Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred C57BLWandering Spleen: A congenital or acquired condition in which the SPLEEN is not in its normal anatomical position but moves about in the ABDOMEN. This is due to laxity or absence of suspensory ligaments which normally provide peritoneal attachments to keep the SPLEEN in a fixed position. Clinical symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN, splenic torsion and ISCHEMIA.Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Splenic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses: Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Hemolytic Plaque Technique: A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Mice, Inbred C3HBone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Mice, Inbred CBAConcanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Splenic RuptureImmunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred DBABone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Graft vs Host Reaction: An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.Peyer's Patches: Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Mice, Inbred AKRKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Mitogens: Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gaucher Disease: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Mononuclear Phagocyte System: Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Splenic Artery: The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Antilymphocyte Serum: Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.

Intensive investigation in management of Hodgkin's disease. (1/20402)

Ninety-eight patients with clinically localised Hodgkin's disease underwent laparotomy and splenectomy to determine the extent of microscopic spread. In 68 patients the procedure was carried out for untreated disease apparently confined above the diaphragm. Abdominal disease cannot be confidently excluded on the basis of non-invasive investigation at presentation. Clinical assessment of splenic disease was unreliable unless gross splenomegaly was present. Pedal lymphography was accurate in assessing para-aortic and iliac disease but of no value in assessing other intra-abdominal lymph node involvement, including that of the mesenteric lymph node. Trephine bone marrow biopsy findings were normal in all patients before surgery, and only one patient was found to have diseased bone marrow by Stryker-saw biopsy at operation. Liver disease was identified at operation in nine patients, some of whom were asymptomatic with clinically undetectable splenic and nodal disease. Detailed clinical staging failed to detect disease in one-third of patients who underwent laparotomy. These studies show that if radiotherapy is to remain the treatment of choice for disease truly localised to lymph nodes a detailed staging procedure, including laparotomy and splenectomy, remains essential. The value of this potentially curative treatment is considerably diminished in the patient who has been inadequately staged.  (+info)

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (2/20402)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (3/20402)

Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations.  (+info)

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (4/20402)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (5/20402)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (6/20402)

In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (7/20402)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Systemic administration of rIL-12 synergistically enhances the therapeutic effect of a TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine. (8/20402)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antitumor cytokine, which induces and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). IL-12 also stimulates IFN-gamma production from both T cells and NK cells. In this study, we transfected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-D) with TNF gene and investigated the therapeutic effect of TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and whether the vaccination effect is enhanced by systemic administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12), in a murine model. TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine or systemic administration of rIL-12 showed slight or moderate inhibition of pre-established tumor. However, simultaneous application of the vaccine and rIL-12 resulted in complete eradication. The cytotoxicity of CTL against parental tumor cells was enhanced with the combination of the vaccine and rIL-12, and IFN-gamma production from spleen cells also increased synergistically. Our findings show that synergistic enhancement of CTL activity and IFN-gamma production could play an important role in the antitumor effect of combination therapy using TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and rIL-12.  (+info)

  • The spleen is a delicate, fist-sized organ under your left rib cage near your stomach . (webmd.com)
  • A layer of tissue entirely covers the spleen in a capsule-like fashion, except where veins and arteries enter the organ. (webmd.com)
  • The spleen is the most frequent organ to be damaged in blunt trauma injuries involving the abdomen . (webmd.com)
  • The spleen is a fist-sized organ located above the stomach and under the ribs on the left side of the abdomen, and it is part of the lymphatic system that fights infections. (reference.com)
  • The spleen is a mid line organ, Dockie," he used to say, as he harassed me into quickly loosening it from its attachments to the diaphragm and pulling it toward me. (blogspot.com)
  • The spleen is a soft, fist-sized organ located in the upper left side of the abdomen. (simmonsandfletcher.com)
  • The spleen is an organ located below the stomach. (dp.ua)
  • When the spleen twists or rotates, the blood vessels become cut off like a kink in a garden hose and the blood cannot drain from the organ. (wagwalking.com)
  • The weight of the enlarged organ is believed to cause the rotation and in turn cause the spleen to twist. (wagwalking.com)
  • Since the spleen is a filtration organ of the blood, a complete blood cell count may show signs of anemia and leukocytosis (high white blood cell count). (wagwalking.com)
  • One veterinarian may choose to untwist the spleen and allow the organ to return to normal size, if not severely damaged. (wagwalking.com)
  • However, there is no secure way to permanently prevent the spleen from twisting again, so many veterinarians choose the remove the organ completely. (wagwalking.com)
  • In TCM, the stomach/spleen yin/yang duo aren't only digestive fire power & aid in blood flow, but assoc. w. those not-so-fun emotions. (wordpress.com)
  • This can indicate an imbalance in the stomach/spleen that look like gastrointestinal issues, which are usually the result of inflammation, which is a byproduct of worry, stress & anxiety. (wordpress.com)
  • Who's into taking care of their spleen/stomach qi? (wordpress.com)
  • The spleen is paired with the stomach. (wordpress.com)
  • Spleen is located on the left side of the stomach well beneath the rib cage. (diseasespictures.com)
  • Spleen roughly measures the size of your fist but when it gets enlarged it can grow up in size pressing the stomach and liver. (diseasespictures.com)
  • Other signs of enlarged spleen include fatigue, bleeding while passing stool and frequent stomach infections. (diseasespictures.com)
  • Since the spleen is connected to the stomach, the stomach may also rotate causing a condition called gastric dilatation-volvulus which is commonly caused by bloat. (wagwalking.com)
  • The spleen can rupture when the abdomen suffers a severe direct blow or blunt trauma. (webmd.com)
  • Some of the most common symptoms of an enlarged spleen, which occurs as a result of numerous spleen conditions, include a feeling of fullness after eating very little, pain in the abdomen, fatigue, anemia, frequent infections and easy bleeding. (reference.com)
  • It occurs when an outside force such as a blow to the abdomen causes the spleen to tear, and symptoms include lightheadedness, confusion and pain or tenderness in the upper left abdomen, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • An enlarged spleen can cause a feeling of pain or fullness in the left upper abdomen, according to Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • Upon examination, a prominent spleen or a protruding abdomen may be noticed. (petmd.com)
  • A person's spleen is located in their abdomen, but the word also means spite, ill temper or annoyance. (hp-lexicon.org)
  • Thereafter, radiographs of the abdomen are performed to determine if the mass is on the spleen and radiographs of the chest is for checking the spread of cancer. (dp.ua)
  • Female mice were injected with a suspension of 0, 2 ml of 10 per cent v/v sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and sacrificed on the 5th day for recording of spleen mass and assay of plaque-forming cells (PFCs) in the spleens. (up.ac.za)
  • The anti-tumor effect of syngeneic spleen cells, xenogeneic immune RNA (l-RNA) and tumor antigen (TA) was studied in a chemically induced (N-methyl-N-nitro-sourethane) colon carcinoma model in BALB/c mice. (scripps.edu)
  • When spleen cells were treated first with l-RNA and then with mitomycin-C, therapeutic benefit was obtained and the survival rate of mice treated with these spleen cells and TA was significantly higher than that of the control group (no treatment). (scripps.edu)
  • When spleen cells were incubated with TA in vitro or after incubation with l-RNA and then injected into tumor-bearing mice, no anti-tumor effect was noted. (scripps.edu)
  • SDS-Page: INSTA-Blot Multi-species Liver, Lung, Spleen Tissues [NBP2-- Approximately 20 ug per lane of tissue lysates are resolved by SDS-PAGE, transfered onto PVDF membrane and stained with amido black. (novusbio.com)
  • INSTA-Blot™ Multi-species Liver, Lung, Spleen Tissues NBP2-30117 contains denatured proteins from tissue lysates loaded at 20 ug (total protein, Bradford Assay) per lane on a 4-20% TrisGlycine mini gel. (novusbio.com)
  • Multiple spleen cancer tissue array with unmatched normal adjacent tissues, 28 cases/48 cores. (creative-bioarray.com)
  • Retrorenal spleen refers to variant position of the spleen , when its inferior portion lies posterior to the upper pole of the left kidney . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Sudden low blood pressure in someone who is believed to have a spleen injury, particularly a young person, is a sign that the condition is especially severe, and emergency surgery is needed. (webmd.com)
  • A spleen that is excessively damaged may need to be removed through surgery. (reference.com)
  • Depending on the severity of your injury, a ruptured spleen may require surgery, and the sooner it is correctly identified, the more treatment options may be available. (simmonsandfletcher.com)
  • The treatment of a twisted spleen in cats is always surgery, but the proper surgical method can differentiate from veterinarian to veterinarian. (wagwalking.com)
  • However, if your spleen was removed to treat a chronic illness such as immune thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP) or lymphoma, you aren't eligible to donate blood . (thedogvisitor.com)
  • What is the purpose of the spleen in the body The KGB Agent answer: The spleen filters blood in much the way that the lymph nodes filter lymph. (acronymattic.com)
  • And since infectious consequences seem more frequent in children, it's recommended by some (not universally, for various reasons) that kids who lose their spleens be given daily antibiotics for prophylaxis. (blogspot.com)
  • A person can continue to live healthy even after the removal of spleen but he is prone to infectious diseases. (diseasespictures.com)
  • The spleen also makes red blood cells and helps remove, or filter, old ones from the body's circulation. (webmd.com)
  • The KGB Agent answer: Blood flows through the spleen, disease organisms within blood come into contact with lymphocytes in the. (acronymattic.com)
  • In some cases, an enlarged spleen does not respond to the medication or causes serious complications and requires surgical removal. (reference.com)
  • The severity and even the location of the pain depend on how badly the spleen has ruptured and how much blood leaks out. (webmd.com)
  • Internal bleeding caused by the ruptured spleen can cause blood pressure to drop. (webmd.com)
  • If there has been a great deal of blood loss from the spleen, the patient may have low blood pressure and a rapid heart rate. (webmd.com)
  • The first purpose of the spleen is to filter your blood of old blood cells and any foreign bodies. (acronymattic.com)
  • Absent the spleen, those functions can get carried on elsewhere, and so it is that people who lose their spleen, either from injury or because of various blood disorders, generally have no occasion to miss it. (blogspot.com)
  • The spleen also produces new blood cells, as well as helps remove and filter old ones from the bloodstream. (simmonsandfletcher.com)
  • Question: Can I donate blood with no spleen? (thedogvisitor.com)
  • Spleen is responsible for eliminating the dead blood cells. (diseasespictures.com)
  • Spleen acts as a warehouse for storing red blood cells and platelets which is responsible for clotting of blood. (diseasespictures.com)
  • When it fails to release red blood cells and platelets it can eventually get clogged up in the spleen making it enlarged. (diseasespictures.com)
  • Repeated pressure on the liver can affect the spleen and sometimes spleen gets affected when there is blood clot in the veins. (diseasespictures.com)
  • The cause of twisted spleen in cats is still unknown, but veterinary experts do know that the spleen rotates, partially or completely cutting off its blood vessels. (wagwalking.com)
  • A twisted spleen in cats can be diagnosed through a physical examination, blood work, a urine examination, x-rays, and ultrasounds. (wagwalking.com)
  • Ultrasounds and X-rays may also be used to view the spleen and surrounding areas for abnormalities. (petmd.com)
  • A fine needle aspiration may then be used to diagnose the spleen disorder. (petmd.com)
  • A chemistry profile may also be taken, showing elevated signs of the liver enzyme bilirubin to diagnose the spleen has become compromised. (wagwalking.com)
  • Complete tumor regression was observed in 17% of animals treated by injection of spleen cells pre-incubated with l-RNA in vitro followed by an injection of TA. (scripps.edu)
  • The anti-tumor effect of this treatment was abrogated completely when spleen cells were treated with mitomycin-C prior to l-RNA incubation. (scripps.edu)
  • This topic reviews the approach to the child whose spleen is enlarged on physical examination and/or is more than minimally enlarged on abdominal imaging. (uptodate.com)
  • The clinical or diagnostic significance of a spleen that is not palpable on physical examination and is only minimally enlarged on imaging is uncertain. (uptodate.com)
  • See 'Examination of the spleen' below. (uptodate.com)
  • Mayo Clinic states that many cases of an enlarged spleen exhibit no symptoms and are only detected through an examination. (reference.com)
  • A CT scan with contrast may take awhile, and some people with spleen ruptures have died while waiting to have the test done. (webmd.com)
  • Well, off I go to find a pig whose spleen I can measure. (blogspot.com)
How is an Enlarged Spleen Diagnosed?
How is an Enlarged Spleen Diagnosed? (news-medical.net)
Stomach, Pancreas & Spleen Diagram & Function | Body Maps
Stomach, Pancreas & Spleen Diagram & Function | Body Maps (healthline.com)
Martin Patriquin: Some passive-aggressive spleen venting from Lisée | Montreal Gazette
Martin Patriquin: Some passive-aggressive spleen venting from Lisée | Montreal Gazette (montrealgazette.com)
Other - high-school-football-player-suffers-a-lacerated-spleen-during-game - Health & Fitness - msn
Other - high-school-football-player-suffers-a-lacerated-spleen-during-game - Health & Fitness - msn (msn.com)
The Spleen: A Lean, Mean, Diving Machine! with Dr. Melissa Ilardo
The Spleen: A Lean, Mean, Diving Machine! with Dr. Melissa Ilardo (visitsaltlake.com)
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Spleen Lymphatic Esp | Dayton Children's (childrensdayton.org)
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Spleen Archives - Be Well Buzz (bewellbuzz.com)
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Spleen tyrosine Kinase (SYK) Antikörper (antikoerper-online.de)
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Spleen Amaranth (Amaranthus dubius) · iNaturalist.org (inaturalist.org)
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Adult Mouse Spleen Dissociation (On ice) (protocols.io)
Buy Château Chasse-Spleen Moulis en Médoc AC (75cl) 2012 cheaply | coop.ch
Buy Château Chasse-Spleen Moulis en Médoc AC (75cl) 2012 cheaply | coop.ch (coop.ch)
JCI Insight -
Heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis prime-boost vaccination induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells with...
JCI Insight - Heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis prime-boost vaccination induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells with... (insight.jci.org)
Upper Gastrointestinal Treatment - Spleen Bleeding Treatment - Paras Hospitals Gurgaon
Upper Gastrointestinal Treatment - Spleen Bleeding Treatment - Paras Hospitals Gurgaon (parashospitals.com)
SPLEEN (medizzy.com)
Spleen | SpringerLink
Spleen | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Spleen Of Style
Spleen Of Style (spleenofstyle.blogspot.com)
When Saints Go Machine music, videos, stats, and photos | Last.fm
When Saints Go Machine music, videos, stats, and photos | Last.fm (last.fm)
Https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/263489.php (medicalnewstoday.com)
Organizations by topic beginning with S: MedlinePlus
Organizations by topic beginning with S: MedlinePlus (medlineplus.gov)
Avery's spleen was lacerated - LA Times
Avery's spleen was lacerated - LA Times (latimes.com)
Spleen and Ideal - Dead Can Dance | Last.fm
Spleen and Ideal - Dead Can Dance | Last.fm (last.fm)
Diffuse waxy spleen | Definition of Diffuse waxy spleen at Dictionary.com
Diffuse waxy spleen | Definition of Diffuse waxy spleen at Dictionary.com (dictionary.com)
The lymphatic system - Canadian Cancer Society
The lymphatic system - Canadian Cancer Society (cancer.ca)
Operative Strategy in General Surgery | SpringerLink
Operative Strategy in General Surgery | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
LLS Search Results | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
LLS Search Results | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (lls.org)
LLS Search Results | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society
LLS Search Results | Leukemia and Lymphoma Society (lls.org)
Charles Baudelaire | Poetry Foundation
Charles Baudelaire | Poetry Foundation (poetryfoundation.org)
Couleur Spleen, by Noé Sîn.
Couleur Spleen, by Noé Sîn. (couleurspleen.blogspot.com)
Spleen and Lymphatic System (for Parents) - The Barbara Bush Children's Hospital
Spleen and Lymphatic System (for Parents) - The Barbara Bush Children's Hospital (kidshealth.org)