Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
Condition characterized by splenomegaly, some reduction in the number of circulating blood cells in the presence of a normal or hyperactive bone marrow, and the potential for reversal by splenectomy.
'Splenic diseases' refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or integrity of the spleen, leading to various symptoms and potential complications such as anemia, infection, or abdominal pain.
Enlargement of the spleen.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Thrombocytopenia occurring in the absence of toxic exposure or a disease associated with decreased platelets. It is mediated by immune mechanisms, in most cases IMMUNOGLOBULIN G autoantibodies which attach to platelets and subsequently undergo destruction by macrophages. The disease is seen in acute (affecting children) and chronic (adult) forms.
Vein formed by the union (at the hilus of the spleen) of several small veins from the stomach, pancreas, spleen and mesentery.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
A splenic rupture is a medical condition characterized by the traumatic tearing or disruption of the spleen, leading to potential internal bleeding and, if left untreated, potentially life-threatening complications.
A group of familial congenital hemolytic anemias characterized by numerous abnormally shaped erythrocytes which are generally spheroidal. The erythrocytes have increased osmotic fragility and are abnormally permeable to sodium ions.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
The number of PLATELETS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
Any form of purpura in which the PLATELET COUNT is decreased. Many forms are thought to be caused by immunological mechanisms.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Abnormal increase of resistance to blood flow within the hepatic PORTAL SYSTEM, frequently seen in LIVER CIRRHOSIS and conditions with obstruction of the PORTAL VEIN.
ENDOSCOPES for examining the abdominal and pelvic organs in the peritoneal cavity.
The spontaneous transplantation of splenic tissue to unusual sites after open splenic trauma, e.g., after automobile accidents, gunshot or stab wounds. The splenic pulp implants appear as red-blue nodules on the peritoneum, omentum, and mesentery, morphologically similar to multifocal pelvic endometriosis. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Disorders of the blood and blood forming tissues.
Extravasation of blood into the skin, resulting in a nonelevated, rounded or irregular, blue or purplish patch, larger than a petechia.
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Insufficiency of arterial or venous blood supply to the spleen due to emboli, thrombi, vascular torsion, or pressure that produces a macroscopic area of necrosis. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Acquired hemolytic anemia due to the presence of AUTOANTIBODIES which agglutinate or lyse the patient's own RED BLOOD CELLS.
Infection of the spleen with species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.
Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.
A de novo myeloproliferation arising from an abnormal stem cell. It is characterized by the replacement of bone marrow by fibrous tissue, a process that is mediated by CYTOKINES arising from the abnormal clone.
Hemolytic anemia due to various intrinsic defects of the erythrocyte.
Dilated blood vessels in the ESOPHAGUS or GASTRIC FUNDUS that shunt blood from the portal circulation (PORTAL SYSTEM) to the systemic venous circulation. Often they are observed in individuals with portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).
A congenital or acquired condition in which the SPLEEN is not in its normal anatomical position but moves about in the ABDOMEN. This is due to laxity or absence of suspensory ligaments which normally provide peritoneal attachments to keep the SPLEEN in a fixed position. Clinical symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN, splenic torsion and ISCHEMIA.
A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
A neoplastic disease of the lymphoreticular cells which is considered to be a rare type of chronic leukemia; it is characterized by an insidious onset, splenomegaly, anemia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, little or no lymphadenopathy, and the presence of "hairy" or "flagellated" cells in the blood and bone marrow.

Intensive investigation in management of Hodgkin's disease. (1/1406)

Ninety-eight patients with clinically localised Hodgkin's disease underwent laparotomy and splenectomy to determine the extent of microscopic spread. In 68 patients the procedure was carried out for untreated disease apparently confined above the diaphragm. Abdominal disease cannot be confidently excluded on the basis of non-invasive investigation at presentation. Clinical assessment of splenic disease was unreliable unless gross splenomegaly was present. Pedal lymphography was accurate in assessing para-aortic and iliac disease but of no value in assessing other intra-abdominal lymph node involvement, including that of the mesenteric lymph node. Trephine bone marrow biopsy findings were normal in all patients before surgery, and only one patient was found to have diseased bone marrow by Stryker-saw biopsy at operation. Liver disease was identified at operation in nine patients, some of whom were asymptomatic with clinically undetectable splenic and nodal disease. Detailed clinical staging failed to detect disease in one-third of patients who underwent laparotomy. These studies show that if radiotherapy is to remain the treatment of choice for disease truly localised to lymph nodes a detailed staging procedure, including laparotomy and splenectomy, remains essential. The value of this potentially curative treatment is considerably diminished in the patient who has been inadequately staged.  (+info)

Immune response capacity after human splenic autotransplantation: restoration of response to individual pneumococcal vaccine subtypes. (2/1406)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate features of general immune function, in particular the restoration of the humoral immune response to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides, in humans undergoing a spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: After splenectomy, patients have an increased risk of overwhelming infection or sepsis involving encapsulated bacteria such as pneumococci. The value of human spleen autotransplantation after splenectomy because of trauma has long been questioned. Mononuclear phagocyte system function appeared to be similar to that in splenectomized persons. The presence of specific antipneumococcal antibodies would allow other parts of the mononuclear phagocyte system, such as those in the liver, to phagocytose opsonized bacteria. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy followed by autotransplantation were compared with the next 14 consecutive patients undergoing splenectomy alone. After a minimum of 6 months, the patients were vaccinated with 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine. Blood samples were taken at the time of vaccination and after 3 and 6 weeks for antipneumococcal capsular polysaccharides IgM and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against types 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 23. Splenic regrowth was evaluated by scintigraphy. RESULTS: Surprisingly, several of the nonautotransplanted patients showed scintigraphic activity, indicating the presence of either accessory spleens or traumatic seeding (splenosis). Significant antibody titer increases (more than twofold) were found for both IgM and IgG in the autotransplanted patients. Splenectomized-only patients showed no significant increase in Ig levels in patients without splenic regrowth and partial improvement in patients with splenosis/accessory spleens. CONCLUSIONS: Considering this significant antipneumococcal antibody increase, spleen autotransplants can be expected to permit an adequate humoral response to pneumococcal infections and presumably also to other TI-2 antigens, and to protect against overwhelming postsplenectomy infection or sepsis.  (+info)

Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on distribution of blood flow and tissue oxygenation in dog skeletal muscle. (3/1406)

Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is efficient in reducing allogenic blood transfusion needs during elective surgery. Tissue oxygenation is maintained by increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction and, presumably, a more homogeneous tissue perfusion. The aim of this study was to investigate blood flow distribution and oxygenation of skeletal muscle. ANH from hematocrit of 36 +/- 3 to 20 +/- 1% was performed in 22 splenectomized, anesthetized beagles (17 analyzed) ventilated with room air. Normovolemia was confirmed by measurement of blood volume. Distribution of perfusion within skeletal muscle was determined by using radioactive microspheres. Tissue oxygen partial pressure was assessed with a polarographic platinum surface electrode. Cardiac index (3.69 +/- 0.79 vs. 4.79 +/- 0.73 l. min-1. m-2) and muscle perfusion (4.07 +/- 0.44 vs. 5.18 +/- 0.36 ml. 100 g-1. min-1) were increased at hematocrit of 20%. Oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle was reduced to 74% of baseline values (0.64 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.48 +/- 0.03 ml O2. 100 g-1. min-1). Nevertheless, tissue PO2 was preserved (27.4 +/- 1.3 vs. 29.9 +/- 1. 4 Torr). Heterogeneity of muscle perfusion (relative dispersion) was reduced after ANH (20.0 +/- 2.2 vs. 13.9 +/- 1.5%). We conclude that a more homogeneous distribution of perfusion is one mechanism for the preservation of tissue oxygenation after moderate ANH, despite reduced oxygen delivery.  (+info)

Implementing a policy for pneumococcal prophylaxis in a haematology unit after splenectomy. (4/1406)

People who have had a splenectomy for any reason are 40 times more likely to have an overwhelming infection, especially pneumococcal infection, and 17 times more likely to suffer fatal sepsis. The incidence of such life threatening infections is reduced by prophylactic immunisation with polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine and long term antibiotic prophylaxis or instituting prompt antibiotic treatment in the event of fever. This haematology unit agreed a policy of immunisation and antibiotic prophylaxis in June 1988 for all patients undergoing elective splenectomy. The success of this policy was audited in July 1993 by a retrospective analysis of patients' case notes. Seventy four patients were identified as having had a splenectomy, 54 (73%) before June 1988, of whom only 13 (24%) had received both pneumococcal immunisation and antibiotic prophylaxis before implementation of the agreed policy. At the time of audit, 46/74 (62%) patients were recorded as having received immunisation and 64/74 (86%) as receiving antibiotic prophylaxis or a supply of antibiotics to take in the event of a fever. All but one of the 20 patients who had a splenectomy after June 1988, since implementation of the agreed policy, received immunisation and antibiotic prophylaxis. The authors conclude that establishment of a formal agreed policy for pneumococcal prophylaxis for patients undergoing splenectomy has improved the quality of care.  (+info)

Patient survival after D1 and D2 resections for gastric cancer: long-term results of the MRC randomized surgical trial. Surgical Co-operative Group. (5/1406)

Controversy still exists on the optimal surgical resection for potentially curable gastric cancer. Much better long-term survival has been reported in retrospective/non-randomized studies with D2 resections that involve a radical extended regional lymphadenectomy than with the standard D1 resections. In this paper we report the long-term survival of patients entered into a randomized study, with follow-up to death or 3 years in 96% of patients and a median follow-up of 6.5 years. In this prospective trial D1 resection (removal of regional perigastric nodes) was compared with D2 resection (extended lymphadenectomy to include level 1 and 2 regional nodes). Central randomization followed a staging laparotomy. Out of 737 patients with histologically proven gastric adenocarcinoma registered, 337 patients were ineligible by staging laparotomy because of advanced disease and 400 were randomized. The 5-year survival rates were 35% for D1 resection and 33% for D2 resection (difference -2%, 95% CI = -12%-8%). There was no difference in the overall 5-year survival between the two arms (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.87-1.39, where HR > 1 implies a survival benefit to D1 surgery). Survival based on death from gastric cancer as the event was similar in the D1 and D2 groups (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 0.79-1.39) as was recurrence-free survival (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.82-1.29). In a multivariate analysis, clinical stages II and III, old age, male sex and removal of spleen and pancreas were independently associated with poor survival. These findings indicate that the classical Japanese D2 resection offers no survival advantage over D1 surgery. However, the possibility that D2 resection without pancreatico-splenectomy may be better than standard D1 resection cannot be dismissed by the results of this trial.  (+info)

Western immunoblot analysis of the antigens of Haemobartonella felis with sera from experimentally infected cats. (6/1406)

Cats were experimentally infected with a Florida isolate of Haemobartonella felis in order to collect organisms and evaluate the immune response to H. felis. Cryopreserved organisms were thawed and injected intravenously into nonsplenectomized and splenectomized cats. Splenectomized animals were given 10 mg of methylprednisolone per ml at the time of inoculation. Blood films were evaluated daily for 1 week prior to infection and for up to 60 days postinfection (p. i.). Blood for H. felis purification was repeatedly collected from splenectomized animals at periods of peak parasitemias. Organisms were purified from infected blood by differential centrifugation, separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and transferred to nitrocellulose membranes for immunoblot analysis. Serum was collected from nonsplenectomized animals prior to and for up to 60 days p.i. and was used on immunoblots to identify antigens. The combination of splenectomy and corticosteroid treatment resulted in marked, cyclic parasitemias without concurrent severe anemia, providing an opportunity to harvest organisms in a manner that was not lethal to the animals. Several antigens (150, 52, 47, 45, and 14 kDa) were identified. An antigen with a molecular mass of approximately 14 kDa appeared to be one of the most immunodominant and was consistently recognized by immune sera collected at various times during the course of infection. These data suggest that one or more of these antigens might be useful for the serologic diagnosis of H. felis infections in cats.  (+info)

Total gastrectomy with simultaneous pancreaticosplenectomy or splenectomy in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. (7/1406)

A splenectomy or distal pancreaticosplenectomy is often performed simultaneously with total gastrectomy in the treatment of gastric carcinoma to facilitate dissection of the lymph nodes around the splenic artery and splenic hilus. However, the negative impact of splenectomy and pancreaticosplenectomy has also been reported. A retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the outcomes of distal pancreaticosplenectomy and total gastrectomy, splenectomy and total gastrectomy, and gastrectomy alone in the patients with advanced gastric carcinoma without distant metastasis. Prognostic factors were examined. No significant differences existed in 5-year survival in the patients who underwent gastrectomy with splenectomy, gastrectomy with distal pancreaticosplenectomy, or gastrectomy alone. Neither splenectomy, nor distal pancreaticosplenectomy were prognostic factors. However, distal pancreaticosplenectomy was an independent predictor of pancreatic fistula. In conclusion, the addition of distal pancreaticosplenectomy or splenectomy to total gastrectomy for gastric cancer increases the risk of severe complications, but does not improve survival.  (+info)

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for agnogenic myeloid metaplasia: a European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Societe Francaise de Greffe de Moelle, Gruppo Italiano per il Trapianto del Midollo Osseo, and Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Collaborative Study. (8/1406)

Agnogenic myeloid metaplasia (AMM) is a chronic myeloproliferative disorder in which patients with poor prognostic features, receiving conventional treatments, have a median survival of less than 3 years. In this retrospective multicenter study, we analyze the results and try to define the indications for allogeneic stem cell transplantation in AMM. From January 1979 to November 1997, 55 patients with a median age of 42 years were transplanted from HLA-matched related (n = 49) or alternative (n = 6) donors for AMM. A multivariate analysis was conducted to identify factors associated with posttransplant outcome. The median posttransplant follow-up was 36 months (range, 6 to 223). The 5-year probability of survival was 47% +/- 8% for the overall group, and 54% +/- 8% for patients receiving an unmanipulated HLA-matched related transplant. The 1-year probability of transplant-related mortality was 27% +/- 6%. Hemoglobin level +info)

A splenectomy is a surgical procedure in which the spleen is removed from the body. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, near the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays several important roles in the body, including fighting certain types of infections, removing old or damaged red blood cells from the circulation, and storing platelets and white blood cells.

There are several reasons why a splenectomy may be necessary, including:

* Trauma to the spleen that cannot be repaired
* Certain types of cancer, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma or non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Sickle cell disease, which can cause the spleen to enlarge and become damaged
* A ruptured spleen, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly
* Certain blood disorders, such as idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) or hemolytic anemia

A splenectomy is typically performed under general anesthesia and may be done using open surgery or laparoscopically. After the spleen is removed, the incision(s) are closed with sutures or staples. Recovery time varies depending on the individual and the type of surgery performed, but most people are able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks.

It's important to note that following a splenectomy, individuals may be at increased risk for certain types of infections, so it's recommended that they receive vaccinations to help protect against these infections. They should also seek medical attention promptly if they develop fever, chills, or other signs of infection.

Hypersplenism is a condition characterized by an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) that results in the abnormal removal or destruction of various blood components, such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets. This leads to peripheral blood cytopenias, which means there is a decrease in one or more types of blood cells in the circulation.

The spleen becomes overactive in hypersplenism, and its increased removal of blood cells can be secondary to various underlying disorders, such as:

1. Infections: e.g., bacterial endocarditis, malaria, or EBV (Epstein-Barr virus) infection
2. Hematologic diseases: e.g., hemolytic anemias, thalassemia, leukemias, lymphomas, or myeloproliferative neoplasms
3. Cirrhosis and portal hypertension
4. Vascular disorders: e.g., splenic vein thrombosis or congestive splenomegaly
5. Storage diseases: e.g., Gaucher's disease, Niemann-Pick disease, or Hurler syndrome

Symptoms of hypersplenism may include fatigue, weakness, pallor (in case of anemia), infections (due to neutropenia), and easy bruising or bleeding (due to thrombocytopenia). Treatment for hypersplenism involves addressing the underlying cause. In some cases, splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen) may be considered if the benefits outweigh the risks.

Splenic diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the structure, function, or health of the spleen. The spleen is an organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, which plays a vital role in filtering the blood and fighting infections. Some common splenic diseases include:

1. Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen due to various causes such as infections, liver disease, blood disorders, or cancer.
2. Hypersplenism: Overactivity of the spleen leading to excessive removal of blood cells from circulation, causing anemia, leukopenia, or thrombocytopenia.
3. Splenic infarction: Partial or complete blockage of the splenic artery or its branches, resulting in tissue death and potential organ dysfunction.
4. Splenic rupture: Traumatic or spontaneous tearing of the spleen capsule, causing internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening conditions.
5. Infections: Bacterial (e.g., sepsis, tuberculosis), viral (e.g., mononucleosis, cytomegalovirus), fungal (e.g., histoplasmosis), or parasitic (e.g., malaria) infections can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
6. Hematologic disorders: Conditions such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, lymphomas, leukemias, or myeloproliferative neoplasms can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement or dysfunction.
7. Autoimmune diseases: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or vasculitis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
8. Cancers: Primary (e.g., splenic tumors) or secondary (e.g., metastatic cancer from other organs) malignancies can involve the spleen and lead to its enlargement, dysfunction, or rupture.
9. Vascular abnormalities: Conditions such as portal hypertension, Budd-Chiari syndrome, or splenic vein thrombosis can affect the spleen and cause various symptoms.
10. Trauma: Accidental or intentional injuries to the spleen can lead to bleeding, infection, or organ dysfunction.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

Splenic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the spleen, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can arise from various cell types present within the spleen, including hematopoietic cells (red and white blood cells, platelets), stromal cells (supporting tissue), or lymphoid cells (part of the immune system).

There are several types of splenic neoplasms:

1. Hematologic malignancies: These are cancers that affect the blood and bone marrow, such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. They often involve the spleen, causing enlargement (splenomegaly) and neoplastic infiltration of splenic tissue.
2. Primary splenic tumors: These are rare and include benign lesions like hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, and hamartomas, as well as malignant tumors such as angiosarcoma, littoral cell angiosarcoma, and primary splenic lymphoma.
3. Metastatic splenic tumors: These occur when cancer cells from other primary sites spread (metastasize) to the spleen. Common sources of metastasis include lung, breast, colon, and ovarian cancers, as well as melanomas and sarcomas.

Symptoms of splenic neoplasms may vary depending on the type and extent of the disease but often include abdominal pain or discomfort, fatigue, weight loss, and anemia. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT, or MRI scans) and sometimes requires a biopsy for confirmation. Treatment options depend on the type of neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or immunotherapy.

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is a medical condition characterized by a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia) in the blood without an identifiable cause. Platelets are small blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. When you don't have enough platelets, you may bleed excessively or spontaneously, causing purpura, which refers to purple-colored spots on the skin that result from bleeding under the skin.

In ITP, the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys platelets, leading to their decreased levels in the blood. This condition can occur at any age but is more common in children following a viral infection, and in adults after the age of 30-40 years. Symptoms may include easy or excessive bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts, spontaneous bleeding from the gums or nose, blood blisters, and small red or purple spots on the skin (petechiae).

Depending on the severity of thrombocytopenia and the presence of bleeding symptoms, ITP treatment may include observation, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), or other medications that modify the immune system's response. In severe cases or when other treatments are ineffective, surgical removal of the spleen (splenectomy) might be considered.

The splenic vein is a large, thin-walled vein that carries oxygenated blood from the spleen and pancreas to the liver. It is formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain the upper part of the stomach, the pancreas, and the left side of the colon (splenic flexure). The splenic vein runs along the top border of the pancreas and merges with the superior mesenteric vein to form the portal vein. This venous system allows for the filtration and detoxification of blood by the liver before it is distributed to the rest of the body.

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

A splenic rupture is a medical condition characterized by a tear or complete breakage in the spleen, leading to the release of blood into the abdominal cavity. The spleen is a soft, fist-shaped organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen, which plays an essential role in filtering the blood and fighting infections.

Splenic rupture can occur as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or a direct blow to the abdomen, or it may develop spontaneously due to underlying medical conditions, such as cancer, infection, or inflammatory diseases. The severity of the rupture can vary from a small tear to a complete shattering of the spleen, leading to significant bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications.

Symptoms of splenic rupture may include sudden, severe pain in the left upper abdomen or shoulder, lightheadedness, dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and decreased blood pressure. If left untreated, a splenic rupture can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the spleen (splenectomy) or repair the damage, followed by close monitoring and supportive care to manage any complications.

Hereditary Spherocytosis is a genetic disorder that affects the red blood cells (RBCs) causing them to take on a spherical shape instead of their normal biconcave disc shape. This occurs due to mutations in the genes responsible for the proteins that maintain the structure and flexibility of RBCs, such as ankyrin, band 3, spectrin, and protein 4.2.

The abnormally shaped RBCs are fragile and prone to hemolysis (premature destruction), which can lead to anemia, jaundice, and gallstones. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice). Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of family history, physical examination, complete blood count (CBC), and specialized tests such as osmotic fragility test, eosin-5'-maleimide binding test, or direct antiglobulin test. Treatment may include monitoring, supplementation with folic acid, and in severe cases, splenectomy (surgical removal of the spleen) to reduce RBC destruction.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

A platelet count is a laboratory test that measures the number of platelets, also known as thrombocytes, in a sample of blood. Platelets are small, colorless cell fragments that circulate in the blood and play a crucial role in blood clotting. They help to stop bleeding by sticking together to form a plug at the site of an injured blood vessel.

A normal platelet count ranges from 150,000 to 450,000 platelets per microliter (µL) of blood. A lower than normal platelet count is called thrombocytopenia, while a higher than normal platelet count is known as thrombocytosis.

Abnormal platelet counts can be a sign of various medical conditions, including bleeding disorders, infections, certain medications, and some types of cancer. It is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about your platelet count or if you experience symptoms such as easy bruising, prolonged bleeding, or excessive menstrual flow.

Thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare blood disorder characterized by the abnormal breakdown of platelets, leading to a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia). Platelets are small blood cells that help your body form clots to stop bleeding. A low platelet count can cause purple spots on the skin (purpura) and easy or excessive bruising or bleeding.

TTP is caused by the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body, which can lead to serious complications such as damage to the heart, brain, and kidneys if left untreated. The condition can be acute (sudden onset) or chronic (long-term).

TTP is often caused by an autoimmune response where the body's immune system produces antibodies that attack and destroy a protein called ADAMTS13, which is necessary for breaking down large von Willebrand factor proteins in the blood. Without enough ADAMTS13, these proteins can form clots and deplete platelets, leading to thrombocytopenia and purpura.

Treatment typically involves plasma exchange therapy to replace the missing or nonfunctional ADAMTS13 protein and suppress the immune system's production of antibodies. Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs, and rituximab may also be used in treatment.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Portal hypertension is a medical condition characterized by an increased pressure in the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the intestines, spleen, and pancreas to the liver. Normal portal venous pressure is approximately 5-10 mmHg. Portal hypertension is defined as a portal venous pressure greater than 10 mmHg.

The most common cause of portal hypertension is cirrhosis of the liver, which leads to scarring and narrowing of the small blood vessels in the liver, resulting in increased resistance to blood flow. Other causes include blood clots in the portal vein, inflammation of the liver or bile ducts, and invasive tumors that block the flow of blood through the liver.

Portal hypertension can lead to a number of complications, including the development of abnormal blood vessels (varices) in the esophagus, stomach, and intestines, which are prone to bleeding. Ascites, or the accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity, is another common complication of portal hypertension. Other potential complications include encephalopathy, which is a condition characterized by confusion, disorientation, and other neurological symptoms, and an increased risk of bacterial infections.

Treatment of portal hypertension depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Medications to reduce pressure in the portal vein, such as beta blockers or nitrates, may be used. Endoscopic procedures to band or inject varices can help prevent bleeding. In severe cases, surgery or liver transplantation may be necessary.

A laparoscope is a type of medical instrument called an endoscope, which is used to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. Specifically, a laparoscope is a long, thin tube with a high-intensity light and a high-resolution camera attached to it. This device allows surgeons to view the abdominal cavity through small incisions, without having to make large, invasive cuts.

During a laparoscopic procedure, the surgeon will insert the laparoscope through a small incision in the abdomen, typically near the navel. The camera sends images back to a monitor, giving the surgeon a clear view of the organs and tissues inside the body. This allows for more precise and less invasive surgical procedures, often resulting in faster recovery times and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgery.

Laparoscopes are commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including:

1. Gynecological surgeries (e.g., hysterectomies, ovarian cyst removals)
2. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
3. Gastrointestinal surgeries (e.g., removing benign or malignant tumors)
4. Hernia repairs
5. Bariatric surgeries for weight loss (e.g., gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy)

While laparoscopes provide numerous benefits over open surgery, they still require specialized training and expertise to use effectively and safely.

Splenosis is a benign condition characterized by the implantation and growth of ectopic splenic tissue, usually following trauma or surgery that results in splenic rupture. The displaced splenic tissues, known as splenunlai, develop functional microvascular structures and can grow in various locations within the abdominal cavity, chest, or other sites. These nodules typically appear 4-6 years after the initial injury but may take up to 20 years to develop. Splenosis is often an incidental finding during medical imaging or surgical procedures, and no specific treatment is required unless complications arise, such as intestinal obstruction or malignancy suspicion.

Hematologic diseases, also known as hematological disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect the production, function, or destruction of blood cells or blood-related components, such as plasma. These diseases can affect erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells), and platelets (thrombocytes), as well as clotting factors and hemoglobin.

Hematologic diseases can be broadly categorized into three main types:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the total red blood cell count, hemoglobin, or hematocrit, leading to insufficient oxygen transport to tissues and organs. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, sickle cell anemia, and aplastic anemia.
2. Leukemia and other disorders of white blood cells: These conditions involve the abnormal production or function of leukocytes, which can lead to impaired immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. Examples include leukemias (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia), lymphomas, and myelodysplastic syndromes.
3. Platelet and clotting disorders: These diseases affect the production or function of platelets and clotting factors, leading to abnormal bleeding or clotting tendencies. Examples include hemophilia, von Willebrand disease, thrombocytopenia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).

Hematologic diseases can have various causes, including genetic defects, infections, autoimmune processes, environmental factors, or malignancies. Proper diagnosis and management of these conditions often require the expertise of hematologists, who specialize in diagnosing and treating disorders related to blood and its components.

Ecchymosis is a medical term that refers to a discoloration of the skin caused by the leakage of blood from ruptured blood vessels into the tissues beneath. It is typically caused by trauma or injury to the affected area, which results in the escape of blood from the damaged blood vessels. The escaped blood collects under the skin, causing a bruise or a purple, blue, or blackish patch on the skin's surface.

Ecchymosis can occur anywhere on the body and can vary in size and shape depending on the extent of the injury. While ecchymosis is generally harmless and resolves on its own within a few days to a week, it can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as a bleeding disorder or a blood vessel abnormality. In these cases, further evaluation and treatment may be necessary.

A pancreatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed. There are several types of pancreatectomies, including:

* **Total pancreatectomy:** Removal of the entire pancreas, as well as the spleen and nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is usually done for patients with cancer that has spread throughout the pancreas or for those who have had multiple surgeries to remove pancreatic tumors.
* **Distal pancreatectomy:** Removal of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the body or tail of the pancreas.
* **Partial (or segmental) pancreatectomy:** Removal of a portion of the head or body of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the head or body of the pancreas that can be removed without removing the entire organ.
* **Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD):** A type of surgery used to treat tumors in the head of the pancreas, as well as other conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. In this procedure, the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gallbladder, and bile duct are removed, but the stomach and lower portion of the esophagus (pylorus) are left in place.

After a pancreatectomy, patients may experience problems with digestion and blood sugar regulation, as the pancreas plays an important role in these functions. Patients may need to take enzyme supplements to help with digestion and may require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

Splenic infarction is the death of splenic tissue due to blockage of its arterial supply or, less commonly, its venous drainage. This results in ischemia and necrosis of the affected portion of the spleen. The most common cause is embolism from a distant source such as atrial fibrillation, infective endocarditis, or malignancy. Other causes include splenic artery thrombosis, sickle cell disease, hematologic disorders, and trauma. Clinical presentation can vary widely, ranging from being asymptomatic to acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Diagnosis is often made with imaging studies such as ultrasound or CT scan. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms, but may include anticoagulation, antibiotics, or surgical intervention in severe cases.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Thrombocytopenia is a medical condition characterized by an abnormally low platelet count (thrombocytes) in the blood. Platelets are small cell fragments that play a crucial role in blood clotting, helping to stop bleeding when a blood vessel is damaged. A healthy adult typically has a platelet count between 150,000 and 450,000 platelets per microliter of blood. Thrombocytopenia is usually diagnosed when the platelet count falls below 150,000 platelets/µL.

Thrombocytopenia can be classified into three main categories based on its underlying cause:

1. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): An autoimmune disorder where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own platelets, leading to a decreased platelet count. ITP can be further divided into primary or secondary forms, depending on whether it occurs alone or as a result of another medical condition or medication.
2. Decreased production: Thrombocytopenia can occur when there is insufficient production of platelets in the bone marrow due to various causes, such as viral infections, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, leukemia, aplastic anemia, or vitamin B12 or folate deficiency.
3. Increased destruction or consumption: Thrombocytopenia can also result from increased platelet destruction or consumption due to conditions like disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), or severe bacterial infections.

Symptoms of thrombocytopenia may include easy bruising, prolonged bleeding from cuts, spontaneous nosebleeds, bleeding gums, blood in urine or stools, and skin rashes like petechiae (small red or purple spots) or purpura (larger patches). The severity of symptoms can vary depending on the degree of thrombocytopenia and the presence of any underlying conditions. Treatment for thrombocytopenia depends on the cause and may include medications, transfusions, or addressing the underlying condition.

Hemolytic anemia, autoimmune is a type of anemia characterized by the premature destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) in which the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys its own RBCs. This occurs when the body produces autoantibodies that bind to the surface of RBCs, leading to their rupture (hemolysis). The symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and dark colored urine. The diagnosis is made through blood tests that measure the number and size of RBCs, reticulocyte count, and the presence of autoantibodies. Treatment typically involves suppressing the immune system with medications such as corticosteroids or immunosuppressive drugs, and sometimes removal of the spleen (splenectomy) may be necessary.

Splenic tuberculosis is a form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (ETB), which refers to a manifestation of the disease outside of the lungs. It is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

In splenic tuberculosis, the infection involves the spleen (an organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen that filters blood and helps fight infection). The infection can occur through the hematogenous spread (dissemination via the bloodstream) from a primary focus elsewhere in the body, such as the lungs.

The disease presents with various symptoms, including fever, fatigue, weight loss, abdominal pain, and splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen). Diagnosis often requires a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and microbiological or histopathological confirmation. Treatment typically involves a prolonged course of multidrug antibiotics to eliminate the infection and prevent complications.

Gaucher disease is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down a complex fatty substance called glucocerebroside, found in the cells of various tissues throughout the body. When the enzyme is not present in sufficient quantities or is entirely absent, glucocerebroside accumulates inside the lysosomes (cellular organelles responsible for waste material breakdown) of certain cell types, particularly within white blood cells called macrophages. This buildup of lipids leads to the formation of characteristic lipid-laden cells known as Gaucher cells.

There are three main types of Gaucher disease, classified based on the absence or presence and severity of neurological symptoms:

1. Type 1 (non-neuronopathic) - This is the most common form of Gaucher disease, accounting for approximately 95% of cases. It primarily affects the spleen, liver, and bone marrow but does not typically involve the central nervous system. Symptoms may include an enlarged spleen and/or liver, low red blood cell counts (anemia), low platelet counts (thrombocytopenia), bone pain and fractures, and fatigue.
2. Type 2 (acute neuronopathic) - This rare and severe form of Gaucher disease affects both visceral organs and the central nervous system. Symptoms usually appear within the first six months of life and progress rapidly, often leading to death before two years of age due to neurological complications.
3. Type 3 (subacute neuronopathic) - This form of Gaucher disease affects both visceral organs and the central nervous system but has a slower progression compared to type 2. Symptoms may include those seen in type 1, as well as neurological issues such as seizures, eye movement abnormalities, and cognitive decline.

Gaucher disease is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, meaning that an individual must inherit two defective copies of the gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition. Treatment options for Gaucher disease include enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), substrate reduction therapy (SRT), and chaperone therapy, depending on the type and severity of the disease.

A splenorenal shunt is a surgical procedure that creates a connection between the spleen and the left kidney vein (renal vein). This type of shunt is typically performed to reroute the flow of blood from the spleen when there is an obstruction in the portal vein, which carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, liver, and spleen. The procedure helps to alleviate portal hypertension (high blood pressure in the portal vein) and its complications, such as variceal bleeding (bleeding from enlarged veins in the esophagus or stomach).

During a surgical splenorenal shunt procedure, the surgeon will make an incision in the left flank region to access both the spleen and the left renal vein. The splenic vein is then divided, and one end is connected to the left renal vein using a synthetic graft or a portion of the patient's own blood vessel (autograft). This connection allows the blood from the spleen to bypass the obstructed portal vein and flow directly into the systemic venous circulation.

It is important to note that splenorenal shunts have been largely replaced by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) as the first-line treatment for managing portal hypertension due to their lower invasiveness and fewer complications. However, surgical splenorenal shunts may still be considered in specific cases where TIPS is not feasible or has failed.

Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a rare, chronic bone marrow disorder characterized by the replacement of normal bone marrow tissue with fibrous scar tissue, leading to impaired production of blood cells. This results in cytopenias (anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), which can cause fatigue, infection susceptibility, and bleeding tendencies. Additionally, PMF is often accompanied by the proliferation of abnormal megakaryocytes (large, atypical bone marrow cells that produce platelets) and extramedullary hematopoiesis (blood cell formation outside the bone marrow, typically in the spleen and liver).

PMF is a type of myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN), which is a group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by excessive proliferation of one or more types of blood cells. PMF can present with various symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, abdominal discomfort due to splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), and bone pain. In some cases, PMF may progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The exact cause of PMF remains unclear; however, genetic mutations are known to play a significant role in its development. The Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), calreticulin (CALR), and MPL genes have been identified as commonly mutated in PMF patients. These genetic alterations contribute to the dysregulated production of blood cells and the activation of signaling pathways that promote fibrosis.

Diagnosis of PMF typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, complete blood count (CBC), bone marrow aspiration and biopsy, cytogenetic analysis, and molecular testing to identify genetic mutations. Treatment options depend on the individual patient's symptoms, risk stratification, and disease progression. They may include observation, supportive care, medications to manage symptoms and control the disease (such as JAK inhibitors), and stem cell transplantation for eligible patients.

Hemolytic anemia, congenital is a type of anemia that is present at birth and characterized by the abnormal breakdown (hemolysis) of red blood cells. This can occur due to various genetic defects that affect the structure or function of the red blood cells, making them more susceptible to damage and destruction.

There are several types of congenital hemolytic anemias, including:

1. Congenital spherocytosis: A condition caused by mutations in genes that affect the shape and stability of red blood cells, leading to the formation of abnormally shaped and fragile cells that are prone to hemolysis.
2. G6PD deficiency: A genetic disorder that affects the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), which is essential for protecting red blood cells from damage. People with this condition have low levels of G6PD, making their red blood cells more susceptible to hemolysis when exposed to certain triggers such as infections or certain medications.
3. Hereditary elliptocytosis: A condition caused by mutations in genes that affect the structure and flexibility of red blood cells, leading to the formation of abnormally shaped and fragile cells that are prone to hemolysis.
4. Pyruvate kinase deficiency: A rare genetic disorder that affects an enzyme called pyruvate kinase, which is essential for the production of energy in red blood cells. People with this condition have low levels of pyruvate kinase, leading to the formation of fragile and abnormally shaped red blood cells that are prone to hemolysis.

Symptoms of congenital hemolytic anemia can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include fatigue, weakness, pale skin, jaundice, dark urine, and an enlarged spleen. Treatment may involve blood transfusions, medications to manage symptoms, and in some cases, surgery to remove the spleen.

Esophageal varices and gastric varices are abnormal, enlarged veins in the lower part of the esophagus (the tube that connects the throat to the stomach) and in the stomach lining, respectively. They occur as a result of increased pressure in the portal vein, which is the large blood vessel that carries blood from the digestive organs to the liver. This condition is known as portal hypertension.

Esophageal varices are more common than gastric varices and tend to be more symptomatic. They can cause bleeding, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Gastric varices may also bleed, but they are often asymptomatic until they rupture.

The most common causes of esophageal and gastric varices are cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) and portal hypertension due to other liver diseases such as schistosomiasis or Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment options for esophageal and gastric varices include medications to reduce bleeding, endoscopic therapies to treat active bleeding or prevent recurrent bleeding, and surgical procedures to relieve portal hypertension.

Wandering spleen, also known as "splenoptosis," is a rare condition where the spleen is not fixed in its normal location in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. Instead, it moves freely within the abdominal cavity due to the absence or laxity of its supporting ligaments. This can lead to twisting of the splenic vessels (splenic torsion), which can result in decreased blood flow to the spleen and subsequent infarction (tissue death). Symptoms may include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and a palpable mass in the abdomen. In some cases, wandering spleen may be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies. Treatment typically involves surgical fixation of the spleen to prevent torsion or, if necessary, splenectomy (removal of the spleen).

Felty syndrome is a rare complication that can occur in people with long-standing chronic inflammatory arthritis, specifically those with rheumatoid arthritis. It is characterized by the triad of rheumatoid arthritis, an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly), and a decrease in white blood cell count (neutropenia). The neutropenia can lead to an increased risk of infections. Additionally, some people with Felty syndrome may also develop other symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, fever, and a purple rash on the legs (purpura).

The exact cause of Felty syndrome is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment typically involves medications to manage the symptoms and control the underlying rheumatoid arthritis, such as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and/or immunosuppressive therapies. In some cases, removal of the spleen (splenectomy) may be recommended to help improve the neutropenia and reduce the risk of infections.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a rare, slow-growing type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many B cells (a type of white blood cell). These excess B cells are often referred to as "hairy cells" because they look abnormal under the microscope, with fine projections or "hair-like" cytoplasmic protrusions.

In HCL, these abnormal B cells can build up in the bone marrow and spleen, causing both of them to enlarge. The accumulation of hairy cells in the bone marrow can crowd out healthy blood cells, leading to a shortage of red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and normal white blood cells (leukopenia). This can result in fatigue, increased risk of infection, and easy bruising or bleeding.

HCL is typically an indolent disease, meaning that it progresses slowly over time. However, some cases may require treatment to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options for HCL include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and stem cell transplantation. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor the disease's progression and adjust treatment plans as needed.

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An overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a rare but rapidly fatal infection occurring in individuals following ... Most infections occur in the first few years following splenectomy, but the risk of OPSI is lifelong. The risk is greatest for ... The spleen is necessary for protection against encapsulated bacteria (see Mechanism) and as such when removed by splenectomy it ... Greater risk is associated with splenectomy for hematological conditions such as sickle cell anemia, thalassemia and tumours ...
Hall, F. D.; Spencer, W. G. (1909). "Splenectomy for (?) Splenic Anæmia". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine. 2 (Clin ...
New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education "Splenectomy and Infection" (PDF). Splenectomy Trust. March 2002. Archived from the ... Following splenectomy due to splenic rupture from trauma or because of tumor After splenectomy with the goal of interfering ... "Splenectomy wallet card". HSC Public Health Agency. Belfast. Archived from the original on 2 August 2019. Retrieved 1 August ... This can lead to results similar to those seen in patients who have undergone a splenectomy e.g. becoming infected with ...
Juneja, S; Januszewicz, E; Wolf, M; Cooper, I (1995). "Post-splenectomy lymphocytosis". Clinical and Laboratory Haematology. 17 ... such as tuberculosis or brucellosis chronic lymphocytic leukemia acute lymphoblastic leukemia lymphoma post-splenectomy state ...
Cadili A, de Gara C (May 2008). "Complications of splenectomy". The American Journal of Medicine. 121 (5): 371-5. doi:10.1016/j ...
A splenectomy was performed. The chest wound, left lung, and diaphragm were all debrided and the wounds closed. Himmler ordered ...
A splenectomy is initially performed and is followed by devascularization of the distal esophagus through the diaphragm hiatus ... Splenectomy is then performed. The abdominal esophagus is devascularized from the stomach. The posterior gastric vagus nerve ... The abdominal operation consists of a splenectomy, devascularization of the abdominal esophagus and cardia, and a selective ... The procedure also involves a splenectomy. The operation was originally developed to treat bleeding esophageal varices ( ...
Patients with thalassemia major are more inclined to have a splenectomy. The use of splenectomies have been declining in recent ... Splenectomy is also associated with increased risk of infections and increased morbidity due to vascular disease, as the spleen ... If it is unnecessary to remove the entire spleen a partial splenectomy may occur; this method preserves some of the immune ... Those undergoing splenectomy should receive an appropriate pneumococcal vaccine at least one week (preferably three weeks) ...
"Splenectomy Results - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2016-03-03. "What Is the Spleen? Functions & Info , ... "Splenectomy Risks - Mayo Clinic". www.mayoclinic.org. Retrieved 2016-03-02. Brigden, Malcolm L. (February 2001). "Detection, ... Lack of a spleen, called asplenia, can occur by autosplenectomy or the surgical counterpart, splenectomy. Asplenia can increase ... Di Sabatino, Antonio (April 6, 2011). "Post-splenectomy and hyposplenic states". Lancet. 378 (9785): 86-97. doi:10.1016/s0140- ...
A splenectomy (removal of the spleen) results in a greatly diminished frequency of memory B cells. A 28-year follow-up of 740 ... The surgical process to remove the spleen is known as a splenectomy. The spleen is underneath the left part of the diaphragm, ... 1977). "Splenectomy and Subsequent Mortality in Veterans of the 1939-45 War". The Lancet. 310 (8029): 127-29. doi:10.1016/S0140 ... Splenosis is a condition where displaced pieces of splenic tissue (often following trauma or splenectomy) autotransplant in the ...
Treatment has traditionally been splenectomy. Splenectomy involves ligation of three splenic attachments (splenorenal ligament ... However, splenectomy is avoided if possible, particularly in children, to avoid the resulting permanent susceptibility to ... When surgery is needed, the spleen can be surgically repaired in a few cases, but splenectomy is still the primary surgical ... 2], Suah A, Williams B. Exploratory Laparotomy and Splenectomy for Ruptured Spleen Following Blunt Force Trauma. J Med Ins. ...
Splenectomy is curative when this occurs. HPP has been associated with a defect of the erythrocyte membrane protein spectrin ... Splenectomy is a possible treatment[citation needed] Erythrocyte Poikilocytosis List of hematologic conditions " ...
Splenectomy may improve neutropenia in severe disease. Use of rituximab and leflunomide have been proposed. Use of gold therapy ... Hanrahan, Edward M., Jr.; Miller, Sydney R. (8 October 1932). "Effect of splenectomy on Felty's syndrome". Journal of the ...
If ineffective, splenectomy should be considered.[citation needed] If refractory to both these therapies, other options include ...
Poulin EC, Thibault C (October 1993). "The anatomical basis for laparoscopic splenectomy". Can J Surg. 36 (5): 484-8. PMID ... and the variations of suspensory ligament of the spleen it is essential in the case of open surgery or laparoscopic splenectomy ...
Unlike hereditary spherocytosis, splenectomy is contraindicated. Andolfo I, Russo R, Gambale A, Iolascon A (January 2018). " ...
Patients with severe haemolytic anemia may require splenectomy.[citation needed] Hereditary elliptocytosis Sickle-cell disease ...
McBride JA, Dacie JV, Shapley R (February 1968). "The effect of splenectomy on the leucocyte count". British Journal of ...
He undergoes a splenectomy and makes a recovery. To celebrate Shane and Angel's first anniversary, the couple and Dylan take a ...
This abscess develops after surgical operations like splenectomy. Presents with cough, increased respiratory rate with shallow ...
Splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. Autosplenectomy is where certain diseases destroy the spleen's function. ...
In this case, splenectomy may be considered, as well as other immunosuppressive drugs. Infection is a serious concern in ... Splenectomy is less efficacious in cold agglutinin disease. Special considerations are required when treating people with AIHA ... splenectomy can be done. Other third line options, that are less studied, include azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine ...
Splenectomy is unlikely to reduce B cell burden; peripheral blood B cell counts rose significantly in three patients who ...
Splenectomy may be warranted for persistent pseudocysts due to the high risk of subsequent rupture. Although it can occur ... It can also be used prior to splenectomy for the prevention of blood loss. Chapman, J; Bhimji, SS (2018), "article-29380", ... Surgical removal of the spleen (splenectomy) is only required if complications ensue; surgical removal predisposes to ... only seldom requires splenectomy. Case report and literature review". Ann Ital Chir. 78 (6): 529-32. PMID 18510036. Suzuki Y, ...
Nancy suffers internal bleeding and requires a splenectomy. The Chief of Staff at the hospital (who just happens to be Nancy's ...
Removal of the spleen (splenectomy) could theoretically help to reduce the need for blood transfusions in people with ... Sharma, A; Easow Mathew, M; Puri, L (17 September 2019). "Splenectomy for people with thalassaemia major or intermedia". The ...
... can also be caused by appendicitis and splenectomy. Primary neutrophilia can additionally be a result of leukocyte ...
Splenectomy can produce long-term remissions in patients whose spleens seem to be heavily involved, but its success rate is ... Splenectomies are also performed for patients whose persistently enlarged spleens cause significant discomfort or in patients ... More than half of people respond partially to splenectomy. HCL-V differs from classic HCL principally in these respects: Higher ...
"Effect of Splenectomy on a Latent Infection, Eperythrozoon Coccoides, in White Mice" (1935) "The Effect of Splenectomy on ... Marmorston, Jessie (1935). "Effect of Splenectomy on a Latent Infection, Eperythrozoon Coccoides, in White Mice". The Journal ... Marmorston, Jessie (1937-07-01). "The Effect of Splenectomy on Tuberculous Infection in Mice". American Review of Tuberculosis ...
Splenectomy may also lead to chronic neutrophilia. Splenectomy patients typically have Howell-Jolly bodies and less commonly ... An increase in blood leukocytes can occur following a splenectomy. The post-splenectomy platelet count may rise to abnormally ... A splenectomy also results in a greatly diminished frequency of memory B cells. A 28-year follow-up of 740 World War II ... A splenectomy is the surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen. The spleen is an important organ in ...
Splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. The spleen is an organ in the upper left part of the abdomen. It lies ... Cadili A, de Gara C. Complications of splenectomy. Am J Med. 2008;121(5):371-375. ... Splenectomy. The Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/splenectomy-spleen- ...
Background : Laparoscopic splenectomy is the first surgical choice for benign splenic disease. Some studies have reported ... Robotic single-site splenectomy. Jae Hoon Lee, MD, PhD. Asan Medical Center ... Conclusions : Robotic single-access splenectomy has some technical advantages over previous robotic or laparoscopic single- ... We performed robotic single-site splenectomy using da Vinci single-site flatform. ...
I am under the impression that the splenectomy would be incidental to the takedown of splenic flexure and colon resection since ...
... and liver function tests in the splenectomy group were significantly lower than in group A immediately after splenectomy and ... The beneficial role of simultaneous splenectomy after extended hepatectomy: experimental study in pigs J Surg Res. 2017 Feb;208 ... Results: The 7-d survival rate in the splenectomy group was significantly improved compared with group A (88.9% versus 44.4%, P ... Methods: Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into two groups: group A has received EH (75%-80%) without splenectomy, and group ...
Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy done. Left adrenal identified and dissected. Left adrenal vein clipped and divided. Left ... Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy. S Velmurugan, HOD of GI and Lap Surgery, R Villalan ... As splenic vessels were going through the lesion, proceeded for splenectomy en bloc. Splenic artery and splenic vein ligated ... After informed consent, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy was performed. ...
Splenectomy used to be the standard treatment for ITP before drug therapies were developed and carried out in patients with ... will be given before the splenectomy is carried out, or immediately afterwards in the case of an emergency splenectomy. ... Splenectomy giving further information on all aspects of splenectomy, and a leaflet written by Prof Newland entitled Is ... Splenectomy. Why remove the spleen?. In people with ITP the immune system treats platelets as foreign and destroys them. The ...
A splenectomy is the procedure done to remove the spleen. Leukemic cells can gather in the spleen in some people with CLL. When ... Surgical removal (splenectomy) of a very enlarged spleen may improve blood cell counts and reduce the need for transfusions. ...
... versus partial splenectomy (283 children) confirmed that although total splenectomy was more effective than partial splenectomy ... Partial splenectomy. In an attempt to reduce the infectious risk of total splenectomy, especially for children less than 6 ... In partial splenectomy, usually 80-90% of the enlarged spleen is removed. Partial splenectomy was initially performed using an ... Partial splenectomy. In an attempt to reduce the infectious risk following total splenectomy, especially for children less than ...
Laparoscopic splenectomy for nodular and cystic lesions in the spleen. Hironori Shiozaki, Takeshi Gocho, Keigo Nakashima, Rui ... Splenectomy was performed by either pure laparoscopy (n = 3), hand - assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) (n = 5) or single ... Background: Laparoscopic splenectomy is becoming the standard procedure for benign splenic disorders including hematologic ... Conclusions: Laparoscopic splenectomy for the nodular and cystic lesion is safe and feasible. ...
... World J Clin Cases 2015; 3(11): 951-955 ... Laparoscopic splenectomy for a littoral cell angioma of the spleen: Case report. World J Clin Cases 2015; 3(11): 951-955 [PMID ...
These immunizations should be given at least 14 days before a scheduled splenectomy, or given after the fourteenth ... Immunization against encapsulated bacterial pathogens decreases the incidence of post- splenectomy sepsis. Pneumococcal, ... meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccinations are indicated for patients after splenectomy. ... Which vaccinations are indicated after splenectomy?. URI. http://hdl.handle.net/10355/3589 ...
Thirteen patients underwent splenectomy with complete (9) or partial (4) response, but no consistent pattern of results was ... It is concluded that in vivo isotope studies are of little value in predicting the benefit of splenectomy in thrombocytopenic ...
After a splenectomy, you are likely to have pain for several days. You may also feel like you have influenza (flu). You may ... You will get a medical alert card letting health professionals know about your splenectomy. Carry this with you. It will tell ... Health Information and Tools , Patient Care Handouts , Splenectomy: What to Expect at Home ...
That is precisely why splenectomy must be noted,. And in the EHR attention to is absence be devoted.. Yet at Partners Health ... The significance of her prior splenectomy was missed.. And research indicated even if it had been on the list.. In other ... Ten years before, she underwent splenectomy after a motor vehicle accident. There was no EHR data indicating she had received ... System her splenectomy was not listed. To the Electronic Record it was as if her spleen still existed.. ...
The remaining abdominal non-haemolymph nodes in the rats showed no compensatory changes on gross examination after splenectomy. ... It was found that splenectomy leads to generalised morphological changes of the mentioned nodes, including, among other, their ... In 12 Wistar rats the gross and microscopic structure of haemolymph splenic nodes was assessed after splenectomy and the ... Effect of splenectomy on the morphology of haemolymph splenic nodes in Wistar rats Med Sci Monit 2000; 6(4): BR675-679 :: ID: ...
Splenectomy seems way too soon - what happens if you do nothing? This has been a viable plan for my 15 year old son for the ... to leave it at no treatment but I wanted to know if anyone has had any experiences with the Rituximab or even a splenectomy. ...
... Splenectomy Guidelines - Patients with an ... Splenectomy Guidelines - Patients with an Absent or Dysfunctional Spleen CA4012 v6 Download ... This guideline applies to patients who have recently undergone a splenectomy or who have recently been diagnosed with a ...
Splenectomy. The spleen may begin bleeding at any time up until it is actually removed. If this occurs, blood transfusion is ... Some patients must receive blood transfusions prior to splenectomy to ensure they have a reserve of red blood cells in case of ... We have already mentioned the splenic mass as well as excessive red blood cell removal by the spleen as reasons for splenectomy ... The dog having a splenectomy because of a splenic mass will appear substantially thinner after surgery. There will be a long ...
... High Impact List of Articles PPts Journals, 1762 ... Splenectomy Haematological Disease. A splenectomy is surgery to remove the whole spleen, a delicate estimated organ that sits ... Leukemia Plant Cells Plasma Cell Leukemia Polycythemia Vera Prothrombin Time Sickle Erythrocytes Spleen Cancer Splenectomy ...
... Formato de cita APA. ISO 690-2. Chicago. MLA. Vancouver. . ... The rest of the patients were subjected to an open splenectomy. Results: Seventy one percent of patients subjected to ... Among them, 17 patients (78% female, age range 17-70 years old) were subjected to a laparoscopic splenectomy. Eligibility ... Conclusions: Elective laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe and low risk surgical procedure ...
Splenectomy is a surgical operation done to remove the spleen.Surjen offers surgeons and doctors in Nigeria who have numerous ... Splenectomy. Splenectomy is a surgical operation done to remove the spleen. The spleen discards old and damaged red blood cells ... Both open and laparoscopic splenectomies have risks.. Typical outcomes of a spleen removal. The outlook for a splenectomy ... Open splenectomy. A traditional open surgical operation entails making a cut down the center of your abdomen. The surgeon then ...
We also compared laparoscopic to open splenectomy.Results: The analysis included 130 children, with 62.3% (n=81) undergoing TS ... or partial splenectomy (PS) in children with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) or sickle cell disease (SCD).Methods: The ... Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia (SICHA) consortium registry collected hematologic outcomes of children with CHA ... The purpose of this study was to define the hematologic response to total splenectomy (TS) ...
splenectomy answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, ... "Splenectomy." Tabers Medical Dictionary, 24th ed., F.A. Davis Company, 2021. Nursing Central, nursing.unboundmedicine.com/ ... nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/751899/all/splenectomy. Splenectomy. In: Venes DD, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. ... Splenectomy [Internet]. In: Venes DD, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company; 2021. [cited 2023 December 10]. ...
Refractory chronic GVHD emerging after splenectomy in a marrow transplant recipient with accelerated phase CML  Rodrigues, C. ...
Splenectomy answers are found in the Pediatric Surgery NaT powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, ... TY - ELEC T1 - Splenectomy ID - 829192 A1 - Skarsgard,Erik,MD, MSc AU - Brandt,Mary,MD ED - Hirschl,Ron, ED - Powell,David, ED ... "Splenectomy." Pediatric Surgery NaT, American Pediatric Surgical Association, 2019. Pediatric Surgery Library, www. ... pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829192/all/Splenectomy. Skarsgard ED, Brandt ML. Splenectomy. In: Hirschl RR ...
Splenectomy. In 1990, the MAS approach to splenectomy was first successfully performed in animals. [92] Since then, many ... Laparoscopic Partial Splenectomy: A Preferred Method for Select Patients. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2016 Dec. 26 (12): ... Laparoscopic splenectomy in children. Semin Laparosc Surg. 1998 Mar. 5 (1):19-24. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Laparoscopic splenectomy in childhood. J Pediatr Surg. 1994 Aug. 29 (8):975-7. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Indications for laparoscopic splenectomy are the same for open splenectomy except when emergent splenectomy and exploratory ... Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy for splenomegaly: a comparative study with conventional laparoscopic splenectomy. Chin ... Rosen M, Brody F, Walsh RM, Ponsky J. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy vs conventional laparoscopic splenectomy in cases ... Complications related to laparoscopic splenectomy are similar to open splenectomy or other major abdominal procedures. They ...
... is a serious disease that can progress from a mild flu-like illness to fulminant ... OPSI=overwhelming post-splenectomy infection; i.v.=intravenous; i.m.=intramuscular; q=every; CrCl=creatinine clearance. ... Overwhelming Post-splenectomy Infection (OPSI). A Case Report and Review of the Literature. ... Background Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious disease that can progress from a mild flu-like illness ...
This medical exhibit features the key steps of a splenectomy revealing the open abdominal incision, the packing of the abdomen ... Male Figure with Post-accident Abdominal Injuries and Subsequent Splenectomy Procedure - Image ... splenectomy, splenic, steps, stop, tied, umbilicus, vessel, vessels, widespread, xiphoid ...
  • Effective June 22, 2021, donors who have had a splenectomy (spleen removal) will not be eligible to donate platelets on our apheresis instruments (Trima Accel) due to a software change. (childrensnational.org)
  • Your doctor has recommended that you undergo a Splenectomy - or spleen removal surgery. (medselfed.com)
  • However, except for hereditary spherocytosis for which the effectiveness of splenectomy has been well documented, the efficacy of splenectomy in other anemias within this group has yet to be determined and there are concerns regarding short- and long-term infectious and thrombotic complications. (haematologica.org)
  • After informed consent, laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy and left adrenalectomy was performed. (sages.org)
  • Distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy done. (sages.org)
  • Getting a distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy in early June. (alike.health)
  • Therefore, removal of the spleen runs the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection, a medical emergency and rapidly fatal disease caused by the inability of the body's immune system to properly fight infection following splenectomy or asplenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vaccination for S. pneumoniae, H. influenza and N. meningitidis should be given pre-operatively if possible to minimize the chance of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI), a rapid-developing and highly fatal type of septicaemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Splenectomy causes an increased risk of sepsis, particularly overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis due to encapsulated organisms such as S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae which are no longer able to be destroyed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization against encapsulated bacterial pathogens decreases the incidence of post- splenectomy sepsis. (umsystem.edu)
  • Background Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious disease that can progress from a mild flu-like illness to fulminant sepsis in a short time period. (medscape.com)
  • Introduction: Splenectomy, whatever the reason, is an absolute indication for vaccination against encapsulated bacteria in order to prevent overwhelming post-splenectomy infections. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • We describe post-operative complications after cytoreductive surgery with and without splenectomy for Stage III or IV epithelial ovarian cancer , and identify areas for quality improvement in post- splenectomy care. (bvsalud.org)
  • Quality metrics reported include receipt of post- splenectomy education handouts and encapsulated-organism vaccines . (bvsalud.org)
  • Post- splenectomy vaccinations were documented in 42/47 (89.4%) patients . (bvsalud.org)
  • Only 2/47 (4.3%) received post- splenectomy discharge instructions and 3/7 (42.9%) received aspirin for platelets 1 million or more. (bvsalud.org)
  • Areas for quality improvement in post- splenectomy care include receipt of vaccinations , patient discharge information, and timely pancreatic fistula management. (bvsalud.org)
  • Also, hereditary (genetic) conditions that affect the shape of red blood cells, conditions known as spherocystosis, sickle cell disease or thalassemia, may require splenectomy. (ocroboticsurgery.com)
  • In those models, vagal nerve transaction and splenectomy decreased cytokine release and protected against lung injury and mortality.We hypothesized that, if similar mechanisms are active in humans, patients who require splenectomy for trauma would have better outcomes than injured patients without splenectomy. (northwestern.edu)
  • As a result, males may be more likely to have extramedullary hematopoiesis and thus more likely to require splenectomy or to develop spinal cord compression, an uncommon but serious complication of paraspinal extramedullary hematopoiesis. (medscape.com)
  • 100 × 10 9 /L. Corticosteroids are recommended as the first-line treatment, splenectomy is recommended as the second-line treatment, and thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) and rituximab are recommended as the third-line treatments for ITP in Japanese ITP treatment guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic splenectomy for nodular and cystic splenic lesions are yet to be elucidated. (sages.org)
  • Full recovery from a splenectomy normally takes about four to six weeks. (surjen.com)
  • Hospitalization and home cage rest will be required postoperatively to assist your cat in recovery from a splenectomy. (wagwalking.com)
  • A splenectomy is the procedure done to remove the spleen. (schoolandyouth.org)
  • A Splenectomy is the surgical procedure used to permanently remove the spleen from the body. (medselfed.com)
  • A splenectomy is the surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Splenectomy is often carried out as a laparoscopic procedure (keyhole surgery) which has the advantage of a shorter hospital stay and quicker recovery time. (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • Laparoscopic splenectomy is becoming the standard procedure for benign splenic disorders including hematologic diseases and hypersplenism. (sages.org)
  • All laparoscopic splenectomies were performed without tumor rupture during the procedure. (sages.org)
  • A splenectomy may be done as a traditional open surgical operation or as a laparoscopic, or minimally invasive procedure. (surjen.com)
  • With the advent of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopic splenectomy has become a standard procedure for elective removal of the spleen for most indications. (medscape.com)
  • Splenectomy, the surgical removal of the spleen, is a medical procedure often performed to treat various conditions that affect the spleen. (madeformedical.com)
  • A splenectomy is the surgical procedure performed to remove your cat's spleen when a serious condition resulting in damage to the spleen occurs. (wagwalking.com)
  • Splenectomy may occur during exploratory surgery, if splenic disorder is located during this procedure or may be indicated by the result of tests your veterinarian will perform such as abdominocentesis or radiographs. (wagwalking.com)
  • Splenectomies were performed without intraoperative or postoperative complications of Grade ?b or more by Clavien-Dindo classification except for 2 cases with postoperative pancreatic fistulas which were Grade A by International study group of postoperative pancreatic fistula (ISGPF). (sages.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to define the hematologic response to total splenectomy (TS) or partial splenectomy (PS) in children with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) or sickle cell disease (SCD). (aku.edu)
  • Laparoscopic splenectomy can also be warranted in other benign conditions, including other types of thrombotic purpura, hereditary spherocytosis, major and intermediate thalassemia with secondary hypersplenism or severe anemia, sickle cell disease, and refractory autoimmune hemolytic anemia. (medscape.com)
  • Vaccinations against hepatitis B, pneumococcal infections, meningitis and hæmophilus influenzæ,will be given before the splenectomy is carried out, or immediately afterwards in the case of an emergency splenectomy. (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • a ruptured spleen is a life-threatening condition that requires emergency splenectomy. (wagwalking.com)
  • Both open and laparoscopic splenectomies have risks. (surjen.com)
  • citation needed] Splenectomy also increases the severity of babesiosis, Splenectomized patients are more susceptible to contracting babesiosis and can die within five to eight days of symptom onset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Splenectomy used to be the standard treatment for ITP before drug therapies were developed, and it is still carried out in patients with chronic severe ITP (troublesome ITP for a year or more). (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • As damaged red blood cells passing through the red pulp of the spleen are removed by splenic macrophages, splenectomy is one possible therapeutic approach to the management of severely affected patients. (haematologica.org)
  • Splenectomy has been suggested as a possible therapeutic approach to manage severely affected patients, based on the evidence that abnormal or damaged red blood cells passing through the spleen red pulp are removed by the splenic macrophage system. (haematologica.org)
  • Twelve patients with splenic nodular or cystic lesions who underwent laparoscopic splenectomy between April 2003 and June 2018 were retrospectively reviewed, in which patient factors (age, sex), lesion factors (diagnosis, size, number) and surgical factors (procedures, operation time, blood loss, postoperative complication, postoperative hospital stay) were assessed. (sages.org)
  • Splenectomy was performed by either pure laparoscopy (n = 3), hand - assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS) (n = 5) or single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) (n = 4), for solid lesions in 8 and cystic lesions in 4 patients. (sages.org)
  • Pneumococcal, meningococcal, and Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) vaccinations are indicated for patients after splenectomy. (umsystem.edu)
  • Assessment of thrombocytopenic patients for splenectomy. (bmj.com)
  • Thirteen patients underwent splenectomy with complete (9) or partial (4) response, but no consistent pattern of results was manifest. (bmj.com)
  • It is concluded that in vivo isotope studies are of little value in predicting the benefit of splenectomy in thrombocytopenic patients, although they may demonstrate the mechanism of the thrombocytopenia, in particular the biphasic survival curve revealing separate 'immune' and 'hypersplenic' components of platelet destruction in ITP. (bmj.com)
  • This guideline applies to patients who have recently undergone a splenectomy or who have recently been diagnosed with a dysfunctional spleen. (nnuh.nhs.uk)
  • Patients and methods: Retrospective review of 27 patients subjected to splenectomy due to hematological diseases. (uchile.cl)
  • Among them, 17 patients (78% female, age range 17-70 years old) were subjected to a laparoscopic splenectomy. (uchile.cl)
  • The rest of the patients were subjected to an open splenectomy. (uchile.cl)
  • Results: Seventy one percent of patients subjected to laparoscopic splenectomy had an ITP. (uchile.cl)
  • HYPOTHESIS: Laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) provides health benefits to patients compared with open splenectomy (OS) in terms of perioperative morbidity, complications, and patient recuperation. (mcmaster.ca)
  • These patients were matched with 63 OS patients according to age, sex, spleen weight, indication for splenectomy, and preoperative morbidity score. (mcmaster.ca)
  • INTERVENTIONS: A total of 147 patients evaluated for elective splenectomy underwent LS. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Most patients can have a laparoscopic splenectomy. (ocroboticsurgery.com)
  • Does splenectomy protect against immune-mediated complications in blunt trauma patients? (northwestern.edu)
  • Blunt trauma patients who underwent splenectomy were compared with all patients with splenic injuries. (northwestern.edu)
  • Patients who underwent splenectomy demonstrated better secondary outcomes than patients who were managed nonoperatively or with splenorrhaphy, even when controlling for injury severity and physiologic derangements. (northwestern.edu)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Does splenectomy protect against immune-mediated complications in blunt trauma patients? (northwestern.edu)
  • We compared patients who had and did not have splenectomy as part of cytoreductive surgery by demographics, comorbidities, stage, operative and post-operative data, readmission rates, progression free survival , overall survival and death from disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • We identified 47 patients who underwent splenectomy and 454 who did not during primary or interval cytoreductive surgery . (bvsalud.org)
  • While splenectomy adds morbidity , it continues to offer benefit in those patients who can achieve optimal cytoreduction. (bvsalud.org)
  • RÉSUMÉ La présente étude vise à examiner la qualité de vie de patients atteints de thalassémie majeure en fonction de l'âge, du sexe, des résultats scolaires, et de la gravité et des complications de la maladie. (who.int)
  • However, the hospital stay was shorter for children who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy, nephrectomy, splenectomy, and surgery for intra-abdominal testis than for those who underwent open surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Conclusions : Robotic single-access splenectomy has some technical advantages over previous robotic or laparoscopic single-access approaches. (sages.org)
  • These bacteria often cause a sore throat under normal circumstances but after splenectomy, when infecting bacteria cannot be adequately opsonized, the infection becomes more severe. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is an increased risk of infection after splenectomy and any fever or infection should receive urgent medical treatment. (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • Children rarely have a splenectomy unless their ITP is particularly troublesome, as most recover from ITP, and the risk of infection without a spleen is far higher until the immune system becomes fully developed in teenage years. (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • The benefits of a splenectomy are that it can solve many health issues such as blood diseases, cancer, and infection that could not be treated any other way. (surjen.com)
  • Surgery duration and hospital length of stay were longer and blood transfusion more common after splenectomy , but there were no differences in post-operative infection , readmission, or overall survival . (bvsalud.org)
  • Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is the most common indication for elective splenectomy. (uchile.cl)
  • Common indications for splenectomy include trauma, tumors, splenomegaly or for hematological disease such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • If splenectomy is required due to severe trauma or severe anemia your veterinarian may need to stabilize your cat by providing blood, intravenous fluids, and oxygen prior to a splenectomy. (wagwalking.com)
  • It is possible that the improved outcomes seen in the group undergoing splenectomy were due to favorable modulation of the human innate immune inflammatory response after trauma. (northwestern.edu)
  • I am under the impression that the splenectomy would be incidental to the takedown of splenic flexure and colon resection since it was injured in the process of the surgery. (aapc.com)
  • A splenectomy is surgery to remove the whole spleen, a delicate estimated organ that sits under the left rib confine close to the stomach. (longdom.org)
  • The outlook for a splenectomy varies greatly depending on the type and severity of the disease or injury that led to the surgery. (surjen.com)
  • The Splenectomy in Congenital Hemolytic Anemia (SICHA) consortium registry collected hematologic outcomes of children with CHA undergoing TS or PS to 1 year after surgery. (aku.edu)
  • Pediatric Surgery Library , www.pedsurglibrary.com/apsa/view/Pediatric-Surgery-NaT/829192/all/Splenectomy. (pedsurglibrary.com)
  • The first splenectomy was performed by Andirano Zaccarello in 1549 on a young woman with an enlarged spleen who survived for 6 years after surgery. (medscape.com)
  • This study aimed to determine compliance to immunization guidelines for splenectomy in General Surgery Clinics. (hacettepe.edu.tr)
  • This surgery is called splenectomy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Splenectomy at the time of primary or interval cytoreductive surgery for epithelial ovarian carcinoma: A review of outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • When surgery is necessary, usually the entire spleen is removed (splenectomy), but sometimes surgeons are able to repair a small tear. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Occasionally a patient with ITP or hereditary anemia may fail to respond as expected following splenectomy or relapse after an initial response. (medicalalgorithms.com)
  • thalassemia responding to splenectomy. (cdc.gov)
  • In the UK leading ITP specialists only carry out splenectomy when all other options have been exhausted, and it has been preceded by an indium labelled platelet spleen scan (performed in the nuclear medicine department of certain hospitals) to investigate whether the platelets are being destroyed in the spleen. (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • If this test shows that platelets are mainly being destroyed elsewhere in the immune system a splenectomy is unlikely to raise the platelet count. (itpsupport.org.uk)
  • At the moment we are doing no treatment and going to leave it at no treatment but I wanted to know if anyone has had any experiences with the Rituximab or even a splenectomy. (pdsa.org)
  • Therefore, in this study, the cost-effectiveness of adding rituximab treatment to the existing treatments indicated for ITP in Japan, namely splenectomy and the TPO-RA romiplostim, was investigated based on the scenario that rituximab is eligible for reimbursement in Japan as a treatment for ITP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analyzed treatment order consisted of three patterns: splenectomy-romiplostim (sequence 1), splenectomy-romiplostim-rituximab (sequence 2), and splenectomy-rituximab-romiplostim (sequence 3). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Indications for laparoscopic splenectomy are the same for open splenectomy except when emergent splenectomy and exploratory laparotomy for traumatic injuries are needed. (medscape.com)
  • Hematologic outcomes after total splenectomy and partial splenectomy f" by Brian R. Englum, Jennifer Rothman et al. (aku.edu)
  • 2021. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/751899/all/splenectomy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Splenectomy is the surgical removal of the spleen. (epnet.com)
  • Surgical removal (splenectomy) of a very enlarged spleen may improve blood cell counts and reduce the need for transfusions. (schoolandyouth.org)
  • This medical exhibit features the key steps of a splenectomy revealing the open abdominal incision, the packing of the abdomen to remove the widespread intra-abdominal hemorrhage, the division of the splenic vessels and the removal of the damaged spleen. (nucleusmedicalmedia.com)
  • Which vaccinations are indicated after splenectomy? (umsystem.edu)
  • There was no EHR data indicating she had received pneumococcal vaccination after the accident, a recommended treatment following splenectomy. (blogspot.com)
  • Portal vein pressure, portal vein flow, and liver function tests in the splenectomy group were significantly lower than in group A immediately after splenectomy and postoperatively until the day of sacrifice. (nih.gov)
  • Those with splenectomy had significantly higher stage. (bvsalud.org)
  • Laparoscopic splenectomy for the nodular and cystic lesion is safe and feasible. (sages.org)
  • We also compared laparoscopic to open splenectomy. (aku.edu)
  • Laparoscopic versus open splenectomy: a single center eleven-year experience. (patientbloodmanagement.org)
  • The surgeon may do either an open splenectomy or a laparoscopic splenectomy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As no randomized clinical trials, case control or cohort studies regarding splenectomy in these disorders were found in the literature, recommendations for each disease were based on expert opinion and were subsequently critically revised and modified by the Splenectomy in Rare Anemias Study Group, which includes hematologists caring for both adults and children. (haematologica.org)
  • Background : Laparoscopic splenectomy is the first surgical choice for benign splenic disease. (sages.org)
  • Our recommendations are intended to enable clinicians to achieve better informed decisions on disease management by splenectomy, on the type of splenectomy and the possible consequences. (haematologica.org)
  • The most common benign hematologic disease treated with laparoscopic splenectomy is immune thrombocytopenia purpura, and it is recommended when medical therapy, including steroids and intravenous gammaglobulin, fail or long-term steroids are needed. (medscape.com)
  • Laparoscopic splenectomy is indicated for various benign hematologic diseases, malignant hematologic diseases, secondary hypersplenism, and other anatomical disorders of the spleen. (medscape.com)
  • As splenic vessels were going through the lesion, proceeded for splenectomy en bloc. (sages.org)
  • The hospital stay may be only 1 or 2 days after a laparoscopic splenectomy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a laparoscopic splenectomy, your surgeon makes just a few little incisions in your abdomen. (surjen.com)