The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Picolinic acid is an organic compound that belongs to the class of pyridine derivatives, acting as a chelating agent in mammals, primarily found in the liver and kidneys, and playing a significant role in the metabolism of proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A species of bacteria whose spores vary from round to elongate. It is a common soil saprophyte.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.
A genus of FUNGI originally considered a member of the class SPOROZOEA but now recognized as part of the class MICROSPOREA.
A phylum of fungi comprising minute intracellular PARASITES with FUNGAL SPORES of unicellular origin. It has two classes: Rudimicrosporea and MICROSPOREA.
Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.
A species of parasitic FUNGI. This intracellular parasite is found in the BRAIN; HEART; and KIDNEYS of several MAMMALS. Transmission is probably by ingestion of the spores (SPORES, FUNGAL).
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).
Infection with FUNGI of the genus ENCEPHALITOZOON. Lesions commonly occur in the BRAIN and KIDNEY tubules. Other sites of infection in MAMMALS are the LIVER; ADRENAL GLANDS; OPTIC NERVES; RETINA; and MYOCARDIUM.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.
An order of parasitic FUNGI found mostly in ARTHROPODS; FISHES; and in some VERTEBRATES including humans. It comprises two suborders: Pansporoblastina and APANSPOROBLASTINA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Compounds consisting of glucosamine and lactate joined by an ether linkage. They occur naturally as N-acetyl derivatives in peptidoglycan, the characteristic polysaccharide composing bacterial cell walls. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including some economically important plant parasites. Teleomorphs include Mycosphaerella and Venturia.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
A species of gliding bacteria found on soil as well as in surface fresh water and coastal seawater.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.
A basic enzyme that is present in saliva, tears, egg white, and many animal fluids. It functions as an antibacterial agent. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-linkages between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in peptidoglycan and between N-acetyl-D-glucosamine residues in chitodextrin. EC
Single-celled, aquatic endoparasitic worms that are currently considered belonging to the phylum CNIDARIA. They have a complex life cycle and parasitize a wide range of hosts including FISHES; ANNELIDA; and BRYOZOA.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Enterocytozoonidae, which infects humans. Enterocytozoon bieneusi has been found in the intestines of patients with AIDS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A genus of zygomycetous fungi in the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, forming mycelia having a metallic sheen. It has been used for research on phototropism.
The fruiting 'heads' or 'caps' of FUNGI, which as a food item are familiarly known as MUSHROOMS, that contain the FUNGAL SPORES.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
A class of BRYOPHYTA which is best known for Sphagnum forming PEAT bogs.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
A division of organisms that exist vegetatively as complex mobile plasmodia, reproduce by means of spores, and have complex life cycles. They are now classed as protozoa but formerly were considered fungi.
A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Treatment of food with physical methods such as heat, high pressure, radiation, or electric current to destroy organisms that cause disease or food spoilage.
Peptidoglycan is a complex, cross-linked polymer of carbohydrates and peptides that forms the rigid layer of the bacterial cell wall, providing structural support and protection while contributing to the bacterium's susceptibility or resistance to certain antibiotics.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A mitosporic Oxygenales fungal genus causing various diseases of the skin and hair. The species Microsporum canis produces TINEA CAPITIS and tinea corporis, which usually are acquired from domestic cats and dogs. Teleomorphs includes Arthroderma (Nannizzia). (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th edition, p305)
An actinomycete from which the antibiotics STREPTOMYCIN, grisein, and CANDICIDIN are obtained.
The atmospheric properties, characteristics and other atmospheric phenomena especially pertaining to WEATHER or CLIMATE.
An order of rod-shaped, gram-negative fruiting gliding bacteria found in SOIL; WATER; and HUMUS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A large and heterogenous group of fungi whose common characteristic is the absence of a sexual state. Many of the pathogenic fungi in humans belong to this group.
A commonly used x-ray contrast medium. As DIATRIZOATE MEGLUMINE and as Diatrizoate sodium, it is used for gastrointestinal studies, angiography, and urography.
A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.

Whirling disease: host specificity and interaction between the actinosporean stage of Myxobolus cerebralis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. (1/896)

Scanning electron microscopic studies were conducted on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the first 60 min after their exposure to the triactinomyxon spores of Myxobolus cerebralis. The results demonstrated that as early as 1 min post exposure the whole process, from the attachment of the triactinomyxon spores to the complete penetration of their sporoplasm germs, had occurred. The triactinomyxon spores sought out the secretory openings of mucous cells of the epidermis, the respiratory epithelium and the buccal cavity of trout and used them as portals of entry. Exposure experiments of the triactinomyxon spores of M. cerebralis to non-salmonid fish, such as goldfish Carassius auratus, carp Cyprinus carpio, nose Chondrostoma nasus, medaka Oryzias latipes, guppy Poecilia reticulata and also the amphibian tadpole Rana pipiens as well as to rainbow trout fry indicated a specificity for salmonids. Attempts to activate the triactinomyxon spores by exposure to mucus prepared from cyprinid and salmonid fish showed no significant differences from those conducted in tap water. The results suggest that the simultaneous presence of both mechano- and chemotactic stimuli was required for finding the salmonid fish host.  (+info)

Multiple developmental roles for CRAC, a cytosolic regulator of adenylyl cyclase. (2/896)

Receptor-mediated activation of adenylyl cyclase (ACA) in Dictyostelium requires CRAC protein. Upon translocation to the membrane, this pleckstrin homology (PH) domain protein stimulates ACA and thereby mediates developmental aggregation. CRAC may also have roles later in development since CRAC-null cells can respond to chemotactic signals and participate in developmental aggregation when admixed with wild-type cells, but they do not complete development within such chimeras. To test whether the role of CRAC in postaggregative development is related to the activation of ACA, chemotactic aggregation was bypassed in CRAC-null cells by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). While such strains formed mounds, they did not complete fruiting body morphogenesis or form spores. Expression of CRAC in the prespore cells of these strains rescued sporulation and fruiting body formation. This later function of CRAC does not appear to require its PH domain since the C-terminal portion of the protein (CRAC-DeltaPH) can substitute for full-length CRAC in promoting spore cell formation and morphogenesis. No detectable ACA activation was observed in any of the CRAC-null strains rescued by PKA activation and expression of CRAC-DeltaPH. Finally, we found that the development of CRAC-null ACA-null double mutants could be rescued by the activation of PKA together with the expression of CRAC-DeltaPH. Thus, there appears to be a required function for CRAC in postaggregative development that is independent of its previously described function in the ACA activation pathway.  (+info)

The microsporidian spore invasion tube. The ultrastructure, isolation, and characterization of the protein comprising the tube. (3/896)

The extrusion apparatus of the microsporidian parasitic protozoan Nosema michaelis discharges an invasion (or polar) tube with a velocity suitalbe for piercing cells and injecting infective sporoplasm. The tube is composed of a polar tube protein (PTP) which consists of a single, low molecular weight polypeptide slightly smaller than chymotrypsinogen-A. Assembled PTP tubes resist dissociation in sodium dodecyl sulfate and brief exposures in media at extreme ends of the pH range; however, the tubes are reduced by mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. When acidified, mercaptoethanol-reduced PTP self-assembles into plastic, two-dimensional monolayers. Dithiothreitol-reduced PTP will not reassemble when acidified. Evidence is presented which indicates that PTP is assembled as a tube within the spore; that the ejected tube has plasticity during sporoplasm passage; and, finally, that the subunits within the tube polymer are bound together, in part, by interprotein disulfide linkages.  (+info)

Detection by an immunofluorescence test of Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores in routinely formalin-fixed stool samples stored at room temperature. (4/896)

Of the several microsporidia that infect humans, Enterocytozoon bieneusi is known to cause a gastrointestinal disease whereas Encephalitozoon intestinalis causes both a disseminated and an intestinal disease. Although several different staining techniques, including the chromotrope technique and its modifications, Uvitex 2B, and the quick-hot Gram-chromotrope procedure, detect microsporidian spores in fecal smears and other clinical samples, they do not identify the species of microsporidia. A need for an easily performed test therefore exists. We reevaluated 120 stool samples that had been found positive for microsporidia previously, using the quick-hot Gram-chromotrope technique, and segregated them into two groups on the basis of spore size. We also screened the smears by immunofluorescence microscopy, using a polyclonal rabbit anti-E. intestinalis serum at a dilution of 1:400. Spores in 29 (24.1%) of the 120 samples fluoresced brightly, indicating that they were E. intestinalis spores. No intense background or cross-reactivity with bacteria, yeasts, or other structures in the stool samples was seen. Additionally, the numbers of spores that fluoresced in seven of these samples were substantially smaller than the numbers of spores that were present in the stained smears, indicating that these samples were probably derived from patients with mixed infections of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and E. intestinalis. Because a 1:400 dilution of this serum does not react with culture-grown Encephalitozoon hellem, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, or Vittaforma corneae or with Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores in feces, we concluded that an immunofluorescence test using this serum is a good alternative for the specific identification of E. intestinalis infections.  (+info)

Should we be frightened of bracken? A review of the evidence. (5/896)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk to human health of the plant bracken (Pteridium sp). DESIGN: An evaluation of studies of human and animal populations exposed to bracken, together with a review of expert reports and advice to the public. MAIN RESULTS: Bracken induced disease has been demonstrated in animals in both laboratory and field studies. Depending on the species, diseases in animals associated with the plant have included; cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract, lung and breast; haematuria; retinal degeneration; and, thiamine deficiency. Potential exposure of human populations is through: food either directly (people in some parts of the world eat bracken as a traditional dish) or indirectly by consuming animals fed on bracken; milk; water; inhalation and ingestion of spores; and insect vectors. Four studies of human populations (two analytical and two observational) failed to assess adequately confounding factors and other sources of bias, so that conclusions about a risk to human health from bracken cannot firmly be drawn. Establishing exposure is also extremely difficult in populations (such as the United Kingdom) where direct consumption of bracken is rare. CONCLUSION: Bracken is a common plant worldwide. It is toxic to many animal species and to several organ systems. There is no tumour (or other disease) that is pathognomic of exposure in animals, though cancers of the alimentary and urogenital tract seem to be the most commonly associated. It is not possible to extrapolate from animal models to humans. Studies of human populations, do not establish a clear risk of bracken to human health, largely because of methodological problems. Testing the evidence against traditional criteria of causality only fulfils the criterion of biological plausibility. Despite this, current public information implies a serious risk to human health from bracken, and increasing media coverage of the subject is likely to lead to greater public concern. Further epidemiological studies are required.  (+info)

A Saprolegnia parasitica challenge system for rainbow trout: assessment of Pyceze as an anti-fungal agent for both fish and ova. (6/896)

A reproducible Saprolegnia parasitica spore delivery system was developed and demonstrated to be effective in providing a sustained spore challenge for up to 10 d. Treatment of rainbow trout with slow-release intraperitoneal implants containing cortisol resulted in chronically elevated blood cortisol levels and rendered the fish susceptible to infection by S. parasitica when exposed to the spore challenge. Sham-implanted fish were not susceptible to infection. Bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitro-propane-1,3-diol), formulated as Pyceze, was effective in protecting predisposed fish from infection by S. parasitica when administered as a daily bath/flush treatment at concentrations of 15 mg l-1 and greater. Pyceze was also demonstrated to protect fertilised rainbow trout ova from S. parasitica challenge when administered as a daily bath/flush treatment at concentrations of between 30 and 100 mg l-1. Pyceze appears to qualify as a safe and effective replacement for malachite green and formalin in the prevention of fungal infections in the aquaculture environment.  (+info)

Intensity of infection in AIDS-related intestinal microsporidiosis. (7/896)

To quantify intensity of infection in AIDS-related microsporidiosis, 20 patients with known microsporidiosis submitted stools for quantitative spore counts after staining with a calcofluor white stain. Nine patients collected stools for 24 h, for assessment of daily spore excretion, stool-to-stool variation in spore excretion, and patient-to-patient variation in intensity of infection. The number of organisms seen in small bowel biopsy specimens from 7 patients was compared with quantitative fecal spore excretion. Fecal spore concentration in 20 patients ranged from 4.5x105 to 4.4x108 spores/mL of stool. There was a strong correlation between fecal spore excretion and duodenal biopsy spore counts (r=.82; P<.024). Microsporidium infections in AIDS patients can be quantified by counting spores in stool and by small bowel biopsy. Variations in intensity of infection from patient to patient are great and are similar to those in AIDS-related Cryptosporidium infection.  (+info)

High cAMP in spores of Dictyostelium discoideum: association with spore dormancy and inhibition of germination. (8/896)

Signalling mechanisms involving cAMP have a well-documented role in the coordination of multicellular development and differentiation leading to spore formation in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum. The involvement of cAMP in the poorly understood developmental stages of spore dormancy and germination have been investigated in this study. Dormant spores contained up to 11-fold more cAMP than nascent amoebae. The spore cAMP levels were not constant, but typically underwent a surge at 14-18 d when spores acquired the ability to germinate spontaneously. The high cAMP levels decreased only during successful spore germination, i.e. emergence of nascent amoebae. The temporal pattern of cAMP decrease was complex and unique to the method of spore activation, supporting our hypothesis that exogenously (e.g. heat) activated and autoactivated spores germinate by different mechanisms. During heat-induced activation, transcription of acg (a gene encoding adenylyl cyclase associated with germination) correlated well with spore cAMP content. Young wild-type spores, incapable of spontaneous germination, maintained a uniformly high cAMP level, and spore cAMP levels also remained high if germination was inhibited. When activated spores were deactivated by applying increased osmotic pressure, cAMP concentrations rose and ultimately levelled off at the high levels typical of dormant spores. The correlation between high cAMP and failure to germinate was also evident when autoactivation was inhibited by the cAMP analogue, 8-bromo-cAMP. Also, spores from a strain (HTY217) with unrestrained protein kinase A activity were incapable of spontaneous germination. Overall, our experiments provide evidence for continued cAMP signalling in spores up to 18 d after sporulation and for linkages between elevated cAMP, spore deactivation and inhibition of spontaneous germination.  (+info)

In the context of medicine, spores are typically discussed in relation to certain types of infections and diseases caused by microorganisms such as bacteria or fungi. Spores are a dormant, resistant form of these microorganisms that can survive under harsh environmental conditions, such as extreme temperatures, lack of nutrients, and exposure to chemicals.

Spores can be highly resistant to heat, radiation, and disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated surfaces or medical equipment. When the conditions are favorable, spores can germinate and grow into mature microorganisms that can cause infection.

Some examples of medically relevant spores include those produced by Clostridioides difficile (C. diff), a bacterium that can cause severe diarrhea and colitis in hospitalized patients, and Aspergillus fumigatus, a fungus that can cause invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals.

It's worth noting that spores are not unique to medical contexts and have broader relevance in fields such as botany, mycology, and biology.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Bacteria do not produce spores; instead, it is fungi and other types of microorganisms that produce spores for reproduction and survival purposes. Spores are essentially reproductive cells that are resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive under harsh conditions.

If you meant to ask about endospores, those are produced by some bacteria as a protective mechanism during times of stress or nutrient deprivation. Endospores are highly resistant structures containing bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes. They can survive for long periods in extreme environments and germinate into vegetative cells when conditions improve.

Here's the medical definition of endospores:

Endospores (also called bacterial spores) are highly resistant, dormant structures produced by certain bacteria belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. They contain a core of bacterial DNA, ribosomes, and some enzymes surrounded by a protective layer called the spore coat. Endospores can survive under harsh conditions for extended periods and germinate into vegetative cells when favorable conditions return. Common examples of endospore-forming bacteria include Bacillus species (such as B. anthracis, which causes anthrax) and Clostridium species (such as C. difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea).

Fungal spores are defined as the reproductive units of fungi that are produced by specialized structures called hyphae. These spores are typically single-celled and can exist in various shapes such as round, oval, or ellipsoidal. They are highly resistant to extreme environmental conditions like heat, cold, and dryness, which allows them to survive for long periods until they find a suitable environment to germinate and grow into a new fungal organism. Fungal spores can be found in the air, water, soil, and on various surfaces, making them easily dispersible and capable of causing infections in humans, animals, and plants.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

Picolinic acid is not specifically classified as a medical term, but it is a type of organic compound that belongs to the class of molecules known as pyridinecarboxylic acids. These are carboxylic acids derived from pyridine by the substitution of a hydrogen atom with a carboxyl group.

Picolinic acid, specifically, is a pyridine derivative with a carboxyl group at the 2-position of the ring. It is naturally produced in the body and can be found in various tissues and fluids, including the brain, where it plays a role in the metabolism of amino acids, particularly tryptophan.

In addition to its physiological functions, picolinic acid has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have antibacterial and antifungal properties, and may also play a role in heavy metal chelation and neuroprotection. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical significance of this compound.

'Bacillus subtilis' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and vegetation. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow with or without oxygen. This bacterium is known for its ability to form durable endospores during unfavorable conditions, which allows it to survive in harsh environments for long periods of time.

'Bacillus subtilis' has been widely studied as a model organism in microbiology and molecular biology due to its genetic tractability and rapid growth. It is also used in various industrial applications, such as the production of enzymes, antibiotics, and other bioproducts.

Although 'Bacillus subtilis' is generally considered non-pathogenic, there have been rare cases of infection in immunocompromised individuals. It is important to note that this bacterium should not be confused with other pathogenic species within the genus Bacillus, such as B. anthracis (causative agent of anthrax) or B. cereus (a foodborne pathogen).

'Bacillus megaterium' is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in the environment, including in soil, water, and air. They are known for their large size, with individual cells often measuring 1-2 micrometers in length and 0.5 micrometers in diameter.

'Bacillus megaterium' is a facultative anaerobe, which means that it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. It forms endospores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing the bacteria to survive under harsh conditions for long periods of time.

These bacteria have been used in various industrial applications, such as the production of enzymes, vitamins, and other bioproducts. They are generally considered to be non-pathogenic, although there have been rare reports of infections associated with this species in immunocompromised individuals.

'Bacillus anthracis' is the scientific name for the bacterium that causes anthrax, a serious and potentially fatal infectious disease. This gram-positive, spore-forming rod-shaped bacterium can be found in soil and commonly affects animals such as sheep, goats, and cattle. Anthrax can manifest in several forms, including cutaneous (skin), gastrointestinal, and inhalation anthrax, depending on the route of infection.

The spores of Bacillus anthracis are highly resistant to environmental conditions and can survive for years, making them a potential agent for bioterrorism or biowarfare. When inhaled, ingested, or introduced through breaks in the skin, these spores can germinate into vegetative bacteria that produce potent exotoxins responsible for anthrax symptoms and complications.

It is essential to distinguish Bacillus anthracis from other Bacillus species due to its public health significance and potential use as a biological weapon. Proper identification, prevention strategies, and medical countermeasures are crucial in mitigating the risks associated with this bacterium.

'Bacillus cereus' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in soil and food. It can produce heat-resistant spores, which allow it to survive in a wide range of temperatures and environments. This bacterium can cause two types of foodborne illnesses: a diarrheal type and an emetic (vomiting) type.

The diarrheal type of illness is caused by the consumption of foods contaminated with large numbers of vegetative cells of B. cereus. The symptoms typically appear within 6 to 15 hours after ingestion and include watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and nausea. Vomiting may also occur in some cases.

The emetic type of illness is caused by the consumption of foods contaminated with B. cereus toxins. This type of illness is characterized by nausea and vomiting that usually occur within 0.5 to 6 hours after ingestion. The most common sources of B. cereus contamination include rice, pasta, and other starchy foods that have been cooked and left at room temperature for several hours.

Proper food handling, storage, and cooking practices can help prevent B. cereus infections. It is important to refrigerate or freeze cooked foods promptly, reheat them thoroughly, and avoid leaving them at room temperature for extended periods.

'Bacillus' is a genus of rod-shaped, gram-positive bacteria that are commonly found in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals. Many species of Bacillus are capable of forming endospores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals, allowing them to survive for long periods in harsh environments. The most well-known species of Bacillus is B. anthracis, which causes anthrax in animals and humans. Other species of Bacillus have industrial or agricultural importance, such as B. subtilis, which is used in the production of enzymes and antibiotics.

In a medical context, "hot temperature" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, it is often used in relation to fever, which is a common symptom of illness. A fever is typically defined as a body temperature that is higher than normal, usually above 38°C (100.4°F) for adults and above 37.5-38°C (99.5-101.3°F) for children, depending on the source.

Therefore, when a medical professional talks about "hot temperature," they may be referring to a body temperature that is higher than normal due to fever or other causes. It's important to note that a high environmental temperature can also contribute to an elevated body temperature, so it's essential to consider both the body temperature and the environmental temperature when assessing a patient's condition.

Anthrax is a serious infectious disease caused by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria called Bacillus anthracis. This bacterium produces spores that can survive in the environment for many years. Anthrax can be found naturally in soil and commonly affects animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats. Humans can get infected with anthrax by handling contaminated animal products or by inhaling or coming into contact with contaminated soil, water, or vegetation.

There are three main forms of anthrax infection:

1. Cutaneous anthrax: This is the most common form and occurs when the spores enter the body through a cut or abrasion on the skin. It starts as a painless bump that eventually develops into a ulcer with a black center.
2. Inhalation anthrax (also known as wool-sorter's disease): This occurs when a person inhales anthrax spores, which can lead to severe respiratory symptoms and potentially fatal illness.
3. Gastrointestinal anthrax: This form is rare and results from consuming contaminated meat. It causes nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which may be bloody.

Anthrax can be treated with antibiotics, but early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a successful outcome. Preventive measures include vaccination and avoiding contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products. Anthrax is also considered a potential bioterrorism agent due to its ease of dissemination and high mortality rate if left untreated.

'Clostridium botulinum' is a gram-positive, rod-shaped, anaerobic bacteria that produces one or more neurotoxins known as botulinum toxins. These toxins are among the most potent naturally occurring biological poisons and can cause a severe form of food poisoning called botulism in humans and animals. Botulism is characterized by symmetrical descending flaccid paralysis, which can lead to respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and ultimately death if not treated promptly.

The bacteria are widely distributed in nature, particularly in soil, sediments, and the intestinal tracts of some animals. They can form spores that are highly resistant to heat, chemicals, and other environmental stresses, allowing them to survive for long periods in adverse conditions. The spores can germinate and produce vegetative cells and toxins when they encounter favorable conditions, such as anaerobic environments with appropriate nutrients.

Human botulism can occur through three main routes of exposure: foodborne, wound, and infant botulism. Foodborne botulism results from consuming contaminated food containing preformed toxins, while wound botulism occurs when the bacteria infect a wound and produce toxins in situ. Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores that colonize the intestines and produce toxins, mainly affecting infants under one year of age.

Prevention measures include proper food handling, storage, and preparation practices, such as cooking and canning foods at appropriate temperatures and for sufficient durations. Wound care and prompt medical attention are crucial in preventing wound botulism. Vaccines and antitoxins are available for prophylaxis and treatment of botulism in high-risk individuals or in cases of confirmed exposure.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

'Clostridium perfringens' is a type of Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming bacterium that is commonly found in the environment, including in soil, decaying vegetation, and the intestines of humans and animals. It is a major cause of foodborne illness worldwide, producing several toxins that can lead to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.

The bacterium can contaminate food during preparation or storage, particularly meat and poultry products. When ingested, the spores of C. perfringens can germinate and produce large numbers of toxin-producing cells in the intestines, leading to food poisoning. The most common form of C. perfringens food poisoning is characterized by symptoms that appear within 6 to 24 hours after ingestion and last for less than 24 hours.

In addition to foodborne illness, C. perfringens can also cause other types of infections, such as gas gangrene, a serious condition that can occur when the bacterium infects a wound and produces toxins that damage surrounding tissues. Gas gangrene is a medical emergency that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and surgical debridement or amputation of affected tissue.

Prevention measures for C. perfringens food poisoning include proper cooking, handling, and storage of food, as well as rapid cooling of cooked foods to prevent the growth of the bacterium.

Air microbiology is the study of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses, that are present in the air. These microorganisms can be suspended in the air as particles or carried within droplets of liquid, such as those produced when a person coughs or sneezes.

Air microbiology is an important field of study because it helps us understand how these microorganisms are transmitted and how they may affect human health. For example, certain airborne bacteria and fungi can cause respiratory infections, while airborne viruses can cause diseases such as the common cold and influenza.

Air microbiology involves various techniques for collecting and analyzing air samples, including culturing microorganisms on growth media, using molecular biology methods to identify specific types of microorganisms, and measuring the concentration of microorganisms in the air. This information can be used to develop strategies for controlling the spread of airborne pathogens and protecting public health.

Sterilization, in a medical context, refers to the process of eliminating or removing all forms of microbial life, including fungi, bacteria, viruses, spores, and any other biological agents from a surface, object, or environment. This is typically achieved through various methods such as heat (using autoclaves), chemical processes, irradiation, or filtration.

In addition, sterilization can also refer to the surgical procedure that renders individuals unable to reproduce. This is often referred to as "permanent contraception" and can be performed through various methods such as vasectomy for men and tubal ligation for women. It's important to note that these procedures are typically permanent and not easily reversible.

Encephalitozoon is a genus of intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. The two species that are most relevant to human health are Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis (previously known as Septata intestinalis). These microscopic organisms are capable of infecting a wide range of hosts, including humans, and are often associated with opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

E. cuniculi is well-known for causing encephalitozoonosis, a disease that can lead to various symptoms depending on the infected organ. In humans, it primarily affects the central nervous system (CNS), leading to neurological issues such as seizures, cognitive impairment, and motor function loss. E. intestinalis, on the other hand, tends to infect the gastrointestinal tract, causing diarrhea and wasting syndrome.

Transmission of these parasites typically occurs through the ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil. Once inside a host, the spores germinate and invade various cells, including intestinal epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and endothelial cells. The subsequent infection can lead to a range of clinical manifestations, from asymptomatic to severe, life-threatening disease.

Effective treatment for encephalitozoonosis involves the administration of antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole or nitazoxanide. In immunocompromised patients, improving immune function through appropriate therapy is also crucial to prevent recurrence and manage the infection effectively.

Microsporidia are a group of small, obligate intracellular parasites that belong to the kingdom Fungi. They are characterized by their spore stage, which contains a unique infection apparatus called the polar tube or coiled filament. These spores can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects.

In humans, Microsporidia can cause chronic diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS. They can also infect various other tissues, including the eye, muscle, and kidney, leading to a variety of clinical manifestations.

Microsporidia were once considered to be protozoa but are now classified as fungi based on genetic and biochemical evidence. There are over 1,300 species of Microsporidia, with at least 14 species known to infect humans.

Microsporidiosis is an infection caused by microscopic, single-celled parasites belonging to the phylum Microspora. These parasites are primarily intracellular and can infect various organisms, including humans. Infection typically occurs through ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil, or through inhalation of spores. Once inside a host, the spores germinate, releasing the infective sporoplasm that invades host cells and multiplies within them.

In humans, microsporidiosis can cause various symptoms depending on the species involved and the immune status of the host. In immunocompetent individuals, it may present as self-limiting diarrhea or mild gastrointestinal disturbances. However, in immunocompromised patients (e.g., those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplants, or using immunosuppressive medications), microsporidiosis can lead to severe and chronic diarrhea, wasting, and potentially life-threatening complications affecting various organs such as the eyes, kidneys, and respiratory system.

Diagnosis of microsporidiosis typically involves detecting the parasites in stool or tissue samples using specialized staining techniques (e.g., chromotrope stains) or molecular methods (e.g., PCR). Treatment usually includes antiparasitic drugs such as albendazole, which has activity against many microsporidian species. In severe cases or when the infection involves multiple organs, additional supportive care and management of underlying immunodeficiencies may be necessary.

'Encephalitozoon cuniculi' is a small, intracellular parasitic protozoan that belongs to the phylum Microspora. It is the causative agent of encephalitozoonosis, a disease that primarily affects rabbits but can also infect other animals including humans, particularly those with weakened immune systems.

In rabbits, E. cuniculi can cause a range of clinical signs, including neurological symptoms such as tremors, torticollis (wry neck), and hind limb paresis or paralysis. It can also lead to kidney disease and eye lesions. The parasite is typically transmitted through the ingestion of spores shed in the urine of infected animals.

In humans, E. cuniculi infection is usually asymptomatic but can cause serious complications in immunocompromised individuals, including encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), pneumonitis (inflammation of the lungs), and disseminated disease. It is typically transmitted through contact with infected animals or their feces, contaminated soil, or water.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, avoiding contact with infected animals, and proper handling and disposal of animal waste. In rabbits, vaccination and treatment with antiparasitic drugs may help reduce the risk of infection and transmission.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

Microbial viability is the ability of a microorganism to grow, reproduce and maintain its essential life functions. It can be determined through various methods such as cell growth in culture media, staining techniques that detect metabolic activity, or direct observation of active movement. In contrast, non-viable microorganisms are those that have been killed or inactivated and cannot replicate or cause further harm. The measurement of microbial viability is important in various fields such as medicine, food safety, water quality, and environmental monitoring to assess the effectiveness of disinfection and sterilization procedures, and to determine the presence and concentration of harmful bacteria in different environments.

Protozoan infections in animals refer to diseases caused by the invasion and colonization of one or more protozoan species in an animal host's body. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can exist as parasites and can be transmitted through various modes, such as direct contact with infected animals, contaminated food or water, vectors like insects, and fecal-oral route.

Examples of protozoan infections in animals include:

1. Coccidiosis: It is a common intestinal disease caused by several species of the genus Eimeria that affects various animals, including poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, and pets like cats and dogs. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death in severe cases.
2. Toxoplasmosis: It is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that can infect various warm-blooded animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like cats. The parasite forms cysts in various tissues, such as muscles, brain, and eyes, causing mild to severe symptoms depending on the host's immune status.
3. Babesiosis: It is a tick-borne disease caused by several species of Babesia protozoa that affect various animals, including cattle, horses, dogs, and humans. The parasites infect red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, weakness, and sometimes death in severe cases.
4. Leishmaniasis: It is a vector-borne disease caused by several species of Leishmania protozoa that affect various animals, including dogs, cats, and humans. The parasites are transmitted through the bite of infected sandflies and can cause skin lesions, anemia, fever, weight loss, and sometimes death in severe cases.
5. Cryptosporidiosis: It is a waterborne disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parvum that affects various animals, including humans, livestock, and pets like dogs and cats. The parasites infect the epithelial cells lining the intestines, causing diarrhea, abdominal pain, and dehydration.

Prevention and control of these diseases rely on various measures, such as vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, vector control, and environmental management. Public awareness and education are also essential to prevent the transmission and spread of these diseases.

Ferns are a group of vascular plants that reproduce by means of spores rather than seeds. They are characterized by their frond-like leaves and lack of flowers or fruits. Ferns have been around for millions of years, with some fossilized ferns dating back to the Devonian period, over 360 million years ago.

Ferns are an important part of many ecosystems, particularly in tropical rainforests where they provide habitat and food for a variety of animals. They also play a role in soil erosion control and nutrient cycling.

Medically, some ferns have been used in traditional medicine to treat various ailments, such as bracken fern which has been used to treat wounds, burns, and skin diseases. However, it is important to note that not all ferns are safe for consumption or use as medicines, and some can be toxic if ingested or applied topically. It is always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before using any plant-based remedies.

Encephalitozoonosis is a medical condition caused by infection with microsporidian parasites of the genus Encephalitozoon. The two most common species that cause disease in humans are Encephalitozoon cuniculi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis.

The infection typically occurs through the ingestion of spores present in contaminated food, water, or soil. Once inside the body, the spores can infect various organs, including the brain, lungs, eyes, and kidneys. The resulting disease can manifest as a wide range of symptoms, depending on the organ systems involved.

In the central nervous system, encephalitozoonosis can cause inflammation and damage to the brain and surrounding tissues, leading to symptoms such as headache, confusion, memory loss, and difficulty with coordination or balance. In the eyes, the infection can cause inflammation and scarring of the cornea, leading to vision loss. In the kidneys, encephalitozoonosis can cause interstitial nephritis, which can lead to kidney failure in severe cases.

Encephalitozoonosis is most commonly seen in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients. However, it has also been reported in otherwise healthy individuals. Treatment typically involves the use of antimicrobial agents, such as albendazole or fumagillin, to eliminate the parasites from the body.

'Dictyostelium' is a genus of social amoebae that are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. These microscopic organisms have a unique life cycle, starting as individual cells that feed on bacteria. When food becomes scarce, the cells undergo a developmental process where they aggregate together to form a multicellular slug-like structure called a pseudoplasmodium or grex. This grex then moves and differentiates into a fruiting body that can release spores for further reproduction.

Dictyostelium discoideum is the most well-studied species in this genus, serving as a valuable model organism for research in various fields such as cell biology, developmental biology, and evolutionary biology. The study of Dictyostelium has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes like chemotaxis, signal transduction, and cell differentiation.

'Clostridium' is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals and humans. Many species of Clostridium are anaerobic, meaning they can grow and reproduce in environments with little or no oxygen. Some species of Clostridium are capable of producing toxins that can cause serious and sometimes life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals.

Some notable species of Clostridium include:

* Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus (also known as lockjaw)
* Clostridium botulinum, which produces botulinum toxin, the most potent neurotoxin known and the cause of botulism
* Clostridium difficile, which can cause severe diarrhea and colitis, particularly in people who have recently taken antibiotics
* Clostridium perfringens, which can cause food poisoning and gas gangrene.

It is important to note that not all species of Clostridium are harmful, and some are even beneficial, such as those used in the production of certain fermented foods like sauerkraut and natto. However, due to their ability to produce toxins and cause illness, it is important to handle and dispose of materials contaminated with Clostridium species carefully, especially in healthcare settings.

Food preservation, in the context of medical and nutritional sciences, refers to the process of treating, handling, and storing food items to reduce the risk of foodborne illness and to extend their shelf life. The goal is to prevent the growth of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and mold, as well as to slow down the oxidation process that can lead to spoilage.

Common methods of food preservation include:

1. Refrigeration and freezing: These techniques slow down the growth of microorganisms and enzyme activity that cause food to spoil.
2. Canning: This involves sealing food in airtight containers, then heating them to destroy microorganisms and inactivate enzymes.
3. Dehydration: Removing water from food inhibits the growth of bacteria, yeasts, and molds.
4. Acidification: Adding acidic ingredients like lemon juice or vinegar can lower the pH of food, making it less hospitable to microorganisms.
5. Fermentation: This process involves converting sugars into alcohol or acids using bacteria or yeasts, which can preserve food and also enhance its flavor.
6. Irradiation: Exposing food to small doses of radiation can kill bacteria, parasites, and insects, extending the shelf life of certain foods.
7. Pasteurization: Heating food to a specific temperature for a set period of time can destroy harmful bacteria while preserving the nutritional value and taste.

Proper food preservation is crucial in preventing foodborne illnesses and ensuring the safety and quality of the food supply.

Fungi, in the context of medical definitions, are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The study of fungi is known as mycology.

Fungi can exist as unicellular organisms or as multicellular filamentous structures called hyphae. They are heterotrophs, which means they obtain their nutrients by decomposing organic matter or by living as parasites on other organisms. Some fungi can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants, known as mycoses. These infections range from superficial, localized skin infections to systemic, life-threatening invasive diseases.

Examples of fungal infections include athlete's foot (tinea pedis), ringworm (dermatophytosis), candidiasis (yeast infection), histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and aspergillosis. Fungal infections can be challenging to treat due to the limited number of antifungal drugs available and the potential for drug resistance.

Stachybotrys is a genus of filamentous fungi (molds) that are known to produce potent mycotoxins, which can be harmful to humans and animals. The most well-known species is Stachybotrys chartarum, commonly referred to as "black mold" or "toxic black mold." This mold typically grows on materials with high cellulose content and a low nitrogen content, such as paper, straw, hay, wet drywall, and ceiling tiles. Exposure to the mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys can cause various health issues, including respiratory symptoms, allergic reactions, and immune system responses. It is essential to address water damage and mold growth promptly to prevent the spread of Stachybotrys and other molds in indoor environments.

Microsporidia are a group of small, spore-forming, obligate intracellular parasites that were once considered to be primitive protozoans but are now classified within the fungi. They are characterized by a unique infection mechanism called "polysporous invasion," where a single spore can infect multiple host cells and produce numerous progeny spores.

Microsporidia infect a wide range of hosts, including insects, fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. In humans, microsporidiosis is an opportunistic infection that primarily affects immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and those undergoing chemotherapy.

The most common Microsporidia species that infect humans are Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon intestinalis, which can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Other species can infect various organs, including the eyes, muscles, and respiratory system, causing a range of clinical manifestations.

Microsporidia have a complex life cycle that involves several developmental stages, including spores, meronts, and sporonts. The spores are highly resistant to environmental stresses and can survive for long periods outside the host, facilitating their transmission. Once inside the host cell, the spore releases its infectious contents, including a coiled tubular structure called the polar filament, which penetrates the host cell membrane and injects the parasite's genetic material into the host cytoplasm. The parasite then undergoes rapid multiplication, eventually producing numerous progeny spores that are released into the environment upon host cell lysis.

Microsporidia have been identified as potential bioterrorism agents due to their high infectivity, environmental resistance, and ability to cause severe disease in immunocompromised hosts. However, there are currently no effective vaccines or specific antimicrobial therapies available for microsporidiosis, and treatment is mainly supportive, focusing on managing symptoms and improving immune function.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Phase-contrast microscopy is a type of optical microscopy that allows visualization of transparent or translucent specimens, such as living cells and their organelles, by increasing the contrast between areas with different refractive indices within the sample. This technique works by converting phase shifts in light passing through the sample into changes in amplitude, which can then be observed as differences in brightness and contrast.

In a phase-contrast microscope, a special condenser and objective are used to create an optical path difference between the direct and diffracted light rays coming from the specimen. The condenser introduces a phase shift for the diffracted light, while the objective contains a phase ring that compensates for this shift in the direct light. This results in the direct light appearing brighter than the diffracted light, creating contrast between areas with different refractive indices within the sample.

Phase-contrast microscopy is particularly useful for observing unstained living cells and their dynamic processes, such as cell division, motility, and secretion, without the need for stains or dyes that might affect their viability or behavior.

Gene expression regulation in bacteria refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins from specific genes. This regulation allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions and ensure the appropriate amount of protein is produced at the right time.

Bacteria have a variety of mechanisms for regulating gene expression, including:

1. Operon structure: Many bacterial genes are organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule. The expression of these genes can be coordinately regulated by controlling the transcription of the entire operon.
2. Promoter regulation: Transcription is initiated at promoter regions upstream of the gene or operon. Bacteria have regulatory proteins called sigma factors that bind to the promoter and recruit RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for transcribing DNA into RNA. The binding of sigma factors can be influenced by environmental signals, allowing for regulation of transcription.
3. Attenuation: Some operons have regulatory regions called attenuators that control transcription termination. These regions contain hairpin structures that can form in the mRNA and cause transcription to stop prematurely. The formation of these hairpins is influenced by the concentration of specific metabolites, allowing for regulation of gene expression based on the availability of those metabolites.
4. Riboswitches: Some bacterial mRNAs contain regulatory elements called riboswitches that bind small molecules directly. When a small molecule binds to the riboswitch, it changes conformation and affects transcription or translation of the associated gene.
5. CRISPR-Cas systems: Bacteria use CRISPR-Cas systems for adaptive immunity against viruses and plasmids. These systems incorporate short sequences from foreign DNA into their own genome, which can then be used to recognize and cleave similar sequences in invading genetic elements.

Overall, gene expression regulation in bacteria is a complex process that allows them to respond quickly and efficiently to changing environmental conditions. Understanding these regulatory mechanisms can provide insights into bacterial physiology and help inform strategies for controlling bacterial growth and behavior.

Anthrax vaccines are biological preparations designed to protect against anthrax, a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax can affect both humans and animals, and it is primarily transmitted through contact with contaminated animal products or, less commonly, through inhalation of spores.

There are two types of anthrax vaccines currently available:

1. Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed (AVA): This vaccine is licensed for use in the United States and is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis in high-risk individuals, such as military personnel and laboratory workers who handle the bacterium. AVA contains a cell-free filtrate of cultured B. anthracis cells that have been chemically treated to render them non-infectious. The vaccine works by stimulating the production of antibodies against protective antigens (PA) present in the bacterial culture.
2. Recombinant Anthrax Vaccine (rPA): This vaccine, also known as BioThrax, is a newer generation anthrax vaccine that was approved for use in the United States in 2015. It contains only the recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of B. anthracis, which is produced using genetic engineering techniques. The rPA vaccine has been shown to be as effective as AVA in generating an immune response and offers several advantages, including a more straightforward manufacturing process, fewer side effects, and a longer shelf life.

Both vaccines require multiple doses for initial immunization, followed by periodic booster shots to maintain protection. Anthrax vaccines are generally safe and effective at preventing anthrax infection; however, they may cause mild to moderate side effects, such as soreness at the injection site, fatigue, and muscle aches. Severe allergic reactions are rare but possible.

It is important to note that anthrax vaccines do not provide immediate protection against anthrax infection. They require several weeks to stimulate an immune response, so they should be administered before potential exposure to the bacterium. In cases of known or suspected exposure to anthrax, antibiotics are used as a primary means of preventing and treating the disease.

A sigma factor is a type of protein in bacteria that plays an essential role in the initiation of transcription, which is the first step of gene expression. Sigma factors recognize and bind to specific sequences on DNA, known as promoters, enabling the attachment of RNA polymerase, the enzyme responsible for synthesizing RNA.

In bacteria, RNA polymerase is made up of several subunits, including a core enzyme and a sigma factor. The sigma factor confers specificity to the RNA polymerase by recognizing and binding to the promoter region of the DNA, allowing transcription to begin. Once transcription starts, the sigma factor is released from the RNA polymerase, which then continues to synthesize RNA until it reaches the end of the gene.

Bacteria have multiple sigma factors that allow them to respond to different environmental conditions and stresses by regulating the expression of specific sets of genes. For example, some sigma factors are involved in the regulation of genes required for growth and metabolism under normal conditions, while others are involved in the response to heat shock, starvation, or other stressors.

Overall, sigma factors play a crucial role in regulating gene expression in bacteria, allowing them to adapt to changing environmental conditions and maintain cellular homeostasis.

Muramic acids are not a medical condition or diagnosis. They are actually a type of chemical compound that is found in the cell walls of certain bacteria. Specifically, muramic acid is a derivative of amino sugars and forms a part of peptidoglycan, which is a major component of bacterial cell walls.

Peptidoglycan provides structural support and protection to bacterial cells, helping them maintain their shape and resist osmotic pressure. Muramic acids are unique to bacteria and are not found in the cell walls of human or animal cells, making them potential targets for antibiotic drugs that can selectively inhibit bacterial growth without harming host cells.

Humidity, in a medical context, is not typically defined on its own but is related to environmental conditions that can affect health. Humidity refers to the amount of water vapor present in the air. It is often discussed in terms of absolute humidity (the mass of water per unit volume of air) or relative humidity (the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the maximum possible absolute humidity, expressed as a percentage). High humidity can contribute to feelings of discomfort, difficulty sleeping, and exacerbation of respiratory conditions such as asthma.

A cell wall is a rigid layer found surrounding the plasma membrane of plant cells, fungi, and many types of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to the cell, maintains cell shape, and acts as a barrier against external factors such as chemicals and mechanical stress. The composition of the cell wall varies among different species; for example, in plants, it is primarily made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin, while in bacteria, it is composed of peptidoglycan.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Alanine is an alpha-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. The molecular formula for alanine is C3H7NO2. It is a non-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body through the conversion of other nutrients, such as pyruvate, and does not need to be obtained directly from the diet.

Alanine is classified as an aliphatic amino acid because it contains a simple carbon side chain. It is also a non-polar amino acid, which means that it is hydrophobic and tends to repel water. Alanine plays a role in the metabolism of glucose and helps to regulate blood sugar levels. It is also involved in the transfer of nitrogen between tissues and helps to maintain the balance of nitrogen in the body.

In addition to its role as a building block of proteins, alanine is also used as a neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to have a calming effect on the nervous system. It is found in many foods, including meats, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and legumes.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

'Cladosporium' is a genus of fungi that are widely distributed in the environment, particularly in soil, decaying plant material, and indoor air. These fungi are known for their dark-pigmented spores, which can be found in various shapes and sizes depending on the species. They are important causes of allergies and respiratory symptoms in humans, as well as plant diseases. Some species of Cladosporium can also produce toxins that may cause health problems in susceptible individuals. It is important to note that medical definitions typically refer to specific diseases or conditions that affect human health, so 'Cladosporium' itself would not be considered a medical definition.

Basidiomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi that consists of organisms commonly known as club fungi or club mushrooms. The name Basidiomycota is derived from the presence of a characteristic reproductive structure called a basidium, which is where spores are produced.

The basidiomycetes include many familiar forms such as mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi, and other types of polypores. They have a complex life cycle that involves both sexual and asexual reproduction. The sexual reproductive stage produces a characteristic fruiting body, which may be microscopic or highly visible, depending on the species.

Basidiomycota fungi play important ecological roles in decomposing organic matter, forming mutualistic relationships with plants, and acting as parasites on other organisms. Some species are economically important, such as edible mushrooms, while others can be harmful or even deadly to humans and animals.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Ascomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi, also known as sac fungi. This group includes both unicellular and multicellular organisms, such as yeasts, mold species, and morel mushrooms. Ascomycetes are characterized by their reproductive structures called ascus, which contain typically eight haploid spores produced sexually through a process called ascogony. Some members of this phylum have significant ecological and economic importance, as they can be decomposers, mutualistic symbionts, or plant pathogens causing various diseases. Examples include the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea, and morel mushroom Morchella esculenta.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Myxococcus xanthus" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually the scientific name of a type of soil-dwelling bacteria that belongs to the family Myxococcaceae. These bacteria are known for their social behavior and complex life cycle, which includes the formation of multicellular structures under certain conditions. They have been studied extensively in the field of microbiology due to their unique biological characteristics.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

'Alternaria' is a genus of widely distributed saprophytic fungi that are often found in soil, plant debris, and water. They produce darkly pigmented, septate hyphae and conidia (asexual spores) that are characterized by their distinctive beak-like projections.

Alternaria species can cause various types of plant diseases, including leaf spots, blights, and rots, which can result in significant crop losses. They also produce a variety of mycotoxins, which can have harmful effects on human and animal health.

In humans, Alternaria species can cause allergic reactions, such as hay fever and asthma, as well as skin and respiratory tract infections. Exposure to Alternaria spores is also a known risk factor for the development of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), a condition characterized by inflammation and scarring of the lungs.

It's important to note that medical definitions can vary depending on the context, so it may be helpful to consult a reliable medical or scientific source for more specific information about Alternaria and its potential health effects.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

'Clostridium difficile' (also known as 'C. difficile' or 'C. diff') is a type of Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium that can be found in the environment, including in soil, water, and human and animal feces. It is a common cause of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in individuals who have recently received antibiotics or have other underlying health conditions that weaken their immune system.

C. difficile produces toxins that can cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe colitis (inflammation of the colon) and potentially life-threatening complications such as sepsis and toxic megacolon. The most common toxins produced by C. difficile are called TcdA and TcdB, which damage the lining of the intestine and cause inflammation.

C. difficile infections (CDIs) can be difficult to treat, particularly in severe cases or in patients who have recurrent infections. Treatment typically involves discontinuing any unnecessary antibiotics, if possible, and administering specific antibiotics that are effective against C. difficile, such as metronidazole, vancomycin, or fidaxomicin. In some cases, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) may be recommended as a last resort for patients with recurrent or severe CDIs who have not responded to other treatments.

Preventing the spread of C. difficile is critical in healthcare settings, and includes measures such as hand hygiene, contact precautions, environmental cleaning, and antibiotic stewardship programs that promote the appropriate use of antibiotics.

Muramidase, also known as lysozyme, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a polymer found in bacterial cell walls. This enzymatic activity plays a crucial role in the innate immune system by contributing to the destruction of invading bacteria. Muramidase is widely distributed in various tissues and bodily fluids, such as tears, saliva, and milk, and is also found in several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes.

Myxozoa is a group of microscopic, primarily freshwater, parasitic cnidarians. They have complex life cycles involving one or more intermediate hosts, such as annelids or mollusks, and a definitive host, usually a fish. The adult stage of the parasite develops in the tissues of the definitive host, while the larval stages infect the muscles, gills, or other organs of the intermediate hosts.

Myxozoans are characterized by their small size (usually less than 1 mm), simple body structure, and unique spore stage. The spores contain one or two polar capsules, which are coiled structures that release thread-like filaments to help the spores attach to host tissues.

Myxozoans can cause significant damage to their hosts, leading to diseases such as whirling disease in fish and proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. These parasites have a wide geographic distribution and are found in both wild and farmed aquatic animals.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Environmental Microbiology is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, and other microscopic entities, that are found in various environments such as water, soil, air, and organic matter. This field focuses on understanding how these microbes interact with their surroundings, their role in various ecological systems, and their impact on human health and the environment. It also involves studying the genetic and biochemical mechanisms that allow microorganisms to survive and thrive in different environmental conditions, as well as the potential uses of microbes for bioremediation, bioenergy, and other industrial applications.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

Enterocytozoon is a genus of microsporidian parasites that are known to infect a variety of animals, including humans. The most well-known species in this genus is Enterocytozoon bieneusi, which is a common cause of diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS.

Enterocytozoon species infect the host by invading intestinal epithelial cells, specifically enterocytes, hence the name "enterocytozoon." Once inside the host cell, they replicate and can cause damage to the cell, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting.

Transmission of Enterocytozoon species typically occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, although sexual contact and mother-to-child transmission have also been reported. Diagnosis is usually made by detecting the parasite's DNA in stool samples using molecular techniques such as PCR. Treatment options for Enterocytozoon infections are limited, but antimicrobial drugs such as albendazole and fumagillin have shown some efficacy in reducing symptoms and clearing the infection.

Meiosis is a type of cell division that results in the formation of four daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. It is a key process in sexual reproduction, where it generates gametes or sex cells (sperm and eggs).

The process of meiosis involves one round of DNA replication followed by two successive nuclear divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II. In meiosis I, homologous chromosomes pair, form chiasma and exchange genetic material through crossing over, then separate from each other. In meiosis II, sister chromatids separate, leading to the formation of four haploid cells. This process ensures genetic diversity in offspring by shuffling and recombining genetic information during the formation of gametes.

According to the medical definition, ultraviolet (UV) rays are invisible radiations that fall in the range of the electromagnetic spectrum between 100-400 nanometers. UV rays are further divided into three categories: UVA (320-400 nm), UVB (280-320 nm), and UVC (100-280 nm).

UV rays have various sources, including the sun and artificial sources like tanning beds. Prolonged exposure to UV rays can cause damage to the skin, leading to premature aging, eye damage, and an increased risk of skin cancer. UVA rays penetrate deeper into the skin and are associated with skin aging, while UVB rays primarily affect the outer layer of the skin and are linked to sunburns and skin cancer. UVC rays are the most harmful but fortunately, they are absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere and do not reach the surface.

Healthcare professionals recommend limiting exposure to UV rays, wearing protective clothing, using broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, and avoiding tanning beds to reduce the risk of UV-related health problems.

Mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between fungi and the roots of most plant species. In a mycorrhizal association, fungi colonize the root tissues of plants and extend their mycelial networks into the surrounding soil. This association enhances the nutrient uptake capacity of the host plant, particularly with regards to phosphorus and nitrogen, while the fungi receive carbohydrates from the plant for their own growth and metabolism.

Mycorrhizal fungi can be broadly classified into two types: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae (or arbuscular mycorrhizae). Ectomycorrhizae form a sheath around the root surface, while endomycorrhizae penetrate the root cells and form structures called arbuscules, where nutrient exchange occurs. Mycorrhizal associations play crucial roles in maintaining ecosystem stability, promoting plant growth, and improving soil structure and fertility.

"Phycomyces" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the fungal kingdom, specifically within the division Mucoromycota. It belongs to the family Physalacriaceae and includes various species of saprophytic fungi that are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. They are known for producing large, quickly growing sporangiophores and sporangia.

In a medical context, certain fungal infections can be caused by related molds in the same division (Mucoromycota), but "Phycomyces" itself is not typically associated with human diseases.

A fruiting body, in the context of mycology (the study of fungi), refers to the part of a fungus that produces spores for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures are often what we typically think of as mushrooms or toadstools, although not all fungal fruiting bodies resemble these familiar forms.

Fungal fruiting bodies can vary greatly in size, shape, and color, depending on the species of fungus. They may be aboveground, like the caps and stalks of mushrooms, or underground, like the tiny, thread-like structures known as "corals" in some species.

The primary function of a fruiting body is to produce and disperse spores, which can give rise to new individuals when they germinate under favorable conditions. The development of a fruiting body is often triggered by environmental factors such as moisture, temperature, and nutrient availability.

Streptomyces is a genus of Gram-positive, aerobic, saprophytic bacteria that are widely distributed in soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their complex morphology, forming branching filaments called hyphae that can differentiate into long chains of spores.

Streptomyces species are particularly notable for their ability to produce a wide variety of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antibiotics, antifungals, and other therapeutic compounds. In fact, many important antibiotics such as streptomycin, neomycin, tetracycline, and erythromycin are derived from Streptomyces species.

Because of their industrial importance in the production of antibiotics and other bioactive compounds, Streptomyces have been extensively studied and are considered model organisms for the study of bacterial genetics, biochemistry, and ecology.

Sphagnopsida is a division of non-vascular plants that are commonly known as peat mosses or bog mosses. These plants are characterized by their ability to absorb and retain large amounts of water, making them an important component of many wetland ecosystems. They have simple, branching structures with small, leaf-like appendages called pseudoparenchyma. Sphagnopsida species play a significant role in the global carbon cycle as they decompose very slowly and can accumulate over long periods of time to form peat deposits.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Bacteriological techniques refer to the various methods and procedures used in the laboratory for the cultivation, identification, and study of bacteria. These techniques are essential in fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and research. Here are some common bacteriological techniques:

1. **Sterilization**: This is a process that eliminates or kills all forms of life, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. Common sterilization methods include autoclaving (using steam under pressure), dry heat (in an oven), chemical sterilants, and radiation.

2. **Aseptic Technique**: This refers to practices used to prevent contamination of sterile materials or environments with microorganisms. It includes the use of sterile equipment, gloves, and lab coats, as well as techniques such as flaming, alcohol swabbing, and using aseptic transfer devices.

3. **Media Preparation**: This involves the preparation of nutrient-rich substances that support bacterial growth. There are various types of media, including solid (agar), liquid (broth), and semi-solid (e.g., stab agar). The choice of medium depends on the type of bacteria being cultured and the purpose of the investigation.

4. **Inoculation**: This is the process of introducing a bacterial culture into a medium. It can be done using a loop, swab, or needle. The inoculum should be taken from a pure culture to avoid contamination.

5. **Incubation**: After inoculation, the bacteria are allowed to grow under controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, and atmospheric composition. This process is called incubation.

6. **Staining and Microscopy**: Bacteria are too small to be seen with the naked eye. Therefore, they need to be stained and observed under a microscope. Gram staining is a common method used to differentiate between two major groups of bacteria based on their cell wall composition.

7. **Biochemical Tests**: These are tests used to identify specific bacterial species based on their biochemical characteristics, such as their ability to ferment certain sugars, produce particular enzymes, or resist certain antibiotics.

8. **Molecular Techniques**: Advanced techniques like PCR and DNA sequencing can provide more precise identification of bacteria. They can also be used for genetic analysis and epidemiological studies.

Remember, handling microorganisms requires careful attention to biosafety procedures to prevent accidental infection or environmental contamination.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure exerted by a fluid at equilibrium at a given point within the fluid, due to the force of gravity. In medical terms, hydrostatic pressure is often discussed in relation to body fluids and tissues. For example, the hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries (tiny blood vessels) is the force that drives the fluid out of the blood vessels and into the surrounding tissues. This helps to maintain the balance of fluids in the body. Additionally, abnormal increases in hydrostatic pressure can contribute to the development of edema (swelling) in the tissues.

Myxomycetes are not a part of human or animal medicine, and thus do not have a medical definition. They are actually a group of organisms commonly known as plasmodial slime molds. These are single-celled amoeboid organisms that can aggregate under certain conditions to form a multinucleate mass called a plasmodium. When the plasmodium matures, it differentiates into fruiting bodies that release spores. Myxomycetes are not plants, animals or fungi, but are classified in their own kingdom, Protista. They are often found on dead plant material in moist, shaded habitats.

Peracetic acid (PAA) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field as a disinfectant and sterilant. Medically, it's often used for high-level disinfection of medical devices and equipment, especially those that are heat-sensitive or cannot be sterilized using traditional methods like steam sterilization.

Peracetic acid is an organic compound with the formula CH3CO3H. It's a colorless liquid with a pungent, acrid smell, similar to that of acetic acid (vinegar). In solution, it's a strong oxidizing agent and can effectively kill bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores.

It's important to note that peracetic acid should be used with caution due to its potential irritant effects on the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. Proper handling and use according to manufacturer instructions are essential to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Radiation effects refer to the damages that occur in living tissues when exposed to ionizing radiation. These effects can be categorized into two types: deterministic and stochastic. Deterministic effects have a threshold dose below which the effect does not occur, and above which the severity of the effect increases with the dose. Examples include radiation-induced erythema, epilation, and organ damage. Stochastic effects, on the other hand, do not have a threshold dose, and the probability of the effect occurring increases with the dose. Examples include genetic mutations and cancer induction. The severity of the effect is not related to the dose in this case.

Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in the cartilaginous tissue, which is the flexible and smooth connective tissue found in various parts of the body such as the bones, ribs, and nose. It is characterized by the production of malignant cartilage cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body (metastasis).

Chondrosarcomas are typically slow-growing tumors but can be aggressive in some cases. They usually occur in adults over the age of 40, and men are more commonly affected than women. The most common sites for chondrosarcoma development include the bones of the pelvis, legs, and arms.

Treatment for chondrosarcoma typically involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases. The prognosis for chondrosarcoma depends on several factors, including the size and location of the tumor, the grade of malignancy, and whether it has spread to other parts of the body.

I apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. "Soil microbiology" is not a medical term; rather, it is a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms in soil. It involves understanding the diversity, ecology, and biochemistry of bacteria, fungi, algae, protozoa, and other microscopic life forms found in soil. This field has applications in agriculture, environmental science, and waste management but is not directly related to medical definitions or human health.

Pasteurization is a process that involves heating a liquid, such as milk or fruit juice, to a specific temperature for a certain amount of time in order to kill harmful bacteria and reduce the risk of foodborne illness. The process was named after Louis Pasteur, who developed it in the 19th century.

In pasteurization, the liquid is typically heated to a temperature between 63°C (145°F) and 75°C (167°F) for at least 15 seconds to 30 minutes, depending on the type of product being pasteurized. This heat treatment destroys pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, which can cause serious illness if consumed.

Pasteurization does not sterilize the product completely, but it significantly reduces the number of bacteria present, making it safer for consumption. It is important to note that pasteurized products still have a shelf life and should be stored properly to prevent contamination and spoilage.

Peptidoglycan is a complex biological polymer made up of sugars and amino acids that forms a crucial component of the cell walls of bacteria. It provides structural support and protection to bacterial cells, contributing to their shape and rigidity. Peptidoglycan is unique to bacterial cell walls and is not found in the cells of other organisms, such as plants, animals, or fungi.

The polymer is composed of linear chains of alternating units of N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM), which are linked together by glycosidic bonds. The NAM residues contain short peptide side chains, typically consisting of four amino acids, that cross-link adjacent polysaccharide chains, forming a rigid layer around the bacterial cell.

The composition and structure of peptidoglycan can vary between different species of bacteria, which is one factor contributing to their diversity. The enzymes responsible for synthesizing and degrading peptidoglycan are important targets for antibiotics, as inhibiting these processes can weaken or kill the bacterial cells without affecting host organisms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spacecraft" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space. It may be used to transport humans or cargo to and from space stations, conduct scientific research, or explore other celestial bodies such as the moon, planets, and asteroids. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

A bacterial gene is a segment of DNA (or RNA in some viruses) that contains the genetic information necessary for the synthesis of a functional bacterial protein or RNA molecule. These genes are responsible for encoding various characteristics and functions of bacteria such as metabolism, reproduction, and resistance to antibiotics. They can be transmitted between bacteria through horizontal gene transfer mechanisms like conjugation, transformation, and transduction. Bacterial genes are often organized into operons, which are clusters of genes that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that the term "bacterial gene" is used to describe genetic elements found in bacteria, but not all genetic elements in bacteria are considered genes. For example, some DNA sequences may not encode functional products and are therefore not considered genes. Additionally, some bacterial genes may be plasmid-borne or phage-borne, rather than being located on the bacterial chromosome.

Microsporum is a genus of fungi belonging to the family Arthrodermataceae. These fungi are known to cause various types of tinea (ringworm) infections in humans and animals. They are characterized by their ability to produce large, thick-walled macroconidia that are typically round to oval in shape.

The most common species of Microsporum that infect humans include M. canis, M. audouinii, and M. gypsum. These fungi are often found in soil and on the skin or fur of animals such as cats, dogs, and cattle. They can cause a variety of skin infections, including tinea capitis (scalp ringworm), tinea corporis (body ringworm), and tinea unguium (nail ringworm).

Microsporum infections are typically treated with topical or oral antifungal medications. Prevention measures include good personal hygiene, avoiding contact with infected animals, and prompt treatment of any fungal infections.

"Streptomyces griseus" is a species of bacteria that belongs to the family Streptomycetaceae. This gram-positive, aerobic, and saprophytic bacterium is known for its ability to produce several important antibiotics, including streptomycin, grisein, and candidin. The bacterium forms a branched mycelium and is commonly found in soil and aquatic environments. It has been widely studied for its industrial applications, particularly in the production of antibiotics and enzymes.

The medical significance of "Streptomyces griseus" lies primarily in its ability to produce streptomycin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic that is effective against many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, as well as some mycobacteria. Streptomycin was the first antibiotic discovered to be effective against tuberculosis and has been used in the treatment of this disease for several decades. However, due to the emergence of drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, streptomycin is now rarely used as a first-line therapy for tuberculosis but may still be used in combination with other antibiotics for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

In addition to its role in antibiotic production, "Streptomyces griseus" has also been studied for its potential use in bioremediation and as a source of novel enzymes and bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine and industry.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Meteorological Concepts" is quite broad and can refer to various ideas and phenomena related to the study of meteorology, which is the scientific discipline that deals with the atmosphere and its processes. Here are a few examples of meteorological concepts:

1. Air pressure: The force exerted by the weight of the air above a given point. It's usually measured in hectopascals (hPa), inches of mercury (inHg), or millibars (mbar).
2. Temperature: A measure of the warmth or coldness of an object or environment, often reported in degrees Celsius (°C) or Fahrenheit (°F).
3. Humidity: The amount of water vapor present in the air. Relative humidity is the ratio of the current water vapor content to the maximum possible content at a given temperature.
4. Precipitation: Any form of water that falls from the atmosphere and reaches the ground, including rain, snow, sleet, or hail.
5. Wind: The horizontal movement of air relative to the surface of the Earth. It's usually described in terms of its speed (measured in knots, miles per hour, or meters per second) and direction (often given as a compass bearing).
6. Clouds: Visible masses of water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere. They form due to the condensation of atmospheric water vapor and are classified based on their appearance, altitude, and other characteristics.
7. Fronts: Boundaries between different air masses that have distinct temperature and humidity properties. These boundaries can lead to various weather phenomena, such as precipitation and severe thunderstorms.
8. Air pollution: The presence of harmful substances in the atmosphere, often resulting from human activities like industrial processes or transportation.
9. Weather forecasting: The use of scientific principles, observations, and computer models to predict future weather conditions.
10. Climate: The long-term average of weather patterns and conditions in a specific region, typically over a period of 30 years or more.

These are just a few examples of meteorological concepts. There are many more aspects of atmospheric science that could be explored, such as the study of tornadoes, hurricanes, and other extreme weather events.

Myxococcales is an order of delta proteobacteria that are known for their complex social behavior and unique life cycle. They are gram-negative bacteria that commonly exist in soil and aquatic environments. Myxococcales species can form multicellular structures called fruiting bodies, which consist of many individual cells that differentiate into dormant spores to survive unfavorable conditions. They move using gliding motility and feed on other bacteria by forming cooperative groups that collectively produce antibiotic-like compounds to kill and digest prey. Myxococcus xanthus is one of the most well-studied species within this order, serving as a model organism for studying cellular differentiation, social behavior, and biofilm formation in bacteria.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Mitosporic fungi, also known as asexual fungi or anamorphic fungi, are a group of fungi that produce mitospores (also called conidia) during their asexual reproduction. Mitospores are produced from the tip of specialized hyphae called conidiophores and are used for dispersal and survival of the fungi in various environments. These fungi do not have a sexual reproductive stage or it has not been observed, making their taxonomic classification challenging. They are commonly found in soil, decaying organic matter, and water, and some of them can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Examples of mitosporic fungi include Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species.

Diatrizoate is a type of contrast medium that is used during X-ray examinations, such as CT scans and urography, to help improve the visibility of internal body structures. It is a type of iodinated compound, which means it contains iodine atoms. Diatrizoate works by blocking the absorption of X-rays, causing the areas where it is injected or introduced to appear white on X-ray images. This can help doctors to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including problems with the urinary system and digestive tract.

Like all medications and contrast agents, diatrizoate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, kidney damage, and thyroid problems. It is important for patients to discuss any potential risks and benefits of using this agent with their healthcare provider before undergoing an X-ray examination.

"Penicillium" is not a medical term per se, but it is a genus of mold that is widely used in the field of medicine, specifically in the production of antibiotics. Here's a scientific definition:

Penicillium is a genus of ascomycete fungi that are commonly found in the environment, particularly in soil, decaying vegetation, and food. Many species of Penicillium produce penicillin, a group of antibiotics with activity against gram-positive bacteria. The discovery and isolation of penicillin from Penicillium notatum by Alexander Fleming in 1928 revolutionized the field of medicine and led to the development of modern antibiotic therapy. Since then, various species of Penicillium have been used in the industrial production of penicillin and other antibiotics, as well as in the production of enzymes, organic acids, and other industrial products.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Mycelium is not a specifically medical term, but it is a biological term used in fungi and other organisms. Medically, it might be relevant in certain contexts such as discussing fungal infections. Here's the general definition:

Mycelium (my-SEE-lee-um) is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. It is the underground portion of the fungus that supports the growth of the organism and is often responsible for the decomposition of organic material. Mycelium can be found in various environments, including soil, water, and dead or living organisms.

Fungal DNA refers to the genetic material present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The DNA of fungi, like that of all living organisms, is made up of nucleotides that are arranged in a double helix structure.

Fungal DNA contains the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of fungi. This includes the instructions for making proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of cells, as well as other important molecules such as enzymes and nucleic acids.

Studying fungal DNA can provide valuable insights into the biology and evolution of fungi, as well as their potential uses in medicine, agriculture, and industry. For example, researchers have used genetic engineering techniques to modify the DNA of fungi to produce drugs, biofuels, and other useful products. Additionally, understanding the genetic makeup of pathogenic fungi can help scientists develop new strategies for preventing and treating fungal infections.

Spores, Ronald (1984). The Mixtecs in Ancient and Colonial Times. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Spores, Ronald (1967). ... Spores is most renowned for his scholarship conducted on the cultural history of the Oaxacan region in southwestern Mexico. In ... Spores continued graduate studies at Harvard, where he completed a Master's thesis in 1963 and his doctorate in anthropology in ... Spores, Ronald (2007). Ñuu Ñudzahui: La Mixteca de Oaxaca. Oaxaca: Instituto Estatal de Educación Pública del Estado de Oaxaca ...
Images of the Jacob C. Spores House from the University of Oregon digital collections Biography of Jacob C. Spores from the ... Jacob Spores was an early settler of the Coburg area, who started the first ferry across the McKenzie River at the site. The ... The Jacob C. Spores House was a house located between south of Coburg and north of Eugene, Oregon, which was formerly listed on ... "Spores, Jacob C, House". Oregon Historic Sites Database: Oregon Department of Parks and Recreation. Retrieved April 20, 2013. " ...
Live fecal microbiota spores, sold under the brand name Vowst, is a fecal microbiota product usedto prevent the recurrence of ... "Vowst- fecal microbiota spores, live-brpk capsule". DailyMed. 21 April 2023. Retrieved 19 May 2023. "FDA Approves First Orally ... It is the first fecal microbiota product that is taken by mouth (orally). Fecal microbiota spores(live) is indicated to prevent ... In an analysis among 90 recipients of fecal microbiota spores, live, when compared to 92 recipients of placebo, the most ...
Alete spores show no lines. In monolete spores, there is a single narrow line (laesura) on the spore. This indicates the mother ... Eudicots have tricolpate spores (i.e. spores with three colpi). Envelope-enclosed spore tetrads are taken as the earliest ... Parasitic fungal spores may be classified into internal spores, which germinate within the host, and external spores, also ... microscopic view, no spores are visible) Spores and elaters from a horsetail. (Equisetum, microscopic view) Fossil plant spores ...
... is a term commonly applied to both diatoms and fungi. A resting spore can be a spore created by fungi which is ... The resting spores produced may be either exogeneous (mature spore has no contact with parent cell), endogenous (completely ... Resting spores are believed to last potentially decades with germination remaining viable. Resting spores may allow diatoms to ... The formation of resting spores is considered to be the consequence of environmental stress. Spore formation has been described ...
An oidium (plural: oidia) is an asexually produced fungal spore that (in contrast to conidia) is presumed not to constitute the ... The hypha breaks up into component cells/ small pieces and develop into spores. Oidia cannot survive in unfavourable conditions ...
... is Opiate for the Masses's second full-length album, released on April 26, 2005, by Jim Kaufman's own Voodoo Records ... "Opiate for the Masses The Spore". (Articles needing additional references from August 2014, All articles needing ... " "Opiate for the Masses - The Spore (album review)". Sputnikmusic. November 6, 2009. Retrieved January 20, 2012. " ...
... in the soil is not harmful to beneficial insects, birds, bees, pets, or people; and milky spore, like other ... This is also the optimal time frame for turf inoculation or applications with milky spore to increase milky spore in the soil ... Resident spores in the soil are swallowed by grubs during their normal pattern of feeding on roots. This ingestion of the spore ... Within 7-21 days the grub will eventually die and as the grub decomposes, billions of new spores are released into the soil. ...
It shows the colour of the mushroom spores if viewed en masse. A spore print is made by placing the spore-producing surface ... The spore print is the powdery deposit obtained by allowing spores of a fungal fruit body to fall onto a surface underneath. It ... In the field, spore print colour can sometimes be quickly determined by examining the top of stipes for spore "dust" on the ... A mushroom cannot be identified from its spore print alone; the spore print is only one characteristic used in making a ...
... is the Nintendo Wii spin-off of Spore, developed by Maxis, in which the players focus on creativity and evolution ... Spore Hero Archived April 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Sophia Tong, GameSpot (July 22, 2009). "Spore Hero ... On May 12, EA sent out their official press release for Spore Hero and Spore Hero Arena. Several previews began to emerge later ... Sporedum (September 19, 2009). "Spore Hero Arena and Spore Hero Release Dates". Sporedum. Archived from the original on April ...
... (also known as Spore Mobile) is the mobile device spin-off of Spore, and focuses on a single phase of the larger ... Spore Origins iPhone/iPod Touch Review Note: This link now leads to spam. Spore Origins Mobile Review flOw "EA's Spore Arrives ... "Spore Origins for N-Gage". N-Gage blog. Archived from the original on September 23, 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-23. 1Up Spore ... Official site Official Spore site (All articles with dead external links, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, ...
Spore was a town of ancient Phrygia, inhabited in Roman and Byzantine times. Its site is tentatively located near Pınarbaşı in ...
Spore may also refer to: Spore (1987 video game), a game for the Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum Spore (1991 video game), a video ... a video game by Maxis The Spore, a 2005 album by Opiate for the Masses Spore (band), an American rock band "Spore", a 2015 song ... Look up spore in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A spore is an asexual biological reproductive mechanism. ... now in Turkey Spore, West Pomeranian Voivodeship, a village in Poland Galaxy of Fear: Spore, a book by John Whitman Diaspore ( ...
... (born 27 April 1938) is a Danish official who was the second High Commissioner of Greenland, holding this position ... "Steen Marr Spore". v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, All articles with ...
Spore Spore Origins Nintendogs "EA and Maxis to ship Spore in September". Electronic Arts. February 12, 2008. Archived from the ... Spore Creatures characters are ball and line generated 2.5D. Unlike the characters of Spore, creatures are rendered in 2D, but ... "Spore makes you God" Article in tech newspaper Metro Tech Spore Creatures (Nintendo DS) at MobyGames Official website Developer ... "Spore Creatures for DS". GameRankings. Archived from the original on October 18, 2016. Retrieved October 16, 2016. "Spore ...
Spore was a noise rock band from Boston, Massachusetts formed in the wake of the early 1990s grunge movement. Spore were signed ... The Spore song Fun, from the group's third album was included in the Natural Born Killers film, though it was not released on ... Spore (1993 - Taang! Records - Recorded in June and September 1992 and March 1993 - Number One / Lee / Fun / Feedback / She ... Spore... retrospective blog February 9, 2007 TAANG! Records website Allmusic entry The Almost Complete List of Natural Born ...
... at James Sutherland Spore at Burns W. Spore oral history interview, ... Spore served as acting Naval governor of Guam from February 27, 1921 to February 7, 1922. Spore served as acting governor of ... On April 29, 1916, Spore married Grace Walling at St. Andrews Episcopal Church in South Orange, New Jersey. In 1937, Spore died ... James S. Spore grew up in Bay City, Michigan and graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy with the nickname of "Wooden Willie." ...
... over 3 million creatures had been added to the Sporepedia via the Spore Creature Creator. When installing Spore, Spore Creature ... The Official Spore Channel (June 9, 2008). "Spore Creature Creator Tutorial 3". YouTube. Archived from the original on March 31 ... Spore (June 27, 2008). "Spore 1UP Will Wright Interview". YouTube. Archived from the original on May 22, 2023. Retrieved ... "Spore Creature Creator". PC Gamer UK: 82. September 2008. Orry, Tom (July 1, 2008). "Spore: Creature Creator Review [sic]". ...
... is a collaborative album by ambient musicians Steve Roach and Jorge Reyes. "Clearing Place" (2:38) " ... "Sorcerer's Temple" (5:21) "The Holy Dirt" (13:43) "Night Journey" (13:38) "Spore and Bark" (11:21) "Healing Temple" (5:50) " ...
Spore. 195. Retrieved 10 January 2020. "SPORE Bulletin of the CTA No. 01: Spore dissemination and germination". Collections. ... Hailu, Michael (December 2019). "Editorial: Spore's final edition - a lasting legacy" (PDF). Spore (195). Retrieved 24 December ... Spore was first published at the beginning 1986, two years after the establishment of CTA. The first issue noted that "rather ... Spore was a magazine published by the Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation ACP-EU (CTA) in English, French ...
"Mrzim spore stvari" (English translation: I hate slow things) is a pop song by the Croatian singer Ana Bebić, recorded for the ... "Mrzim spore stvari" was written by Croatian composers Mira Buljan and Nenad Ničević. Ninčević described the song as "different ... Bebić entered with this song, "Mrzim spore stvari". The final event of Dora 2009 was held on 29 February 2009, wherein sixteen ... Gudim, Laura (9 January 2009). "Croatia: Ana Bebić sings Mrzim spore stvari at Dora". ESCToday. Retrieved 9 January 2009. ...
"Spore Hero Arena Review". IGN UK. 2008-10-22. Retrieved 2015-11-11. Spore Hero Arena at Spore Website Spore Hero Website ... Spore Hero Arena is a science fiction action-adventure game for the Nintendo DS and is a spin-off of Spore Hero which was ... Sporedum (2009-09-19). "Spore Hero Arena and Spore Hero Release Dates". Sporedum. Archived from the original on 2013-04-21. ... Spore Hero Arena allows the player to move around an overworld with elements of exploration and puzzle solving. On each planet ...
... s were proposed to be pluripotent cells that lie dormant in animal tissue and become active under stress or ... Spore-like cells were said to be a specific class of stem cells in adult organisms, including humans, which are small, ... Spore-like cells were said to remain viable in unprepared tissue (using no special preservation techniques), frozen at -86 °C ... Researcher Mariusz Ratajczak has linked spore-like cells to his idea of Very small embryonic-like stem cells, also proposed to ...
The repair mechanism utilizing spore photoproduct lyase is one of the reasons for the resilience of certain bacterial spores. ... the spore-specific DNA repair system (which utilizes spore photoproduct lyase), and the general nucleotide excision repair ... which is also called spore photoproduct (SP). Spore photoproduct is the predominant type of thymine crosslinking in germinating ... acid-soluble proteins from spores of Bacillus or Clostridium species makes spore photoproduct but not thymine dimers". ...
... Spore Expansion: Galactic Adventures Archived 2009-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, "Spore Galactic ... Spore Galactic Adventures is an expansion pack for the multigenre game Spore, developed by Maxis Emeryville and published by ... "Buy SPORE Galactic Adventures for SPORE - PC & Mac". Electronic Arts. Archived from the original on 26 October 2022. Retrieved ... On June 9, 2009, the Spore website was redesigned to prepare for a Galactic Adventure. Reception Spore: Galactic Adventures ...
"2007 TED video of Spore". Retrieved 2007-07-23. C,Net Spore history "Wright Hopes to Spore Another Hit". Wired Magazine. 2005- ... GDC 2006 featured two Spore related talks, Building Community Around Pollinated Content in Spore and Spore: Preproduction ... "The Art of Spore" hardback mini-book, a fold-out Spore poster and a 100-page Galactic Handbook. Spore extensively uses ... "About" page "Spore 'Cell Phase' video HD". 2008-05-21. Archived from the original on 2013-01-02. Retrieved ...
... was born Flora May Spore in Bay City, Michigan, on October 22, 1878, to Melvin and Helen Miller Spore. She ... Miss Spore has something beautiful and is conveying it to her fellow men.". Spore's paintings were exhibited in the most ... Marian Spore Bush (born Flora May Spore, October 22, 1878 - February 24, 1946) was an American dentist, painter, and wife of ... which Spore bought from stores which sold to her. In February 1930 Spore left her Park Avenue apartment for several weeks. ...
"Spore (1991)". MobyGames. Retrieved 2023-08-22. Spore at MobyGames v t e v t e (Articles with topics of unclear notability from ... Spore is an MS-DOS video game developed by Mike Snyder and published by Flogsoli Productions that fused Breakout with a text ... The settlers and all life on Spore were mysteriously wiped out, and Earth received an S.O.S. from the planet twelve days after ... The game takes place in the future about a group of intergalactic settlers who colonized a world they named Spore. ...
Spore Creature Creator is the creature creator element of Spore released prior to the full game, and was a demo for Spore. Two ... A sequel to Spore Origins was released, known as Spore Creatures (unrelated to Nintendo DS Spore Creatures). The game was a ... "Spore Creepy and Cute Parts Pack". Archived from the original on June 30, 2020. Retrieved June 28, 2020. "Spore ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Spore. Official website Sporepedia at official Spore website Spore's channel on YouTube ( ...
Spore [ˈspɔrɛ] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Szczecinek, within Szczecinek County, West Pomeranian ...
... then I find out I cant get spores syringes because I live in one of two states you cant ship to. Thanks to all the people ... Spore print to spore syringe- Easy Tek *DELETED* clearblue. 1,441. 7 04/08/02 02:16 PM. by Targa. thermal spore death TVEye. ... Spore syringe question bigj2. 1,253. 19 04/29/03 06:52 PM. by Mike Elium. I see shit in my spore sirenge... c0ma. 959. 8 10/12/ ... What can I do with 0.5cc of spores in a syringe tekramrepus. 3,227. 16 03/27/21 12:32 PM. by insutama. Re: Canadian Spore ...
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Spores, Ronald (1984). The Mixtecs in Ancient and Colonial Times. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Spores, Ronald (1967). ... Spores is most renowned for his scholarship conducted on the cultural history of the Oaxacan region in southwestern Mexico. In ... Spores continued graduate studies at Harvard, where he completed a Masters thesis in 1963 and his doctorate in anthropology in ... Spores, Ronald (2007). Ñuu Ñudzahui: La Mixteca de Oaxaca. Oaxaca: Instituto Estatal de Educación Pública del Estado de Oaxaca ...
A spore is a cell that certain fungi, plants (moss, ferns), and bacteria produce. ... A spore is a cell that certain fungi, plants (moss, ferns), and bacteria produce. ... Certain bacteria make spores as a way to defend themselves. Spores have thick walls. They can resist high temperatures, ... The bacteria Clostridia form spores. These spores create the bacteria that cause a rare condition called gas gangrene and a ...
Gosselin, M. I., Rathnayake, C. M., Crawford, I., (2016). Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore ... Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid ... Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid ...
spores to survive. On the basis of the initial levels of spores used in this study, holding water at a rolling boil for 1-3 min ... anthracis spores varied over a range of 1 to 12 min. In his own study of 17 strains of B. anthracis, Murray (8) found that ... Spores of all strains of the Bacillus spp. analyzed in this study were inactivated after boiling for 3-5 min in a covered ... spores of Bacillus anthracis. J Infect Dis. 1931;48:457-67. DOIGoogle Scholar ...
... premium spore genetics for vibrant mushroom cultivation. Unlock your mycology journey today! ... Discover the magic of Golden Teacher Multi-Spore Swab - ... Discover the magic of Golden Teacher Multi-Spore Swab - premium ... spore genetics for vibrant mushroom cultivation. Unlock your mycology journey today! ...
Spore Wellness Energy capsules are recommended for those who are looking for support of their daily energy levels. These ... Buy Spore Wellness (Essential) Microdosing Mushroom Capsules online, Spore Wellness (Essential) Microdosing Mushroom Capsules ... Spore Wellness Mushroom Capsules quantity. Add to cart. Categories: Microdose Psilocybin Caspules, Microdose Psilocybin ... Buy Spore Wellness (Essential) Microdosing Mushroom Capsules online. BuySpore Wellness (Essential) Microdosing Mushroom ...
Preko trnja do zvezd je znan pregovor, ki pripoveduje o trnovi poti do uspeha, še kako prisotna pa je tudi v športu. Ta pot pa ni izpolnjena le s solzami in znojem, ampak tudi s smehom. Uživajte v ...
Turnir Barcelona Open se vsako leto odvija v Barceloni v Španiji, njegovi začetki pa segajo v leto 1953. Je del ATP turneje in je znan po zahtevni peščeni podlagi, na kateri se je odlično znašel ...
Listen to your favourite songs from Purple Spores by VARIOUS ARTISTS now. Stream ad-free with Amazon Music Unlimited on mobile ...
Člani pradavne skrivne organizacije so zapriseženi varovanju sveta pred močno magijo, ki obstaja zunaj sveta normalnega.
What Yield Can I Expect From B+ Spores?. When using half-pint jars, its possible to achieve up to or more than 100 grams of ... Be the first to review "B+ Spore Syringe 10ml" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are ... The effects of mushrooms from B+ spores can only be described as clear, social, and relaxed. At lower doses, this strain will ... The magic mushrooms from B+ spores contain within them the hallucinogenic compound psilocybin. Recently, researchers have been ...
Brezplačni TV spored športnih prenosov v živo. ... Športni TV spored, prenosi v živo , Nikoli več ne zamudi tekme ...
This number of spores would suggest a heavy contamination of the area (sample). Therefore a negative result does not rule out a ... Some positive results have been obtained with spores of the non-anthrax Bacillus bacteria that may be found in the environment ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) "Hand-held immunoassays for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores" vol. 37, ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.) "Hand-held immunoassays for detection of Bacillus anthracis spores" 37 (2001) ...
Najbolj popoln in pregleden TV-spored za Planet TV, POP TV, Kanal A, SLO 1, SLO 2, HBO in druge TV programe. Kategorizirani ...
What is Reishi Spore Oil? Reishi Spore Oil is actually a organic oil taken from the spores from the Reishi mushroom. This ... Reishi Spore Oil Softgel: To get a practical and easy-to-amount choice, take into account the softgel form of Reishi Spore Oil ... Integrating Reishi Spore Oil in Your Health Regimen Now that you comprehend some great benefits of Reishi Spore Oil, its time ... Reishi Spore Oil: For individuals who would rather get their dietary supplements in water form, Reishi Spore Oil is really a ...
Each batch of spore prints can have a tiny scratch of spores removed from the print. With this swab a test run on agar or ... The Thai Koh Samui spore prints are made on sterile foil which is stored in sterile ziplock bag and kept under refrigerated ... Only spores that germinate are released as a print. ... liquid culture is made to check the conditions of the spores. ... Buy Thai Koh Samui psilocybe cubensis spore print. ... Each batch of spore prints can have a tiny scratch of spores ...
Buckle up as we dive headfirst into the fascinating world of mycology and explore the nitty-gritty details of our spore ... Transferring Spores and Liquid Culture: First things first - ... behind-the-scenes tour of our cutting-edge mushroom spore ... Transferring Spores and Liquid Culture:. First things first - lets talk equipment. Picture this: a meticulously sterilized ... And there you have it, folks - a glimpse into the heart of our mushroom spore research lab. From the delicate art of ...
South Park Theory of Evolution - Spore Creature Creator. Posted by Darqpony (Admin) ...
Q: Last year I bought a bunch of aucuba plants. In with them was a plant a lot like the rest but with a different leaf. The leaf is seven inches long and two inches wide and is a dark green in color. This spring it produced large bright red berries. Do you have any
Orissa India Spores. £12.99. We now have Orissa India magic mushroom spore syringes for sale in the UK. The Orissa India ... Buy Magic Mushrooms UK Store offers UK Magic Mushrooms for sale grown from top quality Psilocybe Spores UK including other ...
a) spore-forming anaerobic micro-organisms;. *. (b) coagulase positive staphylococci;. *. (c) haemolytic streptococci; and ...
Reduce the spread of clubroot spores with effective sanitation. Plant disease symptoms and potential yield impacts of clubroot ...
A spore of Phytophthora infestans infecting a potato plant. Photo credit: Dr Vicky Anderson Biotalys, an agricultural ...
Science SPORE Prize. November 2011 The Open Source Physics Project is supported by NSF DUE-0442581. ...
Spore-forming protozoa. Spore ingestion begins a life cycle that is similar in all 4 of the intestinal spore-forming protozoa ( ... As the infected enterocytes die, cyst or spore shedding occurs. The spores are then excreted in the stool. The spore-forming ... Spore-forming protozoa. *. The epidemiology of the intestinal spore-forming protozoa is not fully understood. Work in this area ... Cryptosporidiosis is the best-studied spore-forming diarrhea, and its pathogenic mechanisms can also be related to other spore- ...
Single reagent for yeast cells and spores. *High-performance cytoplasmic and mitochondrial yeast rRNA removal in just 14 ...
mold spores. *insect venom. *pet dander. *cockroach debris. *tobacco smoke. *even food, latex rubber, paint fumes and medicines ...
Learn more about the Mayo Clinic Breast Cancer SPORE.. People who seek care at Mayo Clinic have a chance to participate in ... SPORE) grant for breast cancer research from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. ...
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  • Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. (
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  • We use specialized tools to transfer spores and liquid culture into sterilized glass jars, setting the stage for the mesmerizing dance of mycelium and liquid culture. (
  • Buckle up as we dive headfirst into the fascinating world of mycology and explore the nitty-gritty details of our spore cultivation process & liquid culture mixing techniques. (
  • From the delicate art of transferring spores and liquid culture to the orchestration of optimal growth environments, every step in our process is a testament to our passion for mycology and commitment to advancing scientific knowledge. (
  • One of the main ingredients in Reishi Spore Oil is cordyceps sinensis extract, which is shown to improve immunity and promote longevity. (
  • Hericium erinaceus extract is a thirdly active ingredient in Reishi Spore Oil. (
  • Reishi Spore Oil is shown to have numerous advantages for your immunity mechanism, due to its active substances, which includes hericium erinaceus beta glucan, cordyceps extract beta glucan, and inonotus obliquus beta glucan. (
  • Mayo Clinic Comprehensive Cancer Center is one of a select group of facilities that received a Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) grant for breast cancer research from the U.S. National Cancer Institute. (
  • A spore of Phytophthora infestans infecting a potato plant. (
  • Water samples were injected with the spore preparations, heated to boiling on a hot plate, and held at boiling temperature for various times. (
  • Since we all make an effort to remain healthy and strong, reishi spore oil softgel delivers a natural means to fix help our natural defenses. (
  • Recent advances in our understanding of C. difficile spore germination mechanisms indicate that this process is both complex and unique. (
  • Store the Thai Koh Samui Spore print refrigerated between 2*C-8*C Celsius or 35*F-46*F Fahrenheit. (
  • Caciques and their People: A Volume in Honor of Ronald Spores. (
  • Ronald M. Spores (born January 25, 1931) is an American academic anthropologist, archaeologist and ethnohistorian, whose research career has centered on the pre-Columbian cultures of Mesoamerica. (
  • Lab Equipment and Supply, Use for Microscopic research purposes only Details of this topic can be difficult to understand, All of these spores originate in nature and we collect them to visually research the unique characteristics of each specimen collected worldwide. (
  • Well, you could try to go the spore exchange forum and see if someone would send you a print. (
  • Magash, pm me if you still need some spores, i can send a print if you want. (
  • Thai Koh Samui psilocybe cubensis spore print straight from the Island of Koh Samui. (
  • Each batch of spore prints can have a tiny scratch of spores removed from the print. (
  • A Spore print can be stored for years. (
  • The Thai Koh Samui spore prints are made on sterile foil which is stored in sterile ziplock bag and kept under refrigerated conditions. (
  • Chances are they may not know your state doesnt allow for having spores. (
  • The state of preservation of the spores and pollen is also more detailed in the coprolites, suggesting that encasement in calcium phosphate may inhibit degradation of sporopollenin. (
  • On the basis of the initial levels of spores used in this study, holding water at a rolling boil for 1-3 min in an open container would not inactivate the spores. (
  • Biological activity such as ergosterol, spore count, and endotoxin levels were higher on the first floor of the Hall of Education and in the Stadium Hall, both areas where high numbers of animals were housed. (
  • Inonotus obliquus beta glucan is another active component in Reishi Spore Oil that can assistance defense functionality. (
  • Spores obtained his undergraduate Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Oregon in 1953. (
  • It is known to possess a wide range of health advantages, and Reishi Spore Oil is one of the very most great ways to funnel its energy. (
  • The depositional environment is interpreted as a continental wetland based on the palynoflora, which includes several hydrophilic taxa, together with sparse occurrences of fresh-water algae, such as Ovoidites, and the absence of marine palynomorphs.Although the coprolites of Ariño samples generally are dominated by pollen produced by Taxodiaceae (cypress) and Cheirolepidiaceae (a family of extinct conifers), the sediment samples have a slightly higher relative abundance of fern spores. (
  • Well-preserved pollen and spore assemblages were identified in all coprolite samples and a slightly poorer assemblage was obtained from the adjacent sediments, both indicating an Early Cretaceous (Albian) age. (
  • Spores were harvested from the agar plates and washed four times by centrifugation with sterile distilled water, treated with 50% (vol/vol) ethanol while being shaken at 100 rpm for 2 h, then washed an additional four times by centrifugation with sterile distilled water. (
  • Spores, Ronald and Andrew Balkansky (2013) The Mixtecs of Oaxaca: Ancient Times to the Present. (