A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.
Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.
Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.
Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A family of insect viruses causing disease in lepidopterous larvae, most commonly from species of the owlet moth family Noctuidae. There is one genus: Ascovirus.
Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.
A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Its organisms are characterized by an annulated or smooth cuticle and the absence of caudal glands.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A carbamate insecticide with anticholinesterase activity.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by ovicylindrical occlusion bodies. The type species is Cydia pomonella granulovirus.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains cleogynol and 15alpha-acetoxycleomblynol (dammaranes) and 1-epibrachyacarpone (a triterpene), and ISOTHIOCYANATES.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A plant genus of the family DENNSTAEDTIACEAE. Members contain ptaquiloside, braxin A1, and braxin B. The name is similar to brake fern (PTERIS).
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Hair-like extensions on specialized epidermal surfaces of plants which protect against damage from insects, animals, light degradation and fungal infection. Trichomes may also occur on certain unicellular EUKARYOTES.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.

Coupling of the cell cycle and myogenesis through the cyclin D1-dependent interaction of MyoD with cdk4. (1/3306)

Proliferating myoblasts express the muscle determination factor, MyoD, throughout the cell cycle in the absence of differentiation. Here we show that a mitogen-sensitive mechanism, involving the direct interaction between MyoD and cdk4, restricts myoblast differentiation to cells that have entered into the G0 phase of the cell cycle under mitogen withdrawal. Interaction between MyoD and cdk4 disrupts MyoD DNA-binding, muscle-specific gene activation and myogenic conversion of 10T1/2 cells independently of cyclin D1 and the CAK activation of cdk4. Forced induction of cyclin D1 in myotubes results in the cytoplasmic to nuclear translocation of cdk4. The specific MyoD-cdk4 interaction in dividing myoblasts, coupled with the cyclin D1-dependent nuclear targeting of cdk4, suggests a mitogen-sensitive mechanism whereby cyclin D1 can regulate MyoD function and the onset of myogenesis by controlling the cellular location of cdk4 rather than the phosphorylation status of MyoD.  (+info)

p50(cdc37) acting in concert with Hsp90 is required for Raf-1 function. (2/3306)

Genetic screens in Drosophila have identified p50(cdc37) to be an essential component of the sevenless receptor/mitogen-activated kinase protein (MAPK) signaling pathway, but neither the function nor the target of p50(cdc37) in this pathway has been defined. In this study, we examined the role of p50(cdc37) and its Hsp90 chaperone partner in Raf/Mek/MAPK signaling biochemically. We found that coexpression of wild-type p50(cdc37) with Raf-1 resulted in robust and dose-dependent activation of Raf-1 in Sf9 cells. In addition, p50(cdc37) greatly potentiated v-Src-mediated Raf-1 activation. Moreover, we found that p50(cdc37) is the primary determinant of Hsp90 recruitment to Raf-1. Overexpression of a p50(cdc37) mutant which is unable to recruit Hsp90 into the Raf-1 complex inhibited Raf-1 and MAPK activation by growth factors. Similarly, pretreatment with geldanamycin (GA), an Hsp90-specific inhibitor, prevented both the association of Raf-1 with the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 heterodimer and Raf-1 kinase activation by serum. Activation of Raf-1 via baculovirus coexpression with oncogenic Src or Ras in Sf9 cells was also strongly inhibited by dominant negative p50(cdc37) or by GA. Thus, formation of a ternary Raf-1-p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex is crucial for Raf-1 activity and MAPK pathway signaling. These results provide the first biochemical evidence for the requirement of the p50(cdc37)-Hsp90 complex in protein kinase regulation and for Raf-1 function in particular.  (+info)

Human topoisomerase I promotes initiation of simian virus 40 DNA replication in vitro. (3/3306)

Addition of purified human topoisomerase I (topo I) to simian virus 40 T antigen-driven in vitro DNA replication reactions performed with topo I-deficient extracts results in a greater than 10-fold stimulation of completed molecules as well as a more than 3-fold enhancement of overall DNA replication. To further characterize this stimulation, we first demonstrate that bovine topo I but not Escherichia coli topo I can also enhance DNA replication. By using several human topo I mutants, we show that a catalytically active form of topo I is required. To delineate whether topo I influences the initiation or the elongation step of replication, we performed delayed pulse, pulse-chase, and delayed pulse-chase experiments. The results illustrate that topo I cannot promote the completion of partially replicated molecules but is needed from the beginning of the reaction to initiate replication. Competitive inhibition experiments with the topo I binding T antigen fragment 1-246T and a catalytically inactive topo I mutant suggest that part of topo I's stimulation of replication is mediated through a direct interaction with T antigen. Collectively, our data indicate that topo I enhances the synthesis of fully replicated DNA molecules by forming essential interactions with T antigen and stimulating initiation.  (+info)

The histone acetylase PCAF is a phorbol-ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF family that confers enhanced interferon responsiveness. (4/3306)

Transcription factors of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family bind to the type I interferon (IFN)-responsive element (ISRE) and activate transcription from IFN-inducible genes. To identify cofactors that associate with IRF proteins, DNA affinity binding assays were performed with nuclear extracts prepared from tissue culture cells. The results demonstrated that the endogenous IRFs bound to the ISRE are complexed with the histone acetylases, PCAF, GCN5, and p300/CREB binding protein and that histone acetylase activities are accumulated on the IRF-ISRE complexes. By testing recombinant proteins, we show that PCAF directly binds to some but not all members of the IRF family through distinct domains of the two proteins. This interaction was functionally significant, since transfection of PCAF strongly enhanced IRF-1- and IRF-2-dependent promoter activities. Further studies showed that expression of PCAF and other histone acetylases was markedly induced in U937 cells upon phorbol ester treatment, which led to increased recruitment of PCAF to the IRF-ISRE complexes. Coinciding with the induction of histone acetylases, phorbol ester markedly enhanced IFN-alpha-stimulated gene expression in U937 cells. Supporting the role for PCAF in conferring IFN responsiveness, transfection of PCAF into U937 cells led to a large increase in IFN-alpha-inducible promoter activity. These results demonstrate that PCAF is a phorbol ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF proteins which contributes to the establishment of type I IFN responsiveness.  (+info)

A plant 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase with a novel repeat structure. Cloning and functional expression in baculovirus-infected insect cells. (5/3306)

Phosphatidylinositol metabolism plays a central role in signaling pathways in animals and is also believed to be of importance in signal transduction in higher plants. We report here the molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding a previously unidentified 126-kDa phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4-kinase (AtPI4Kbeta) from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The novel protein possesses the conserved domains present in animal and yeast PI 4-kinases, namely a lipid kinase unique domain and a catalytic domain. An additional domain, approximately 300 amino acids long, containing a high percentage (46%) of charged amino acids is specific to this plant enzyme. Recombinant AtPI4Kbeta expressed in baculovirus-infected insect (Spodoptera frugiperda) cells phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol exclusively at the D4 position of the inositol ring. Recombinant protein was maximally activated by 0.6% Triton X-100 but was inhibited by adenosine with an IC50 of approximately 200 microM. Wortmannin at a concentration of 10 microM inhibited AtPI4Kbeta activity by approximately 90%. AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels were similar in all tissues analyzed. Light or treatment with hormones or salts did not change AtPI4Kbeta transcript levels to a great extent, indicating constitutive expression of the AtPI4Kbeta gene.  (+info)

Baculovirus expression and biochemical characterization of the human microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. (6/3306)

The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) complexed to protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) is obligatory for the assembly of chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins. The determination of the atomic structure of the MTP-PDI heterodimer has important implications for the treatment of those forms of hyperlipidaemia associated with the overproduction of very-low-density lipoproteins, which predispose to premature coronary heart disease. To perform structural studies of the human MTP-PDI complex it was necessary to produce milligram quantities of pure protein. We chose the baculovirus expression system for this purpose. Insects cells were co-infected with recombinant viruses encoding FLAG-tagged MTP and His-tagged PDI; the resulting heterodimer was purified by affinity chromatography. From 5 litres of insect cells, 4-6 mg of more than 95% pure recombinant protein was obtained. CD and attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy indicate that the purified protein has around 34% alpha-helical and 33% beta-structure content. The recombinant protein had a comparable triglyceride transfer activity to that of bovine MTP-PDI. The production of polyclonal antibodies raised against the MTP and PDI subunits of the purified protein is described. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of expressing two proteins at high levels in insect cells and describes a transferable methodology for the purification of the resulting protein complex.  (+info)

Identification of additional genes that influence baculovirus late gene expression. (7/3306)

We were unable to confirm transient late gene expression using constructs of 18 genes that had been reported to support Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) late gene expression when transfected into Spodoptera frugiperda cells [Lu, A., and Miller, L. K. (1995). J. Virol. 69, 975-982]. Three genes (orf66, orf68, and orf41) were included, all or in part, in the constructs used in that study, but they had not been independently tested. Therefore we investigated these and neighboring orfs for their influence on late gene expression. We found that orf41 was required for late gene expression and that sequences within orf45 appeared to be required for the expression of orf41. Although orf66 and orf68 did not appear to affect late gene expression, orf69 stimulated expression. orf69 was found to have high homology to recent entries in GenBank from a variety of organisms. In addition, it was found that orf121, which was shown to be involved in early gene expression, and the viral homolog of pcna did not influence late gene expression.  (+info)

The nucleoprotein of Marburg virus is target for multiple cellular kinases. (8/3306)

The nucleoprotein (NP) of Marburg virus is phosphorylated at serine and threonine residues in a ratio of 85:15, regardless of whether the protein is isolated from virions or from eukaryotic expression systems. Phosphotyrosine is absent. Although many potential phosphorylation sites are located in the N-terminal half of NP, this part of the protein is not phosphorylated. Analyses of phosphorylation state and phosphoamino acid content of truncated NPs expressed in HeLa cells using the vaccinia virus T7 expression system led to the identification of seven phosphorylated regions (region I*, amino acids 404-432; II*, amino acids 446-472; III*, amino acids 484-511; IV*, amino acids 534-543; V*, amino acid 549; VI*, amino acids 599-604; and VII*, amino acid 619) with a minimum of seven phosphorylated amino acid residues located in the C-terminal half of NP. All phosphothreonine residues and consensus recognition sequences for protein kinase CKII are located in regions I*-V*. Regions VI* and VII* contain only phosphoserine with three of four serine residues in consensus recognition motifs for proline-directed protein kinases. Mutagenesis of proline-adjacent serine residues to alanine or aspartic acid did not influence the function of NP in a reconstituted transcription/replication system; thus it is concluded that serine phosphorylation in the most C-terminal part of NP is not a regulatory factor in viral RNA synthesis.  (+info)

"Spodoptera" is not a medical term, but a genus name in the insect family Noctuidae. It includes several species of moths commonly known as armyworms or cutworms due to their habit of consuming leaves and roots of various plants, causing significant damage to crops.

Some well-known species in this genus are Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm), Spodoptera litura (tobacco cutworm), and Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm). These pests can be a concern for medical entomology when they transmit pathogens or cause allergic reactions. For instance, their frass (feces) and shed skins may trigger asthma symptoms in susceptible individuals. However, the insects themselves are not typically considered medical issues unless they directly affect human health.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Moths" are not a medical term, but rather they are a group of insects closely related to butterflies. They belong to the order Lepidoptera and are characterized by their scales covering their wings and body. If you have any questions about moths or if you meant to ask something else, please let me know!

A nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) is a type of large, complex DNA virus that infects insects, particularly members of the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies). NPVs are characterized by their ability to produce multiple virions within a single polyhedral occlusion body, which provides protection for the virions in the environment and facilitates their transmission between hosts.

NPVs replicate in the nucleus of infected cells, where they induce the production of large quantities of viral proteins that ultimately lead to the lysis of the host cell. The virions are then released and can infect other cells or be transmitted to other insects. NPVs are important pathogens of many agricultural pests, and some species have been developed as biological control agents for use in integrated pest management programs.

Baculoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect arthropods, particularly insects. The virions (virus particles) are enclosed in a rod-shaped or occlusion body called a polyhedron, which provides protection and stability in the environment. Baculoviruses have a wide host range within the order Lepidoptera (moths and butterflies), Hymenoptera (sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants), and Diptera (flies). They are important pathogens in agriculture and forestry, causing significant damage to insect pests.

The Baculoviridae family is divided into four genera: Alphabaculovirus, Betabaculovirus, Gammabaculovirus, and Deltabaculovirus. The two most well-studied and economically important genera are Alphabaculovirus (nuclear polyhedrosis viruses or NPVs) and Betabaculovirus (granulosis viruses or GVs).

Baculoviruses have a biphasic replication cycle, consisting of a budded phase and an occluded phase. During the budded phase, the virus infects host cells and produces enveloped virions that can spread to other cells within the insect. In the occluded phase, large numbers of non-enveloped virions are produced and encapsidated in a protein matrix called a polyhedron. These polyhedra accumulate in the infected insect's tissues, providing protection from environmental degradation and facilitating transmission to new hosts through oral ingestion or other means.

Baculoviruses have been extensively studied as models for understanding viral replication, gene expression, and host-pathogen interactions. They also have potential applications in biotechnology and pest control, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy vectors, and environmentally friendly insecticides.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Lepidoptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order that includes moths and butterflies, which are insects known for their distinctive wing scales. This term is used in the field of biology, not medicine.

Insect viruses, also known as entomoviruses, are viruses that specifically infect and replicate in insect hosts. These viruses can be found in various insect species, including those of medical and agricultural importance. Insect viruses can cause diseases in insect populations, leading to significant impacts on their growth, development, and survival. Some insect viruses have been studied as potential biological control agents for managing pest insects that affect crops or transmit diseases. Examples of insect viruses include Baculoviridae, Reoviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

Biological pest control, also known as biocontrol, is a method of managing or eliminating pests such as insects, mites, weeds, and plant diseases using natural enemies or other organisms. These biological control agents include predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors that regulate pest populations and reduce the need for chemical pesticides. Biological pest control is a key component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs and has minimal impact on the environment compared to traditional pest control methods.

Ascoviridae is a family of large, double-stranded DNA viruses that infect and replicate in the cells of lepidopteran insects (moths and butterflies). The name "ascovirus" comes from the characteristic inclusion bodies, called ascus, that these viruses form within the infected host cells. Ascoviruses are unique among animal viruses because they have a complex life cycle involving both sexual and asexual reproduction. They are transmitted horizontally between hosts through the ingestion of virus-infected insect eggs or larvae, and can also be vertically transmitted from infected female moths to their offspring. Ascoviruses cause diseases that can lead to significant mortality in insect populations, particularly in agricultural settings where they can impact pest control efforts. However, due to their narrow host range and complex life cycle, ascoviruses are not considered a threat to human or animal health.

Sf9 cells are a type of insect cell line that are derived from the ovary of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda. They are widely used in molecular biology and biochemistry research, particularly for the production of recombinant proteins using baculovirus expression systems. Sf9 cells have the ability to infect with baculoviruses and support high levels of foreign gene expression, making them a popular choice for this purpose. They are also relatively easy to culture and maintain in the laboratory.

'Bacillus thuringiensis' (Bt) is a gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium that produces crystalline parasporal proteins during sporulation. These proteins are insecticidal and have the ability to kill certain insects when ingested. Different strains of Bt produce different types of insecticidal proteins, allowing them to target specific insect pests.

Bt is widely used in organic farming and integrated pest management programs as a natural alternative to chemical pesticides. It can be applied as a spray or incorporated into the genetic material of crops through biotechnology, producing transgenic plants known as Bt crops. These crops express the insecticidal proteins and protect themselves from specific pests, reducing the need for external applications of Bt formulations.

Bt is considered safe for humans, animals, and non-target organisms when used properly, as the parasporal proteins are not toxic to them. However, misuse or overreliance on Bt can lead to resistance development in target pests, reducing its effectiveness.

I apologize for any confusion, but "insects" are not a medical term. Insects are small air-breathing arthropods that have a segmented body with six legs and usually have wings. They make up the largest group of animals on Earth, with over a million described species.

If you're looking for information about a specific medical condition or topic, please provide more details so I can offer a relevant response.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Hemolysins are a type of protein toxin produced by certain bacteria, fungi, and plants that have the ability to damage and destroy red blood cells (erythrocytes), leading to their lysis or hemolysis. This results in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding environment. Hemolysins can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exotoxins: These are secreted by bacteria and directly damage host cells. They can be further divided into two types:
* Membrane attack complex/perforin-like proteins (MACPF): These hemolysins create pores in the membrane of red blood cells, disrupting their integrity and causing lysis. Examples include alpha-hemolysin from Staphylococcus aureus and streptolysin O from Streptococcus pyogenes.
* Enzymatic hemolysins: These hemolysins are enzymes that degrade specific components of the red blood cell membrane, ultimately leading to lysis. An example is streptolysin S from Streptococcus pyogenes, which is a thiol-activated, oxygen-labile hemolysin.
2. Endotoxins: These are part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and can cause indirect hemolysis by activating the complement system or by stimulating the release of inflammatory mediators from host cells.

Hemolysins play a significant role in bacterial pathogenesis, contributing to tissue damage, impaired immune responses, and disease progression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hymenoptera" is not a medical term. It is a scientific classification in biology, specifically referring to an order of insects that includes sawflies, bees, ants, and wasps. These insects are characterized by having two pairs of membranous wings (except for some species that have only one pair or are wingless) and a slender waist. Some people may have allergic reactions to the venom of stinging Hymenoptera, such as bees and wasps, which can cause medical issues. However, "Hymenoptera" itself is not a medical term.

Endotoxins are toxic substances that are associated with the cell walls of certain types of bacteria. They are released when the bacterial cells die or divide, and can cause a variety of harmful effects in humans and animals. Endotoxins are made up of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are complex molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide component.

Endotoxins are particularly associated with gram-negative bacteria, which have a distinctive cell wall structure that includes an outer membrane containing LPS. These toxins can cause fever, inflammation, and other symptoms when they enter the bloodstream or other tissues of the body. They are also known to play a role in the development of sepsis, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a severe immune response to infection.

Endotoxins are resistant to heat, acid, and many disinfectants, making them difficult to eliminate from contaminated environments. They can also be found in a variety of settings, including hospitals, industrial facilities, and agricultural operations, where they can pose a risk to human health.

Herbivory is not a medical term, but rather a term used in biology and ecology. It refers to the practice of consuming plants or plant matter for food. Herbivores are animals that eat only plants, and their diet can include leaves, stems, roots, flowers, fruits, seeds, and other parts of plants.

While herbivory is not a medical term, it is still relevant to the field of medicine in certain contexts. For example, understanding the diets and behaviors of herbivores can help inform public health initiatives related to food safety and disease transmission. Additionally, research on herbivory has contributed to our understanding of the evolution of plant-animal interactions and the development of ecosystems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Insect Proteins" is not a recognized medical term. However, I can provide some information about insect protein from a nutritional and food science perspective.

Insect proteins refer to the proteins that are obtained from insects. Insects are a rich source of protein, and their protein content varies by species. For example, mealworms and crickets have been found to contain approximately 47-63% and 60-72% protein by dry weight, respectively.

In recent years, insect proteins have gained attention as a potential sustainable source of nutrition due to their high protein content, low environmental impact, and the ability to convert feed into protein more efficiently compared to traditional livestock. Insect proteins can be used in various applications such as food and feed additives, nutritional supplements, and even cosmetics.

However, it's important to note that the use of insect proteins in human food is not widely accepted in many Western countries due to cultural and regulatory barriers. Nonetheless, research and development efforts continue to explore the potential benefits and applications of insect proteins in the global food system.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Arthropod antennae are the primary sensory organs found in arthropods, which include insects, crustaceans, arachnids, and myriapods. These paired appendages are usually located on the head or nearest segment to the head and are responsible for detecting various stimuli from the environment such as touch, taste, smell, temperature, humidity, vibration, and air motion.

The structure of arthropod antennae varies among different groups but generally consists of one or more segments called flagellum or funicle that may be further divided into subsegments called annuli. The number and arrangement of these segments are often used to classify and identify specific taxa.

Insect antennae, for example, typically have a distinct shape and can be thread-like, feathery, or clubbed depending on the species. They contain various sensory receptors such as olfactory neurons that detect odor molecules, mechanoreceptors that respond to touch or movement, and thermoreceptors that sense temperature changes.

Overall, arthropod antennae play a crucial role in enabling these organisms to navigate their environment, find food, avoid predators, and communicate with conspecifics.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Ecdysteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are primarily known for their role in the regulation of molting and growth in arthropods, such as insects and crustaceans. They are structurally similar to vertebrate steroid hormones, such as estrogens and androgens, but have different physiological functions.

Ecdysteroids bind to specific receptors in the cell nucleus, leading to changes in gene expression that regulate various processes related to molting and growth, including the synthesis of new exoskeleton components and the breakdown of old ones. They also play a role in other physiological processes, such as reproduction, development, and stress response.

In recent years, ecdysteroids have attracted interest in the medical community due to their potential therapeutic applications. Some studies suggest that certain ecdysteroids may have anabolic effects, promoting muscle growth and protein synthesis, while others have shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of ecdysteroids in humans.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Rhabditida is an order of nematodes, or roundworms. These are microscopic worms that have a long, slender, and unsegmented body. Rhabditida includes both free-living and parasitic species. Some free-living species live in soil and decaying organic matter, where they play an important role in the breakdown of organic material.

Parasitic species of Rhabditida can infect a wide range of hosts, including humans, animals, and plants. They can cause various diseases and conditions, depending on the species and the location of the infection. For example, some parasitic Rhabditida species can infect the gastrointestinal tract and cause diarrhea, abdominal pain, and other symptoms. Other species can infect the lungs and cause respiratory problems.

Rhabditida are characterized by several distinctive features, including a mouth equipped with three lips and teeth, and a unique reproductive system that allows them to reproduce both sexually and asexually. They are also known for their ability to form resistant structures called resting spores, which can survive in unfavorable conditions and germinate when conditions improve.

It's worth noting that the classification of nematodes is complex and constantly evolving, so different sources may use slightly different terminology or groupings when discussing Rhabditida and other orders of nematodes.

Hemocytes are specialized cells found in the open circulatory system of invertebrates, including insects, crustaceans, and mollusks. They play crucial roles in the immune response and defense mechanisms of these organisms. Hemocytes can be categorized into several types based on their functions and morphologies, such as phagocytic cells, encapsulating cells, and clotting cells. These cells are responsible for various immunological activities, including recognition and removal of foreign particles, pathogens, and debris; production of immune effector molecules; and contribution to the formation of blood clots to prevent excessive bleeding. In some invertebrates, hemocytes also participate in wound healing, tissue repair, and other physiological processes.

Viral structural proteins are the protein components that make up the viral particle or capsid, providing structure and stability to the virus. These proteins are encoded by the viral genome and are involved in the assembly of new virus particles during the replication cycle. They can be classified into different types based on their location and function, such as capsid proteins, matrix proteins, and envelope proteins. Capsid proteins form the protein shell that encapsulates the viral genome, while matrix proteins are located between the capsid and the envelope, and envelope proteins are embedded in the lipid bilayer membrane that surrounds some viruses.

Viral genes refer to the genetic material present in viruses that contains the information necessary for their replication and the production of viral proteins. In DNA viruses, the genetic material is composed of double-stranded or single-stranded DNA, while in RNA viruses, it is composed of single-stranded or double-stranded RNA.

Viral genes can be classified into three categories: early, late, and structural. Early genes encode proteins involved in the replication of the viral genome, modulation of host cell processes, and regulation of viral gene expression. Late genes encode structural proteins that make up the viral capsid or envelope. Some viruses also have structural genes that are expressed throughout their replication cycle.

Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines. By targeting specific viral genes, researchers can develop drugs that inhibit viral replication and reduce the severity of viral infections. Additionally, knowledge of viral gene sequences can inform the development of vaccines that stimulate an immune response to specific viral proteins.

'Insect control' is not a term typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to the methods and practices used to manage or reduce the population of insects that can be harmful or disruptive to human health, food supply, or property. This can include various strategies such as chemical pesticides, biological control agents, habitat modification, and other integrated pest management techniques.

In medical terms, 'vector control' is a more relevant concept, which refers to the specific practices used to reduce or prevent the transmission of infectious diseases by insects and other arthropods that act as disease vectors (such as mosquitoes, ticks, and fleas). Vector control measures may include the use of insecticides, larvicides, biological control agents, environmental management, personal protection methods, and other integrated vector management strategies.

Methomyl is a carbamate insecticide that acts as a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in nerve synapses. This results in an accumulation of acetylcholine, leading to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors and disruption of normal nervous system function. Methomyl is used to control a wide range of pests in various crops, but its use is restricted due to its high toxicity to non-target organisms, including humans. It can be absorbed through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract and can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, muscle twitching, weakness, and difficulty breathing in cases of acute exposure. Chronic exposure to methomyl has been linked to neurological effects, including memory loss and decreased cognitive function.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Insecticides are substances or mixtures of substances intended for preventing, destroying, or mitigating any pest, including insects, arachnids, or other related pests. They can be chemical or biological agents that disrupt the growth, development, or behavior of these organisms, leading to their death or incapacitation. Insecticides are widely used in agriculture, public health, and residential settings for pest control. However, they must be used with caution due to potential risks to non-target organisms and the environment.

A densovirus is a type of single-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the family Parvoviridae and the subfamily Densovirinae. These viruses are known to infect insects, including crustaceans and arthropods, and are often associated with diseases in these hosts. They have a small, icosahedral capsid and a linear, ssDNA genome that is around 5-6 kilobases in length. Densoviruses are non-enveloped viruses, meaning they do not have a lipid membrane surrounding their capsid.

It's important to note that densoviruses are not known to infect humans or other mammals, and therefore are not considered a threat to human health.

I must clarify that the term 'pupa' is not typically used in medical contexts. Instead, it is a term from the field of biology, particularly entomology, which is the study of insects.

In insect development, a pupa refers to a stage in the life cycle of certain insects undergoing complete metamorphosis. During this phase, the larval body undergoes significant transformation and reorganization within a protective casing called a chrysalis (in butterflies and moths) or a cocoon (in other insects). The old larval tissues are broken down and replaced with new adult structures. Once this process is complete, the pupal case opens, and the adult insect emerges.

Since 'pupa' is not a medical term, I couldn't provide a medical definition for it. However, I hope this explanation helps clarify its meaning in the context of biology.

Biological control agents, also known as biological pest control agents or biocontrol agents, refer to organisms or biological substances that are used to manage or suppress pests and their populations. These biological control agents can be other insects, mites, nematodes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses that naturally prey upon, parasitize, or infect the target pest species.

The use of biological control agents is a key component of integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, as they offer an environmentally friendly and sustainable alternative to chemical pesticides. By using natural enemies of pests, biological control can help maintain ecological balance and reduce the negative impacts of pests on agriculture, forestry, and human health.

It is important to note that the introduction of biological control agents must be carefully planned and regulated to avoid unintended consequences, such as the accidental introduction of non-target species or the development of resistance in the target pest population.

A "fat body" is not a medical term that is typically used to describe human anatomy. It is more commonly used in the context of insects and other invertebrates, where it refers to a specialized tissue that functions to store energy in the form of fat.

However, in humans, we do have adipose tissue, which is the medical term for body fat. Adipose tissue is found throughout the body, but is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the abdomen, hips, and thighs. It serves a variety of functions, including storing energy, insulating the body, and producing hormones that regulate metabolism and appetite.

If you are looking for information on obesity or excess body fat in humans, there are many medical resources available to help you understand these topics better.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

I could not find a widely accepted medical definition for "sex attractants" as it is not a standard term used in medical literature. However, the concept of sex attractants is often discussed in the context of animal behavior and can refer to chemical substances that animals produce and release to attract mates. These substances are also known as pheromones.

In humans, there is ongoing scientific debate about whether or not pheromones play a significant role in sexual attraction and mate selection. Some studies suggest that humans may have a functional vomeronasal organ (VNO), which is involved in the detection of pheromones in other animals. However, many scientists remain skeptical about the role of human sex attractants or pheromones due to limited evidence and conflicting results from various studies.

Therefore, it's essential to note that while there may be some scientific interest in the concept of human sex attractants, it is not a well-established area of study within medical research.

An open reading frame (ORF) is a continuous stretch of DNA or RNA sequence that has the potential to be translated into a protein. It begins with a start codon (usually "ATG" in DNA, which corresponds to "AUG" in RNA) and ends with a stop codon ("TAA", "TAG", or "TGA" in DNA; "UAA", "UAG", or "UGA" in RNA). The sequence between these two points is called a coding sequence (CDS), which, when transcribed into mRNA and translated into amino acids, forms a polypeptide chain.

In eukaryotic cells, ORFs can be located in either protein-coding genes or non-coding regions of the genome. In prokaryotic cells, multiple ORFs may be present on a single strand of DNA, often organized into operons that are transcribed together as a single mRNA molecule.

It's important to note that not all ORFs necessarily represent functional proteins; some may be pseudogenes or result from errors in genome annotation. Therefore, additional experimental evidence is typically required to confirm the expression and functionality of a given ORF.

Hemolymph is not a term typically used in human medicine, but it is commonly used in the study of invertebrates, particularly arthropods such as insects and crustaceans. Hemolymph is the fluid that circulates within the open circulatory system of these animals, serving multiple functions similar to both blood and lymphatic systems in vertebrates.

In simpler terms, hemolymph is a combined fluid that performs the functions of both blood and lymph in invertebrates. It serves as a transport medium for nutrients, waste products, hormones, and immune cells (hemocytes) throughout the body. Hemolymph does not contain red and white blood cells like human blood; instead, hemocytes are the primary cellular components responsible for immune responses and wound healing in these animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Granulovirus" is not a widely recognized medical or scientific term with a specific definition in the context of human health. The term "granulovirus" is used in the field of virology to refer to a type of virus that is characterized by the production of granular-shaped virions (infectious particles) during its replication cycle. This term is most commonly associated with certain types of baculoviruses, which are viruses that infect insects.

If you have any questions related to human health or a specific medical concern, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you!

Bacterial toxins are poisonous substances produced and released by bacteria. They can cause damage to the host organism's cells and tissues, leading to illness or disease. Bacterial toxins can be classified into two main types: exotoxins and endotoxins.

Exotoxins are proteins secreted by bacterial cells that can cause harm to the host. They often target specific cellular components or pathways, leading to tissue damage and inflammation. Some examples of exotoxins include botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, which causes botulism; diphtheria toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which causes diphtheria; and tetanus toxin produced by Clostridium tetani, which causes tetanus.

Endotoxins, on the other hand, are components of the bacterial cell wall that are released when the bacteria die or divide. They consist of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and can cause a generalized inflammatory response in the host. Endotoxins can be found in gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Bacterial toxins can cause a wide range of symptoms depending on the type of toxin, the dose, and the site of infection. They can lead to serious illnesses or even death if left untreated. Vaccines and antibiotics are often used to prevent or treat bacterial infections and reduce the risk of severe complications from bacterial toxins.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "wasps" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Wasps are a type of insect in the order Hymenoptera, and some people can have allergic reactions to their stings. However, there is no medical condition or disease specifically associated with wasps. If you have any specific medical concerns or questions, I would be happy to try to help if I can!

Viral DNA refers to the genetic material present in viruses that consist of DNA as their core component. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is one of the two types of nucleic acids that are responsible for storing and transmitting genetic information in living organisms. Viruses are infectious agents much smaller than bacteria that can only replicate inside the cells of other organisms, called hosts.

Viral DNA can be double-stranded (dsDNA) or single-stranded (ssDNA), depending on the type of virus. Double-stranded DNA viruses have a genome made up of two complementary strands of DNA, while single-stranded DNA viruses contain only one strand of DNA.

Examples of dsDNA viruses include Adenoviruses, Herpesviruses, and Poxviruses, while ssDNA viruses include Parvoviruses and Circoviruses. Viral DNA plays a crucial role in the replication cycle of the virus, encoding for various proteins necessary for its multiplication and survival within the host cell.

Oxylipins are a class of bioactive lipid molecules derived from the oxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). They play crucial roles in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, immunity, and cellular signaling. Oxylipins can be further categorized based on their precursor PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and linoleic acid (LA). These oxylipins are involved in the regulation of vascular tone, platelet aggregation, neurotransmission, and pain perception. They exert their effects through various receptors and downstream signaling pathways, making them important targets for therapeutic interventions in several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Cyclopentanes are a class of hydrocarbons that contain a cycloalkane ring of five carbon atoms. The chemical formula for cyclopentane is C5H10. It is a volatile, flammable liquid that is used as a solvent and in the production of polymers. Cyclopentanes are also found naturally in petroleum and coal tar.

Cyclopentanes have a unique structure in which the carbon atoms are arranged in a pentagonal shape, with each carbon atom bonded to two other carbon atoms and one or two hydrogen atoms. This structure gives cyclopentane its characteristic "bowl-shaped" geometry, which allows it to undergo various chemical reactions, such as ring-opening reactions, that can lead to the formation of other chemicals.

Cyclopentanes have a variety of industrial and commercial applications. For example, they are used in the production of plastics, resins, and synthetic rubbers. They also have potential uses in the development of new drugs and medical technologies, as their unique structure and reactivity make them useful building blocks for the synthesis of complex molecules.

I apologize, but "Cleome" is not a medical term. It is the name of a genus of plants commonly known as spider flowers or cleomes. These plants are not associated with any specific medical conditions or definitions. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

"Pteridium" is the genus name for a group of ferns commonly known as bracken ferns. These ferns are found worldwide and are known for their hardy nature and ability to grow in a variety of environments. While "Pteridium" itself is not a medical term, extracts from some species of this fern have been used in traditional medicine in various cultures. However, it's important to note that these uses are not supported by modern scientific evidence and some parts of the plant contain carcinogens and can be toxic if ingested. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or medication.

Restriction mapping is a technique used in molecular biology to identify the location and arrangement of specific restriction endonuclease recognition sites within a DNA molecule. Restriction endonucleases are enzymes that cut double-stranded DNA at specific sequences, producing fragments of various lengths. By digesting the DNA with different combinations of these enzymes and analyzing the resulting fragment sizes through techniques such as agarose gel electrophoresis, researchers can generate a restriction map - a visual representation of the locations and distances between recognition sites on the DNA molecule. This information is crucial for various applications, including cloning, genome analysis, and genetic engineering.

A viral genome is the genetic material (DNA or RNA) that is present in a virus. It contains all the genetic information that a virus needs to replicate itself and infect its host. The size and complexity of viral genomes can vary greatly, ranging from a few thousand bases to hundreds of thousands of bases. Some viruses have linear genomes, while others have circular genomes. The genome of a virus also contains the information necessary for the virus to hijack the host cell's machinery and use it to produce new copies of the virus. Understanding the genetic makeup of viruses is important for developing vaccines and antiviral treatments.

I'm not aware of a medical term called "blotting, Southwestern." The term "blotting" in the context of laboratory science refers to a technique used to transfer or visualize molecules from one surface to another, typically using a liquid or gel. "Southwestern" is a geographical term that can refer to a region in the southwestern United States. It's possible that you may be referring to a specific medical or scientific technique that combines blotting and Southwestern, but I was unable to find any relevant information on this topic.

If you meant something different or need more information about laboratory techniques for transferring or visualizing molecules, please let me know!

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a low boiling point and easily evaporate at room temperature. They can be liquids or solids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, such as benzene, toluene, xylene, and formaldehyde, which are found in many household products, including paints, paint strippers, and other solvents; cleaning supplies; pesticides; building materials and furnishings; office equipment such as copiers and printers, correction fluids and carbonless copy paper; and glues and adhesives.

VOCs can cause both short- and long-term health effects. Short-term exposure to high levels of VOCs can cause headaches, dizziness, visual disturbances, and memory problems. Long-term exposure can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, and central nervous system. Some VOCs are also suspected or known carcinogens.

It is important to properly use, store, and dispose of products that contain VOCs to minimize exposure. Increasing ventilation by opening windows and doors or using fans can also help reduce exposure to VOCs.

The digestive system is a complex group of organs and glands that process food. It converts the food we eat into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. The digestive system also eliminates waste from the body. It is made up of the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract) and other organs that help the body break down and absorb food.

The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and anus. Other organs that are part of the digestive system include the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands.

The process of digestion begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The food then travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is broken down further by stomach acids. The digested food then moves into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. The remaining waste material passes into the large intestine, where it is stored until it is eliminated through the anus.

The liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles in the digestive process as well. The liver produces bile, a substance that helps break down fats in the small intestine. The pancreas produces enzymes that help digest proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The gallbladder stores bile until it is needed in the small intestine.

Overall, the digestive system is responsible for breaking down food, absorbing nutrients, and eliminating waste. It plays a critical role in maintaining our health and well-being.

"Bombyx" is a genus name that refers to a group of insects in the family Bombycidae, which are known as silk moths. The most well-known species in this genus is "Bombyx mori," which is the domesticated silkworm used for commercial silk production.

The term "Bombyx" itself does not have a specific medical definition, but it is sometimes used in medical or scientific contexts to refer to this group of insects or their characteristics. For example, researchers might study the effects of Bombyx mori silk on wound healing or tissue regeneration.

It's worth noting that while some species of moths and butterflies can be harmful to human health in certain circumstances (such as by acting as vectors for diseases), the Bombyx genus is not typically considered a medical concern.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Gene expression regulation, viral, refers to the processes that control the production of viral gene products, such as proteins and nucleic acids, during the viral life cycle. This can involve both viral and host cell factors that regulate transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications of viral genes.

Viral gene expression regulation is critical for the virus to replicate and produce progeny virions. Different types of viruses have evolved diverse mechanisms to regulate their gene expression, including the use of promoters, enhancers, transcription factors, RNA silencing, and epigenetic modifications. Understanding these regulatory processes can provide insights into viral pathogenesis and help in the development of antiviral therapies.

Trichomes are specialized structures found on the epidermis of plants, including cannabis. They appear as tiny hair-like growths and are responsible for producing and storing various compounds such as cannabinoids, terpenes, and flavonoids. These compounds contribute to the plant's medicinal properties and the "entourage effect" that enhances the therapeutic benefits of cannabis. Trichomes also play a role in protecting the plant from environmental stressors like UV radiation, pests, and pathogens.

'Zea mays' is the biological name for corn or maize, which is not typically considered a medical term. However, corn or maize can have medical relevance in certain contexts. For example, cornstarch is sometimes used as a diluent for medications and is also a component of some skin products. Corn oil may be found in topical ointments and creams. In addition, some people may have allergic reactions to corn or corn-derived products. But generally speaking, 'Zea mays' itself does not have a specific medical definition.

I believe there may be a slight misunderstanding in your question. "Plant leaves" are not a medical term, but rather a general biological term referring to a specific organ found in plants.

Leaves are organs that are typically flat and broad, and they are the primary site of photosynthesis in most plants. They are usually green due to the presence of chlorophyll, which is essential for capturing sunlight and converting it into chemical energy through photosynthesis.

While leaves do not have a direct medical definition, understanding their structure and function can be important in various medical fields, such as pharmacognosy (the study of medicinal plants) or environmental health. For example, certain plant leaves may contain bioactive compounds that have therapeutic potential, while others may produce allergens or toxins that can impact human health.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A capsid is the protein shell that encloses and protects the genetic material of a virus. It is composed of multiple copies of one or more proteins that are arranged in a specific structure, which can vary in shape and symmetry depending on the type of virus. The capsid plays a crucial role in the viral life cycle, including protecting the viral genome from host cell defenses, mediating attachment to and entry into host cells, and assisting with the assembly of new virus particles during replication.

Volatilization, in the context of pharmacology and medicine, refers to the process by which a substance (usually a medication or drug) transforms into a vapor state at room temperature or upon heating. This change in physical state allows the substance to evaporate and be transferred into the air, potentially leading to inhalation exposure.

In some medical applications, volatilization is used intentionally, such as with essential oils for aromatherapy or topical treatments that utilize a vapor action. However, it can also pose concerns when volatile substances are unintentionally released into the air, potentially leading to indoor air quality issues or exposure risks.

It's important to note that in clinical settings, volatilization is not typically used as a route of administration for medications, as other methods such as oral, intravenous, or inhalation via nebulizers are more common and controlled.

Pheromones are chemical signals that one organism releases into the environment that can affect the behavior or physiology of other organisms of the same species. They are primarily used for communication in animals, including insects and mammals. In humans, the existence and role of pheromones are still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

In a medical context, pheromones may be discussed in relation to certain medical conditions or treatments that involve olfactory (smell) stimuli, such as some forms of aromatherapy. However, it's important to note that the use of pheromones as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish their effectiveness and safety.

Glucosinolates are naturally occurring compounds found in various plants, particularly in cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, and mustard greens. They are sulfur-containing glucosides that can be hydrolyzed by the enzyme myrosinase when the plant tissue is damaged, leading to the formation of biologically active compounds like isothiocyanates, thiocyanates, and nitriles. These breakdown products have been shown to exhibit various health benefits, such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. However, excessive intake or exposure may also cause adverse effects in some individuals.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

S. albulum) Spodoptera androgea (Stoll, [1782]) Spodoptera angulata (Gaede, 1935) Spodoptera apertura (Walker, 1865) Spodoptera ... Spodoptera semiluna (Hampson, 1909) Spodoptera teferii Laporte, 194 Spodoptera triturata (Walker, [1857]) Spodoptera ... S. ornithogalli below Spodoptera mauritia (Boisduval, 1833) - lawn armyworm Spodoptera ochrea (Hampson, 1909) Spodoptera ... water-lettuce moth Spodoptera peruviana (Walker, 1865) Spodoptera picta (Guérin-Méneville, [1838]) Spodoptera praefica (Grote, ...
African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) Afro Moths Wikispecies has information related to Spodoptera triturata. Spodoptera ... Spodoptera triturata, the lawn worm, is an Afrotropical moth of the family Noctuidae found in Sierra Leone, the Democratic ... Spodoptera, Moths of Africa, All stub articles, Hadeninae stubs). ...
... is a species of snout moth in the genus Mecistophylla. It was described by Oswald Bertram Lower in ...
... (unbarred spodoptera moth or gray-streaked armyworm moth) is a moth of the family Noctuidae found from the ... Spodoptera, Moths of North America, Moths of the Caribbean, Moths of Central America, Moths of South America, Moths of Cuba, ...
... is a moth of the family Noctuidae endemic to New South Wales and Queensland. The larvae feed on grasses ... African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) Australian Faunal Directory v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Spodoptera, Moths described in 1858, All stub articles, Hadeninae stubs ...
... (waterlettuce moth) is a moth of the family Noctuidae native to Asia, where it can be found from the ... Spodoptera, Moths described in 1895, All stub articles, Hadeninae stubs). ...
... is a moth of the family Noctuidae found from the Indo-Australian tropics to New Guinea. It has also been ... African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) Moths of Borneo Japanese Moths v t e (Articles with short description, Short description ... matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Spodoptera, Moths described in 1852, Moths of Japan, Taxa named by ...
2016). Larval development of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera frugiperda fed on fresh ear of field corn expressing the Bt ... "List of Noctuidae: Spodoptera eridania", INRA. "Southern Armyworm, Spodoptera eridania (Cramer) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: ... Spodoptera eridania (southern armyworm) is a moth that is known to be a pest. They are one of the most important defoliators in ... Parasites of Spodoptera exigua, S. eridania (Lep.: Noctuidae) and Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lep.: Pyralidae) collected from ...
"Spodoptera hipparis". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-23. "Spodoptera hipparis species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-09-23 ... The MONA or Hodges number for Spodoptera hipparis is 9674. "Spodoptera hipparis Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information ... Spodoptera hipparis is a species of cutworm or dart moth in the family Noctuidae. It is found in North America. ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Spodoptera, ...
... , known variously as dark mottled willow, lawn caterpillar and grasslawn armyworm, is a noctuid moth found ... African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) Robinson, Gaden S.; Ackery, Phillip R.; Kitching, Ian; Beccaloni, George W.; Hernández, ... cite journal}}: Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spodoptera cilium. Fauna Europaea ... Spodoptera, Agricultural pest insects, Insect pests of ornamental plants, Moths described in 1852, Owlet moths of Europe, Owlet ...
"Lily Caterpillar Moth (Spodoptera picta)". "Spodoptera picta (Guérin-Méneville, 1830)". Hampson, G. F. (1894). The Fauna of ... Spodoptera picta, the lily caterpillar, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It was described by Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville ... "Spodoptera picta Guerin-Meneville". The Moths of Borneo. Retrieved January 22, 2019. Calogramma picta image at Le Monde des ... "Spodoptera picta (Guérin-Méneville, [1838])". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved 17 August 2018. "Lily ...
"PM 7/124 (1) Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania". EPPO Bulletin. 45 (3): 410- ... Spodoptera littoralis Spodoptera litura S. litura is the most common in South Asia. However, its natural range extends from the ... Spodoptera littoralis African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) Yu, Jin-Feng; Li, Cong; Xu, Jin; Liu, Jian-Hong; Ye, Hui (2014). " ... Spodoptera litura and Spodoptera littoralis are very closely related species. Discriminating between the two species can be ...
De Prins, J. & De Prins, W. (2019). "Spodoptera apertura (Walker, 1865)". Afromoths. Retrieved November 18, 2019. "Spodoptera ... Spodoptera apertura is a moth of the family Noctuidae first described by Francis Walker in 1865. It is known from China, India ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Spodoptera, ...
Spodoptera exempta) "Spodoptera mauritia, (Boisduval, 1833)". African Moths. Retrieved 3 August 2016. "Spodoptera mauritia ( ... Rice swarming caterpillar (Spodoptera mauritia) and its management strategies Observations on the armyworm Spodoptera mauritia ... "Spodoptera mauritia". ChemTica. Retrieved 3 August 2016. "Armyworm (Spodoptera mauritia acronyctoides)". Plantwise.org. ... Spodoptera mauritia, the lawn armyworm or paddy swarming caterpillar, is a moth of the family Noctuidae. The species was first ...
... , commonly known as the lateral-lined armyworm, garden armyworm, or velvet armyworm, is a moth of the ... Pogue, Michael (2002). "A world revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenée: (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). no. 43". American ... Spodoptera, Moths of North America, Moths of the Caribbean, Moths of Central America, Moths of South America, Moths of Cuba, ...
... , the Caribbean armyworm moth, is a moth of the family Noctuidae found in Florida and Texas, Central ... "932218.00 - 9668 - Spodoptera pulchella - Caribbean Armyworm Moth - (Herrich-Schäffer, 1868)". North American Moth ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Spodoptera, ... Moths of Jamaica Dennehy, Paul (November 11, 2017). "Species Spodoptera pulchella - Caribbean Armyworm Moth - Hodges#9668". ...
... (yellow-striped armyworm, cotton cutworm) is a moth of the family Noctuidae. When first discovered this ... "Spodoptera ornithogalli (PRODOR)[Host plants]". European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 1984-07-16. Retrieved ... "Spodoptera ornithogalli (PRODOR)[World distribution]". European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2021-01-14. ... "Spodoptera ornithogalli". European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2021-02-02. " ...
"Spodoptera androgea". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-25. "Spodoptera androgea species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-09-25 ... The MONA or Hodges number for Spodoptera androgea is 9671.1. "Spodoptera androgea Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information ... Spodoptera androgea, the androgea armyworm moth, is a species of cutworm or dart moth in the family Noctuidae. It is found in ... Media related to Spodoptera androgea at Wikimedia Commons v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
Spodoptera latifascia (Walker, 1856) Spodoptera descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994 (see Pogue, 2002) for differences ... "Biology of Spodoptera eridania and Spodoptera cosmioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Different Host Plants". Florida ... Spodoptera cosmioides is an armyworm moth of the family Noctuidae found in Central America and South America (from Panama and ... Pogue, Michael (2002). "A world revision of the genus Spodoptera Guenée: (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). no. 43". American ...
... is a moth of the family Noctuidae. It is found South America, including Peru. La vida agricola (in Spanish ... Spodoptera, Moths described in 1865, All stub articles, Caradrinini stubs). ...
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spodoptera dolichos. Spodoptera dolichos, the dolichos armyworm moth or sweetpotato ... "Spodoptera dolichos (Fabricius, 1794)". Catalogue of the Lepidoptera of the French Antilles. Retrieved September 17, 2019. v t ... Balaban, John and Jane (March 23, 2013). "Species Spodoptera dolichos - Sweetpotato Armyworm Moth - Hodges#9671". BugGuide. ... Spodoptera, Moths of North America, Moths of the Caribbean, Moths of Central America, Moths of South America, Moths of Cuba, ...
... is a moth in the family Cosmopterigidae. It was described by Turner in 1923. It is found in Australia, ...
OEPP/EPPO (2015). "Diagnostic protocol for Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania ... Spodoptera littoralis is often confused with Spodoptera litura due to similar larvae and adult physical appearances. A bright ... This moth is often confused with Spodoptera litura. Egyptian cotton leafworm is one of the many species of genus Spodoptera and ... Spodoptera littoralis is reported to be polyphagous, and the range of host plants on which the larvae feed covers over 40 ...
... , the western yellow-striped armyworm, is a moth of the family Noctuidae found from British Columbia to ... The wingspan is 35-40 millimetres (1+3⁄8-1+9⁄16 in). It is similar in appearance to Spodoptera ornithogalli, but S. praefica's ... "Spodoptera praefica". EPPO (European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization). Retrieved 2021-10-05. Will, Kip; Gross, ... Bug Guide Pacific Northwest Moths: Spodoptera praefica v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches ...
Spodoptera spp., Tribolium castaneum, Nilaparvata lugens, Helicoverpa armigera, and Apis mellifera are models that have been ...
The fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) is a species in the order Lepidoptera and one of the species of the fall armyworm ... "First report of Spodoptera frugiperda in Syria - EPPO Reporting Service no. 01 - 2021 Num. article: 2021/010". European and ... African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) (Africa) Common armyworm or true armyworm (Mythimna unipuncta) (North and South America) ... "Spodoptera frugiperda found in New South Wales, Australia - EPPO Reporting Service no. 01 - 2021 Num. article: 2021/011". ...
African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) "Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)". ICAR-National Bureau of Agricultural Insect Resources. ... Wikispecies has information related to Spodoptera exigua. "73.087 BF2385 Small Mottled Willow Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, [1808 ... The beet armyworm or small mottled willow moth (Spodoptera exigua) is one of the best-known agricultural pest insects. It is ... "Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, [1808])". Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms. Retrieved January 13, 2019. Taxonomy Fauna Europaea ...
"Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)". Utah State University Extension Service. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018 ... Spodoptera frugiperda) Field crescent butterfly (Phyciodes pulchella) Five-spotted hawkmoth (Manduca quinquemaculata) Freija ...
"Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda)". Utah State University Extension Service. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018 ... Spodoptera frugiperda) Field crescent butterfly (Phyciodes pulchella) Five-spotted hawkmoth (Manduca quinquemaculata) Freija ...
Spodoptera exigua is a pest of seedlings, young plants, squares and early bolls. Caliothrips fasciatus is a pest of the mature ... Spodoptera praefica is a late season pest and rarely an early season pest. § Blapstinus spp. affect seedlings. Empoasca fabae ... The Beet Armyworm (BAW, Spodoptera exigua) is a polyphagous insect pest in this crop. There is wide geographic variation in ... "Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV)". Invasive Species Compendium. CABI. 2019. Retrieved August 8, 2022. ...
S. albulum) Spodoptera androgea (Stoll, [1782]) Spodoptera angulata (Gaede, 1935) Spodoptera apertura (Walker, 1865) Spodoptera ... Spodoptera semiluna (Hampson, 1909) Spodoptera teferii Laporte, 194 Spodoptera triturata (Walker, [1857]) Spodoptera ... S. ornithogalli below Spodoptera mauritia (Boisduval, 1833) - lawn armyworm Spodoptera ochrea (Hampson, 1909) Spodoptera ... water-lettuce moth Spodoptera peruviana (Walker, 1865) Spodoptera picta (Guérin-Méneville, [1838]) Spodoptera praefica (Grote, ...
We depend on donations to keep Butterflies and Moths of North America online and free. Your support is vital to the project. Please make a recurring or one-time donation to sustain this valuable source of information. Thank you ...
In California, Spodoptera praefica is much more important than Spodoptera ornithogalli.. Figure 1. Lateral view of a larva of ... Yellowstriped Armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). John L. Capinera. The Featured ... Figure 2. Dorsal view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée). Credit: Lyle Buss, UF/IFAS. ... Figure 3. Lateral view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée). Credit: Lyle Buss, UF/IFAS. ...
You are here: Home / CABI Publications / Parasitoid Complex of Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, in Ghana and Benin ... The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, a moth originating from the American continent, has recently invaded most African ...
Moth Photographers Group at the Mississippi Entomological Museum at the Mississippi State University. Send suggestions, or submit photographs to Webmaster - Moth Photographers Group. Database design and scripting support provided by Mike Boone. ...
Baculovirus-Directed Expression of Rabbit UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Spodoptera frugiperda Cells. Nghia Nguyen and Robert ... Baculovirus-Directed Expression of Rabbit UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Spodoptera frugiperda Cells. Nghia Nguyen and Robert ... Baculovirus-Directed Expression of Rabbit UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Spodoptera frugiperda Cells. Nghia Nguyen and Robert ... Baculovirus-Directed Expression of Rabbit UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases in Spodoptera frugiperda Cells Message Subject (Your ...
The control of Spodoptera frugiperda is based on synthetic insecticides, so some alternatives are the use of entomopathogenic ... The control of Spodoptera frugiperda is based on synthetic insecticides, so some alternatives are the use of entomopathogenic ... In vitro evaluation of native entomopathogenic fungi and neem (Azadiractha indica) extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda. Hernandez ... 2019). In vitro evaluation of native entomopathogenic fungi and neem (Azadiractha indica) extracts on Spodoptera frugiperda. ...
Development and demographic parameters of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith) when feeding on rice (Oryza sativa) ... Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), native to the Americas, is a polyphagous insect pest ...
How to manage Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda Smith on smallholder farms - Short version. ...
Insecticidal activity against second to fifth-instar larval stage of Spodoptera litura field strain HZ10 assessed as mortality ...
Natural populations of Spodoptera exigua are infected by multiple viruses: implications for the production and use of virus ... Natural populations of Spodoptera exigua are infected by multiple viruses: implications for the production and use of virus ... Abstract: Covert infections of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopoliedrovirus (SeMNPV) havebeen detected in laboratory or field ...
73.088 2386c Dark Mottled Willow Spodoptera cilium ... 73.088 [B&F: 2386c] Dark Mottled Willow (Spodoptera cilium) ...
Distribution details in Thailand of Spodoptera mauritia (SPODMA) ...
... 2018. Prasanna, B.M.; San Vicente, F.M. CIMMYT. ...
Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence.. ...
Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm): Spodoptera exigua Genome sequencing and assembly. *Sabrina Simon (Creator) ... Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm): Spodoptera exigua Genome sequencing and assembly. Wageningen University & Research. ... Genome and transcriptome analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua reveals targets for pest control. Simon, S., ... Genome and transcriptome analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua reveals targets for pest control. Simon, S., ...
Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval, 1833) , Nattflyn (Noctuidae).Vingbredd: 35-40 mm. Flyger i juni,juli,augusti,september, ... Noctuidae / Hadeninae / Ipimorphini / Spodoptera littoralis - Mindre bomullsfly Mindre bomullsfly Spodoptera littoralis. ( ...
Panamainsects.org is a free resource for students and researchers. It features records and photos of the insects found in the area of Bocas del Toro, Panama.
Spodoptera frugiperda (Lep., Noctuidae) é uma importante praga na cultura do milho (Zea mays). A lagarta ataca o colmo podendo ... Spodoptera frugiperda (Lep., Noctuidae) é uma importante praga na cultura do milho (Zea mays). A lagarta ataca o colmo podendo ... Management of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), in corn crops en. dc.type. Trabalho de conclusão de ... Manejo da lagarta-do-cartucho, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), na cultura do milho. dc.contributor.advisor. ...
Evaluation of Spodoptera exempta nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpexNPV) for the field control of African armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) ... The African armyworm Spodoptera exempta is a major episodic migratory crop pest over much of Eastern and Southern Africa. ... Grzywacz, David, Mushobozi, Wilfred L., Parnell, Mark, Jolliffe, Flavia, Wilson, Kenneth (2008) Evaluation of Spodoptera ... Spodoptera exempta; African arrnyworm; migratory pest; baculovirus; nucleopolyhedrovirus; biological control; IPM; Africa ...
A free silhouette image of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (License: Public Domain Mark 1.0). ...
RESUMO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Telenomus remus Nixon criado em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J ... ABSTRACT: This research aimed at studing Telenomus remus Nixon biology reared on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) eggs at ... Biology and thermal requirements of Telenomus remus reared on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda eggs. ...
Publications Which contain the keyword: Spodoptera littoralis. Portease purification and characterization of a serine inhibitor ... Serine proteolytic activities in soluble protein extracted from the larval midgut of Spodoptera littoralis were studied using ... Biochemical characterization of the midgut serine proteases of the Egyptian cottonworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) and ... 2018-09-07 18:08:11 Keywords protease inhibitors, proteases, soybean, Spodoptera littoralis, ...
Spodoptera eridania. Observation date: March 08, 2009 Submitted by: JeanEvoy Specimen type: Photograph ...
Franco-Chinese collaborative research on genomics of Spodoptera. Accueil dune délégation du Ministère de lAgriculture et des ...
The reply from one member was no, it looks more like Spodoptera litura. They are usually found large numbers when in an earlier ...
... Exportxmlui.dri2xhtml.METS-1.0.processing. ... In this work, we studied their insecticidal effects against Spodoptera littoralis larvae by using an extract from grapevine ...
INNSpub is a Global Research Journal Publisher that Publishes Research articles on Biology, Environments, Agriculture, and Herbal medicine
Influence of Si in maize plants in Kenyan populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). By Ovide Nuambote ... Benjamin Mwenda on Does anyone have any details about current African Armyworm (Spodoptera exempta) outbreaks in Africa ?. ... Assessment of Resistance Mechanisms to Fall Armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda in Tropical Maize Inbred Lines. By Ovide Nuambote ... Marcellin Cuma Cokola on Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in South Kivu, DR Congo: Understanding ...
  • The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda , a moth originating from the American continent, has recently invaded most African countries, where it is seriously threatening food security as a pest of cereals. (cabi.org)
  • The control of Spodoptera frugiperda is based on synthetic insecticides, so some alternatives are the use of entomopathogenic fungi (EF) and neem extract. (techscience.com)
  • Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), native to the Americas, is a polyphagous insect pest feeding on more than 350 plant species. (cgiar.org)
  • Spodoptera frugiperda (Lep. (ufrgs.br)
  • Desta forma, o presente estudo teve o objetivo de enfocar a importância da lagarta-do-cartucho (Spodoptera frugiperda) na cultura do milho, descrevendo aspectos morfológicos, ciclo de vida, danos, principais métodos de controle, finalizando com estudos de caso, os quais visaram fazer uma descrição e uma avaliação crítica de situações reais enfrentadas por produtores de milho em relação ao manejo de S. frugiperda. (ufrgs.br)
  • Alice: Biology and thermal requirements of Telenomus remus reared on fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda eggs. (embrapa.br)
  • ABSTRACT: This research aimed at studing Telenomus remus Nixon biology reared on Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) eggs at different temperatures. (embrapa.br)
  • RESUMO: Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar a biologia de Telenomus remus Nixon criado em ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) em diferentes temperaturas. (embrapa.br)
  • Distribution and biology Spodoptera frugiperda on corn crops (Zea mays L. (innspub.net)
  • Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) locally known as fall armyworm is an emerging pest of various crops (maize, cotton, and sugarcane). (edu.pk)
  • Whole-genome sequence of the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cell line. (pacb.com)
  • The draft whole-genome sequence of the Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cell line was obtained using long-read PacBio sequence technology and Canu assembly. (pacb.com)
  • The parasitic potential of a native larval parasitic wasp Microplitis tuberculifer (Wesmael) on Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) larvae at 4, 6 and 8 d after hatching was measured under laboratory conditions. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • Parasitic Potential of Microplitis tuberculifer on Spodoptera frugiperda Larvae[J]. Chinese Journal Of Biological Control, 2020, 36(4): 491-495. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • Managing fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae), with Bt maize and insecticides in south Brazil[J]. Pest Management Science, 2017, 73(12):2569-2577. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • Host plants of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) in the Americas[J]. African Entomology, 2018, 26(2):286-301. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • 5] Rose A H, Silversides R H, Lindquist O H. Migration flight by an aphid, Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera:Aphididae), and a noctuid, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)[J]. Canadian Entomologist, 1975, 107(6):567-576. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • 11] Beserra E B, Dias C T D, Parra J R P. Distribution and natural parasitism of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) eggs at different phenological stages of corn[J]. Florida Entomologist, 2002, 85(4):588-593. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • 14] Zenner I, Alvarez A, Barreto S. Influence of parasitism by Chelonus insularis Cresson (Hymenoptera:Braconidae) on the susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) to insecticides[J]. Neotropical Entomology, 2006, 35(6):818-822. (zgswfz.com.cn)
  • Alice: Algumas considerações biológicas em Spodoptera frugiperda em milho no Município de Ituiutaba MG. (embrapa.br)
  • Anticarsia gemmatalis and Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are serious defoliators of a number of crops. (academicjournals.org)
  • Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a destructive, migratory pest that seriously damages corn, sorghum, and other crops. (bioone.org)
  • Characterization of the physiological, histopathological, and gene expression alterations in Spodoptera frugiperda larval midguts affected by toosendanin exposure. (bvsalud.org)
  • The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda , is a polyphagous pest worldwide and feeds on many grain and cash crops, which threatens the safety of agriculture and forestry production . (bvsalud.org)
  • Línea celular derivada de células SF21, que es una línea celular aislada a partir de explantes primarios de tejidos pupales de SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Spodoptera is a genus of moths of the family Noctuidae erected by Achille Guenée in 1852. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2008). Monitoring for exotic Spodoptera species (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Florida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spodoptera littoralis (Lepidoptera noctuidae) (Boisd) is the most economic and series pest in Egypt with highly fecundity and dangerous attacking many crops. (actajournal.com)
  • The reply from one member was no, it looks more like Spodoptera litura . (pestnet.org)
  • The damage caused by Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) during flowering and fruit formation is the most concern and farmers everywhere feel the need to protect such high value crops from any type of damage caused by insect pests. (arccjournals.com)
  • Larvicidal efficacy of cyantraniliprole against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) in cotton. (arccjournals.com)
  • Portease purification and characterization of a serine inhibitor from Egyptian varieties of soybean seeds and its efficacy against Spodoptera littoralis. (sohag-univ.edu.eg)
  • Serine proteolytic activities in soluble protein extracted from the larval midgut of Spodoptera littoralis were studied using specific substrates and protease inhibitors. (sohag-univ.edu.eg)
  • The characterization of the full-length angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) cDNA sequence of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis is reported in this study. (ilvo.be)
  • بر اساس نتایج حاصل از آزمایش زیست سنجی با استفاده‌از لارو کرم برگخوار پرودنیا ( Spodoptera littoralis )، گیاهان تراریخته مقاومت بهبود یافته‌ای بر علیه آفت، با مرگ و میر70-37 درصد در طول یک هفته، نشان دادند. (ac.ir)
  • Abstract: Covert infections of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopoliedrovirus (SeMNPV) havebeen detected in laboratory or field populations of the homologous host, S. exigua. (iobc-wprs.org)
  • The African armyworm Spodoptera exempta is a major episodic migratory crop pest over much of Eastern and Southern Africa. (kent.ac.uk)
  • A very similar species, western yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera praefica (Grote), is known only from the western states, principally California and Oregon. (ufl.edu)
  • Dark subdorsal spots are found on the mesothorax of yellowstriped armyworm, and the triangular shape of these spots aids in distinguishing this insect from sweetpotato armyworm, Spodoptera dolichos , and velvet armyworm, S podoptera latifascia , in eastern states. (ufl.edu)
  • The yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée), is common in the eastern United States as far west as the Rocky Mountains and occurs in southern Canada. (ufl.edu)
  • In California, Spodoptera praefica is much more important than Spodoptera ornithogalli . (ufl.edu)
  • Lateral view of a larva of the yellowstriped armyworm, Spodoptera ornithogalli (Guenée). (ufl.edu)
  • Spodoptera abyssinia Guenée, 1852 Spodoptera albula (Walker, 1857) (orth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2011). Use of DNA barcodes to identify invasive armyworm Spodoptera species in Florida. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract Our research provides novel information concerning the insecticidal activity of Brassica alba mustard oil applied to the intestinal track with insect diet against pests from order Lepidoptera: Cydia pomonella, Dendrolimus pini, and Spodoptera exigua. (plantprotection.pl)
  • Moths can fly, possibly over rather long distances as is the case for other Spodoptera species, but no specific data could be found on the flying capacities of S. praefica . (eppo.int)