Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Splenic Vein: Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.Celiac Artery: The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Hypersplenism: Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Mesenteric Artery, Superior: A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.Hepatic Artery: A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Hypertension, Portal: Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Aneurysm, False: Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Splenic DiseasesSplenic Infarction: Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Pancreatectomy: Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Flank Pain: Pain emanating from below the RIBS and above the ILIUM.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pancreatic Pseudocyst: Cyst-like space not lined by EPITHELIUM and contained within the PANCREAS. Pancreatic pseudocysts account for most of the cystic collections in the pancreas and are often associated with chronic PANCREATITIS.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)

Vascular segments in the human spleen. (1/255)

Corrosion casts of human splenic arterial trees revealed the presence of two segments-a superior, and an inferior - in 84% of cases and three segments - a superior, a middle and an inferior - in 16% of cases. These segments are separated by avascular planes.  (+info)

Effects of imipramine, an uptake inhibitor, on double-peaked constrictor responses to periarterial nerve stimulation in isolated, perfused canine splenic arteries. (2/255)

Using a cannula insertion method, periarterial nerve electrical stimulations were performed at 1 and 10 Hz in the isolated, perfused canine splenic artery. Electrical nerve stimulation readily caused double-peaked vasoconstrictions. The 1st-peak response at 1 Hz was not influenced by treatment with imipramine but the 2nd one was significantly enhanced by it. The 2nd-peak response was markedly blocked by prazosin. An additional treatment with alpha,beta-methylene ATP, a P2X-purinoceptor desensitizer, abolished electrical stimulation-induced vascular responses that remained. At 10 Hz, the responses to electrical stimulation were not significantly influenced by imipramine. On the other hand, the imipramine treatment inhibited the tyramine-induced vasoconstriction but potentiated the noradrenaline-induced one. ATP-induced responses were not modified by imipramine. From these results, it is concluded that 1) the 1st-peaked constriction is mainly due to a P2X-purinoceptor-dependent mechanism, 2) the 2nd one is mainly due to an alpha1-adrenoceptor-dependent mechanism, and 3) presynaptic uptake mechanisms may perform an important role in the regulation of vascular reactivity, especially at a low frequency.  (+info)

Post-traumatic pancreatitis with associated aneurysm of the splenic artery: report of 2 cases and review of the literature. (3/255)

In patients with acute pancreatitis, profuse gastrointestinal bleeding is associated with a high death rate. The cause of such bleeding must be evaluated and the bleeding controlled urgently. Aneurysm formation is usually the cause of the bleeding. Angiography is needed to make a definitive diagnosis and the bleeding site should be controlled by angiographic embolization if possible. If this fails, aneurysm resection is necessary. Two patients are described. Both had aneurysms of the splenic artery, presenting as massive gastrointestinal bleeding in one patient and bleeding into an associated pseudocyst in the other. They required surgical repair, which was successful in both cases.  (+info)

Effects of prolonged cold storage on double peaked vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial nerve stimulation in isolated canine splenic arteries. (4/255)

1. P2X-Purinoceptors and alpha1-adrenoceptors have previously been shown to involve in the double peaked vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial electrical nerve stimulation in the isolated and perfused canine splenic artery. The present study made an attempt to investigate effects of prolonged cold storage (7 days at 4 degrees C) on vasoconstrictor responses to periarterial electrical nerve stimulation, tyramine, noradrenaline and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the isolated canine splenic artery. 2. The periarterial nerve stimulation (1-10 Hz) readily causes a double peaked vasoconstriction in the non-stored preparations. After cold stored for 7 days, the double peaked vasoconstriction was still recognized, although the response became significantly smaller. The first phase was decreased relatively greater than the second phase by the cold storage. 3. In the cold stored preparations, the dose-response curve for tyramine was shifted to the right in a parallel manner. Prazosin almost completely inhibited tyramine-induced vasoconstriction but alpha,beta-methylene ATP failed to influence the response to tyramine. 4. The vasoconstrictor responses to noradrenaline and ATP were not significantly modified by the prolonged cold storage. 5. From these results, it is concluded that the functions of sympathetic co-transmission of purinergic components might be influenced more than that of adrenergic components in the cold storage canine splenic artery.  (+info)

Splenic artery aneurysms: methods of laparoscopic repair. (5/255)

PURPOSE: Surgical therapy for splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) has traditionally consisted of a laparotomy with resection of the aneurysm and possibly a splenectomy. Our early experience with the laparoscopic approach to treat SAAs is reported. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted on all patients who underwent laparoscopic resection of SAAs at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation from May 1996 to August 1997. RESULTS: Four patients with SAAs, three women and one man, with an average age of 55 years (range, 37 to 63 years), underwent successful laparoscopic SAA repair. The average size of the aneurysm was 3.2 cm (range, 2.5 to 5.0 cm). Three patients underwent an aneurysm resection, whereas one patient underwent simple ligation. Intraoperative ultrasound scanning with Doppler was used in three cases as a means of localizing the aneurysm and identifying all feeding vessels; the complete cessation of flow within the aneurysm in the case in which the feeding vessels were simply ligated was also documented. The average intraoperative time was 150 minutes (range, 100 to 190 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was 105 mL (range, 20 to 300 mL). There were no intraoperative complications. The average hospital stay was 2.2 days (range, 1 to 4 days). CONCLUSION: The laparoscopic approach to splenic artery aneurysm by aneurysmectomy or splenic artery ligation can be safe and effective. The laparoscopic approach affords a short hospital stay and an effective result.  (+info)

Intractable oesophageal variceal bleeding caused by splenic arteriovenous fistula: treatment by transcatheter arterial embolization. (6/255)

We describe a rare case of splenic arteriovenous fistula and venous aneurysm which developed after splenectomy in a 40-year-old woman who presented with epigastralgia, watery diarrhoea, repeated haematemesis and melaena caused by hyperkinetic status of the portal system and bleeding of oesophageal varices. It was diagnosed by computed tomography and angiography, and obliterated with giant Gianturco steel coils.  (+info)

Extrasplenic pseudoaneurysm. The role of color flow Doppler ultrasound in diagnosis. (7/255)

Pseudoaneurysm of the splenic artery has been rarely reported and the Doppler echocardiographic finding seldom described. Herein we report a rare case of huge extrasplenic pseudoaneurysm, which was detected by color flow Doppler ultrasonography and successfully treated by ligation of the splenic artery and resection of the pseudoaneurysm.  (+info)

An unusual Ca(2+) entry pathway activated by protein kinase C in dog splenic artery. (8/255)

The characteristics of the Ca(2+) entry pathways that are activated by protein kinase C (PKC) in canine splenic artery were investigated. Phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PDB) contracted tissues and increased Ca(2+) influx. PDB-induced contraction was reduced by preincubation of tissues in Ca(2+)-free Krebs' solution (1 mM EGTA) but was unaffected when Ca(2+)-free solution was applied after contraction was initiated with PDB. In contrast, (45)Ca influx and contraction induced by PDB were resistant to nifedipine, Cd(2+), Gd(3+), La(3+), or Ni(2+) whether added before or during exposure to PDB. Indeed, Cd(2+) reduced (45)Ca(2+) efflux and potentiated Ca(2+) influx, but not PDB-induced contraction. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced contractions were inhibited by preincubation in Ca(2+)-free Krebs' solution (1 mM EGTA). Nifedipine (10 microM) led to a small reduction in the NE-induced contraction but was without effect on (45)Ca(2+) influx. Pretreatment for 16 min with Cd(2+), Gd(3+), or La(3+) (each 1 mM) reduced or abolished NE-induced contraction and Ca(2+) influx. Application of these cations after exposure to NE did not affect (45)Ca(2+) influx but reduced tension. The Q(10) for the increase in (45)Ca(2+) influx was approximately 2 for high K(+) and NE, but 4 for PDB. The results suggest that stimulation of PKC in dog splenic artery activates a Ca(2+) entry pathway that is resistant to di- and trivalent cations. The inhibition of Ca(2+) influx by preincubating with cations during short-term exposure to NE may represent an action on Ca(2+) turnover that precedes activation of PKC.  (+info)

  • In two cases (0.63%) the proximal part of the splenic artery made a loop that was embedded in the substance of the pancreas, which is an interesting and rare finding. (emorysurgicalfocus.com)
  • Evolving experience with prevention and treatment of splenic artery syndrome after orthotopic liver transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The variations in origin, course, and terminal branching pattern of the splenic artery were studied in 320 cadavers. (emorysurgicalfocus.com)
  • The present study clearly indicates that there is variation in origin, course, and terminal distribution pattern of the splenic artery. (emorysurgicalfocus.com)
  • Note that the branches of the splenic artery do not reach all the way to the lower part of the greater curvature of the stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • The location of bleeding was classified as either: (i) the main splenic artery (MSA) or (ii) the parenchymal splenic artery (PSA). (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • The three major complications occurred only in patients with MSA bleeding, resulting in two 30-day mortality cases and one splenic abscess with fistula formation to the jejunum. (yonsei.ac.kr)
  • The size and location of a splenic abscess determines its relations to the surrounding organs and the possible routes for extension or fistulization. (medscape.com)
  • Published studies suggest that preexisting splenic tissue injury and bacteremia are required to form a basis for an abscess. (medscape.com)
  • This patient has splenic abscess due to pneumococcal bacteremia. (medscape.com)
  • The splenic artery was traced to its origin at the SMA as the SMA was surgically dissected proximally to the aorta. (ochsnerjournal.org)
  • The renal arteries arise from the aorta at the level of the intervertebral disk between L1 and L2. (medscape.com)
  • Hypersplenism can play a major role in splenic platelet sequestration and transfusion refractoriness, and though rare in myelodysplastic syndrome, it can commonly be seen in a wide range of other benign and malignant conditions. (ommegaonline.org)