An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
A congenital or acquired condition in which the SPLEEN is not in its normal anatomical position but moves about in the ABDOMEN. This is due to laxity or absence of suspensory ligaments which normally provide peritoneal attachments to keep the SPLEEN in a fixed position. Clinical symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN, splenic torsion and ISCHEMIA.
Enlargement of the spleen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Serum containing GAMMA-GLOBULINS which are antibodies for lymphocyte ANTIGENS. It is used both as a test for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY and therapeutically in TRANSPLANTATION.

Intensive investigation in management of Hodgkin's disease. (1/20402)

Ninety-eight patients with clinically localised Hodgkin's disease underwent laparotomy and splenectomy to determine the extent of microscopic spread. In 68 patients the procedure was carried out for untreated disease apparently confined above the diaphragm. Abdominal disease cannot be confidently excluded on the basis of non-invasive investigation at presentation. Clinical assessment of splenic disease was unreliable unless gross splenomegaly was present. Pedal lymphography was accurate in assessing para-aortic and iliac disease but of no value in assessing other intra-abdominal lymph node involvement, including that of the mesenteric lymph node. Trephine bone marrow biopsy findings were normal in all patients before surgery, and only one patient was found to have diseased bone marrow by Stryker-saw biopsy at operation. Liver disease was identified at operation in nine patients, some of whom were asymptomatic with clinically undetectable splenic and nodal disease. Detailed clinical staging failed to detect disease in one-third of patients who underwent laparotomy. These studies show that if radiotherapy is to remain the treatment of choice for disease truly localised to lymph nodes a detailed staging procedure, including laparotomy and splenectomy, remains essential. The value of this potentially curative treatment is considerably diminished in the patient who has been inadequately staged.  (+info)

Mercury and Mink. II. Experimental methyl mercury intoxication. (2/20402)

Adult female mink were fed rations containing 1.1, 1.8, 4.8, 8.3 and 15.0 ppm mercury as methyl mercury chloride over a 93 day period. Histopathological evidence of injury was present in all groups. Mink fed rations containing 1.8 to 15.0 ppm mercury developed clinical intoxication within the experimental period. The rapidity of onset of clinical intoxication was directly related to the mercury content of the ration. Mercury concentration in tissue of mink which died were similar, despite differences in mercury content of the diets and time of death. The average mercury concentration in the brain of mink which died was 11.9 ppm. The lesions of methyl mercury poisoning are described and criteria for diagnosis are discussed.  (+info)

Pathological changes in chickens, ducks and turkeys fed high levels of rapeseed oil. (3/20402)

Rations containing 25% of either regular rapeseed oil (36% erucic acid), Oro rapeseed oil (1.9% erucic acid), soybean oil or a mixture of lard and corn oil were fed to chickens, ducks and turkeys. The regular rapeseed oil ration caused growth depression, increased feed conversion and anemia in all species. All the ducks and some of the chickens fed the regular rapeseed oil ration died. These dead birds were affected with hydropericardium and ascites. No deaths in the turkeys could be attributed to the regular rapeseed oil ration but some turkeys fed this ration had degenerative foci characterized by infiltrations of histiocytic and giant cells in the myocardium. Severe fatty change in the heart, skeletal muscles, spleen and kidney was found at an early age in all birds fed the regular rapeseed oil ration. Less severe fatty change but no other lesions were found in birds fed the Oro rapeseed oil and soybean oil rations.  (+info)

Decreased liver and lung drug-metabolizing activity in mice treated with Corynebacterium parvum. (4/20402)

Injections of killed suspensions of Corynebacterium parvum (i.p.) in young male mice were followed by time- and dose-dependent decreases in the drug-metabolizing activity of liver microsomes and lung homogenates. In vitro assays with model substrates [aminopyrine, aniline, p-nitroanisole, and benzo(a)pyrene] were used to quantitate drug-metabolizing activity. It is likely that such decreases in mixed function oxidases activity will act to significantly alter the pharmacokinetics of concurrently or subsequently administered drugs. The results provide a possible mechanism to explain several previously reported immunochemotherapeutic interactions.  (+info)

Suppression of Moloney sarcoma virus immunity following sensitization with attenuated virus. (5/20402)

Murine sarcoma virus (Moloney strain) (MSV-M)-induced tumors are unusual in that they regularly appear less than 2 weeks after virus inoculation, progress for 1 to 2 weeks, and are rejected by normal adult BALB/c mice. Rejectio leaves the animals immune to tumor induction. In the present study, presensitization of normal adult BALB/c mice with attenuated MSV-M resulted in an altered pattern of tumor immunity. Injection of active MSV-M into the presensitized animals resulted in tumor induction and rejection similar to that observed in normal animals, but rejection failed to produce protection against the secondary inoculation with MSV-M. After the second inoculation with active MSV-M, tumors appeared and progressed but ultimately were rejected. Over 80% of the mice died, 25% after the primary challenge and the remainder after the secondary challenge. At death, all mice had histological evidence of leukemia which was the probable cause of death. The animals that died following the secondary challenge also had evidence of disseminated MSV-M. Solid tumor nodules were found in skeletal muscle distant from the original site of inoculation, and active MSV-M was isolated from spleen and lungs. The possibility that the results were produced by specific suppression of MSV-Moloney leukemia virus immunity is discussed.  (+info)

Effect of portal-systemic anastomosis on renal haemodynamics in cirrhosis. (6/20402)

In 12 patients with portal hypertension and repeated bleedings from oesophageal varices the central haemodynamics, portal pressure, and mean renal blood flow (RBF) were investigated immediately before and two to seven months after portal-systemic shunt. Cardiac output increased significantly, whereas arterial pressure was unchanged after operation. RBF, which was initially less than in controls, did not change. As portal pressure decreased significantly, a direct portal-renal, neural, or humoral reflex mechanism does not explain the subnormal RBF in cirrhosis. As plasma volume was large and unchanged after operation a "diminished circulating plasma volume" is an unlikely explanation. Therefore, on the basis of the present observations, previously postulated causes of renal hypoperfusion in cirrhosis need revision.  (+info)

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (7/20402)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Systemic administration of rIL-12 synergistically enhances the therapeutic effect of a TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine. (8/20402)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antitumor cytokine, which induces and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). IL-12 also stimulates IFN-gamma production from both T cells and NK cells. In this study, we transfected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-D) with TNF gene and investigated the therapeutic effect of TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and whether the vaccination effect is enhanced by systemic administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12), in a murine model. TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine or systemic administration of rIL-12 showed slight or moderate inhibition of pre-established tumor. However, simultaneous application of the vaccine and rIL-12 resulted in complete eradication. The cytotoxicity of CTL against parental tumor cells was enhanced with the combination of the vaccine and rIL-12, and IFN-gamma production from spleen cells also increased synergistically. Our findings show that synergistic enhancement of CTL activity and IFN-gamma production could play an important role in the antitumor effect of combination therapy using TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and rIL-12.  (+info)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of azithromycin mass drug administration regimens on spleen rates in children aged 0-5 years.,br/, METHODS: Clinical assessment of spleen size was carried out during a cluster-randomised trial of azithromycin mass treatment for trachoma elimination in The Gambia. Twenty-four communities received three annual mass treatments with azithromycin, and 24 communities received treatment at baseline only.,br/, RESULTS: At the 30-month follow-up, 3646 children aged 0-5 years had spleen examination and measurement. Palpable splenomegaly was significantly lower in annually treated vs. baseline-only treatment communities and in treated vs. untreated children at 24 months in the annual treatment arm.,br/, CONCLUSION: The results suggest an effect of azithromycin on spleen rates at the individual level and are most plausibly due to the antimalarial effects of azithromycin.,br/, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Derivation of a brain tumor-selective monoclonal antibody from hybridoma between mouse myeloma and rat spleen cells immune to syngeneic glioma. AU - Saya, Hideyuki. AU - Masuko, Takashi. AU - Hashimoto, Yoshiyuki. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - Fischer 344 (F344) rats hyperimmunized with syngeneic 9L/R, glioma cells produced antibody selective to glioma cells. Hybridomas prepared from the spleen cells of the immunized rat were cloned, and we obtained a hybridoma clone which produced monoclonal IgM antibody, termed FR77, that showed selectivity to glioma cells. Immunoperoxidase staining of cultured cells revealed that FR77 was reactive with 3 lines of rat glioma cells but not with normal F344 rat fibroblasts. Immuno-histochemical staining of F344 rat tissue sections with biotinylated FR77 demonstrated that FR77 could bind with glioma tissue developed by intracerebral injection of 9L/R, glioma cells but not to normal parts of the brain tissues and other normal tissues tested. ...
Limiting dilution analyses with the Poisson model were performed on normal mouse spleen cells alone or in the presence of added cells or soluble factors. When a constant number of T cells activated to sheep red blood cells were added to cultures of diluted spleen cells the mean frequency of response to sheep red blood cells was 5- to 30-fold greater than that of spleen cells diluted alone. Adding a constant number of B cells did not produce a significant change in the mean frequency of response of diluted spleen cells. Since a responding unit is thought to be composed of T cells and B cells, these results indicate that antigen-specific T cells normally limit the generation of responding units when normal spleen cells are subjected to limiting dilution analysis alone. Conversely, B cells appear to be in relative excess.. Culture medium supernatants from mixed cultures of T cells activated to histocompatibility antigens and target cells bearing the antigens to which the T cells have been activated ...
Spleen disorders are mainly a danger when left unaddressed. Although you can survive having you spleen removed (called a splenectomy), you might not be able to survive the causes of spleen disorders. That is why it is important to make an appointment with your doctor if you feel you may have a spleen condition. The purpose and function of the spleen. The spleen is a bodily organ that rests in the left side of the abdominal cavity, between the 9th to 12th ribs. The spleens central purpose is to get rid of old red blood cells, although it also functions as reservoir for blood in case you suddenly need it due to some sort of trauma.
Mugraby, L; Gery, I; and Sulitzeanu, D, Subpopulations of mouse spleen lymphocytes. Iii. Cellular inter- actions in the response to concanavalin a. (1975). Subject Strain Bibliography 1975. 1761 ...
The relative functional maturity of neonatal mouse spleen T- and B-cell populations was assessed by comparing the ability to respond to the thymic-independent antigen, DNP-Ficoll, or thymic-dependent SRBC by producing antibody in vitro. Although mouse spleen cells responded to DNP-Ficoll at an earlier age than they responded to SRBC or TNP-SRBC, the reason for the lag in the T-dependent response was confounded by the finding of high numbers of suppressor T lymphocytes in the neonatal spleen. Thus, small numbers of neonatal spleen T cells or thymocytes significantly decreased the in vitro antibody response of adult spleen cells. Although B lymphocytes appear to be functionally mature soon after birth, their acitivity may be modulated by an excess of suppressor T cells; e.g., the reconstitution of helper cell function in the neonatal spleen required anti-theta treatment before addition of adult helper cells. Suppressive activity attributable to T cells seems to play a dominant role in determining ...
The Spleen has a wide range of functions, from digestion to muscle tone to sensuality. The Spleen manufactures Qi from our food. The Spleens role is to transform and move foods, liquids, and thoughts in the body (i.e. digestion). For this reason the Spleen is called the source of postnatal energy (acquired Qi). It has a primary role in the lymphatic and immune systems. It keeps our tissues, muscles, and thoughts moist, supple, adaptable. The Spleen governs taste and true nourishment. It regulates bio-rhythms including menstruation. The Spleen stores Yi, consciousness of potentials, the ability to focus the mind sharply and keenly. A healthy spleen requires a stabile home environment. The Spleen harmonizes upper and lower parts of the body. Worry and over-thinking are the greatest causes of Spleen depletion.. The Spleen is the largest lymphatic organ, and plays an important part in the bodys immune system, by helping it to recognize foreign invaders. The spleen is responsible for the removal of ...
Question - Lesions on spleen, abdomen pain. Where can I find more information? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Flu, Ask a Gastroenterologist, Surgical
Header}} ==Introduction== [[File:Stage_22_image_085.jpg,thumb,300px,Developing Human Spleen ([[Carnegie stage 22,stage 22]])]] The {{spleen}} is located on the left side of the abdomen and has a role initially in blood and then immune system development. The spleens haematopoietic function (blood cell formation) is lost with embryo development and lymphoid precursor cells migrate into the developing organ. Mesoderm within the dorsal mesogastrium form a long strip of cells adjacent to the forming stomach above the developing pancreas. Vascularization of the spleen arises initially by branches from the dorsal aorta. The human spleen arises in week 5 within the dorsal mesentery as proliferating mesenchyme overlying the dorsal pancreatic endoderm. Cells required for its hemopoietic function arise from the yolk sac wall and near dorsal aorta. The spleen generates both red and white cells in the 2nd trimester. ,br> [[:Category:Spleen,Category:Spleen]] ,br> {{Heart Links}} ,br> {{Immune Links}} ,br> ...
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You will be placed under general anaesthesia and be completely asleep. A cannula (hollow tube) is placed into the abdomen by your surgeon and your abdomen will be inflated with carbon dioxide gas to create a space to operate. A laparoscope (a tiny telescope connected to a video camera) is put through one of the cannulas which projects a video picture of the internal organs and spleen on a television monitor. Several cannulas are placed in different locations on your abdomen to allow your surgeon to place instruments inside your belly to work and remove your spleen. A search for accessory (additional) spleens and then removal of these extra spleens will be done since 15% of people have small, extra spleens. After the spleen is cut from all that it is connected to, it is placed inside a special bag. The bag with the spleen inside is pulled up into one of the small, but largest incisions on your abdomen. The spleen is broken up into small pieces (morcelated) within the special bag and completely ...
I dont know about spleen, but I think Ill have to try out that neatloaf recipe. Of course, pig spleen could be another good gluten-free alternative to Special K for all we know, but then it would no longer be vegetarian. Ill just assume pig spleen is a better weather predictor than dinner ingredient and stick with the recipe as it is for now. ...
In this report we describe a transplantation system where embryonic spleens are grafted into adult hosts. This model can be used to analyze the cellular and molecular requirements for the development and organization of splenic microenvironments.Whole embryonic day 15 (ED15) spleens, grafted under the kidney capsule of adult mice, were colonized by host-derived lymphocytes and DC and developed normal splenic architecture. Grafts were also able to form germinal centers in response to T-dependent antigen. Using this system we demonstrated that adult host-derived lymphotoxin (LT) a was sufficient for the development of ED15 LTa/ grafts. Grafting of ED15 LTa/ spleens into RAG/ hosts followed by transfer of LT a/ splenocytes revealed no requirement for lymphocyte-derived LT a in the induction of CCL21 or the development of T-zone stroma. These data suggest that interactions between adult lymphoid-tissue inducer-like cells and embryonic stromal cells initiated T-zone development. Furthermore,adult ...
TNF-α production in vitro by spleen mononuclear cells from IL-12 knockout mice (IL-12-/-) in comparison with cells from their wild-type littermates (IL-12+
1. The intracellular distribution of nitrogen, DPNH cytochrome c reductase, succinic dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase has been studied in fractions derived by differential centrifugation from rat and guinea pig spleen homogenates.. 2. In the spleens of each species, the nuclear fraction accounted for 40 to 50 per cent of the total nitrogen content of the homogenate, and the mitochondrial, microsome, and supernatant fractions contained about 8, 12, and 30 per cent of the total nitrogen, respectively.. 3. Per mg. of nitrogen, DPNH cytochrome c reductase was concentrated in the mitochondria and microsomes of both rat and guinea pig spleens. Seventy per cent of the total DPNH cytochrome c reductase activity was recovered in these two fractions. The reductase activity associated with the nuclear fraction was lowered markedly by isolating nuclei from rat spleens with the sucrose-CaCl2 layering technique. The lowered activity was accompanied by the recovery of about 90 per cent of the homogenate ...
Spleen cells may develop into insulin-producing pancreatic islet cells in adult animals, a breakthrough finding that could yield a potential cure for
The spleen was felt by the ancient Greeks and Romans to play a significant role in human physiology. Aristotle thought that the spleen was on the left side of the body as a counterweight to the right-sided liver.1 He believed that the spleen was important in drawing off residual humors from the stomach. The close relation of the stomach and spleen and the presence of the short gastric vessels so important in present-day splenic mobilization likely encouraged this belief. The spleen was also felt to hinder a mans running, and Pliny reportedly claimed that professed runners in the race that bee troubled with the splene, have a devise to burne and waste it with a hot yron.2 The exceptional speed of giraffes was felt to be related to the erroneous belief that giraffes were asplenic. Early references to removal of the spleen to increase speed make it apparent that it has long been known that the spleen is not absolutely necessary to sustain life. Paracelsus believed that the spleen could be ...
References for Abcams Mouse spleen tissue lysate - total protein (ab7937). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Facts about swollen spleen symptoms. Often few swollen spleen symptoms appear in people suffering from an enlarged or damaged spleen. A swollen spleen is not a disease, but rather is a symptom caused by other underlying problems or disorders. However, an enlarged or damaged spleen can become a life-threatening problem, so recognizing swollen spleen symptoms and their underlying causes is important. The spleen is a fist sized organ located under the ribcage on the left side of the body. It sits next to the stomach and is an easily injured organ.
Capacity of ICSBP−/− spleen cells to transfer Listeria resistance to RAG2−/− mice. Non adherent spleen cells of ICSBP+/+ (open diamonds) or ICSBP−/−
Dupuy dangeac, A; Reme, T; Pla, M; and Colombani, J, Accessory function of a small radioresistant spleen cell population in the generation of t-cell-mediated cytotoxicity. (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 2379 ...
Female mice were injected with a suspension of 0, 2 ml of 10 per cent v/v sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and sacrificed on the 5th day for recording of spleen mass and assay of plaque-forming cells (PFCs) in the spleens. All PFCs from a pool of five spleens and the individual spleen masses were subjected to rigid statistical analysis to verify whether differences from the control groups were significant (P , 0, 05). Three doses of 4 mg cortisol administered at 24-hourly intervals were given at various times relative to the time of immunization to determine the optimum stage at which to inhibit the formation of PFCs. The greatest inhibitory effect was obtained when the first dose was given at -6 h, with a lesser though still significant depression of PFCs with the -30 h dose regimen. Earlier and later injections had relatively little effect. An attempt was made to determine the response to different dosage levels by injecting doubling doses of steroid starting at the -6 h period. A maximal effect ...
DTA-1 mAb abrogates suppression mediated by CD4+ CD25+ T cells. (A) CD4+ CD25- or CD4+ CD25+ T cells (gated as a or b, respectively) were purified by cell-sorter from BALB/c spleen cells. (B) CD4+ CD25+ T cells (open square and closed square) or CD4+ CD25- T cells (open circle and closed circle) purified from 2-month-old BALB/c mice, or these two populations mixed in equal amounts (open triangle and closed triangle), were stimulated for 3 days along with MMC-treated spleen cells as APC in the absence or presence of graded amounts of DTA-1 mAb. Incorporation of [3H] thymidine by proliferating lymphocytes during the last 6 hr of the culture was measured. (C) Spleen cell suspensions prepared from 2-month-old BALB/c mouse were stained with anti-CD4, anti-CD25 and DTA-1. Expression of GITR (DTA-1) on CD4+ CD25+ T cells or CD4+ CD25- T cells is shown in the histogram. The dotted lines represent control staining with an irrelevant Ab.. ...
INSTA-Blot Multi-species Liver, Lung, Spleen Tissues. INSTA-Blot Membrane is a ready-to-use PVDF membrane containing denatured protein from cells or tissue lysates. Backed by our 100% Guarantee.
According to Knowlton, spleen lacerations or ruptures typically take place from injury (like a car accident or contact sports). These emergency situations cause a break in the spleens surface and can result in severe internal bleeding and signs of shock (fast heart rate, dizziness, pale skin, fatigue), said Knowlton. The Mayo Clinic reported that without emergency situation care, the internal bleeding might end up being deadly.. On the continuum of spleen breakage, a laceration refers to a lower-grade extent of injury, in which just a part of the spleen is harmed. A burst spleen is the highest grade of broken spleen injury, inning accordance with HealthTap, an online network of physicians who respond to health questions.. According to Medical News Today, symptoms of a lacerated or burst spleen consist of pain or tenderness to the touch in the upper left part of the abdomen, left shoulder, and left chest wall, along with confusion and lightheadedness. If you experience any of the symptoms ...
Splenic T cells exposed to concanavalin A (Con A), and subsequently to factors produced by rat spleen cells in response to Con A (Con A sup), acquire the ability to function as helper T (TH) cells in response to xenogeneic erythrocytes (RBC). Help is measured as the reconstitution of the plaque-forming cell response of a spleen cell population depleted of T cells by treatment with anti-Thy-1 serum and complement. We propose that precursor TH cells differentiate during the in vitro treatment into mature TH cells. As differentiation occurs under limiting dilution conditions, an estimation of the precursor frequency should in principle be possible. However, a single-hit Poisson distribution does not fit our data. Instead, we observe, dependent on the T cell concentration, three separate peaks of response. In many experiments, using sheep, horse, and chicken RBC as antigens, we reproducibly find these peaks at 40-190, 600-3,000, and 20,000-100,000 T cells, placed into limiting dilution cultures, ...
You see, after a major battle, there would be hordes of dead bodies all over the place. Lying in the sun like that, the bodies would get all bloated as the gases inside built up, until they would explode, leaving the ground strewn with organs and viscera. It was quite messy, and extremely unhygenic. To deter this, the doctors would wander the battlefield, looking at bodies for signs of puffiness. They would then stab the body in the abdomen, allowing the noxious humors a means of escape. It was obviously known the the reason for the bloating was that dread spirits were taking up residence in the body. Where else would these vile demons go but the spleen? Thus, the term venting the spleen was born. Their scientific principles were not entirely sound ...
You see, after a major battle, there would be hordes of dead bodies all over the place. Lying in the sun like that, the bodies would get all bloated as the gases inside built up, until they would explode, leaving the ground strewn with organs and viscera. It was quite messy, and extremely unhygenic. To deter this, the doctors would wander the battlefield, looking at bodies for signs of puffiness. They would then stab the body in the abdomen, allowing the noxious humors a means of escape. It was obviously known the the reason for the bloating was that dread spirits were taking up residence in the body. Where else would these vile demons go but the spleen? Thus, the term venting the spleen was born. Their scientific principles were not entirely sound ...
BioAssay record AID 196412 submitted by ChEMBL: Percent inhibition of Concanavalin A stimulated cell proliferation of rat spleen lymphocytes at 10 uM; ND is not determined.
Early detection of problems which concern the spleen is highly critical because when these are just being left untreated, these may probably lead to life-threatening situations. The treatment for pain relating to the spleen would vary immensely depending on the underlying pathology. Before your physician would prescribe you a specific treatment, your exact condition must first be determined. For instance, when the splenic pain is primarily felt due to an underlying infection may entirely be treated with antibiotics. When for instance this is caused by the presence of tumor near the spleen, surgery, chemotherapy and other common ways of treating cancer may help palliate or perhaps treat the condition. However, when it is all due to a ruptured spleen, a splenectomy, which is the surgical removal of the spleen, may be indicated. This surgical procedure poses several risks though. Since the spleen has been already removed, the person this time becomes more susceptible to infections. Thus, vaccines ...
Enlarged Spleen is a disease of the Spleen. Spleen is present under the rib cage in the upper left part of the Abdomen. Its normal size is about that of a fist. But as a result of diseases the Spleen gets enlarged. The Spleen is part of the immune system. It filters the blood and acts as a reservoir. It produces lymphocytes, a type of white ...
The immature B cells that successfully make it through this process (only about 10%) enter into the bloodstream and migrate to the spleen. The immature B cells have both IgM and IgG (BCRs) expressed on their surface at this point and once they enter into the spleen are called transitional type 1 (T1) B cells. In the spleen B cells, T cells, and follicular dendritic cells, form what is known as a primary follicle or sometimes the white pulp (See Figure 2). The T1 B cells are located outside of the follicle (extrafollicular) in an area known as the red pulp (as this is where all of the red cells are flowing through the spleen). At this point, the T1 B cells are exposed to more self cells and circulating proteins and if they respond strongly it would indicate autoreactivity and the cells are typically induced to become T3 B cells, which are anergic (which means they become non-responsive to antigen), and will likely die off.. If the T1 B cells survive through this they can then migrate into the ...
I will be having a splenectomy in July and Im very nervous and scared about it. I never have surgery in my life. I am 44 years old female and always keeping up my healthy life style but for some unknown reason. The CT scan shown that I have lesion growing inside my spleen from a spot to 3.1cm in 2 years. I have been having 7 CT, 1 PET/CT and 1 MRI in the past 2 years. After reveiwing the recent CT, my surgeon determined that he will have to make about 3-6 incision in additional of 3 holes for laporascopic procedure so that he can take the whole spleen out through that incision. He gave me 2 options, 1 is to make an incision above the belly or he can make it on the bikini area to hide the scar. My question is, from your surgeon point of view. would it be more difficult to remote the spleen from bikini area than from the above belly button? I just dont want to add a complication by having him removed the spleen from the bikini area. The second question is, what will be the closing method use to ...
Ive been having abdominal spasms, and just got the results from my CT scan--I have a benign cyst on my spleen. The nurse said no treatment is necessary as long as it doesnt get any bigger (which is f...
Jason Witten wondered if his season was over before it ever began when doctors told the Dallas Cowboys star tight end that he had a lacerated spleen.
A joke blog to tickle your spleen (or spleens, since approximately 10% of people have one or more accessory spleens. They may form near the hilum of the main spleen, the junction at which the splenic vessels enter and leave the organ. --Wikipedia). ...
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This method allows you to isolate different subclass mononuclear cells, like B-cells, T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T, from mouse spleen. By conjugating cells with specific antibodies and subsequently magnetic beads isolation, using the technique from Miltenyi, this allows a high purity.
What you should know about spleen function. Spleen function is probably not the first thing that you think of in the morning when you wake up. The spleen, however, is an important bodily organ. It serves a very important function in terms of keeping your body healthy. The spleen is the warehouse where old blood cells are held until theyre called upon to perform important bodily tasks like healing lacerations.
Looking for spleen? Find out information about spleen. soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that... Explanation of spleen
The anti-tumor effect of syngeneic spleen cells, xenogeneic immune RNA (l-RNA) and tumor antigen (TA) was studied in a chemically induced (N-methyl-N-nitro-sourethane) colon carcinoma model in BALB/c mice. When the mice were treated, sequentially, with these three elements by local injection under the tumor, complete tumor regression was observed in 25% of the animals. Complete tumor regression was observed in 17% of animals treated by injection of spleen cells pre-incubated with l-RNA in vitro followed by an injection of TA. When spleen cells were treated first with l-RNA and then with mitomycin-C, therapeutic benefit was obtained and the survival rate of mice treated with these spleen cells and TA was significantly higher than that of the control group (no treatment). The anti-tumor effect of this treatment was abrogated completely when spleen cells were treated with mitomycin-C prior to l-RNA incubation. When spleen cells were incubated with TA in vitro or after incubation with l-RNA and then ...
The spleen is the organ located above the stomach and under the ribs, which is responsible for fighting infection and balancing the fluids in the body. Spleen problems range from mild to severe and life-threatening. One of the most common spleen-related problems is splenomegaly, or an enlarged spleen --- may be caused by numerous factors, states, including mononucleosis, bacterial infections, malaria, liver cirrhosis, destruction of red blood cells or hemolytic anemia, blood cancers, pressure on your spleen veins and certain metabolic disorders.
Four different combinations of F1 hybrid mice [(C57BL/10 X B10.A)F1, (C57BL/10 X B10.BR)F1, B6D2F1, and AKD2F1] were injected intravenously with spleen cells from parental strains. The T-cell-mediated cytotoxic potential of spleen cells from the injected F1 mice was assessed from 4 to 21 d later by in vitro sensitization with trinitrophenyl-modified parental or syngeneic F1 spleen cells (TNP-self) or with allogeneic spleen cells. The cytotoxic potential of the F1 mice to TNP-self as well as to alloantigens was abolished or severely depressed throughout this period when the respective H-2k,a,d parental spleen cells were injected. In contrast, the cytotoxic potential was unaffected or only marginally reduced when H-2b parental cells were injected. The induction of depressed cytotoxic activity was shown to be a result of a population of parental radiosensitive T lymphocytes. The results should be discussed with respect to (a) the genetic and mechanistic parameters associated with the differential ...
Light microscopy of primate spleen showing white pulp (blue) and red pulp (pink). The spleen is part of the bodys immune system and classified as a lymphoid organ. It filters blood and serves to screen the blood for the presence of foreign antigens that may be a threat to the bodys health. The red pulp is formed like a sieve through which blood vessels pass. The white pulp is formed of lymphoid cells, mainly lymphocytes, which initiate an immune response if harmful agents in the blood are detected. The spleen also removes and destroys worn out red blood cells. Magnification x9 when printed at 10 cm. - Stock Image C024/0095
A joke blog to tickle your spleen (or spleens, since approximately 10% of people have one or more accessory spleens. They may form near the hilum of the main spleen, the junction at which the splenic vessels enter and leave the organ. --Wikipedia). ...
BioAssay record AID 409783 submitted by ChEMBL: Increase in 2-arachidonoylglycerol level in Swiss-Webster mouse spleen at 10 mg/kg, ip after 4 hrs relative to control.
The immunogenesis of the human fetus has been investigated by means of the formation of immunoglobulins in vitro, immunofluorescence, morphological studies, and analysis of the immunoglobulins in the serum. Twenty fetuses which were born alive but died soon after delivery, were studied; their ages ranged from 13 to 31 weeks. The results of the spleen cultures demonstrated the synthesis of IgG and IgM, which starts at about the twentieth week of gestation. In the serum, IgM could be detected at about the same period. The immunofluorescent staining of the spleen tissue showed that medium sized and large lymphoid cells as well as plasma cells, even with Russell bodies, were positive for either IgG or IgM. The peripheral blood was also found to contain a small number of medium sized IgG and IgM-positive cells. Both the spleen and the peripheral blood showed a considerable number of fluorescent small lymphocytes which exclusively contained IgM. The relatively high ratio of IgM to IgG production ...
For a recent practical I had to investigate different cell populations in a mouse spleen cell suspension which present MHC class II molecules. 2 antibodies were used-rabbit IG which is specifically anti-mouse Ig, and mouse Ig which specifically binds MHC class II ...
There is an 80s revival happening in music these days. No, this isnt necessarily news unto self. After all, bands like Metric have been enjoying massive success with a sound as rooted in the modern day as it is in the past.. Ottawa-based band Silvergun & Spleen are set to release their full-length debut Semi Truck next Tuesday (September 11). Owing as much to the 80s as any of their contemporaries twice their age, the bands blend of electro-pop is pretty damn infectious.. Silvergun & Spleen are comprised of siblings Marie-Eve Mallet and Veronique Mallet along with John Lenherr and bassist Chris Page-Manson.. Last week, S&S vocalist-guitarist Marie-Eve took the time to chat with The Musicnerd Chronicles last about the groups new record and why the 80s werent so bad in hindsight.. How do you feel the band has grown since the release of your 2011 EP Through My Skeleton? Mallet: I think some of the most noticeable differences that we see is around the fact that we were more willing to ...
Spleen. Main article: Spleen. The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body but has other functions.[23] It breaks down ... Another product is iron, which is used in the formation of new blood cells in the bone marrow.[5] Medicine treats the spleen ... The celiac artery supplies the liver, stomach, spleen and the upper 1/3 of the duodenum (to the sphincter of Oddi) and the ...
The spleen develops from mesenchymal cells between layers of the dorsal mesentery of the stomach.[20] The thymus arises as an ... The spleen and the thymus are also lymphoid organs of the immune system. The tonsils are lymphoid organs that are also ... The spleen stores red blood cells and lymphocytes. It can store enough blood cells to help in an emergency. Up to 25% of ... The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way ...
... and the spleen and thymus) as large lymphatic organs contradistinguished from the smaller tissue loci of GALT and MALT. ...
Spleen Voice 2017 I Do... Until I Don't Noah Brewing 2017 Chappaquiddick Joe Gargan ...
Spleen Modern times[edit]. The variations in natural language definitions of what constitutes an organ, their degree of ...
The spleen and the tonsils are the larger secondary lymphoid organs that serve somewhat similar functions to lymph nodes, ... though the spleen filters blood cells rather than lymph. The tonsils are sometimes erroneously referred to as lymph nodes. ...
Spleen qi vacuity, Spleen yang vacuity, Spleen qi vacuity with down-bearing qi, Spleen qi vacuity with lack of blood ... containment, cold-damp invasion of the Spleen, damp-heat invasion of Spleen and Stomach in case of the Spleen zàng;[26] wind/ ... Earth (土) = Spleen (脾, pinyin: pí) and Stomach (胃, pinyin: weì). *Metal (金) = Lung (肺, pinyin: feì) and Large Intestine (大腸, ... The term zàng (臟) refers to the five entities considered to be yin in nature-Heart, Liver, Spleen, Lung, Kidney-, while fǔ (腑) ...
Spleen Earth Drilling Tossing Arrow Exercise and Shen Fa[edit]. Originally, Tongbei may not have referred to a school of boxing ... spleen, lung and kidney. The five elements of boxing are wrestling, batting, piercing, axing and boring. The Chinese boxing ...
Spleen Contemporary astrology[edit]. Western astrology[edit]. Astrology: the Thema Mundi shows the naked-eye planets in their ...
The mantle zone (or just mantle) of a lymphatic nodule (or lymphatic follicle) is an outer ring of small lymphocytes surrounding a germinal center.[1] It is also known as the "corona".[2] It contains transient lymphocytes.[3] It is the location of the lymphoma in mantle cell lymphoma. ...
Enlarged spleen. *Pharyngeal erythema. *Enlarged liver. *Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and of the sclera) ...
"Spleen" (1910). *"[Class] Ode" (1910). Poetry. *Prufrock and Other Observations (1917) *The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock ...
Taiyin Spleen Channel of Foot (足太阴脾经) or Foot's Major Yin Spleen Meridian. Greater Yin (taiyin, 太阴). Foot (足). Earth (土). ... Spleen (脾). 巳 [sì] 9 a.m. to 11 a.m. Shaoyin Kidney Channel of Foot (足少阴肾经) or Foot's Minor Yin Kidney Meridian. Lesser Yin ( ... The Yin Meridians of the leg are Spleen, Kidney, and Liver. The Yang meridians of the leg are Stomach, Bladder, and Gall ...
pɔ/ 'spleen' Low s pos. /pɔ̀/ 'thorn' High falling j poj. /pɔ̂/ 'female' ...
Mary Spleen Recurring role 2012 Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries Miss Leigh "Raisins and Almonds" ...
Spleen appears. Ureteric buds appear. Gestational age: 6 weeks and 0 days until 6 weeks and 6 days old. 43-49 days from last ... The function is transferred to liver by 10th week of gestation and to spleen and bone marrow beyond that. The total blood ... Short-lived T lymphocytes usually reside in thymus, bone marrow and spleen; whereas long-lived T lymphocytes reside in blood ... Fetus starts producing leukocytes at 2 months gestation mainly from thymus and spleen. Lymphocytes derived from thymus are ...
Spleen. 13. Esophagus. 14. Stomach. 15. Pancreas: 16. Accessory pancreatic duct, 17. Pancreatic duct.. 18. Small intestine: 19 ...
Spleen.. 13. Esophagus. 14. Stomach. 15. Pancreas: 16. Accessory pancreatic duct, 17. Pancreatic duct.. 18. Small intestine: 19 ... Anatomy photo:38:14-0106 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Stomach, Spleen and Liver: The Gallbladder and the Bile System ...
Hepatosplenomegaly (enlarged liver and spleen). *Icterus ("jaundice"). *Lymphadenopathy (swollen lymph nodes). *Palmar erythema ...
The tissue distribution, measured in terms of AUC0→4h values, follows kidney > spleen> liver > heart > lung> brain. Using ...
liver, lungs, kidney, spleen imaging of hydatid cysts in the liver, lungs, kidney and spleen Mediterranean countries as ... intestine, liver, spleen, lungs, skin stool China, East Asia, Philippines skin exposure to water contaminated with infected ... intestine, liver, spleen, lungs, skin, rarely infects the brain stool Africa, Caribbean, South America, Asia, Middle East - 83 ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Baudelaire, Charles (2021) [1869]. Paris Spleen. New York: Contra Mundum Press. p. 142 ... in Paris Spleen "L. In Praise of Dogs" Nestor Roqueplan, the Goncourt brothers, Paul de Kock, Alexandre Dumas fils, and Henri ...
Spleen appears. Ureteric buds appear. Gestational age: 6 weeks and 0 days until 6 weeks and 6 days old. 43-49 days from last ...
His resulting injuries commonly leave him uttering some variation of the phrase, "AHHHH! MY SPLEEN!" He also is quite often ...
"Screen Spleen." The Chronicle Review, March 18, 2013 Jesper Juul's website. Jesper Juul's CV. The Ludologist Blog. Website for ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Ayoub, Nina C. "Screen Spleen". The Chronicle Review March 18, 2013. "Game Studies 1/1 ...
Same spleen. Same pancreas. Same number of lobes in each lung. Pericardium attached to diaphragm. More rounded apex of the ...
No man is an island entire of itself; every man is a piece of the continent, a part of the main; if a clod be washed away by the sea, Europe is the less, as well as if a promontory were, as well as any manner of thy friends or of thine own were; any man's death diminishes me, because I am involved in mankind. And therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls; it tolls for thee ...
Spleen - "Nun Lover!" (2007). *The Diary of IC Explura - "A Loveletter to the Transformer, Pt. 1" (2007) ...
Use only where term is in wide use, and not the same as the Latin term-e.g. Spleen: Greek: σπλήν-splḗn ; Latin: lien. Also ...
It is also used to prevent rheumatic fever and to prevent infections following removal of the spleen.[1] It is given by mouth.[ ...
Palpation and percussion of the spleen are important techniques for identifying an enlarged spleen. ... The spleen is enlarged in a number of important clinical diagnoses. ... If spleen is not felt, repeat with pt lying on right side. Gravity may bring spleen within reach. *"LET THE SPLEEN PALPATE YOUR ... Introduction to the Spleen Exam The purpose of both palpation and percussion of the spleen is to look for splenic enlargement. ...
Barrier A, Lacaine F, Callard P et al (2002) Lymphangiomatosis of the spleen and 2 accessory spleens. Surgery 131: 114-116 ... Paley MR, Ros PR (2002) Imaging of spleen disorders. In: Bowdler AJ (ed) The complete spleen: structure, function, and clinical ... Robertson F, Leander P, Ekberg O (2001) Radiology of the spleen. Eur Radiol 11:80-95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Grantham M, Einstein D, McCarron K et al (1998) Littoral cell angioma of the spleen. Abdom Imaging 23:633-635CrossRefPubMed ...
The spleen acts as a filter against foreign organisms that infect the bloodstream, and also filters out old red blood cells ... spleen. spleen, soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The spleen ... The spleen also acts as a blood reservoir during stress or at other times when additional blood is needed, the spleen contracts ... Ordinarily, the spleen manufactures red blood cells only toward the end of fetal life, and after birth that function is taken ...
Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen). In someone who is healthy, the spleen is usually small enough that it cant be felt when you ... The spleen also helps the body fight infection. The spleen contains lymphocytes and another kind of white blood cell called ... The spleen is located in the upper left part of the abdomen under the ribcage. It works as part of the lymphatic system to ... The spleen helps control the amount of blood and blood cells that circulate through the body and helps destroy damaged cells. ...
Ruptured Spleen. Br Med J 1955; 2 doi: (Published 16 July 1955) Cite this as: Br Med J ...
Learn about treatment and follow-up care for a spleen injury in kids and teens. ... Spleen injuries are most often caused by a traumatic blow to the abdomen. ... Spleen Injuries The spleen is located in the upper left area of your belly and sits behind and below the stomach. Most spleen ... The spleen filters and removes old blood cells and bacteria.. *The spleen also makes red blood cells and is important in ...
The spleen is a fist-sized organ in the upper left part of the belly under the ribcage. It helps protect the body by clearing ... What Does the Spleen Do?. The spleen is an important part of the immune system. It:. *acts as a filter, weeding out old and ... What Is the Spleen?. The spleen is a fist-sized organ in the upper left part of the belly under the ribcage. It helps protect ... In the past, doctors often did a surgery called splenectomy (splih-NEK-tuh-mee) to remove an injured spleen. But most spleen ...
Spleen removal is surgery to remove a diseased or damaged spleen. This surgery is called splenectomy. ... The spleen is in the upper part of the belly, on the left side underneath the ribcage. The spleen helps the body fight germs ... Spleen removal is surgery to remove a diseased or damaged spleen. This surgery is called splenectomy. ... During open spleen removal:. *The surgeon makes a cut (incision) in the middle of the belly or on the left side of the belly ...
Spongy inner tissue within the spleen contains many tiny blood vessels and hollow sinuses that store blood. The spleen can ... The spleen is not a vital organ - its functions are useful but not essential for life. Red bone marrow, the liver, and lymph ... The spleen is a brown, flat, oval-shaped lymphatic organ that filters and stores blood to protect the body from infections and ... The spleen may enlarge during certain infections due to an increase in the number of white blood cells, captured pathogens and ...
my current lab stats are t-cells less than 20 viral load 100,000 + does this spleen fact alter th ... I had my spleen removed 2 years ago for thrombocytopinia.. Feb of this year I was diagnosed with AIDS. ... I had my spleen removed 2 years ago for thrombocytopinia.. Feb of this year I was diagnosed with AIDS. my current lab stats are ... Removal of the spleen usually results in a significantly higher T-helper cell count. Your count of 20 is perhaps artificially ...
SPLEEN cells might be capable of regenerating insulin-producing islet cells in people with diabetes, claims Denise Faustmans ... Can spleen cells treat diabetes?. SPLEEN cells might be capable of regenerating insulin-producing islet cells in people with ... Next, Faustman injected spleen cells, because they make a substance lethal to naive memory T-cells, stopping them from forming ...
Calcified Cyst of Spleen. Br Med J 1949; 1 doi: (Published 29 January 1949) Cite this ...
Severe pain arising from the spleen often signals the presence of splenic infarction. ... The spleen is an organ situated behind the stomach, in the upper left part of the abdomen known as the left hypochondrium. It ... Spleen Damage or Rupture. Damage to the spleen is rare because of its protected position under the left side of the ribcage. In ... The drug-induced adverse reactions are usually temporary and the spleen pain subsides with the spleen size once the drugs ...
Disclosure: Walyou is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to ...
Certain diseases may cause a spleen to swell. A damaged spleen may need removed. Read more. ... The spleen is an organ above the stomach, under the ribs. ... Spleen removal (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Spleen ... You can live without a spleen. Other organs, such as your liver, will take over some of the spleens work. Without a spleen, ... Your spleen is an organ above your stomach and under your ribs on your left side. It is about as big as your fist. The spleen ...
... the symptoms of a ruptured spleen, and surgery to repair or remove this organ, which helps the body fight foreign bacteria. ... WebMD looks at why a spleen might rupture, ... How Is a Ruptured Spleen Diagnosed? * How Is a Ruptured Spleen ... The spleen can rupture when the abdomen suffers a severe direct blow or blunt trauma. The spleen is the most frequent organ to ... How Is a Ruptured Spleen Diagnosed? Imaging tests can help diagnose a ruptured spleen. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the ...
ENLARGED SPLEEN. Hi I dont know if anyone can give me some advice, I had a very bad gastro infection nearly 5yrs ago, it was ... Just last week my Dr from an ultra-sound found I had an Enlarged Spleen at 15.3cm when it should only be 11, also my Platelet ... Just last week my Dr from an ultra-sound found I had an Enlarged Spleen at 15.3cm when it should only be 11, also my Platelet ... Just wondering if anyone could tell me what they think? Could long term use of lots of medication cause an enlarged Spleen? or ...
My spleen has been bothering me for a mo... ... My spleen has been bothering me for a month or so and the pain ...
The spleens blood is supplied by the splenic artery. This artery is one of the three large arteries that branch out from the ...
... Chris Hodgson lsrbd at Wed Mar 29 08:59:18 EST 1995 *Previous message: RNA from spleen ...
Video Tag: Spleen. 2019 ABSITE Preparation, Part 1. Webinar Chair: Michael M. Awad, MD, PhD Faculty: Jeffrey Blatnik, MD; Amber ... abdomen, anal, biliary, colorectal, esophagus, flexible endoscopy, hernia, intestine, obesity, spleen, stomach. Video Authors. ... Academic/Educational, Bariatrics, Biliary, Colorectal, Flexible Endoscopy, Foregut, Hernia, Spleen. Sources. Resident Webinar. ... abdomen, abdominal distention, abdominal fullness, abdominal pain, abdominal rigidity, abscess, accessory spleen, ...
he has constant pain and cant eat as much as he used to cos as soon as he eats he feels full they said thats because of spleen ... he has constant pain and cant eat as much as he used to cos as soon as he eats he feels full they said thats because of spleen ... had spread to her blood and spleen which is why it swelled up she was pumped full of antibiotics and is now at home she is ok ... my son turned 16 in july and a week later he was at home doing nothing and his spleen rupture he was in icu for 3 days they ...
Spleen and Ideal (De Profundis (Out of the Depths of Sorrow), Ascension and more). 9 tracks (38:02). Spleen and Ideal is the ... Spleen and Ideal is the second album recorded by Dead Can Dance, released in 1986. A rather ethereal form of gothic music, ...
Primary epithelioid angiosarcoma of the spleen.. Wei S1, Han Y2, Li T1, Xu X1. ...
The normal spleen is usually not palpable but is tucked beneath and above the left costal margin, between the fundus of the ... The normal spleen is usually not palpable but is tucked beneath and above the left costal margin, between the fundus of the ... Plain radiographs are of use when they show the spleen against a background of gas in the fundus of the stomach and the splenic ... These methods provide a sharp clear picture of the spleen, with the omental fat providing a plane of separation from the blood ...
Spleen-on-a-chip uses magnetic nanobeads to rid blood of pathogens April 15, 2013 at 1:48 pm We live in a world where we cant ... Now, though, scientists at Harvard have built a machine spleen, which is able to remove pathogens from the bloodstream through ...
Learn about spleen location, spleen pain and other symptoms, and possible causes and treatments for splenomegaly. ... Accessed June 14, 2016. ... Enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen. In: Harrisons Principles of Internal Medicine. 19th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw-Hill ... Accessed June 14, 2016. ...
NOTCH ON ANTERIOR BORDER - palpable in spleen, not in kidney. *spleen enlarges diagonally towards RLQ, while the kidney ... UPPER EDGE of spleen NOT palpable, upper edge of kidney is. *SPLENIC RUB on auscultation (have patient breathe in and out) and ... Spleen location[edit]. *posterior to the midaxillary line (MAL), between 9 to 11th ribs, size of palm ... kidney can be resonant to percussion (d/t overlying bowel), spleen should be DULL ...
The spleen works best when it is soothingly stimulated. Using aromatic herbs and spices prevents the spleen from becoming ... This makes digestion easier on the spleen.. Liquids. Liquids consumed with food dont agree with the spleen. Ideally, drink ... Also, the spleen favours easily digestible foods like stews or soups as opposed to raw or cold food. If raw or cold food is ... According to Chinese medicine, the spleen responds well to the natural sweetness in grains and root vegetables, such as rice, ...
Welcome eloise-spleen to HubPages. Looks like eloise-spleen doesnt have any Featured articles on HubPages to share yet. Nows ... Follow eloise-spleen to show your support and get updates on new content eloise-spleen publishes. ... your chance to inspire, encourage, and welcome eloise-spleen to the amazing HubPages community. ...
  • Spleen enlargement, or splenomegaly, is another reason for splenic pain. (
  • Palpation of the lower border of the spleen will reveal whether it is enlarged, because this occurs only after significant splenomegaly has occurred. (
  • But seasonally small spleens could sometimes simply stem from a combination of (1) a cessation of active splenomegaly as seasonally patent infections recede, and (2) a seasonal lymphoid involution, occurring even if an individual has not recently responded to, and recovered from, an infection. (
  • (
  • The primary symptoms of splenomegaly, or an enlarged spleen, include localized pain in the upper left part of the abdomen, which may radiate to the shoulde. (
  • Splenomegaly is a disease that occurs when the spleen is abnormally enlarged and begins filtering out good blood cells as well as bad blood cells. (
  • Symptoms of wandering spleen are typically those associated with an abnormally large size of the spleen (splenomegaly) or the unusual position of the spleen in the abdomen. (
  • In these cases, symptoms may include abdominal pain, abnormal enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), bleeding into the abdomen (infarct), the accumulation of fibrous tissue in the spleen (fibrosis), and/or decay of splenic tissue (necrosis). (
  • Symptoms usually develop due to the abnormal position of the spleen in the lower abdomen or because of the abnormal enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). (
  • The diagnosis of splenomegaly (abnormal enlargement of the spleen) is extremely important in managing patients with many medical conditions. (
  • Although the physical exam can be used to confidently diagnosis massive enlargement of the spleen, evaluating lesser degrees of splenomegaly at the bedside proves more difficult. (
  • Splenomegaly refers to the enlargement of the spleen. (
  • spleen, soft, purplish-red organ that lies under the diaphragm on the left side of the abdominal cavity. (
  • The spleen is an important organ in the body, but you can live without it. (
  • The spleen is a fist-sized organ in the upper left part of the belly under the ribcage. (
  • The spleen is a brown, flat, oval-shaped lymphatic organ that filters and stores blood to protect the body from infections and blood loss. (
  • The spleen is not a vital organ - its functions are useful but not essential for life. (
  • Because it is not a vital organ and is so soft, spongy, and vascular, damage to the spleen is almost always treated by its complete removal. (
  • The spleen is an organ situated behind the stomach, in the upper left part of the abdomen known as the left hypochondrium. (
  • Your spleen is an organ above your stomach and under your ribs on your left side. (
  • The spleen is a delicate, fist-sized organ under your left rib cage near your stomach . (
  • A layer of tissue entirely covers the spleen in a capsule-like fashion, except where veins and arteries enter the organ. (
  • The spleen is the most frequent organ to be damaged in blunt trauma injuries involving the abdomen . (
  • The avian spleen: a neglected organ. (
  • The spleen is a principal organ of systemic immunity, and its importance in disease resistance is presumably accentuated by the scarcity of avian lymph nodes. (
  • The spleen is an organ in people and animals. (
  • The spleen is a functionally complex organ occupying the left upper quadrant (LUQ). (
  • The spleen is the most vascular organ of the body, and approximately 350 L of blood passes through it per day. (
  • This risk is true especially because the spleen is the organ most commonly injured when thoracoabdominal trauma occurs, and splenic injuries represent approximately 25% of all blunt injuries to the abdominal viscera. (
  • The spleen is an organ shaped like a shoe that lies relative to the 9th and 11th ribs and is located in the left hypochondrium and partly in the epigastrium. (
  • The spleen is an organ located in the left upper abdomen. (
  • The spleen is an organ that lies just underneath the ribcage on the left side of the body. (
  • The spleen is a lymphatic organ located in the body's upper left abdominal quadrant. (
  • After all, said the experts, a spleen is a vascular, ductless organ that stores blood, destroys worn-out red blood cells, forms lymphocytes, and so on. (
  • A spleen," I was reminded, "is a useful organ that has bodily functions. (
  • The spleen is a small organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. (
  • The spleen is an organ found in all vertebrates. (
  • As a major lymphoid organ and a central player in the reticuloendothelial system, the spleen retains the ability to produce lymphocytes and, as such, remains a hematopoietic organ. (
  • The spleen is a fist-sized organ located above the stomach and under the ribs on the left side of the abdomen, and it is part of the lymphatic system that fights infections. (
  • Lei Dong at Nanjing University in China and his colleagues wondered if, instead, they could transform an organ like the spleen - one that we can survive without and that already has ready-made blood vessels - into a working liver. (
  • Our results suggest that we have transformed the spleen into an organ that functions as a liver," the researchers write. (
  • In humans, the spleen isn't an essential organ, and people can have their spleens removed for medical reasons. (
  • The spleen is located in the upper left part of the abdomen under the ribcage. (
  • Most spleen injuries are cause by blunt trauma from a car crash, fall, bike wreck, or any other activity that causes a hard blow to the abdomen. (
  • A blow or blunt trauma to the abdomen can injure the spleen, causing it to tear ("lacerate") or be bruised. (
  • The spleen can rupture when the abdomen suffers a severe direct blow or blunt trauma. (
  • Your doctor will press on your abdomen to determine the size of your spleen and whether it's tender. (
  • Contrast-enhanced arterial-phase CT scan of the abdomen shows a mottled appearance of the spleen. (
  • The radiologist must be wary of assuming that splenic injury is the cause if fluid is appreciated in the abdomen or around the spleen. (
  • The impact tears the lining of the spleen and the tissues inside which can make the abdomen painful. (
  • The spleen is located in the left side of the abdomen, below the diaphragm and under the ribs. (
  • A bruised spleen (or spleen contusion) is bruising to the spleen which occurs after a direct impact to the upper left abdomen. (
  • A spleen injury may occur from blunt force to the abdomen, such as from playing sports or a motor vehicle accident, or as a result of abdominal surgery or infection. (
  • Pediatric Sports Medicine for Primary Care' advises that pain will develop rapidly if the spleen has been torn or ruptured from blunt trauma to the abdomen. (
  • The area around the upper left abdomen can also feel tender, and the area surrounding the spleen will often be bruised. (
  • Congenital wandering spleen is a very rare, randomly distributed birth defect characterized by the absence or weakness of one or more of the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position in the upper left abdomen. (
  • Because there is little or nothing to hold it in place the spleen "wanders" in the lower abdomen or pelvis where it may be mistaken for an unidentified abdominal mass. (
  • This is the area of the embryo that gives rise to the ligaments that normally hold the spleen in the upper left abdomen. (
  • The spleen, located in the upper left part of the abdomen under the ribcage, works as part of the lymphatic system to protect the body, clearing worn-out red blood cells and other foreign bodies from the bloodstream to help fight off infection. (
  • In humans the spleen is purple in color and is in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. (
  • Some of the most common symptoms of an enlarged spleen, which occurs as a result of numerous spleen conditions, include a feeling of fullness after eating very little, pain in the abdomen, fatigue, anemia, frequent infections and easy bleeding. (
  • It occurs when an outside force such as a blow to the abdomen causes the spleen to tear, and symptoms include lightheadedness, confusion and pain or tenderness in the upper left abdomen, according to Mayo Clinic. (
  • An enlarged spleen can cause a feeling of pain or fullness in the left upper abdomen, according to Mayo Clinic. (
  • If your child is hit or falls in a way that causes the left chest or upper abdomen to hit the spleen, your child may suffer a spleen injury. (
  • Upon examination, a prominent spleen or a protruding abdomen may be noticed. (
  • Published posthumously in 1869, Paris Spleen was a landmark publication in the development of the genre of prose poetry-a format which Baudelaire saw as particularly suited for expressing the feelings of uncertainty, flux, and freedom of his age-and one of the founding texts of literary modernism. (
  • More summaries and resources for teaching or studying Paris Spleen, 1869 . (
  • In the past, doctors often did a surgery called splenectomy (splih-NEK-tuh-mee) to remove an injured spleen. (
  • Splenectomy is the procedure performed to remove the spleen. (
  • Partial splenectomy refers to removal of part of the spleen, and is usually done to relieve splenic enlargement in Gaucher's disease, or for the sake of a biopsy. (
  • Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed best for spleens enlarged to less than 20 cm, with less complications than for the equivalent open procedure. (
  • Retrieved on August 24, 2019 from (
  • Removing the spleen (splenectomy). (
  • Partial splenectomy reduces the risk of infection that results from removing the entire spleen. (
  • Usually, the entire spleen will be removed in an operation called a splenectomy. (
  • Shortly thereafter she developed hemorrhagic shock, necessitating a splenectomy and salpingooophorectomy from a ruptured spleen. (
  • A spontaneously ruptured spleen leading to hemorrhagic shock and an emergent splenectomy and salpingooophorectomy complicated her inpatient clinical course. (
  • In severe cases, removal of the spleen ( splenectomy ) may be recommended. (
  • It is sometimes necessary to remove the spleen entirely, particularly in trauma cases, although recent studies have shown the spleen to be far more important than initially suspected in the fight against infection. (
  • In these rare cases surgery is needed to remove the spleen. (
  • The surgeon uses the scope and other instruments to remove the spleen. (
  • The spleen is part of the lymphatic system , which is an extensive drainage network. (
  • The spleen is part of your lymphatic system , which fights infection and keeps your body fluids in balance. (
  • Highly detailed and realistic model of Lymphatic System With Spleen. (
  • The spleen is part of the lymphatic system. (
  • There is a related system to the cardiovascular system called the lymphatic system which moves lymphatic fluid through the spleen, lymphatic tissues, and lymphatic vessels. (
  • The spleen also helps the body fight infection. (
  • The spleen also makes red blood cells and is important in helping the body fight infection. (
  • The spleen helps fight infection, keeps body fluids in balance, stores blood, and destroys old and damaged cells. (
  • so yes sickle cell and cancer are two possiblities for an enlarged spleen, but also infection or certain perscription drugs can cause the spleen to be large. (
  • Spleen surgery is generally safe, but any surgery has risks, such as bleeding, blood clots, infection and pneumonia. (
  • If the spleen is removed, it is important that the patient has an injection to vaccinate them against pneumococcal infection as the spleen plays a large role in protecting the body against infection, especially from the pneumococcal bacteria. (
  • Also, when the body is fighting an illness, the spleen enlarges as it helps fight the infection. (
  • If blood flow is interrupted to the spleen by an object such as a blood clot or piece of plaque or because of trauma, infection or certain diseases, the affected portions of the spleen die due to lack of oxygen. (
  • The spleen removes or filters out unnecessary or foreign material, breaks down and eliminates worn out blood cells, and produces white blood cells, which aid the body in fighting infection. (
  • A variety of conditions are known to cause an enlarged spleen including an abdominal injury, infectious disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, bacterial infection, cell tumors of the spleen, and other immune disorders. (
  • This may cause immediate rupture of the spleen, or it may result in the formation of a hematoma. (
  • You can also damage or rupture your spleen in an injury, especially if it is already swollen. (
  • Your doctor may refer to a ruptured spleen as a "splenic rupture. (
  • For this reason, a CT scan is not recommended for those with a spleen rupture who have unstable vital signs or low blood pressure due to the injury (suggesting shock). (
  • In these cases, other tests may be used to help diagnose a spleen rupture. (
  • my son turned 16 in july and a week later he was at home doing nothing and his spleen rupture he was in icu for 3 days they didnt operate just monitor him but has been having scans since and his spleen is still enlarged they dont know why. (
  • It might be possible to remove only part of your spleen, depending on the rupture. (
  • When a patient receives the diagnosis of an enlarged spleen, his doctor usually wants him to limit activities that could cause the spleen to rupture, causing internal bleeding. (
  • A damaged spleen, or splenic rupture, is an extremely serious condition that requires immediate medical attention. (
  • Splenic infarction can sometimes cause the spleen to rupture and hemorrhage. (
  • He is also a skilled bedside examiner and has wonderful tips for examining the spleen and lymph nodes. (
  • The major parts of the lymph tissue are located in the bone marrow, spleen, thymus gland, lymph nodes, and the tonsils. (
  • Certain diseases can affect the lymph nodes, the spleen, or the collections of lymphoid tissue in certain areas of the body. (
  • Red bone marrow, the liver, and lymph nodes can complete the filtration and blood recycling functions of the spleen in its absence. (
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes and spleen. (
  • The spleen is a part of the lymph system of the human body and helps to prevent disease. (
  • The spleen synthesizes antibodies in its white pulp and removes antibody-coated bacteria and antibody-coated blood cells by way of blood and lymph node circulation. (
  • The spleen is a center of activity of the mononuclear phagocyte system and is analogous to a large lymph node, as its absence causes a predisposition to certain infections. (
  • If the approach doesn't work, one solution may be to grow liver-like organs in the lymph nodes instead, which are well-suited to nurturing the growth of new tissue and are less prone to damage than the spleen, says Lagasse. (
  • A physical exam may be the only test done to diagnose a ruptured spleen. (
  • Imaging tests can help diagnose a ruptured spleen. (
  • Although many theories exist surrounding the notion that certain foods nourish specific body organs, Chinese medicine maintains the concept of nourishing organs, including the spleen, with selected foods. (
  • Penetrating injuries also frequently involve the spleen along with other abdominal organs. (
  • While most of the gut organs are endodermally derived, the spleen is derived from mesenchymal tissue. (
  • You can imagine spleens are internal organs, and they're serious injuries involved with those things. (
  • Over the next eight weeks, the liver cells successfully grew in the spleens and developed into liver-like organs, complete with bile ducts and other liver structures. (
  • Another issue is that people with serious liver disease often also have damaged spleens, which may make it difficult to transform them into liver-like organs, says Eric Lagasse at the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (
  • Most children with spleen injuries have belly pain after the trauma or injury. (
  • The American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades spleen injuries 1-5. (
  • The grade is determined by the size of the injury in the spleen and grade 1 injuries are the least severe injuries, while grade 5 injuries are the most severe. (
  • Most spleen injuries do not need surgery. (
  • Children with the grade 1-4 spleen injuries are usually admitted to the general care unit and children with a grade 5 spleen injury may be admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). (
  • Fortunately, most spleen injuries are treated without surgery. (
  • Many small or moderate-sized injuries to the spleen can heal without surgery. (
  • The most common causes of a ruptured spleen include road traffic accidents, injuries in contact sports and from physical attacks or fights. (
  • Spleen injuries can take up to six months recuperation, but the club said it was too early to speculate how long he'd be sidelined. (
  • Acquired" wandering spleen may occur during adulthood due to injuries or other underlying conditions that may weaken the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position (e.g., connective tissue disease or pregnancy). (
  • What are spleen injuries? (
  • Not all spleen injuries are the same. (
  • In adults, a normal spleen cannot be palpated unless they are very thin. (
  • Confirmation of a normal spleen can be shown by repeat imaging in a later phase of contrast enhancement. (
  • Abscess or cyst in the spleen. (
  • I then asked for further details and was told that everything looked fine but there was a "possible small cyst in the spleen which is essentially normal" and that I shouldn`t be concerned. (
  • These cells attack and destroy germs, and remove them from the blood that passes through the spleen. (
  • So people with sickle cell disease need extra protection from the germs that the spleen normally filters out. (
  • The spleen helps the body fight germs and infections. (
  • If a spleen injury is suspected, the trauma surgery providers will carefully examine your child. (
  • Spleen removal is surgery to remove a diseased or damaged spleen. (
  • If your spleen is too damaged, you might need surgery to remove it. (
  • Sudden low blood pressure in someone who is believed to have a spleen injury, particularly a young person, is a sign that the condition is especially severe, and emergency surgery is needed. (
  • You might have periodic follow-up CT scans to check whether your spleen has healed or to determine whether you need surgery. (
  • North Queensland centre Justin O'Neill has undergone emergency surgery on his spleen. (
  • Tests show that Witten's spleen isn't ruptured, however, and he will not need surgery, a team source told and NFL Network reporter Albert Breer. (
  • A spleen that is excessively damaged may need to be removed through surgery. (
  • A retractor came loose during surgery and hit the spleen, said Dr. Peter Whitington, director of pediatric transplant services. (
  • The spleen was then removed, forcing a delay in preparations for Alyssa's surgery. (
  • A ruptured spleen causes abdominal pain , usually severe, but not always. (
  • A person with a laceration or tear of the spleen will experience abdominal pain in the left upper quadrant, or around or beneath the left ribs. (
  • The most prominent symptom of spleen damage is upper left abdominal pain under the ribcage or upper stomach pain. (
  • Some children with wandering spleen may have no symptoms (asymptomatic), while others may experience acute or chronic abdominal pain. (
  • In adulthood, wandering spleen most often causes abdominal pain or present as an abdominal mass that does not cause symptoms (asymptomatic). (
  • The spleen contains lymphocytes and another kind of white blood cell called macrophages , which engulf and destroy bacteria, dead tissue, and foreign matter and remove them from the blood passing through the spleen. (
  • A tough connective tissue capsule surrounds the soft inner tissue of the spleen. (
  • Spongy inner tissue within the spleen contains many tiny blood vessels and hollow sinuses that store blood. (
  • White pulp regions of the spleen are made of lymphatic tissue containing macrophages, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes that destroy pathogens in the blood and produce antibodies. (
  • This tissue, called the splenic capsule, helps protect the spleen from direct injury. (
  • Instead of ligaments, the spleen is attached by a stalk-like tissue supplied with blood vessels (vascular pedicle). (
  • Wandering spleen may occur during adulthood because of accident or injury, another underlying disorder (e.g., connective tissue disease), or the abnormal relaxation (laxity) of the ligaments caused by pregnancy. (
  • Amyloid degeneration of the spleen, affecting chiefly the extrasinusoidal tissue spaces of the pulp. (
  • To do this, they injected the spleens of live mice with a biological substance to make them larger and stiffer and better able to support the growth of new tissue. (
  • Next, they transplanted liver cells into the remodelled spleens to see if the cells would integrate with the existing blood vessels and develop into liver tissue. (
  • All the mice with spleen-based livers survived, whereas other mice died within two days of having liver tissue removed. (
  • Rapid blood loss can occur from a lacerated spleen, depending on the severity and location of the spleen injury. (
  • The location of the spleen makes it a prime target for injury. (
  • Other functions of the spleen are less prominent, especially in the healthy adult: Spleen produces all types of blood cells during fetal life Production of opsonins, properdin, and tuftsin. (
  • A ruptured spleen may occur following a direct blow to the left side of the stomach or back. (
  • Rabushka LS, Kawashima A, Fishman EK (1994) Imaging of the spleen: CT with supplemental MR examination. (
  • This topic reviews the approach to the child whose spleen is enlarged on physical examination and/or is more than minimally enlarged on abdominal imaging. (
  • The clinical or diagnostic significance of a spleen that is not palpable on physical examination and is only minimally enlarged on imaging is uncertain. (
  • See 'Examination of the spleen' below. (
  • Mayo Clinic states that many cases of an enlarged spleen exhibit no symptoms and are only detected through an examination. (
  • In internal medicine, assessment of spleen size on physical examination is an extremely important part of the overall evaluation of patients with many illnesses. (
  • Examination of the spleen is also one of the core competencies that the investigators expect our students and residents to learn as part of their training. (
  • Unfortunately, the sensitivity and specificity of examination of the spleen at the bedside is not very good. (
  • Doing so would make physical examination of the spleen obsolete and transform training objectives for medical students and residents. (
  • these are reproduced in most editions of Le Spleen de Paris, for instance in Robert Kopp's critical edition2 and in the Pléiade edition by Claude Pichois.3 The fourth gives the titles of all the poems comprising Le Spleen de Paris, in the order in which they eventually appeared in Volume IV of the Œuvres complètes in 1869. (
  • Protected by our ribs, the spleen is located between the stomach and the diaphragm in the left hypochondriac region of the abdominal body cavity. (
  • The spleen is located under the ribs, beneath the left side of the diaphragm, and helps to remove foreign organisms and old red blood cells from the bloodstream. (
  • The spleen is 1 by 3 by 5 inches (3 by 8 by 13 cm), weighs approximately 7 oz (200 g), and lies between the 9th and 11th ribs on the left-hand side and along the axis of 10th rib. (
  • Doctors grade spleen lacerations on a scale from 1-5, where 1 is the least severe and 5 is the most severe. (
  • Severe pain arising from the spleen often signals the presence of splenic infarction. (
  • Advanced Surgical Practice' advises that in severe spleen tears, immediate death may occur, though this is extremely rare. (
  • A person with a severe spleen tear or injury may bleed rapidly into the abdominal cavity and become unconscious within minutes after injury. (
  • Cowboys officials confirmed the former Queensland and Australia representative was taken to hospital after a restless night, having apparently suffered the "severe" spleen injury during the game. (
  • If the pedicle is twisted in the course of the movement of the spleen, the blood supply may be interrupted or blocked (ischemia) to the point of severe damage to the blood vessels (infarction). (
  • In severe cases, blood flow into the spleen is diminished and the spleen may become greatly enlarged, as it accumulates (sequesters) blood elements such as platelets and red blood cells. (
  • Like the thymus, the spleen possesses only efferent lymphatic vessels. (
  • The purpose of both palpation and percussion of the spleen is to look for splenic enlargement. (
  • Enlargement is most often the result of twisting (torsion) of the splenic arteries and veins or, in some cases, the formation of a blood clot (infarct) in the spleen. (
  • Risks are the same for both open and laparoscopic spleen removal. (
  • Removal of the spleen usually results in a significantly higher T-helper cell count. (
  • Surgeons at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary have become the first in Europe to perform a spleen removal procedure using a new 'virtually scarless' technique. (
  • Irfan Ahmed, who performed the procedure with Professor Zyg Krukowski, commented: 'In Aberdeen, keyhole spleen removal has been in routine practice for more than 15 years. (
  • In some cases, an enlarged spleen does not respond to the medication or causes serious complications and requires surgical removal. (
  • What Are the After-Effects of Spleen Removal? (
  • An easy way to remember the anatomy of the spleen is the 1×3×5×7×9×10×11 rule. (
  • Duddy MJ, Calder CJ (1989) Cystic hemangioma of the spleen: findings on ultrasound and computed tomography. (
  • The surgeon removes the spleen through a small incision using a laparoscope, according to Mayo Clinic. (
  • Mayo Clinic urges individuals to contact a medical professional if they exhibit symptoms of an enlarged spleen or sustain an injury to the left side of the body. (
  • The only time I had a swollen spleen was when I had mono many many years ago and it later returned to normal, so I don't know what can happen if it keeps becoming larger and larger. (
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  • Certain diseases might cause your spleen to swell. (
  • Certain diseases and illnesses can also lead to a ruptured spleen. (
  • People use spleen extract for conditions such low white blood cell counts, cancer , autoimmune diseases , infections, and many others, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. (
  • A penetrating spleen injury may also result from a gunshot wound or sharp object which tears and cuts the spleen. (
  • The spleen can release its stored blood into circulation to replace blood lost during a traumatic injury. (
  • Although many plain radiographic imaging findings suggest spleen trauma injury, CT is the radiographic modality used at most institutions. (
  • Other causes of spleen injury include fist fights and contact sports such as hockey and football. (
  • When the spleen is enlarged, it is more prone to injury. (
  • and NFL Network reporter Ian Rapoport confirmed Wednesday, citing a source with knowledge of the player's condition, that Cowboys tight end Jason Witten suffered a spleen injury and internal bleeding following a hit sustained in Monday night's preseason opener against the Oakland Raiders . (
  • In part this is because the spleen enlarges in the inferior anteromedial direction, sometimes as far as the RLQ. (
  • Blood clot (thrombosis) in the blood vessels of the spleen. (
  • In most cases, episodes of pain may be related to the spontaneous twisting and untwisting of the mobile spleen (torsion and detorsion) or of the blood vessels serving the spleen. (
  • Pain at the tip of the left shoulder on elevating the legs in the supine position: this is due to the presence of blood leaking from the spleen into the peritoneal cavity, pooling in and thereby irritating the left dome of the diaphragm when the patient adopts this position. (
  • Thus, the spleen is situated between the fundus of the stomach and the diaphragm. (
  • the diaphragm separates the spleen from the pleura and the lung. (
  • The spleen is underneath the left part of the diaphragm, and has a smooth, convex surface that faces the diaphragm. (
  • Could long term use of lots of medication cause an enlarged Spleen? (
  • The spleen is in the upper part of the belly, on the left side underneath the ribcage. (
  • Because it's so important to preventing infections, doctors will do all they can to help an injured spleen heal without removing it. (
  • After the spleen is removed, a person is more likely to develop infections. (
  • The spleen may enlarge during certain infections due to an increase in the number of white blood cells, captured pathogens and antibodies inside the spleen. (
  • Without a spleen, however, your body will lose some of its ability to fight infections. (
  • If it's necessary to remove your spleen, you'll be at increased risk of serious infections, such as sepsis. (
  • While an enlarged spleen can be caused by conditions ranging from mononucleosis and infections to certain cancers, a ruptured spleen is a medical emergency that requires immediate medical attention. (
  • Although the body can function without a spleen as the liver takes over, it loses some of its ability to fight infections. (
  • Garvin DF, King FM (1981) Cysts and nonlymphomatous tumors of the spleen. (
  • An infarcted spleen can result in splenic abscess if the infarction is caused by bacteria. (
  • We report the first case of a tuboovarian abscess complicated by a ruptured spleen. (
  • MedlinePlus lists an enlarged spleen and a ruptured spleen as the two primary spleen problems. (
  • Ordinarily, the spleen manufactures red blood cells only toward the end of fetal life, and after birth that function is taken over by the bone marrow. (
  • However, in cases of bone marrow breakdown, the spleen reverts to its fetal function. (
  • While the bone marrow is the primary site of hematopoiesis in the adult, the spleen has important hematopoietic functions up until the 5th month of gestation. (
  • Spleen laceration causes blood to spill into the abdominal cavity. (
  • When the spleen is ruptured, large quantities of blood can spill into the abdominal cavity. (
  • Signs of impending hemorrhagic shock along with these symptoms could mean a ruptured spleen. (
  • The spleen has superior and inferior vascular segments based on the blood supply. (
  • In spite of this, it may occur with a very forceful blow to the abdominal area, as may happen during a fight, a motor accident, during a contact sport, or because of a rib fracture, with the broken end of the rib penetrating the spleen. (
  • In some cases, shoulder pain can also occur on the left side due to spleen damage. (
  • Oftentimes, bruising will occur over the area of the spleen, and the area will hurt when touched. (
  • This medical condition can occur in all breeds and genders, and is not usually directly related to the spleen, but rather a symptom of another disease or condition. (
  • The spleen is located in the upper left area of your belly and sits behind and below the stomach. (
  • The spleen is located on the left side of the body, above the stomach. (
  • Three years ago I had my spleen removed as part of an operation to remove a non-malignant stomach tumour . (
  • The gastric impression is for the fundus of the stomach, which is the largest and most concave impression on the spleen. (