Bacterial flora is endogenous bacteria, which is defined as bacteria that naturally reside in a closed system. Disease can ... Bacterial flora Cholera Waterborne diseases Willey, Sherwood & Woolverton 2011, pp. 673-737. Willey, Sherwood & Woolverton 2011 ... Bacteria that are part of normal internal ecosystems, also known as bacterial flora, are called Endogenous Bacteria. A ...
He discovered the broths had been contaminated with dry bacterial spores from hay in the lab. All bacteria are killed by simple ... Tyndall found a way to eradicate the bacterial spores that came to be known as "Tyndallization". Tyndallization historically ... From this Tyndall was led to find viable bacterial spores (endospores) in supposedly heat-sterilized broths. ... was the earliest known effective way to destroy bacterial spores. At the time, it affirmed the "germ theory" against a number ...
The heat will kill the bacterial cells; however, bacterial spores capable of later germinating into bacterial cells may survive ... and spores do not form from cells in this environment (see bacterial spores). The Tyndallization process is usually effective ... After each heating, the resting period will allow spores that have survived to germinate into bacterial cells; these cells will ... But it is not considered totally reliable-some spores may survive and later germinate and multiply. It is not often used today ...
Dipicolinic composes 5% to 15% of the dry weight of bacterial spores. It has been implicated as responsible for the heat ... "Bacterial Spore Detection and Determination by Use of Terbium Dipicolinate Photoluminescence". Analytical Chemistry. 69 (6): ... Two genera of bacterial pathogens are known to produce endospores: the aerobic Bacillus and anaerobic Clostridium. Dipicolinic ... The high concentration of DPA in and specificity to bacterial endospores has long made it a prime target in analytical methods ...
Various bacterial spore staining techniques using Kenyon e.g. Moeller's method Dorner's method (acid alcohol decolorizer) ... Tsukamurella Dietzia Head of sperm Bacterial spores, see Endospore Legionella micdadei Certain cellular inclusions e.g. ... Un procédé simple pour la colouration des spores. Le Lait 6:8-12. Schaeffer AB, Fulton M (1933). "A simplified method of ... Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, ...
The bacterial spores which cause it are common in both soil and water. They produce the botulinum toxin when exposed to low ... In this situation, spores enter a wound, and in the absence of oxygen, release the toxin. It is not passed directly between ... The spores can survive in their inert form for many years. Toxin is produced by the bacteria when environmental conditions are ... The spores require warm temperatures, a protein source, an anaerobic environment, and moisture in order to become active and ...
Bacterial spores have proven to be difficult to stain as they are not permeable to aqueous dye reagents. Endospore staining is ... Heat helps open the spore's membrane so the dye can enter. The main purpose of this stain is to show germination of bacterial ... This stain can also help determine the orientation of the spore within the bacterial cell; whether it being terminal (at the ... If the process of germination is taking place, then the spore will turn green in color due to malachite green and the ...
These agents destroy bacterial spores. All of the aforementioned anthrax decontamination technologies have been demonstrated to ... One spore forms per one vegetative bacterium. The triggers for spore formation are not yet known, though oxygen tension and ... Decontamination techniques for Bacillus anthracis spores are affected by the material with which the spores are associated, ... a Gram-negative bacterial species would appear pink. (The other cells are white blood cells.) The spores of anthrax are able to ...
They are not spore-forming. Metabolism[edit]. Like other proteobacteria, enterobactericeae have Gram-negative stains,[7] and ... Most members of Enterobacteriaceae have peritrichous, type I fimbriae involved in the adhesion of the bacterial cells to their ...
Furthermore, a betanin-europium(III) complex has been used to detect calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores, including ... 2013). "Beetroot-pigment-derived colorimetric sensor for detection of calcium dipicolinate in bacterial spores". PLOS ONE. 8 (9 ...
"Turn up the Heat: Bacterial Spores Can Take Temperatures in the Hundreds of Degrees". Marion, Giles M.; Fritsen, Christian H.; ... This discovery is significant because it indicates that not only bacterial spores, but also growing cells can be remarkably ... According to astrophysicist Steinn Sigurdsson, "There are viable bacterial spores that have been found that are 40 million ... Moreover, they suggested that the landing of spacecraft may also result in interplanetary spore transfer, given that spores can ...
Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... and do not form spores and are nonmotile.[2] As a significant human pathogenic bacterium S. pneumoniae was recognized as a ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
... spores of kōji-kin are scattered over steamed rice to produce kōji (rice in which kōji-kin spores are cultivated).[16] Under ... The government started hailing the use of enamel tanks as easy to clean, lasting forever, and being devoid of bacterial ... Kōji-kin (Aspergillus oryzae) spores are another important component of sake. Kōji-kin is an enzyme-secreting fungus.[15] In ... warm and moist conditions, the kōji-kin spores germinate and release enzymes called amylases that convert the rice starches ...
Abel-Santos, E (editor) (2012). Bacterial Spores: Current Research and Applications. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-908230- ... The spore is sometimes surrounded by a thin covering known as the exosporium, which overlies the spore coat. The spore coat, ... In 1995, Raul Cano of California Polytechnic State University found bacterial spores in the gut of a fossilized bee trapped in ... Astrophysicist Steinn Sigurdsson said "There are viable bacterial spores that have been found that are 40 million years old on ...
... while archaeal flagella appear to have evolved from bacterial type IV pili.[106] In contrast to the bacterial flagellum, which ... Both bacteria and eukaryotes, but not archaea, make spores.[159] Some species of Haloarchaea undergo phenotypic switching and ... Middle, a bacterial or eukaryotic phospholipid: 5, fatty acid chains; 6, ester linkages; 7, D-glycerol moiety; 8, phosphate ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system,[104][105] ...
One of the exotoxins is encoded on the bacterial chromosome, while the other is encoded on a plasmid. These exotoxins are ... Clostridium (spore-forming). motile:. *Clostridium difficile *Pseudomembranous colitis. *Clostridium botulinum *Botulism. * ...
... (also known as clostridial myonecrosis[1] and myonecrosis[2]) is a bacterial infection that produces gas in ... Gram stain of a muscle biopsy showing Gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria in the infected muscle ... The combination of bacterial load and ability to multiply is the basis for the microbes' ability to cause massive infection. ... and the distribution of bacterial toxins. Massive infection is likely to result in death from a combination of system-wide ...
Urine culture is deemed positive if it shows a bacterial colony count of greater than or equal to 103 colony-forming units per ... Urinary tract infections are the most frequent bacterial infection in women.[17] They occur most frequently between the ages of ... Chronic prostatitis in the forms of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and chronic bacterial prostatitis (not ... they are the most common form of bacterial infection.[17] Up to 10% of women have a urinary tract infection in a given year, ...
spore. stem cell. A type of undifferentiated or partially undifferentiated cell that is capable of differentiating into other ... A type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.. apoptosis. A highly regulated form ... A lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.. flavin adenine dinucleotide ... A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal, and bacterial cells.. ...
Bacterial diversity in maize rhizospheres: conclusions on the use of genetic profiles based on PCR-amplified partial small ... Bacteria associated with spores of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus geosporum and Glomus constrictum. Appl Environ ... Bacterial gliding motility: Multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces. Annual Review of Microbiology 55:49-75. Ahmed ... Identification of bacterial micropredators distinctively active in a soil microbial food web. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:5342 ...
In 1995 a team at The Institute for Genomic Research sequenced the first bacterial genome; Haemophilus influenzae.[6] A few ... Airborne transmission - Pathogen carrying spores. *Vector transmission - An organism that does not cause disease itself but ... For bacterial identification, the use of metabolic or enzymatic characteristics are common due to their ability to ferment ... Bacterial infections are treated with antibacterials (often called antibiotics) whereas fungal and viral infections are treated ...
Tuftsin is responsible for the stimulation of phagocytosis, so its decrease in the presence of bacterial infection poses a ... non spore-forming rod. Bacilli are usually 1-3 μm in length. After growth on agar plates, longer rods tend to have a curved ... surrounded by bacterial septa. This suggests that C. canimorsus replicates intracellularly inside of macrophages. C. Canimorsus ...
He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial ... C made them unable to produce spores,[77] and he described this method in a speech to the French Academy of Sciences on ...
The bacterial grease-spot of the passion fruit is caused by Pseudomonas syringae.[22] It appears with olive-green to brown ... Under warm and humid conditions, this disease can worsen, causing red and orange spores eventually killing the plant. Infection ... Bacterial leaf spot, which causes vein clearing, forms bright yellow colonies causing infection and leaf wilt and, eventually, ... "Bacterial grease-spot disease of passion fruit". New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research. 6 (1-2): 24-38. doi:10.1080/ ...
Type strain of Paenibacillus popilliae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... Resident spores in the soil are swallowed by grubs during their normal pattern of feeding on roots. This ingestion of the spore ... Milky spore in the soil is not harmful to beneficial insects, birds, bees, pets, or people; and milky spore, like other ... This is also the optimal time frame for turf inoculation or applications with milky spore to increase milky spore in the soil ...
This may allow fungal spores to gain admittance and attack the tree. Dutch elm disease is caused by a fungus (Ophiostoma ... The tannin causes the hide to become supple, less affected by water and more resistant to bacterial attack.[141] ... Palms, bananas, and bamboos also produce seeds, but tree ferns produce spores instead. ... Both of these reproduced by spores rather than seeds and are considered to be links between ferns and the gymnosperms which ...
Pictured is the bacterium alone, with a spore being produced, and the spore alone. ... Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a bacterial infection characterized by muscle spasms.[1] In the most common type, the spasms ... The spores can also be found on skin surfaces and in contaminated heroin.[1] Heroin users, particularly those that inject the ... Manure-treated soils may contain spores, as they are widely distributed in the intestines and feces of many animals such as ...
lyankanthroporepellens does not form spores.[1] Resistance to the antibiotics ampicillin and vancomycin has been observed.[1] ... Type strain of Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ... of the total bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies.[12] ... belong to a novel bacterial class, Dehalococcoidia classis nov ...
"Bacterial Programmed Cell Death and Multicellular Behavior in Bacteria". PLoS Genetics. 2 (10): e135. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen. ... a predatory amoeba-like behavior in its unicellular form or coalescing into a mobile slug-like form when dispersing the spores ...
4,0 4,1 4,2 4,3 Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Microbiology "Bacterial Endospores ... small acid-soluble spore proteins). Lisaks sisaldab tuuma sein ribosoome ja teisi ensüüme, kuid nad ei ole metaboolselt ... 2002) The Bacterial Endospore. Microbiology 5th edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. Lk 69- 71. ISBN 0072320419. ... Keynan, A., Evenchik, Z., Halvorson, H. O., & Hastings, J. W. (1964). Activation of bacterial endospores. Journal of ...
... upon Ferdinand Cohn's report of a tiny spore stage of a bacterial species, the fellow German Robert Koch isolated Davaine's ... Pasteur and colleagues followed up with ecological investigations confirming its role in the natural environment via spores in ... Mindful of Griffith and Avery, Joshua Lederberg confirmed bacterial conjugation -reported decades earlier but controversial- ... "Rambling and scrambling in bacterial transformation-a historical and personal memoir". J Bacteriol. 185 (1): 1-6. doi:10.1128/ ...
See also: Bacterial taxonomy and Bacterial phyla. The taxon name was created in the 2001 edition of Volume 1 of Bergey's Manual ... "New Lineage of Filamentous, Spore-Forming, Gram-Positive Bacteria from Soil". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 72 (6): ... Bacterial classification entry in LPSN [. Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder ... In the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 56 (6): 1331-1340. doi ...
"Development of the bacterial photosynthetic apparatus". Current Opinion in Microbiology. 9 (6): 625-631. doi:10.1016/j.mib. ... "Atomic-level structural and functional model of a bacterial photosynthetic membrane vesicle". Proceedings of the National ...
The bacterial or algal partners produce pigments that absorb sunlight in photosynthesis. There are reports dating back almost ... Most common (over 40%) are Ascomycetes, which produce spores in a sac-shaped container, the ascus. Only a few types of alga ... After dispersal by wind, such fungal spores must meet with an algal partner to form a lichen.[2]p19-22 ... Also, lichen fungi can reproduce sexually by forming fruiting bodies containing spores. These fruiting bodies are usually ...
... called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white (most ... using fungi to lower bacterial levels in contaminated water).[44] ... A spore often has a protrusion at one end, called an apiculus, ... Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills and fall in a fine rain of powder from under the caps as a result ... A mushroom, or toadstool, is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on ...
Firmicutes, Low-G+C Gram positive species most often spore-forming, in two/three classes: the class Bacilli such as the ... a b Bacterial phyla entry in LPSN [. Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder ... Branching order of bacterial phyla (Rappe and Giovanoni, 2004). *Branching order of bacterial phyla after ARB Silva Living Tree ... List of sequenced bacterial genomes. Footnotes[edit]. *^ Past editions of Brock Biology of Microorganisms have referred to the ...
1) growth at the centre of the bacterial body. e.g. Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and others. (2) apical growth. e.g. ... sometimes beginning or ending with the production of spores.[22] The species Metabacterium polyspora, a symbiont of guinea pigs ... Blue and red lines indicate old and newly generated bacterial cell wall, respectively. ( ... Bacterial growth is limited by factors including nutrient availability and available space, so binary fission occurs at much ...
Arrangement of Bacterial Flagella. Diakses pada 22 Juni 2011.. *^ Wenner M. 2007. Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human ... of antibodies to Bacillus anthracis and anthrax toxin components in inhibiting the early stages of infection by anthrax spores ... Online collaboration for bacterial taxonomy.. *PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center for bacterial pathogens, funded by ... Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator - A web-app that uses several simple algorithms to simulate bacterial chemotaxis. ...
... and in differentiation leading to spore formation in slime molds. NO produced by bacterial NOS is protective against oxidative ... Bacterial NOS (bNOS) has been shown to protect bacteria against oxidative stress, diverse antibiotics, and host immune response ... Gusarov I, Starodubtseva M, Wang ZQ, McQuade L, Lippard SJ, Stuehr DJ, Nudler E (May 2008). "Bacterial Nitric-oxide Synthases ... Recently, NOS activity has been demonstrated in several bacterial species, including notorious pathogens Bacillus anthracis and ...
They are formed in the aerial hyphae (spore bearing structures) of the prokaryotic soil bacteria Streptomyces, where they are ... a hopanoid compound found in some bacterial cell membranes, and cholesterol, a sterol compound found in eukaryotic membranes.[5 ...
"Plant Stomata Function in Innate Immunity against Bacterial Invasion". Cell. 126 (5): 969-980. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.054. ...
Using Sound to Filter Bacterial Spores from Water. Acoustic trapping can remove bacterial spores from water, according to a new ... Any bacterial spores in the water are then subjected to three forces: buoyancy/gravity, the drag of the fluid as flows along ... Ref: Separation Of Bacterial Spores From Flowing Water In Macro-Scale Cavities By Ultrasonic Standing ... The spores can then be analysed using spectroscopy of some sort.. That seems potentially useful. However, the team will need to ...
Non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria of clinical significance are found primarily in the genera Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, ... Finegold S.M. (1988) Anaerobic Bacterial Infections (Non-Spore-Forming). In: Balows A., Hausler W.J., Ohashi M., Turano A., ... Non-spore-forming anaerobic bacteria of clinical significance are found primarily in the genera Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, ...
... a car that uses evaporation-assisted bacterial spores as a form of biofuel ...
Got food poisoning? The cause might be bacterial spores, en extremely hardy survival form of bacteria, a nightmare for ... It has long been known that the ability of spores to survive has to do with the low water content in the spore core, where the ... This compact inner barrier protects the spore from toxic molecules that otherwise might destroy the spores DNA. "There are so ... They have also seen that the proteins in the spores are immobile, which explains why spores can withstand such high ...
The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant benefits of safety suggest that spore adsorption ... Mucosal delivery of antigens using adsorption to bacterial spores. ... Remarkably, killed or inactivated spores appear equally effective as live spores. The spore appears to present a bound antigen ... Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a ...
Bacterial spores are the most resistant and dormant forms of life on earth. Therefore, they are of great fundamental interest. ... Fundamental and Applied Aspects of Bacterial Spores. G. W. Gould (Editor), Allan D. Russell (Editor), D. E. S. Stewart-Tull ( ... Spore Resistance and Ultra Heat Treatment Processes.. Tolerance of Spores To Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms Of Inactivation, ... Mechanisms of Inactivation and Resistance Of Spores To Chemical Biocides.. Effects of Water Activity and Ph On Growth of ...
High Resolution FESEM and TEM Reveal Bacterial Spore Attachment - Volume 13 Issue 4 - Barbara J. Panessa-Warren, George T. ... Medical and veterinary significance of spore-forming bacteria and their spores. In The Bacterial Spore, Gould, G.W. & Hurst, A. ... Tipper, D. & Gauthier, T. (1972). Structure of the bacterial spore. In Spores V, Halvorson, H., Hanson, R. & Campbell, L. (Eds ... and thermophile bacterial spores could be readily visualized on intact spores to reveal how specific appendages and outer spore ...
Studies of irradiated bacterial spores in aqueous suspension indicate that the sensitization of spores by oxygen can depend on ... Irradiation of bacterial spores in water: three classes of oxygen-denpendent damage ... Irradiation of bacterial spores in water: three classes of oxygen-denpendent damage ... Irradiation of bacterial spores in water: three classes of oxygen-denpendent damage ...
The addition of free fatty acids to heating media has a slight influence on the heat resistance of bacterial spores whatever ... Methods and results: For 6 species, bacterial spore heat resistances were estimated at different free fatty acid concentrations ... addition of free fatty acids to the recovery medium after the heat treatment greatly reduces the ability to bacterial spores to ... of free fatty acid length chain and unsaturated bond number on the heat resistance and recovery media of bacterial spores. ...
A bacterial spore was revived, cultured, and identified from the abdominal contents of extinct bees preserved for 25 to 40 ... Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber ... Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber ... Revival and identification of bacterial spores in 25- to 40-million-year-old Dominican amber ...
Spores of Bacillus bacteria can survive for years in a dormant state, and then germinate in minutes. But it has long been ... Bacterial spores are major causes of food spoilage, and food-borne disease, and spores of several species, including Bacillus ... They then removed spores that had been killed in the process. They measured levels of ATP, and assayed RNA from the spores. In ... Spores for thought: Study provides new insights into Clostridium spores More information: George Korza et al. Changes inSpore ...
Recently, bacterial spores have been used as hygroscopic actuators for energy harvesting and soft robotics applications. Here ... Abstract: C02.00001 : Explaining the mechanical properties of hygroscopic bacterial spores using water nanoconfinement*. 3:00 ... Using nanomechanical experiments to probe the stiffness of the spore over four frequency decades, we found that the effective ... we show the coupling of the mechanical properties and water nanoconfinement in Bacillus Subtilis spores can be understood by ...
Oral microbiome drug containing bacterial spores may be effective treatment for recurrent C. difficile infection. Spores from ... which contains bacterial spores, a dormant form that only becomes active in appropriate environments like the lower ... Treatment failure occurs because antibiotics do not inactivate C. difficile spores, which can germinate and produce toxins that ... Antibiotics also increase the risk of recurrent CDI, since they kill beneficial bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tract ...
... basis involved in pressure-triggered germination of bacterial spores and of novel strategies to inactivate bacterial spores ... However, HHP-induced inactivation of bacterial spores remains a challenge due their resistance to the treatment limits of ... Alternative strategies to inactivate bacterial spores at commercially available pressure and temperature levels include the ... Several reports have demonstrated that high pressure can modulate the germination machinery of bacterial spores rendering them ...
Bacillus subtilis serine/threonine protein kinase YabT is involved in spore development via phosphorylation of a bacterial ... Bacillus subtilis serine/threonine protein kinase YabT is involved in spore development via phosphorylation of a bacterial ... Butala, M., Zgur-Bertok, D., and Busby, S.J. (2009) The bacterial LexA transcriptional repressor. Cell Mol Life Sci 66: 82-93. ... Schaeffer, P., Millet, J., and Aubert, J. (1965) Catabolic repression of bacterial sporulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 54: 704- ...
... by demineralization of the native spores to protonated spores and remineralization of the protonated spores to calcified spores ... Heat resistance of bacterial spores correlated with protoplast dehydration, mineralization, and thermal adaptation.. T C Beaman ... Heat resistance of bacterial spores correlated with protoplast dehydration, mineralization, and thermal adaptation. ... Heat resistance of bacterial spores correlated with protoplast dehydration, mineralization, and thermal adaptation. ...
Symbols: ○, unirradiated spores; ●, UV222-irradiated spores. Analysis of the spores by phase-constant microscopy at the end of ... UV222 killing of spores of different species. Spores of different species were treated with UV222, and spore survival was ... DNA Damage Kills Bacterial Spores and Cells Exposed to 222-Nanometer UV Radiation. Willie Taylor, Emily Camilleri, D. Levi ... UV222 and UV254 killing of wild-type and spl B. subtilis spores. Isogenic wild-type and spl spores were irradiated with UV222 ...
... structure and composition of the bacterial spore, mechanisms of spore survival, germination of spores, spore peptidoglycan ... heterogeneity in spore populations, detection of bacterial spores, and the expression of recombinant proteins using spores. ... degradation, water and cations flux during sporulation and germination, the spore as an infectious agent, ... up-to-date reviews on the current state of our knowledge of bacterial endospores. Topics covered include gene regulation of ...
Polarized light scattering as a means of detecting heat and UV-induced changes in bacteria and bacterial spores Author(s): ... we report on initial attempts to correlate changes in polarized light scattering signals from bacteria and bacterial spores ...
The presently-disclosed subject matter is directed to biosensors comprising spore-forming bacterial cells and/or spores ... Spores for the Stabilization and On-Site Application of Bacterial Whole-Cell Biosensing Systems Number: 12/676,302. Year: 2010 ... Patent Detail: Spores for the Stabilization and On-Site Application of Bacterial Whole-Cell Biosensing Systems. ... and a reporter molecule within each spore-forming cell for detecting binding of the analyte of interest, wherein the reporter ...
Bacterial spores / Germination / Cortex-lytic enzymes / Amidase / 細胞胞子. Research Abstract. Bacterial spore cortex-lytic enzymes ... Publications] Ryuichi Moriyama: Antimicrobial action of sucrose esters of fatty acids on bacterial spores Journal of ... Publications] Moriyama, Ryuichi: Antimicrobial action of sucrose esters of fatty acids on bacterial spores. Journal of ... Publications] Ryuichi Moriyama: Antimicrobial action of sucrose esters of fatty acids on bacterial spores Journal of ...
Fig.6).6). Again, exposure of B. subtilis 168 spores (Fig. ​(Fig.6A)6A) or B. pumilus SAFR-03 spores (Fig. ​(Fig.6B)6B) in the ... spore viability was inactivated much more quickly than was the ability of spores to produce ATP upon triggering of spore ... It was determined by phase-contrast microscopy that spore preparations consisted of ,99% phase-bright spores. Spores were ... Viability and ATP levels of cells and spores deposited on coupons. Before assessing the survival of the bacterial species to ...
Bacterial Spores Survive Simulated Meteorite Impact. Buch. Biological Processes Associated with Impact Events Print ISBN: 978-3 ... Although the spore layer showed an intense darkening after the shock treatment, up to 500 spores per sample survived, resulting ... bacterial endospores of Bacillus subtilis), sandwiched between two quartz layers, were subjected to a shock pressure of 32 GPa ... in a survival rate up to 10−4. The data demonstrate that a substantial fraction of spores are able to survive the severe shock ...
Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation : III. The Effect of 8-Azaguanine on Spore and Parasporal ... Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation : II. Spore and Parasporal Protein Formation in Bacillus cereus ... Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation : III. The Effect of 8-Azaguanine on Spore and Parasporal ... Additions of the analogue during any stage of growth prevented further cell proliferation and all spore and crystal formation. ...
The development of both the spore and parasporal protein crystal of Bacillus cereus var. alesti was followed using chemical and ... I. Elizabeth Young, Philip C. Fitz-James; Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation : II. Spore and ... Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation : II. Spore and Parasporal Protein Formation in Bacillus cereus ... Chemical and Morphological Studies of Bacterial Spore Formation : III. The Effect of 8-Azaguanine on Spore and Parasporal ...
Inactivation Treatment of Bacterial Spores Contaminated Spices by Atmospheric Plasma Jet. Yuichiro Takemura Department of ... Home , Journals , Plasma Medicine , Volume 4, 2014 Issue 1-4 , Inactivation Treatment of Bacterial Spores Contaminated Spices ... Microbial spores of Bacillus species are the common contaminant in many spices. We performed inactivation processing using an ...
The Bacterial Spore provides a comprehensive series of reviews of the major topics in spore biology that represent intensive, ... The Bacterial Spore also encompasses the diversity of spore research, which will appeal to those seeking to broaden their ... The Bacterial Spore is a reference for a wide range of readers, including geneticists, cell biologists, physiologists, ... cutting-edge spore research. Editors Adam Driks and Patrick Eichenberger assembled chapters written by a team of diverse and ...
The detection limit of bar-coded 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was determined for the number of bacterial spores in a canned ... In this study, we adapted and optimized 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing for quantification of bacterial spores in a canned food ... This study shows that the composition of complex spoilage populations, including bacterial spores, can be monitored in complex ... The study indicates variable detection limits among species of bacterial spores resulting from differences in DNA extraction ...
Bacterial Strains, Spore Production, and Spore Germination.. All bacterial strains were derivatives of strain PS832, a ... C and D) Wild-type and cwlD mutant germinated spores, respectively. c, spore coats and exosporium; e, spore cortex ... Muramic lactam in peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis spores is required for spore outgrowth but not for spore dehydration or ... Transmission electron microscopy of dormant and germinated wild-type and cwlD mutant spores. Dormant spores or spores that had ...
  • Having previously worked out how to balance these forces to trap micro-sized polystyrene beads, a group from Western New England College and a company called Physical Sciences, both in Massachusetts, have now perfected the trick for water-borne spores of bacillus cereus bacteria. (
  • The cause might be bacterial spores, en extremely hardy survival form of bacteria, a nightmare for healthcare and the food industry and an enigma for scientists. (
  • Spore-forming bacteria, present almost everywhere in our environment, can also cause serious infectious diseases, such as tetanus, anthrax and botulism. (
  • To survive long periods without nutrients or other adverse conditions, certain types of bacteria have developed the ability to form spores, where the cell's DNA and necessary enzymes are packed into a capsule surrounded by multiple protective barriers. (
  • But spores read their surroundings, and as soon as conditions improve, they transform back into active bacteria. (
  • What we have discovered is that the water in the spore is nearly as fluid as in regular bacteria, while the enzymes are largely immobile. (
  • Spores of Bacillus bacteria can survive for years in a dormant state, and then germinate in minutes. (
  • In a paper published online in the Journal of Infectious Diseases , a multi-institutional research team reports that treatment with the preparation, containing the spores of approximately 50 species of beneficial bacteria, successfully prevented recurrence of C. difficile infection (CDI) in patients with a history of multiple recurrent disease. (
  • The manufacturing process removes bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi leading to a purified community of spores from bacteria normally found in the intestines of healthy individuals. (
  • Modern molecular studies are providing new insights into the biochemical and biophysical characteristics of spore forming bacteria that may lead to promising new applications, detection methods and therapeutics. (
  • Although the spores of myxobacteria and those of Bacillus species, which are Gram-positive bacteria, have many properties in common, the developmental processes that lead to their formation are fundamentally different. (
  • In the present paper we report on initial attempts to correlate changes in polarized light scattering signals from bacteria and bacterial spores with changes in physical parameters as a result of heat and UV exposure. (
  • The taxonomy of spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria has a long and colorful history. (
  • This killed the bacteria, but not the spores. (
  • Spoilage of food products is frequently caused by bacterial spores and lactic acid bacteria. (
  • Photocatalytic oxidation of bacteria, bacterial and fungal spores, and model biofilm components to carbon dioxide on titanium dioxide-coated surfaces. (
  • Bacteria form spores to become dormant, which allows them to survive extended periods of starvation until new nutrients arrive to revive the spores. (
  • Dr Bischofs explains that the enzyme is passed down from one generation of bacteria to the next by carry-over until spores are formed. (
  • The researchers were able to show a tradeoff between quantity and quality: Bacteria either make many spores that can revive only in nutrient-rich environments, or fewer but better spores that also revive in scarce environments. (
  • When the favorable condition prevail, (i.e. availability of water, appropriate nutrients) spores germination occurs which forms vegetative cells of pathogenic bacteria. (
  • Examples of Spore forming Bacteria- Spores formed by only two genera of Gram positive rods are of medical importance. (
  • and due mainly to germination of the dormant spores into vegetative bacteria. (
  • The group of Prof. Nathan Swami at the University of Virginia has impressively shown how it is possible to determine the predisposition for CDI by measuring the germination of C. difficile spores to vegetative bacteria using Amphasys' Impedance Flow Cytometer (Ampha Z32) on ex vivo cultured samples. (
  • Spore formation (sporulation) occurs in bacteria in approximately 6 to 8 hours after being exposed to adverse environmental conditions.Mature endospores are released from normally-growing cells that are called vegetative cells. (
  • Results demonstrate the potential of insects to serve as biosentinels for detecting the presence of spore-forming bacteria in the environment. (
  • The key thing here is being able to use a spore-forming bacteria," says Dr. Dale Gerding, a researcher at the Veterans Administration who has spent his career trying to come up with effective treatments for C. difficile . (
  • This ingestion of the spore by the host activates reproduction of the bacteria inside the grub. (
  • and milky spore, like other bacteria, is highly survivable in drought conditions but suffers in temperatures of Zone 5 and colder. (
  • A variety of different microorganisms form "spores" or "cysts," but the endospores of low G+C gram-positive bacteria are by far the most resistant to harsh conditions. (
  • Results from a Phase 1b/2 clinical trial suggest that an investigational oral therapeutic drug containing the spores of approximately 50 species of beneficial bacteria is effective for the treatment of recurrent C. difficile infection. (
  • Bacteria and viruses are more easily killed by UV light than are bacterial spores 775 . (
  • Strains of vegetative bacteria and ultrapure endospore preparations will be supplied by collaboration partners in the project: Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne (bacterial strains) and prof Peter Setlow, University of Connecticut (endospores). (
  • Some bacteria produce spores as a way of protecting themselves against harsh conditions. (
  • It appears that bacteria, especially those that produce spores or extracellular polymeric substances (capsules) survive pretreatment and VCDS operation. (
  • Mechanisms Which Contribute To The Long-Term Survival Of Spores Of Bacillus Species. (
  • For 6 species, bacterial spore heat resistances were estimated at different free fatty acid concentrations added to heating media or in recovery media. (
  • The addition of free fatty acids to heating media has a slight influence on the heat resistance of bacterial spores whatever the species or type of acid studied. (
  • In the study, the investigators incubated spores of several species of Bacillus at 75-80o C for 20 hours. (
  • That, he said, motivated him and his collaborators to re-examine spore germination, in an effort to resolve the controversy, so that the science could move on to addressing the spoilage and illness caused by the relevant bacterial species. (
  • Antibiotics also increase the risk of recurrent CDI, since they kill beneficial bacterial species in the gastrointestinal tract that normally keep potential pathogens in check. (
  • Twenty-eight types of lysozyme-sensitive spores among seven Bacillus species representative of thermophiles, mesophiles, and psychrophiles were obtained spanning a 3,000-fold range in moist-heat resistance. (
  • The resistance within species was altered by demineralization of the native spores to protonated spores and remineralization of the protonated spores to calcified spores and by thermal adaptation at maximum, optimum, and minimum sporulation temperatures. (
  • UV 222 killing of spores of different species. (
  • Spores of different species were treated with UV 222 , and spore survival was measured, all as described in Materials and Methods. (
  • This experiment was repeated 3 times, and the same relative rates of killing of spores of different species were seen. (
  • other spore forming species have been used in biotechnological applications such as probiotics and biocides. (
  • This indicates that there is species-spcific mechanism on translocation of the enzymes to reach final destination on spores. (
  • Microbial spores of Bacillus species are the common contaminant in many spices. (
  • Although most of the work accomplished in the past 50 years has focused on the model organism Bacillus subtilis , more recent work significantly expanded the scope of sporulation research to integrate medically relevant spore pathogens, such as B. anthracis and Clostridium difficile , as well as investigations of the ecology of spore-forming species. (
  • Although the introduction of MAL is a general property of spore peptidoglycan and has been found in the spores of all Bacillus and Clostridium species examined ( 9 ), the function of the MAL residues, aside from the resulting decrease in peptidoglycan cross-linking, is unclear. (
  • The data were normalized by setting the number of sequences resulting from DNA of an inactivated bacterial species, present in the matrix at the same concentration in all samples, to a fixed value for quantitative sample-to-sample comparisons. (
  • The study indicates variable detection limits among species of bacterial spores resulting from differences in DNA extraction efficiencies. (
  • We show that these molecules increase the resistance of spores to a reactive oxygen species, demonstrating a specific physiological role for a nonpigment bacterial lipid biomarker. (
  • Five bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus hirae) and three fungal strains (Alternaria sp. (
  • A rapid method for determining the lethal effectiveness of heat on a food-borne spore-former based on the conversion of high molecular weight chromosomal DNA to lower molecular weight species was developed. (
  • The shape and the position of spores vary in different species and can be useful for classification and identification purposes. (
  • The location of spores varies in different species. (
  • The shape of spores also varies in different species. (
  • Spores from the Bacillus species, B. cereus, B. anthracis, B. thuringensis, B. lichenformis, B. globigi, and B. subtilis, were examined by direct probe mass spectrometry using electron ionization (EI) and positive and negative chemical ionization (CI). (
  • The M(-.) ion from dipicolinic acid (DPA) was the base peak in the negative ion spectra of all spore species except those from B. lichenformis. (
  • Acquisition and retention of spores of an anthrax surrogate, Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura ("BG") were evaluated in eight insect species. (
  • All species delivered spores but BG retention among species varied over time. (
  • Spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species normally contain ≥10% of their dry weight as pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipicolinic acid [DPA]) ( 21 , 22 , 39 ). (
  • Since DPA is found only in dormant spores of Bacillus and Clostridium species and since these spores differ in a number of properties from vegetative cells, in particular in their dormancy and heat resistance, it is not surprising that DPA and divalent cations have been suggested to be involved in some of the spore's unique properties. (
  • There is some evidence in support of this suggestion, since mutants whose spores do not accumulate DPA have been isolated in several Bacillus species, and often these DPA-less spores are heat sensitive ( 1 , 4 , 25 , 42 , 43 ). (
  • spores have already been designed for is certainly difficult to utilize, and then the carefully related species and so are often found in the introduction of recognition strategies (Arakawa et al. (
  • the sdAbs were specific, showing binding only to B. anthracis spores and not to other Bacillus species. (
  • The aim of this study was to develop a fast and reproducible non-molecular method to differentiate pure samples of Bacillus spores originating from different species as well as to identify spores in a simple matrix, such as the clay mineral, bentonite. (
  • We investigated spores from pure cultures of seven different Bacillus species by FTIR in reflection or transmission mode followed by chemometrical data treatment. (
  • Both hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis of the spectra along with multidimensional scaling allowed the discrimination of different species and spore-matrix-mixtures. (
  • Our results show that FTIR spectroscopy is a fast method for species-level discrimination of Bacillus spores. (
  • Accumulation and Release of Rare Earth Ions by Spores of Bacillus Species and the Location of These Ions in Spores. (
  • Killing of spores of Bacillus species by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. (
  • While orthologs for spo0A and the genes activated by Spo0A∼P, along with most of the spo genes that are subsequently expressed during the morphogenesis of the spore, are present in all the sequenced Clostridium species, the genes involved in the activation of Spo0A (phosphorelay genes and their regulators) seem to be absent in clostridia ( 10 , 24 , 25 ). (
  • Examples of bacterial species that can form endospores include Bacillus cereus, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Clostridium botulinum, and Clostridium tetani. (
  • Bacterial endospores are dormant structures produced by stressed bacterial cells. (
  • In this book expert authors from around the world contribute comprehensive, up-to-date reviews on the current state of our knowledge of bacterial endospores. (
  • To simulate this impact scenario, in shock recovery experiments with an explosive set-up, resistant microbial test systems (bacterial endospores of Bacillus subtilis), sandwiched between two quartz layers, were subjected to a shock pressure of 32 GPa, which is in the upper range indicated by the Martian meteorites and which can be assumed to hold also for "Earth" meteorites. (
  • Bacterial endospores derive much of their longevity and resistance properties from the relative dehydration of their protoplasts. (
  • Dipicolinic acid is a spore-specific chemical that appears to help in the ability for endospores to maintain dormancy. (
  • [7] Common anti-bacterial agents that work by destroying vegetative cell walls do not affect endospores. (
  • In Bacillus subtilus endospores, the spore coat is estimated to contain more than 70 coat proteins, which are organized into an inner and an outer coat layer. (
  • They have also seen that the proteins in the spores are immobile, which explains why spores can withstand such high temperatures. (
  • An essential text for everyone involved in spore research, the expression of recombinant proteins and pathogen detection, this book is also recommended for all scientists that like to keep up with cutting-edge research in microbiology and biotechnology. (
  • One of the most interesting applications of spores presenting heterologous proteins is the use as carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (
  • Core - contains the spore chromosomal DNA which is encased in chromatin-like proteins known as SASPs (small acid-soluble spore proteins). (
  • Germination in response to specific chemical nutrients requires specific receptor proteins, located at the inner membrane of the spore. (
  • Bacterial spores have been proposed as vehicles to display heterologous proteins for the development of mucosal vaccines, biocatalysts, bioremediation and diagnostic tools. (
  • and a non-recombinant approach based on spore adsorption, a spontaneous interaction between negatively charged, hydrophobic spores and purified proteins. (
  • A collection of isogenic strains carrying GFP fused to proteins restricted in different compartments of the B. subtilis spore was used to localize adsorbed mRFP molecules. (
  • Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been used to study bacterial spores, molds, pollens, and proteins. (
  • Several direct methods derive from DNA or proteins recognition and cannot differentiate between practical and useless spores. (
  • To obtain thermostable immunoreagents specific for the spore form of Bacillus anthracis two llamas were immunized with a combination of six different recombinant proteins. (
  • These proteins BclA, gerQ, SODA1, SOD15, BxpB and the protein p5303 have all been shown as components of the B. anthracis spore and could potentially serve as targets for the detection of spores in multiplexed biosensors. (
  • A major focus of the project is therefore to characterize the physical properties of water and proteins in intact cells and spores under different external conditions. (
  • In this work we have discovered that the negatively charged and hydrophobic surface layer of spores provides a suitable platform for adsorption of protein antigens. (
  • As someone who has been working on spores, and their resistance and germination, for nearly 50 years, Setlow said that he was very familiar with long ago studies that indicated that spores germinated without the synthesis of either ATP or protein. (
  • Changes inSpore Small Molecules, rRNA, Germination and Outgrowth After Extended Sub-Lethal Exposure to Various Temperatures: Evidence That Protein Synthesis is not Essential for Spore Germination, Journal of Bacteriology (2016). (
  • This review summarizes the basic structural features, composition and protein interactions of the bacterial spore. (
  • The Effect of 8-Azaguanine on Spore and Parasporal Protein Formation in Bacillus cereus var. (
  • The effect of its incorporation has been studied with particular reference to cell growth, nucleic acid composition, cytology, and the synthesis of the spore and crystal protein. (
  • Spore and Parasporal Protein Formation in Bacillus cereus var. (
  • The development of both the spore and parasporal protein crystal of Bacillus cereus var. (
  • In this study, we have successfully designed and constructed recombinant spores displaying an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein. (
  • Obtained results show that recombinant spores presenting an antigen/adjuvant chimeric protein exhibit both properties in mucosal immunization of mice. (
  • First, the recombinant one, requires modification of B. subtilis genome to express a passenger protein in fusion with a spore coat protein enabling its incorporation into the forming spore coat. (
  • Nonpathogenic status of B. subtilis , simplicity of construction of recombinant spores presenting heterologous protein, as well as efficient surface adsorption, combined with easiness of spores' production and administration make them especially interesting carriers of antigens in mucosal vaccines. (
  • The phenotypic memory of Bacillus subtilis spores can be visualized by tagging the enzyme alanine-dehydrogenase with a red fluorescent protein. (
  • However, any P 41 formed in Δ ger3 spoVF spores may be at least transiently active on one of this protease's small acid-soluble spore protein (SASP) substrates, SASP-γ. (
  • and Bacillus subtilis spores of a wild type and an isogenic mutant strain lacking the CotH protein to clarify the adsorption process. (
  • Wild type spores are preferable when a very tight protein-spore interaction is needed, for example to develop reusable biocatalysts or bioremediation systems for field applications. (
  • cotH mutant spores are instead preferable when the heterologous protein has to be displayed on the spore surface or has to be released, as could be the case in mucosal delivery systems for antigens and drugs, respectively. (
  • [9] However, after further studies this group concluded that the structure of the spore coat protein was different from keratin. (
  • Protein-synthesizing systems from vegetative cells and spores of Bacillus megaterium. (
  • The copious amount of CPE (as much as 10% or more of the total protein of the developing sporangium) is accumulated probably only in the cytoplasm of the mother cell compartment until its release when the mother cell lyses at the completion of sporulation to liberate the mature spore ( 17 ). (
  • The presence of free acids in the recovery media is an additive stress which decreases the capability of injured spores to germinate and grow thereafter. (
  • However, when spores germinate their resistant properties are lost and they become quite easy to kill," said Setlow. (
  • Treatment failure occurs because antibiotics do not inactivate C. difficile spores, which can germinate and produce toxins that cause disease. (
  • After the addition of the amino-acid L-alanine the early spores germinate faster and grow out (right). (
  • When spores are exposed to favorable conditions that support their growth, they can germinate into a vegetative cell within 90 minutes. (
  • How do spores germinate? (
  • However, the spores of a strain lacking the three major germinant receptors (termed Δ ger3 ), as well as spoVF , can be isolated, although they spontaneously germinate much more readily than Δ ger3 spores. (
  • Unfortunately, it has been impossible to isolate and purify free spores from these spoVF mutants of B. subtilis , since the spores are extremely unstable and germinate and lyse during purification (B. Setlow and P. Setlow, unpublished results). (
  • In common parlance, the difference between a "spore" and a " gamete " (both together called gonites) is that a spore will germinate and develop into a sporeling , while a gamete needs to combine with another gamete to form a zygote before developing further. (
  • Spores germinate to give rise to haploid gametophytes, while seeds germinate to give rise to diploid sporophytes. (
  • The enzymes hydrolysed decoated spores and caused phase-darkening of the spores, but had minimal activity on isolated peptidoglycan substrates. (
  • There was no homology in their amino acid alignments, except for a motif involved in binding of the enzymes to spore peptidoglycan. (
  • The spore cortex, a peptidoglycan structure surrounding the protoplasm, maintains, and is postulated to have a role in attaining, protoplast dehydration. (
  • Addition of germinants resulted in the triggering of germination with loss of spore refractility and the release of dipicolinic acid but no degradation of cortex peptidoglycan. (
  • The spore peptidoglycan is comprised of two contiguous structures, an inner layer called the germ cell wall and a thicker outer layer called the cortex. (
  • The germ cell wall appears to have a structure similar to that of vegetative cell wall peptidoglycan ( 6 ) and serves as the initial cell wall during spore outgrowth. (
  • However, it is the low degree of cortex peptidoglycan cross-linking that has given rise to hypotheses concerning a potential role of the cortex in achieving spore protoplast dehydration ( 4 , 5 ). (
  • Cortex - consists of peptidoglycan and present beneath spore coat. (
  • Next, the peptidoglycan cortex formation is started between the two layers and the bacterium adds a spore coat to the outside of the forespore. (
  • Chemical and Stress Resistances of Clostridium difficile Spores and Vegetative Cells. (
  • Here we show the coupling of the mechanical properties and water nanoconfinement in Bacillus Subtilis spores can be understood by using a simple statistical mechanical model. (
  • Killing of different concentrations of B. subtilis spores by UV 222 and UV 254 . (
  • B. subtilis PS533 spores at an OD 600 of 1 (● and ○), 0.1 (▲ and △), or 0.01 (■ and □) were irradiated with UV 222 (●, ▲, and ■) or UV 254 (○, △, and □), and duplicate samples of various dilutions were spotted onto L broth agar plates to determine spore survival as described in Materials and Methods. (
  • UV 222 killing of spores of strains of B. subtilis with defects in possible protective components. (
  • Publications] Ryuichi Moriyama: 'A gene encoding a spore cortex-lytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis and response of the enzyme to L-alanine-mediated germination' Journal of Bacteriology. (
  • Cell or spore viabilities of Acinetobacter radioresistens, Bacillus pumilus , and B. subtilis were measured in minutes to hours, while high levels of endogenous ATP were recovered after exposures of up to 21 days. (
  • The normal burst of endogenous ATP detected during spore germination in B. pumilus and B. subtilis was reduced by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude following, respectively, 8- or 30-min exposures to simulated martian conditions. (
  • A mutation in the cwlD gene of Bacillus subtilis , predicted to encode a muramoyl- l -alanine amidase, results in the production of spores containing no muramic lactam. (
  • Analysis of samples from a canned food matrix spiked with a mixture of equinumerous spores from the thermophiles, Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Geobacillus thermoglucosidans , and the mesophiles, Bacillus sporothermodurans , Bacillus cereus , and Bacillus subtilis , led to the detection of these spores with an average limit of 2 × 10 2 spores ml −1 . (
  • Moreover, IL-1β fragment could serve as valuable adjuvant in B. subtilis spore-based mucosal vaccines. (
  • Here, we identify tetracyclic isoprenoids in spores of the bacterium Bacillus subtilis . (
  • A gene ( sqhC ) encoding a putative squalene cyclase enzyme (SqhC) is present in a two-gene operon in B. subtilis ( Fig. 1 A ). Maximum-likelihood analysis of this SqhC relative to other bacterial true squalene-hopene cyclases (SHCs) shows that SqhCs of all bacilli form a coherent outgroup between sterol oxidosqualene cyclases and SHCs [ supporting information (SI) Fig. S1 ]. (
  • The researchers studied this adaptive bacterial life cycle using Bacillus subtilis as a model organism. (
  • SUMMARY: The swelling of spores of Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis during germination and outgrowth was followed by measuring changes in packed cell volume (pcv) and by photomicrographic measurements of single organisms. (
  • Determining the efficacy of liquid sporicides against spores of Bacillus subtilis on a hard nonporous surface using the quantitative three step method: collaborative study. (
  • Spores of Bacillus subtilis with a mutation in spoVF cannot synthesize dipicolinic acid (DPA) and are too unstable to be purified and studied in detail. (
  • Mutants of B. subtilis likely to be in or known to be in spoVF result in lack of DPA synthesis during sporulation, and the spores produced never attain the wet heat resistance of wild-type spores ( 1 , 4 , 6 , 25 ). (
  • This observation suggests that, at least in B. subtilis , DPA is needed in some fashion to maintain spore dormancy ( 7 , 15 ), although the specific mechanism whereby this is achieved is not clear. (
  • The inactivation effects of high pressure CO 2 + nisin (simultaneous treatment of HPCD and nisin, HPCD + nisin), HPCD→nisin (HPCD was followed by nisin), and nisin→HPCD (nisin was followed by HPCD) treatments on Bacillus subtilis spores in aqueous solutions were compared. (
  • In Bacillus subtilis , the model system for spore formers, the spore surface is organized in a multilayered coat and in a crust. (
  • Spores of Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus anthracis simulant) were immobilized on a thickness-shear mode AT-cut quartz crystal functionalized with anti-spore antibody and the sensor was driven by a pure sinusoidal oscillation at increasing amplitude. (
  • Here we investigated the efficacy of electrochemical disinfection for inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores - a model microorganism of highly resistant pathogens. (
  • Effects of the microbicide ceragenin CSA-13 on and properties of Bacillus subtilis spores prepared on two very different media. (
  • Properties of Aged Spores of Bacillus subtilis. (
  • Visualization of Germinosomes and the Inner Membrane in Bacillus subtilis Spores. (
  • Mechanism of inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores by high pressure CO 2 at high temperature. (
  • Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance to Simulated Mars Surface Conditions. (
  • Analysis of the mRNAs in Spores of Bacillus subtilis. (
  • Why spores are so resistant to heat and how they can survive without nutrients has long puzzled researchers, but it has been suspected that what may be crucial are changes in the physical properties of spore water. (
  • Bacterial spores are the most resistant and dormant forms of life on earth. (
  • Bacterial spores are extremely resistant. (
  • Given that spore laccase from the Bacillus genus is heat- and alkali-resistant, it is more suitable for industrial applications than fungal laccase. (
  • Bacterial spores are highly resistant, dormant structures (i.e. no metabolic activity) formed in response to adverse environmental conditions. (
  • Spores are highly resistant to many chemicals, including most disinfectants. (
  • Even though C. difficile can be treated with specific antibiotics, its spores are resistant to that treatment and can survive in the intestine. (
  • Spore coat - is resistant to many toxic molecules. (
  • The second, SleB, is present both in outer layers and at the inner spore membrane, and is more resistant to wet heat than is CwlJ. (
  • and (iv) wild-type spores are more resistant than Δ ger3 spores to Betadine and glutaraldehyde. (
  • [1] Bacterial spores are not part of a sexual cycle but are resistant structures used for survival under unfavourable conditions. (
  • In short, a mesophilic spore is an organism which typically grows best in moderate temperatures between 70 and 120 °F. A thermophilic spore typically grows best at higher temperatures between 115 and 250 °F and is quite heat resistant. (
  • The spore coat, which acts like a sieve that excludes large toxic molecules like lysozyme , is resistant to many toxic molecules and may also contain enzymes that are involved in germination . (
  • also produce desiccation-resistant spores, called exospores. (
  • The myxobacteria are Gram-negative spore formers. (
  • The Bacterial Spore: From Molecules to Systems is an ambitious effort at consolidating this body of research in a way that highlights the biological diversity of bacterial spore formers, their industrial and medical applications, and fundamental mechanistic insights gained from their study in a way that is accessible to both the novice and expert microbiologist. (
  • 1) Understand how processing conditions favor sporulation by specific thermoduric spore formers during simulated skim milk powder manufacturing processes. (
  • 2) Understand how processing conditions favor spore germination and thermophilic build up by specific thermoduric spore formers during simulated skim milk powder manufacturing processes (3) Understand how processing conditions favor biofilm development by specific thermoduric spore formers during simulated skim milk powder manufacturing processes. (
  • Editors Adam Driks and Patrick Eichenberger assembled chapters written by a team of diverse and multidisciplinary experts in biodefense and microbial forensics to produce an overview of topics of spore research, such as spore molecular biology, bioremediation, systems biology, issues in biodefense, and the challenge of food safety that is accessible to any reader, regardless of expertise. (
  • Sterilization is the complete destruction or elimination of microbial viability, including spores ( 3 ). (
  • The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the molecular basis involved in pressure-triggered germination of bacterial spores and of novel strategies to inactivate bacterial spores with HHP treatments. (
  • Research that spans many years has revealed that endospore formation is a complex and elegant process that exquisitely coordinates the development of a dormant spore. (
  • For bacterial spores, see endospore . (
  • [1] [2] The name "endospore" is suggestive of a spore or seed-like form ( endo means within), but it is not a true spore (i.e., not an offspring). (
  • Mechanisms of enhanced bacterial endospore inactivation during sterilization by ohmic heating. (
  • But now physical chemists at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering, in collaboration with microbiologists from Lund and the U.S., have succeeded in "seeing" the water in intact spores and discovered that it has entirely different properties than scientists previously thought. (
  • For the first time, attachment structures used by pathogenic, environmental, and thermophile bacterial spores could be readily visualized on intact spores to reveal how specific appendages and outer spore coats participated in spore attachment, colonization, and invasion. (
  • Furthermore, the fact that the enzymes are heat sensitive only when removed from intact spores indicate the presence of some heat protective mechanism for enzymes in rather peripheral location in the dormant spore, which is not dependent on the core environment of spores. (
  • Fungi (for example, mushrooms ) produce spores, which may be asexual or sexual. (
  • Plants that are homosporous produce spores of the same size and type. (
  • In the spring, they desiccate and form spores that can be easily released by agitating the mushroom (1). (
  • In the filamentous ascomycete Ashbya gossypii, like in other filamentous fungi onset of growth in dormant spores occurs as an isotropic growth phase generating spherical germ cells. (
  • Additions of the analogue following commencement of sporulation did not prevent either spore or crystal formation or affect the nucleic acid content of the sporulating cells. (
  • However, as before, the 8-azaguanine was incorporated into both the acid soluble and RNA of the cells, but not into these fractions of the spores ultimately formed. (
  • These spores have normally dehydrated protoplasts but are unable to complete the germination/outgrowth process to produce viable cells. (
  • Germination in the presence of lysozyme allowed the cwlD spores to produce viable cells and showed that they have normal heat resistance properties. (
  • The spores of seed plants are single cells that grow into a pollen grain or the gametophyte inside the ovule . (
  • The origin of these spores was discovered in the 19th century, when a biologist noticed, under the microscope, a small, round, bright body inside bacterial cells. (
  • Our results showed that spores and vegetative cells of the epidemic R20291 strain adhered at high levels to monolayers of Caco-2 cells and mucin. (
  • Transmission electron micrographs of Caco-2 cells demonstrated that the hair-like projections on the surface of R20291 spores are in close proximity with the plasma membrane and microvilli of undifferentiated and differentiated monolayers of Caco-2 cells. (
  • Competitive-binding assay in differentiated Caco-2 cells suggests that spore-adherence is mediated by specific binding sites. (
  • By using spores of a cdeC mutant we demonstrated that the integrity of the exosporium layer determines the affinity of adherence of C. difficile spores to Caco-2 cells and mucin. (
  • Binding of fibronectin and vitronectin to the spore surface was concentration-dependent, and depending on the concentration, spore-adherence to Caco-2 cells was enhanced. (
  • We report carbon mass balance and kinetic data for the total oxidation of cells, spores, and biomolecules deposited on illuminated titanium dioxide surfaces in contact with air. (
  • Bacterial spores store information about the individual growth history of their progenitor cells, thus retaining a 'memory' that links the different stages of the bacterial life cycle. (
  • In this way, the spores obtain a stable phenotypic memory of the growth and gene expression history of their progenitor cells, which influences their future. (
  • DNA was isolated and purified from spores and vegetative cells of the food-borne pathogen, Clostridium perfringens, following exposure to 4, 50, 75, and 100 °C for 15 min. (
  • Germination of spores resulted in enlarged Agbem2 germ cells that were unable to generate the bipolar branching pattern found in wild-type germ cells. (
  • Bacillus anthracis is highly similar, morphologically, to other members of the Bacillus cereus group which complicates the development of highly specific assays for detection of pathogenic B. anthracis spores and vegetative cells [ 3 ]. (
  • The position is linked to the research project "Molecular basis of heat and desiccation tolerance of bacterial cells and spores", funded by Nestec Ltd, Lund University and the Swedish Research Council. (
  • The production of stable hybrid cell lines that secrete human monoclonal antibodies against bacterial toxins by fusing post-immunization human peripheral blood lymphocytes with nonsecretor mouse myeloma cells is described. (
  • Bacterial spore cortex-lytic enzymes (SCLEs), which act as N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase, were purified in an active form from the exudate of fully germinated spores of Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens. (
  • Both SCLEs were localized on the exterior of cortex layrs in the spore. (
  • A structural modification unique to the spore cortex is the removal of all or part of the peptide side chains from the majority of the muramic acid residues and the conversion of 50% of the muramic acid to muramic lactam. (
  • After penetrating the outer layers of spore coat and cortex, germinant interacts with its receptor: one early consequence of this binding is the movement of monovalent cations from the spore core, followed by Ca2(+) and dipicolinic acid (DPA). (
  • Early events - including loss of heat resistance, ion movements and partial rehydration of the spore core - can occur without cortex hydrolysis, although the latter is required for complete core rehydration and colony formation from a spore. (
  • Cortex hydrolysis leads to the complete rehydration of the spore core, and then enzyme activity within the spore protoplast resumes. (
  • A possible action mode of nisin-enhanced inactivation of the spores was suggested as that HPCD firstly damaged the coat and cortex of spores, and nisin penetrated into and acted on the IM of spores, which increased the damage to the IM of spores, and resulted in higher inactivation of the spores. (
  • Alternative strategies to inactivate bacterial spores at commercially available pressure and temperature levels include the germination step by inclusion of known germinants into the food formulation to increase the lethality of HHP treatments on bacterial spores. (
  • Resistance of Bacterial spore may be mediated by dipicolinic acid, a calcium ion chelator found only in spores . (
  • The resistance of Bacterial spore may be mediated by dipicolinic acid and calcium may aid in resistance to heat and oxidizing agents. (
  • O. Couvert, I. Leguérinel and P. Mafart, "Modelling the Overall Effect of pH on the Apparent Heat Resistance of Bacillus cereus Spores," International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 49, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. 57-62. (
  • P. Mafart, I. Leguérinel, O. Couvert and L. Coroller, "Quantification of Spore Resistance for Assessment and Optimization of Heating Processes: A Never-Ending Story," Food Microbiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 2010, pp. 568-572. (
  • Shipping pathogens and bacterial cultures to high schools and individuals is prohibited by the Federal Health Service. (
  • Colleges and universities are permitted to order pathogens and bacterial cultures through an institutional purchase order only. (
  • Spores are the way fungi and some non- seed plants ( ferns and mosses ) reproduce . (
  • Spores of fungi have a reproductive role. (
  • Spores form part of the life cycles of many plants , algae , fungi and protozoa . (
  • In fungi and fungus-like organisms, spores are often classified by the structure in which meiosis and spore production occurs. (
  • Since fungi are often classified according to their spore-producing structures, these spores are often characteristic of a particular taxon of the fungi . (
  • spores produced by a sporangium in many fungi such as zygomycetes . (
  • The detection limit of bar-coded 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was determined for the number of bacterial spores in a canned food matrix. (
  • Recombinant spores presenting FliD were able to elicit immune response in orally immunized mice which could be evaluated by detection of FliD-specific IgA antibodies in feces of immunized animals. (
  • The invented methods are effective for the detection and quantification of bacterial spores in a sample medium. (
  • Probing biomolecular interaction forces using an anharmonic acoustic technique for selective detection of bacterial spores. (
  • Formation of C. difficile spores of the epidemic strain R20291 has been shown to be essential for recurrent infection and transmission of the disease in a mouse model. (
  • The Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming bacterium, Clostridium difficile , is the leading cause of health care-associated infections world-wide ( Evans and Safdar, 2015 ). (
  • This method is much faster (4-5 hours) and more sensitive than conventional, microbiological techniques, which normally need 24 hours for a reliable determination of the microbiome susceptibility to C. difficile spore germination. (
  • So how about this: Take spores from a harmless version of C. difficile and use them to fight off the bad bugs? (
  • Spore treatment in hand, Gerding and colleagues tested it in 157 people who had recently had a bout of C. difficile . (
  • Eleven percent of people given spores became reinfected with C. difficile, compared to 30 percent of the people on placebo. (
  • In food production and healthcare, high temperatures are used to kill spores, which can survive boiling and normal disinfectants. (
  • It has long been known that the ability of spores to survive has to do with the low water content in the spore core, where the bacterial cell's DNA and most enzymes are stored. (
  • Using appropriately adsorbed spores we have shown that mice immunised mucosally can be protected against challenge with tetanus toxin, Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin and could survive challenge with anthrax toxin. (
  • The data demonstrate that a substantial fraction of spores are able to survive the severe shock pressure and temperature conditions which must be expected for collisionally produced rock fragments from a medium-sized terrestrial planet that have escape velocities of approximately 5 km/s. (
  • Spores of tetanus and anthrax , for example, can survive in the soil for many years. (
  • In the first case, outgrowth of spoilage microorganisms is limited by refrigeration and preservatives, and in the second case, heat processing during manufacturing limits the spoilage problem to outgrowth of bacterial spores that are able to survive the heat regimes applied. (
  • Spores can survive for many years in soil and other inanimate objects. (
  • Not only are spores a lot easier to manage, they survive the trip through stomach acid to the gut where C. difficule wreaks its havoc, causing debilitating diarrhea and nausea. (
  • Spores can survive in their dormant state for long periods, resisting to a vast range of stresses such as high temperature, dehydration, absence of nutrients and presence of toxic chemicals. (
  • The ability of the spore to survive non-physiological conditions is, in part, due to its surface structures. (
  • The spore structure allows survival when nutrients and moisture are scarce. (
  • Although the spore layer showed an intense darkening after the shock treatment, up to 500 spores per sample survived, resulting in a survival rate up to 10−4. (
  • Some protozoa also make long-term survival spores. (
  • In biology , a spore is a unit of sexual or asexual reproduction that may be adapted for dispersal and for survival, often for extended periods of time, in unfavourable conditions. (
  • likely due to survival of bacterial spores. (
  • Mutant spores, characterized by a strongly altered coat, were more efficient than wild type spores in adsorbing mRFP but the interaction was less stable and mRFP could be in part released by raising the pH of the spore suspension. (
  • In wild type spores mRFP infiltrated through crust and outer coat, localized in the inner coat and was not surface exposed. (
  • For example, steroids for epidural delivery, manufactured at the New England Compounding Centre in 2012, were found to be contaminated with fungal spores leading to over 700 reported cases of meningitis and 64 deaths. (
  • Cardboard is known to be a potential reservoir of bacterial and fungal spores and, therefore, kept away from the pharmacy cleanroom facilities. (
  • The 2014 outbreak in England was described as an isolated incident, however, it highlighted the particular risk of contamination by resilient spores from the environment. (
  • How can we control spore contamination levels in cleanrooms? (
  • A study comparing the aerobic bacterial bioburden associated with surgical scrub attire shows significantly greater contamination among home-laundered attire than scrubs laundered by the healthcare facility, scrubs sent out by the facility to a third-party company for laundering, or single use/disposable scrubs. (
  • The study showed no statistically significant difference in bacterial contamination among facility-laundered, third-party laundered or single-use scrubs prior to use ("clean"), but revealed that the bioburden found on home-laundered scrubs prior to use ("clean") was significantly greater than on any of the other garments (facility-laundered, third-party laundered or single-use, non-woven) that had been worn for a day in the operating room. (
  • Contamination of healthcare workers' hands with bacterial spores. (
  • On the contrary, the addition of free fatty acids to the recovery medium after the heat treatment greatly reduces the ability to bacterial spores to recover and form colonies. (
  • B. Lekogo, L. Coroller, P. Mafart and I. Leguerinel, "Influence of Long Chain Free Fatty Acids on the Thermal Resistance Reduction of Bacterial Spores," Food and Nutrition Sciences , Vol. 4 No. 9A1, 2013, pp. 150-157. (
  • L. Ababouch, A. Chaibi and F. F. Busta, "Inhibition of Bacterial Spore Growth by Fatty Acids and Their Sodium Salts," Journal of Food Protection, Vol. 55, No. 12, 1992, pp. 980-984. (
  • Niger Spores by Fatty Acids and their Monoglycerides," Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1992, pp. 197-203. (
  • Publications] Ryuichi Moriyama: 'Antimicrobial action of sucrose esters of fatty acids on bacterial spores' Journal of Antibacterial and Antifungal Agents. (
  • Tracer studies with radioactive phosphorus confirmed that the spore chromatin was derived from that in the vegetative cell. (
  • The protoplast of the spore is relatively dehydrated (even when suspended in H 2 O) in comparison to that of a vegetative cell, resulting in metabolic dormancy, and this dehydration is responsible in large part for the heat and hydrogen peroxide resistance properties of the spore ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Tolerance of Spores To Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms Of Inactivation, Injury And Repair. (
  • This experiment was repeated twice, with the same relative rates of killing of spores seen at different concentrations and with different wavelengths of UV radiation. (
  • SASPs tightly bind and condense the DNA, and protect the spore DNA from UV radiation, heat, and DNA-damaging chemicals. (
  • Astrophysicist Steinn Sigurdsson said "There are viable bacterial spores that have been found that are 40 million years old on Earth - and we know they're very hardened to radiation. (
  • Photocatalytic inactivation of spores of Bacillus anthracis using titania nanomaterials. (
  • Setlow and Johnson, 2012 ), inactivation of spores has been receiving great attention in the food industry. (
  • Publications] Yinghua Chen: 'Molecular caharacterization of a germination-specific muramidase from Clostridium perfrigens S40 spores and nucleotide sequence of the gene' Journal of Bacteriology. (
  • This volume will be of value to research microbiologists, geneticists, biochemists and physicists who are interested in the fundamentals of the biochemical and physical basis of resistance and dormancy, and in spore science more generally. (
  • We discuss the developmental process that yields M. xanthus spores, the structural and biochemical properties of the spores and the genes that are associated with sporulation in this organism, and we compare each to its counterpart in Bacillus . (
  • Biochemical studies of bacterial sporulation and germination. (
  • Characterization of spore surfaces from a Geobacillus sp. (
  • In this study, we adapted and optimized 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing for quantification of bacterial spores in a canned food matrix and for monitoring the outgrowth of spoilage microbiota in a ready-to-eat food matrix. (
  • Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale 24 m(3) stainless steel chamber using either biological indicators (BIs) or bacterial spores deposited onto surfaces via aerosolization. (
  • This invention provides safe, non-infectious chimeras that include the nucleic acid signature of most bacterial and viral biological threat agents. (
  • In this work, we characterized the adherence properties of epidemic R20291 spores to components of the intestinal mucosa, and we assessed the role of the exosporium integrity in the adherence properties by using cdeC mutant spores with a defective exosporium layer. (
  • In mutant spores mRFP was present in all surface layers, inner, outer coat and crust and was exposed on the spore surface. (
  • Present in an increased level in yabG mutant spores. (
  • We therefore think that spores' heat resistance and ability to shut down their cell machinery can be ascribed to the fact that certain critical enzymes do not function in the low water content in the spore core. (
  • Spore coat may also contain enzymes that are involved in germination. (
  • Mechanisms of Inactivation and Resistance Of Spores To Chemical Biocides. (
  • However, the underlying mechanisms of how these spores persist in the colonic environment remains unclear. (
  • Mechanisms of killing of Bacillus thuringiensis Al Hakam spores in a blast environment with and without iodic acid. (
  • Despite the key role of spores in CPE synthesis and in the dissemination and developing of clostridial diseases, very little is known at the molecular level about the regulatory mechanisms governing the formation of spores in clostridia ( 6 , 9 , 11 , 13 , 20 , 23 ). (
  • Heat resistance of bacterial spores correlated with protoplast dehydration, mineralization, and thermal adaptation. (
  • Systematic evaluation of the efficacy of chlorine dioxide in decontamination of building interior surfaces contaminated with anthrax spores. (
  • Ex girlfriend or boyfriend Anthrax Air Recognition Program200 spores per analysisendosporesTamborrini et al. (
  • All three factors evidently contributed to and were necessary for heat resistance of the spores, but dehydration predominated. (
  • The Δ ger3 spoVF spores also contain minimal levels of the processed active form (termed P 41 ) of the germination protease, GPR, a finding consistent with the known requirement for DPA and dehydration for GPR autoprocessing. (
  • Additions of the analogue during any stage of growth prevented further cell proliferation and all spore and crystal formation. (
  • The changes which led to the formation of the fore-spore were similar to those already described for Bacillus cereus . (
  • During spore and crystal formation no net synthesis of either nucleic acid was detected. (
  • During their formation both the spore and crystal incorporated methionine- 35 S from the medium and from cellular material into a bound form. (
  • Spore formation (sporulation) occurs when nutrients, such as sources of carbon and nitrogen are depleted. (
  • The spores of seed plants , however, are produced internally and the megaspores, formed within the ovules and the microspores are involved in the formation of more complex structures that form the dispersal units, the seeds and pollen grains. (
  • Although from genome sequence analyses it can be assumed that the mechanism of spore formation in Bacillus and Clostridium is conserved ( 21 , 24 , 25 ), the main differences reside at the level of the initiation of the sporulation process ( 24 , 25 ). (
  • Spores are not often found at the site of infection because nutrients are not limiting. (
  • Whether the pulmonary process results from a hypersensitivity reaction, an actual infection by the spores, or both is unknown. (
  • Myxozoan spores release amoebulae into their hosts for parasitic infection, but also reproduce within the hosts through the pairing of two nuclei within the plasmodium, which develops from the amoebula. (
  • What increases the chance of bacterial infection with this group? (
  • Evaluation of peracetic acid fog for the inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spore surrogates in a large decontamination chamber. (
  • After the intentional release of Bacillus anthracis through the U.S. Postal Service in the fall of 2001, many environments were contaminated with B. anthracis spores, and frequent inquiries were made regarding the science of destroying these spores. (
  • We conducted a survey of the literature that had potential application to the inactivation of B. anthracis spores. (
  • In October 2001, several letters containing Bacillus anthracis spores were sent through the U.S. Postal Service to recipients in government and private-sector buildings. (
  • As a result of this intentional release of B. anthracis , several post offices, mailrooms in government buildings, and private office buildings were contaminated with B. anthracis spores. (
  • A number of manufacturers have developed equipment or materials that reportedly kill B. anthracis spores. (
  • We provide a summary of much of the available literature on the inactivation of Bacillus spores that is relevant to the inactivation of B. anthracis . (
  • The spores of B. anthracis , once aerosolized and dispersed, can remain dormant and viable for extended periods. (
  • But much more work is needed to figure out the details of the mechanism," explains Bertil Halle, professor of physical chemistry, who, together with Erik Sunde, a PhD student in his research group, wrote the PNAS article "The Physical State of Water in Bacterial Spores. (
  • The Trigger Mechanism of Spore Germination: Current Concepts. (
  • Basic knowledge about the process and mechanism of spore germination may lead to better ways to either prevent or stimulate this process, thus enabling spore eradication. (
  • His notion of spores being the reproductive mechanism for the growth was a large blow to the previous suggestions of spontaneous generation. (
  • Of these, the use of genetically engineered bacterial spores has been shown to offer promise as both a mucosal as well as a heat-stable vaccine delivery system. (
  • Spore Resistance and Ultra Heat Treatment Processes. (
  • Heat Resistance and Recovery Of Spores of Non-Proteolytic Clostridium Botulinum In Relation To Refrigerated, Processed Foods With An Extended Shelf-Life. (
  • By combining high resolution field emission electron microscopy with TEM images of identical bacterial spore preparations, we have been able to obtain images of intact and sectioned Bacillus and Clostridial spores to clearly visualize the appearance, distribution, resistance (to trypsin, chloramphenicol, and heat), and participation of these structures to facilitate attachment of the spores to glass, agar, and human cell substrates. (
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of free fatty acid length chain and unsaturated bond number on the heat resistance and recovery media of bacterial spores. (
  • It occurs without any need for new macromolecular synthesis, so the apparatus required is already present in the mature dormant spore. (
  • This effect varies depending on chain length, unsaturated bond number of fatty acid and on the bacterial strain studied. (
  • Collectively, these results demonstrate that the integrity of the exosporium layer of strain R20291 contributes to selective spore adherence to components of the intestinal mucosa. (
  • The broad spectrum of immune responses elicited coupled with the attendant benefits of safety suggest that spore adsorption could be appropriate for improving the immunogenicity of some vaccines as well as the delivery of biotherapeutic molecules. (
  • The molecular details of spore adsorption have not been fully clarified yet. (