Food that has been prepared and stored in a way to prevent spoilage.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
Critical analyses of books or other monographic works.
An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.
A phylum of parasitic worms, closely related to tapeworms and containing two genera: Moniliformis, which sometimes infects man, and Macracanthorhynchus, which infects swine.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.
Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.
Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.
A species of mite that causes SCABIES in humans and sarcoptic mange in other animals. Specific variants of S. scabiei exist for humans and animals, but many have the ability to cross species and cause disease.
A contagious cutaneous inflammation caused by the bite of the mite SARCOPTES SCABIEI. It is characterized by pruritic papular eruptions and burrows and affects primarily the axillae, elbows, wrists, and genitalia, although it can spread to cover the entire body.
An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.
A space in which the pressure is far below atmospheric pressure so that the remaining gases do not affect processes being carried on in the space.
Infestations with arthropods of the subclass ACARI, superorder Acariformes.
The fusion of ceramics (porcelain) to an alloy of two or more metals for use in restorative and prosthodontic dentistry. Examples of metal alloys employed include cobalt-chromium, gold-palladium, gold-platinum-palladium, and nickel-based alloys.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Annual statements reviewing the status of the administrative and operational functions and accomplishments of an institution or organization.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.
The family Odobenidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA. It is represented by a single species of large, nearly hairless mammal found on Arctic shorelines, whose upper canines are modified into tusks.
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
Skills and knowledge required for assessment and treatment of traumatic, environmental, and medical emergencies in remote geographic or wilderness environments.
The use of focused short radio waves to produce local hyperthermia in an injured person or diseased body area.
Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.
The induction of local hyperthermia by either short radio waves or high-frequency sound waves.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The study of animals - their morphology, growth, distribution, classification, and behavior.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
An area of water mostly surrounded by land, usually smaller than a gulf, and affording access to the sea.
The species Delphinapterus leucas, in the family Monodontidae, found primarily in the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas. They are small WHALES lacking a dorsal fin.
Living facilities for humans.
The dioptric adjustment of the EYE (to attain maximal sharpness of retinal imagery for an object of regard) referring to the ability, to the mechanism, or to the process. Ocular accommodation is the effecting of refractive changes by changes in the shape of the CRYSTALLINE LENS. Loosely, it refers to ocular adjustments for VISION, OCULAR at various distances. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Organization of medical and nursing care according to the degree of illness and care requirements in the hospital. The elements are intensive care, intermediate care, self-care, long-term care, and organized home care.
A complex body of social, cultural, and religious beliefs and practices evolved in and largely confined to the Indian subcontinent and marked by a caste system, an outlook tending to view all forms and theories as aspects of one eternal being and truth, and the practice of the way of works, the way of knowledge, or the way of devotion as a means of release from the round of rebirths. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Aspects of health and disease related to travel.
Stange, Rolf (2012). Spitsbergen-Svalbard. A complete guide to the arctic archipelago. Norwegian Polar Institute: Place names ... This island is the main setting for the 2014 Norwegian movie Operation Arctic. Conway, W. M. 1906. No Man's Land: A History of ... Author David Roberts wrote a book sharing his research on this amazing survival story, Four Against The Arctic. After years of ... Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country. Cambridge: At the ...
ISBN 978-3-937903-10-1. Stange, Rolf (2012). Spitsbergen - Svalbard. A complete guide around the arctic archipelago. Rolf ... Jan Mayen is a volcanic island in the Arctic Ocean located at the border of the Norwegian Sea and the Greenland Sea. The single ... Jan Mayen is a remote island in the Arctic Ocean; it has no permanent population and is administrated by the County Governor of ... Svalbard is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean under the sovereignty of Norway, but is subject to the special status granted by ...
Whaling at Spitsbergen lasted until the 1820s, when the Dutch, British, and Danish whalers moved elsewhere in the Arctic. By ... Stange, Rolf (2012). Spitsbergen - Svalbard: A complete guide around the arctic archipelago. Rolf Stange. ISBN 978-3-937903-14- ... Umbreit (2005): 179 Stange, Rolf (15 February 2019). "Lunckefjellet: the end of an arctic coal mine". Spitsbergen , Svalbard. ... Particularly Bjørnøya, Storfjorden, Nordvest-Spitsbergen, and Hopen are important breeding ground for seabirds. The Arctic tern ...
Stange, Rolf (2019-02-15). "Lunckefjellet: the end of an arctic coal mine". Spitsbergen , Svalbard. Retrieved 2020-01-28. " ... The mine was operated by Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani. There is no road to Longyearbyen or any other settlements, so ... Stange, Rolf (2020-02-26). "Svea Nord is history". Spitsbergen , Svalbard. Retrieved 2020-10-19. ...
The Canadian Arctic and Arctic sovereignty had been a focus during the premiership of Conservative Prime Minister Stephen ... "The Railways of Spitsbergen". International Working Steam. Retrieved November 15, 2018. Jane George (February 20, 2012). " ... Dolata, Petra (June 1, 2015). "A New Canada in the Arctic? Arctic Policies under Harper". Canadian Studies (78): 131-154. doi: ... Gedeon, Julie (March 2, 2009). "Floating wharf gets around lack of Arctic infrastructure". Canadian Sailings. Arctic Shipping ...
"Northernmost movie theater reopens on Spitsbergen". Arctic.ru. Retrieved 13 January 2021. Back in Pyramiden, Svalbard Archived ... It lies at the foot of the Billefjorden on the island of Spitsbergen and is named after the pyramid-shaped mountain with the ... Spitsbergen: Svalbard, Franz Josef, Jan Mayen, 3rd: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides, 2005. ISBN 1841620920, ... Pyramiden as a touristic facility is maintained by Arctic Travel Company Grumant, a division of Arktikugol Trust. Tours through ...
"Arctic Film Festival, Svalbard - Festival in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen". Visit Svalbard. Retrieved 14 October 2019. Link to ... ISBN 1-84162-092-0. Stange, Rolf (2012). Spitsbergen - Svalbard. A complete guide around the arctic archipelago. Rolf Stange. ... "Spitsbergen Airship Museum". Spitsbergen Airship Museum. Archived from the original on 29 February 2012. Retrieved 19 March ... Arctic Film Festival is a film festival which held annually in the city's screening venue, Kulturhuset. Longyearbyen is served ...
GreenPeace (2002). "Arctic environment melts before our eyes". Global Warming-Greenpeace Pictures in Spitsbergen. Retrieved ... "Arctic Change". Study of Environmental Arctic Change. Archived from the original on February 6, 2006. Retrieved February 15, ... The Canadian Arctic islands contain the largest area and volume of land ice on Earth outside of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice ... Arctic islands north of Norway, Finland and Russia have all shown evidence of glacier retreat. In the Svalbard archipelago, the ...
Spitsbergen. Norway.: Spitsbergen: Arctic & Antarctic photographs, pictures & images from Bryan & Cherry Alexander Photography ... "Apotek Spitsbergen". visitsvalbard.com. Retrieved 2017-04-10. "Radisson Blu Polar Hotel Spitsbergen - Spitsbergen Travel". ... "NOAA Arctic Theme page". arctic.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-01-14. Retrieved 2017-04-10. "The World's Northern ... "Northernmost latitude reached by a rowing vessel on the Arctic Ocean Open Waters at the edge of the Arctic ice pack". Guinness ...
Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... Verlegenhuken is the most northern point of Spitsbergen. Among older names of the point are Verlegen hoeck, Cap Vertegen, Cap ... Verlegenhuken is the northernmost point of Ny-Friesland at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is located north of the coastal plain ...
... (Norwegian: Kapp Weyprecht) is a headland in the northeast part of Spitsbergen in Svalbard, in the area known as ... South End Hinlopen Strait From the National Geographic Endeavour in Arctic Norway. August 5. Conway, William Martin. 1897. The ... First Crossing of Spitsbergen. London: J.M. Dent & Company, p. 288. Stadnamn i norske polarområde: Kapp Weyprecht (Svalbard).. ...
June 5 - Willem Barents makes his first voyage to the Arctic Ocean, in search of the Northeast Passage. June 11 - Philip II of ... June 17 - Willem Barents discovers Spitsbergen. June 24 - Cornelis de Houtman arrives in Banten, the first Dutch sailor to ... May 18 - Willem Barents leaves Vlie, on his third and final Arctic voyage. June - Sir John Norreys and Sir Geoffrey Fenton ...
May 18 - Willem Barents leaves Vlie, on his third and final Arctic voyage. June - Sir John Norreys and Sir Geoffrey Fenton ... June 17 - Willem Barents discovers Spitsbergen. June 24 - Cornelis de Houtman arrives in Banten, the first Dutch sailor to ...
The Arctic explorer Luke Foxe, in writing about the early voyages to Spitsbergen, said of him: "... but this I leave to Capt. ... "French Naval Operations in Spitsbergen During Louis XIV's Reign". Arctic 37: 544-551. Du Pasquier, Jean-Thierry (2000). Les ... They were forced to leave Spitsbergen mid-way through season with only 162 tons of oil and 200 tons of blubber, about a "thirde ... Writing from "Bell-sound" (Bellsund), the main harbor of the English in Spitsbergen, he reported a catch of "three and thirtie ...
Arctic 37: 544-551, p.544. Conway, William Martin (1906). No Man's Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to ... While a group with the same task survived the winter on Spitsbergen, all seven on Jan Mayen died of scurvy or trichinosis (from ... The aim of this regulation is to ensure the preservation of a pristine Arctic island and the marine life nearby, including the ... Radio Jan Mayen also served as an important radio station for ship traffic in the Arctic Ocean. In 1959 NATO started building ...
"Air Force Hunts Capsule in Arctic; Reports Hint the Discoverer Instruments Fell Near Spitsbergen Island". New York Times: 17 ... The deorbit attempt of Discoverer II's payload went seriously wrong: the payload landed on Spitsbergen, instead of coming down ...
Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... The Geology of Isis Point, North-East Land (Spitsbergen). The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 110: 11-18 ... Finn Malmgrenfjorden is named after Arctic explorer Finn Malmgren. Sandford, Kenneth. S. 1955. ...
... is a bay and natural harbour in Albert I Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is located at the western side of ... Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... Signehamna is included in the Nordvest-Spitsbergen National Park. Relics from weather station Knospe (1941-1942), then Nussbaum ...
French Naval Operations in Spitsbergen During Louis XIV's Reign. Arctic 37: 544-551. Du Pasquier, Jean-Thierry (2000). Les ... They left Spitsbergen in September, with a total catch of eighteen bowhead whales. In 1635 Vrolicq once more resorted to Port ... When Vrolicq reached the northwest coast of Spitsbergen early in July he was promptly expelled by the admiral of the Dutch ... In 1633 Vrolicq sailed to Spitsbergen (or Terre-Verte, as the French called it) with a fleet of four vessels. Besides ...
Target: Arctic: Men in the Skies at the Top of the World. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, p. 175. Sandford, Kenneth. S. 1955. The ... Geology of Isis Point, North-East Land (Spitsbergen). The Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 110: 11-18, p. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian ...
ISBN 978-3-924422-95-0. Henrat, P (1984). "French Naval Operations in Spitsbergen During Louis XIV's Reign". Arctic. 37 (4): ... and perhaps the opening up of the Spitsbergen fishery in 1611. The first voyages to Spitsbergen by the English, Dutch, and ... The British would continue to send out whalers to the Arctic fishery into the 20th century, sending their last on the eve of ... The Northern (or Arctic) whale fishery lasted from 1611 to 1914 and involved whaling primarily off Greenland, and particularly ...
Schofield, Ernest; Nesbit, Roy Conyers (1987). Arctic Airmen: The RAF in Spitsbergen and North Russia 1942. London: W. Kimber. ... ISBN 978-0-7183-0660-1. Schofield, Ernest; Nesbit, Roy Conyers (2005) [1987]. Arctic Airmen: The RAF in Spitsbergen and North ... The older version remained in use by German ships the U-boats in Arctic waters. By mid-1941, British Y-stations were able to ... From above, the Arctic tundra looked uninviting but having landed, the crews found the Soviet Naval Aviation (Morskaya ...
Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... Samarinvågen is a bay in Sørkapp Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is a southern bay of the fjord Hornsund, located between ... The bay is named after Samarin, member of Arctic expeditions between 1899 and 1902. The glacier Samarinbreen debouches into the ...
Austfjorden is a fjord in Spitsbergen, Svalbard in Arctic Norway. The fjord (East Fjord), measuring 32 kilometres (20 miles in ...
... is a bay in Ny-Friesland at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has a length of about five kilometers, and is located at the ... Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ...
... is a plain in Sørkapp Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is located south of Bungebreen and Plogen and north of ... The plain is named after Russian Arctic explorer Alexandr Alexandrovich Bunge. The river of Bungeelva flows from Bungevatnet ...
... is a glacier in Nathorst Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has a length of about 8.5 kilometers, and is ... The glacier is named after Danish geologist and Arctic explorer Knud Johannes Vogelius Steenstrup. The mountain of ...
... is a glacier in Sabine Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The glacier is a tributary glacier to Fimbulisen, and is ... The glacier is named after French geographer and Arctic explorer Charles Rabot. "Rabotbreen (Svalbard)". Norwegian Polar ...
... is a mountain in Sabine Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has a height of 587 m.a.s.l., and is located at the ... Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ...
Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... Crozierpynten is a headland in Ny-Friesland at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is located north of Heclahamna at the eastern side of ... It is named after lieutenant Crozier, member of an Arctic expedition in 1827. "Crozierpynten (Svalbard)". Norwegian Polar ...
Summerhayes, VS; Elton, CS (1923). "Contributions to the Ecology of Spitsbergen and Bear Island". Journal of Ecology. 11: 214- ... Arctic (or polar) food webs, terrestrial food webs, and microbial food webs. These characterizations stem from the ecosystem ...
"Predation of Belugas and Narwhals by Polar Bears in Nearshore Areas of the Canadian High Arctic". Arctic. 43 (2): 99-102. doi: ... An estimated 13 million people went whale watching globally in 2008, in all oceans except the Arctic.[115] Rules and codes of ... The polar bear is well adapted for hunting Arctic whales and calves. Bears are known to use sit-and-wait tactics as well as ... The Nords and various arctic tribes revered the whale as they were important pieces of their lives. In Inuit creation myths, ...
... female which was fitted with a GPS tracking device and then released by their researchers on the east coast of Spitsbergen in ... The Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus), also known as the white fox, polar fox, or snow fox, is a small fox native to the Arctic ... Arctic Fox at National Geographic *^ a b Gallant, Daniel; et al. (2014). "Natal den selection by sympatric arctic and red foxes ... Arctic foxes also stay warm by getting out of the wind and residing in their dens.[15][14] Although the Arctic foxes are active ...
After nine days of polar acclimatisation in Spitsbergen, Norway, the team began their 70 km trek on April 4, and received no ... Explorers of the Arctic. *Explorers of Antarctica. *Polish amputees. Hidden categories: *Webarchive template wayback links ...
as In Northern Mists: Arctic Exploration in Early Times, 1911.. *Gjennem Sibirien. Jacob Dybwads forlag, Kristiania, 1914. Tr. ... She had emerged from the ice north and west of Spitsbergen, as Nansen had predicted, and was now on her way to Tromsø. She had ... Northern Waters: Captain Roald Amundsen's Oceanographic Observations in the Arctic Seas in 1901. J. Dybwad, 1906. ... 1989). "The first oceanographic section across the Nansen Basin in the Arctic Ocean". Deep-Sea Research Part A. 36 (3): 475. ...
Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (2004). Impact of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Impact Climate Assessment: Key Finding 4. Cambridge ... It is known, for example, that already in the winter of 1784/1785 Russian Pomors on Spitsbergen harvested 150 polar bears in ... The Arctic Sounder[dead link] *^ Hall, Sam (1988) The fourth world: the heritage of the Arctic and its destruction, Vintage ... The melting sea ice in the Arctic may be causing an increase of orcas in the Arctic sea, which may increase the risk of ...
Arctic. 47 (4): 321-326. doi:10.14430/arctic1304.. *^ a b Mizroch, S.A.; D.W. Rice & J.M. Breiwick (1984). "The fin whale, ... northward to Baffin Bay and Spitsbergen. In general, fin whales are more common north of approximately 30°N latitude, but ... Arctic krill (Thysanoessa raschii) was the only species of euphausiid found in the stomachs of fin whales in the northern ... is the immediate offshore waters from central Baja California to Japan and as far north as the Chukchi Sea bordering the Arctic ...
... in the Arctic Spitsbergen island. Both individuals were collected by a Norwegian team led by Dr. Jørn Hurum within 2 km of one ... Due to the Arctic climate found on Svalbard, the sediment in which the specimens were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles ... from the Middle Volgian of central Spitsbergen, Norway". Norwegian Journal of Geology. 92 (2-3): 235-258. ISSN 0029-196X.. CS1 ... "Fossil of 'ultimate predator' unearthed in Arctic". New Scientist. Retrieved 2009-03-17 ...
The general speed of the current is between 60 and 100 centimeters per second. A peak recorded speed of 110 centimeters per second was recorded about 100 m below the surface of the ocean, in the vicinity of where the NBC merges with the SEC. Average temperatures are in the range of 22 °C to 28.5 °C, and tend to be warmest during the northern hemisphere's summer.[3] The strength of the current is dependent on the season. During the northern hemisphere's spring, there is a minimum of 13 Sv in the current, which jumps to 36 Sv as the easterlies strengthen. The average is about 26 Sv for the whole year.[4] The average salinity of the current occurs at about 5°S, where the more saline SEC merges with the NBC. Both are quite warm, so the densities are similar, and the currents mix and create water with a salinity of 37.1 psu. The salinity will then decrease to around 36.5 psu as the current moves northward toward the equator and into the presence of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The ...
Dutch whalers near Spitsbergen, by Abraham Storck, 1690. Whales are a large marine mammal species which live in the ocean. Like ... Family Monodontidae (Arctic whales). *Superfamily Physeteroidea (sperm whales). *Superfamily Ziphioidea (beaked whales) ...
Beyond Iceland, blue whales have been spotted as far north as Spitsbergen and Jan Mayen, though such sightings are rare. ... Arctic cetaceans. *Mammals described in 1758. *Conservation-reliant species. *Cetaceans of the Atlantic Ocean ... Soon, blue whales were being hunted off Iceland (1883), the Faroe Islands (1894), Newfoundland (1898), and Spitsbergen (1903). ...
1924 - The Oxford University Arctic expedition,. *1925 - The dispersal of insects to Spitsbergen, ... 1927 - The Nature and Origin of Soil-polygons in Spitsbergen,. *1929 - Aphids and hover-flies in North-East Land Spitsbergen in ... 1949 - Movements of Arctic Fox Populations in the Region of Baffin Bay and Smith Sound, University Press, ... 1931 - On a Collection of Raised Beach Fossils from Spitsbergen (z Donaldem Ferlysem i Wilsonem Baden Powellem), ...
Arctic. 48 (3): 250. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.505.5702. doi:10.14430/arctic1246. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 March 2009. ... They set off on May, and on June discovered Bear Island and Spitsbergen, sighting its northwest coast. They saw a large bay, ... Barentsz' Arctic explorationEdit. 5 June 1594, Dutch cartographer Willem Barentsz departed from Texel in a fleet of three ships ... While Cossacks came from the Southern Urals, another wave of Russians came by the Arctic Ocean. These were Pomors from the ...
... helping the local population in the bitter arctic winter and dealing with occasional German raids from the air, sea and land as ... Raids on Spitsbergen. *Operation Fritham. *Operation Zitronella. *German battleship Tirpitz. *Norwegian heavy water sabotage ...
... is a mountain in Wedel Jarlsberg Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has a height of 937 m.a.s.l., and is located ... Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ...
... on the divide between Andrée Land and James I Land in Spitsbergen, Svalbard in Arctic Norway. It is approx. 15 km long 'Z'- ...
Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... Colesbukta is a bay at the southern side of Isfjorden, in Nordenskiöld Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The bay is about 4.5 ...
ISBN 82-90653-06-9. Finn Devold - Norsk biografisk leksikon Roger Norum & James Proctor, Svalbard: Spitsbergen, Jan Mayen and ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian ... in Oscar II Land on Spitsbergen, Svalbard. The name is a Norwegian spelling of Dutch: Quade hoek (bad corner). The Norwegian ...
Fugløya is an island in Albert I Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It has a size of about 2.5 square kilometers, and is located ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian ...
Eastley has been part of the Cape Farewell project since 2005 and has been on three trips to Spitsbergen with the organisation ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Max Eastley's ARCTIC". Mediateletipos.net. Retrieved 26 March 2020. CS1 maint: ... ARCTIC' produced by David Buckland/Cape Farewell - 2007 'A Very Long Way from Anywhere Else' with the Spaceheads (Bip Hop) - ... Art from a Changing Arctic', Produced by Cape Farewell, directed by David Hinton - 2005 'Kinetic Drawings', Film by Helen Petts ...
Plancius had thus only created a duplicate Spitsbergen. Carolus, as well, made a duplicate Spitsbergen, as his Morfyn has an ... An Arctic island, it forms part of the Søraust-Svalbard Nature Reserve, home to polar bears and reindeer. An ice field covers ... that is supposed to represent Spitsbergen. In fact, what appears to be Bjørnøya is shown to the southeast of Spitsbergen. ... Nicklas Stromberg David Roberts, Four Against the Arctic: Shipwrecked for Six Years at the Top of the World ISBN 978-0-7432- ...
This was followed by Arctic voyages to Novaya Zemlya, Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Land. In 1899 Bruce, by then Britain's most ... he received an offer to join Major Andrew Coats on a hunting voyage to the Arctic waters around Novaya Zemlya and Spitsbergen, ... It is uncertain how Bruce was employed after his return from Spitsbergen in late 1899. In his whole life he rarely had settled ... The ship sailed up the west coast of the main island of the Spitsbergen group, and visited Adventfjorden and Smeerenburg in the ...
Spitsbergen, and Iceland. In 1976 he was Deputy Leader of an expedition that sledged across the Spitsbergen icecap. He also ... He is also a member of the Society for Nautical Research, the Classical Association, and the Arctic Club, and was a consultant ...
The ship left England early in May and had arrived in the latitude of 75° N, just south of Spitsbergen, by the end of the month ... Holland, Clive (1994). Arctic Exploration and Development, c. 500 B.C. to 1915: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland. Hart, S. De ... Fotherby was among the crew of seven ships sent by the Muscovy Company to Greenland (Spitsbergen) in May 1613. He served as ... The Thomasine left the latitude of Spitsbergen in early September and arrived back in England early the next month. In 1615 ...
The fjord is named after the French cruiser La Recherche, which visited Spitsbergen in 1838 and 1839. The Dutch had named it in ... Bottom Trawling and Scallop Dredging in the Arctic: Impacts of Fishing on Non-Target Species, Vulnerable Habitats, and Cultural ... No Man's Land: A History of Spitsbergen from Its Discovery in 1596 to the Beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the ... Recherche Fjord (Norwegian: Recherchefjorden) is a small fjord on the south side of Bellsund, Spitsbergen. The glacier ...
1932 Oxford University Arctic Expedition (Spitsbergen), 1933 Oxford University New Hebrides Expedition, 1933 Abyssinia ... Oxford University Arctic Expedition, 1935-36 Kenneth Mason (geographer) - Vice President 1933 - 1938 Previous expeditions: ... 1934-35 Oxford University Greenland Expedition 1935 Oxford University Arctic Expedition (North-East Land), 1935-36 Oxford ...
She escorted a number of German convoys in the Arctic later in the year until engine problems sent her back to Germany for ... Z20 Karl Galster took part in the raid on the island of Spitsbergen in 6-9 September, during which she landed troops on the ... well north of the Arctic Circle, in September 1943. Plagued by engine problems, the ship was under repair from November to ...
Arctic Pilot: Sailing directions Svalbard-Jan Mayen. 7. Stavanger: The Norwegian Hydrographic Service and The Norwegian Polar ... Elveflya (The River Plain) is a coastal plain in Wedel Jarlsberg Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard. It is located between ...
... located above the Arctic Circle, were recognized as territory of Norway in the Spitsbergen Treaty signed in Paris by seven ... Born: Richard E. Byrd, Jr., American arctic explorer and the grandson of North Pole explorer Richard E. Byrd; in Boston (d. ...
For seven years, beginning in 1867, Jacobsen was member of a whaling crew on the Spitsbergen and Murman coasts. In 1876/7 he ... His travels took him from the Arctic to South America, North America, Korea, Japan, Siberia, and the South Sea Islands. ...
... and Alpine Research publishes research and book reviews on any scientific or cultural aspect of Arctic, Antarctic, and alpine ... "Protozoan Epibionts and Their Distribution on the Arctic Ice-amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii from Spitsbergen, Norway," Arctic, ... "Protozoan Epibionts and Their Distribution on the Arctic Ice-amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii from Spitsbergen, Norway," Arctic, ... Specimens of the Arctic sympagic amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii, which were collected in the ice-covered areas near Spitsbergen, ...
... west Spitsbergen) hosts the most active glacier on the island. Therefore the glacial impact on the marine ecosystem is very ... The Kongsfjord (west Spitsbergen) hosts the most active glacier on the island. Therefore the glacial impact on the marine ... Kendall MA (1996) Are arctic soft-sediment macrobenthic communities impoverished? Polar Biol 16:393-399CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Elverhøi A, Lønne Ø, Seland R (1983) Glaciomarine sedimentation in a modern fjord environment, Spitsbergen. Polar Res 1:127-149 ...
... dc.date.accessioned. 2013- ... A Late Jurassic Boreal echinoderm Lagerstätte from Janusfjellet, central Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway. en_US. ... A Late Jurassic Boreal echinoderm Lagerstätte from Janusfjellet, central Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway. Masteroppgave, University ... central Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway&rft.inst=University of Oslo&rft.date=2011&rft.degree=Masteroppgave. en_US. ...
Arctic soil properties associated with micro-relief forms in the Bellsund region (Spitsbergen). Catena 28: 135-149.Crossref ... Specifi city of Arctic tundra soils of Spitsbergen. Polish Journal of Soil Science 42: 97-109.Google Scholar ... Studies on the soils of the Arctic climate zone on the example of the south-western Spitsbergen. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły ... Organic carbon and nutrients (N, P) in surface soil horizons of Arctic soils from a non-glaciated catchment, SW Spitsbergen. ...
Plume spreading in an Arctic shelf environment (SW-Spitsbergen) , Continental shelf research, 25 , pp. 1453-1472 . doi: 10.1016 ... Pathways of methane in seawater: Plume spreading in an Arctic shelf environment (SW-Spitsbergen) Damm, Ellen ORCID: https:// ... Helmholtz Research Programs , MARCOPOLI (2004-2008) , POL3-Variations of the physical environment of the Arctic Ocean ...
We nonetheless present a model Arctic system that could form the basis for long term monitoring for climate- driven species ... Rønning OI: Features of the Ecology of Some Arctic Svalbard (Spitsbergen) Plant Communities. Arctic and Alpine Research. 1969, ... Hodkinson ID, Bird J: Host-specific insect herbivores as sensors of climate change in arctic and Alpine environments. Arctic ... arctic and high arctic plants. Oikos. 1993, 67: 490-502. 10.2307/3545361.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
Luxury Arctic cruise Spitsbergen & Franz Josef Land. A unique expedition to rarely visited Franz Josef Land ... The Arctic and Antarctic small cruises are wildlife frenzies, of course, with polar bears, walruses, Arctic fox in the former, ... Arctic wildlife holiday, Polar bear explorer. A wildlife focused Arctic safari in Svalbard ... Such as the Arctic s aboriginal communities, the extraordinary sea gypsies of Burma s Mergui Archipelago or the coastal Koryaks ...
Arctic icebreaker cruise, Spitsbergen Wildlife-focused, expert-led small ship Arctic cruises ... Luxury Arctic cruise Spitsbergen & Franz Josef Land. A unique expedition to rarely visited Franz Josef Land ... Spitsbergen Arctic cruise with Mark Carwardine. Exclusive photographic charter in the Svalbard Archipelago ... Franz Josef Land is the most northerly archipelago in Eurasia and lies entirely within the Arctic Circle. Being such a remote ...
... built in an Arctic mountainside to safeguard global supplies The vault - which opened on the Svalbard archipelago between ... International gene bank Svalbard Global Seed Vault near Longyearbyen on Spitsbergen. International gene bank Svalbard Global ... OSLO (Reuters) - Two new consignments of crop seeds will be deposited next year in the "doomsday vault" built in an Arctic ... Seed Vault (SGSV) near Longyearbyen on Spitsbergen, Norway, October 19, 2015. REUTERS/Anna Filipova ...
The bird ectoparasite Dermanyssus hirundinis (Acari, Mesostigmata) in the High Arctic; a new parasitic mite to Spitsbergen, ... The bird ectoparasite Dermanyssus hirundinis (Acari, Mesostigmata) in the High Arctic; a new parasitic mite to Spitsbergen, ... The bird ectoparasite Dermanyssus hirundinis (Acari, Mesostigmata) in the High Arctic; a new parasitic mite to Spitsbergen, ...
Photos: U.S. Navy Submarines Surface in the Arctic Circle. How this Navigation Light Uses the Moiré Effect to Guide Ships Home ... Greenpeace Boards Transocean Spitsbergen Rig. May 27, 2014. by Rob Almeida Greenpeace activists climb aboard the Transocean ... activists boarded the Transocean Spitsbergen semi-submersible drilling rig this morning in protest of Statoils arctic drilling ... Spitsbergen drilling rig in this handout photo released by Greenpeace May 27, 2014. REUTERS/Greenpeace handout. 15 Greenpeace ...
Note: For ITIS & Mammal Species of the World, this is currently the only extant (living) species in the genus Delphinapterus, but there are known extinct species (Retrieved on ...
Regional melt-pond fraction and albedo of thin Arctic first-year drift ice in late summer. Fagfellevurdert Divine et al. 2015 ... Phengite-bearing sclogites from NW Spitsbergen, Svalbard Caledonides. abstract Elvevold & Ravna 2014 - SvalGeoBase: Proterozoic ... Nitrate dynamics in the Arctic winter snowpack. Doktorgradavhandling Björkman 2013. *. Nytt digitalt breatlas for Svalbard. ... Dynamic perennial firn aquifer on an Arctic glacier. Fagfellevurdert Christianson et al. 2015 - Geophysical Research Letters ...
Macrozoobenthic soft-sediment communities of central Arctic Kongsfjorden inhabiting six depth zones between 5 and 30 m were ... In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JW (eds) Atlas of marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen. Inst Oceanol, PAS, Sopot, pp 153-155Google ... Conlan KE, Kvitek RG (2005) Recolonization of soft-sediment ice scours on an exposed Arctic coast. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 286:21-42 ... In: Klekowski RZ, Weslawski JW (eds) Atlas of marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen. Inst Oceanol, PAS, Sopot, pp 8-111Google ...
2006 - Arctic sea ice thickness: Past, present and future. *. Atmospheric-driven state transfer of shore-fast ice in the ... Variability of fast ice thickness in Spitsbergen fjords. Peer-reviewed Gerland & Hall 2006 - Annals of Glaciology ... Comparing Arctic sea ice kinematics from satellite remote sensing data to coupled sea ice-ocean model results. Abstract Spreen ... Comparing Arctic sea ice kinematics from satellite remote sensing data to ECCO2 model results. Abstract Spreen et al. 2009 ...
Soak up the essence of the Arctic on a voyage around Spitsbergen. Discover wild beaches and towering glaciers, and search the ... Your Spitsbergen arctic voyage begins when you board your ship in Longyearbyen, the islands largest settlement. Enjoy your ... This voyage captures the essence of the Arctic, taking you on an unforgettable trip around Spitsbergen, the largest island of ... Arctic foxes have been seen combing the canyon floor to feed on scraps that have fallen from the. nests above. Watch for bones ...
Springtime phytoplankton dynamics in Arctic Krossfjorden and Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) as a function of glacier proximity. A. ... Springtime phytoplankton dynamics in Arctic Krossfjorden and Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) as a function of glacier proximity. ... Springtime phytoplankton dynamics in Arctic Krossfjorden and Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) as a function of glacier proximity. / ... Springtime phytoplankton dynamics in Arctic Krossfjorden and Kongsfjorden (Spitsbergen) as a function of glacier proximityFinal ...
in the Arctic (AWIPEV Research Base in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen). your browser cannot display iframes. ... Circulation in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas*Physikalische Ozeanographie des arktischen Ozeans ...
This method allowed to verify Arctic chemical ozone depletion and its causes. At the AWIPEV research base, an ozone sonde is ... Start of a ozone sensor in front of the balloon hall in Ny-Ålesund at Spitsbergen. (Photo: Jürgen Graeser) ... While stratospheric ozone depletion is indeed observed in the Arctic, it occurs to a much lesser extent due to the more ... Circulation in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas*Physikalische Ozeanographie des arktischen Ozeans ...
RUG starts crowdfunding to support research on Arctic tern * Street view in Spitsbergen ... State of the new Arctic as observed in Ny-Ålesund Research Station. Poster session presented at Arctic Frontiers , Tromso, ... Serosurvey for Toxoplasma gondii in arctic foxes and possible sources of infection in the high Arctic of Svalbard. Veterinary ... Miedema, S. A., & Loonen, M. (2013). Arctic Drilling: friend or foe of the global energy system. NRG Magazine Edition, 10, 29- ...
Vest Spitsbergen (West Spitsbergen in English)." Umbreit, Spitsbergen (2009), p. ix. "Spitsbergen… an Arctic archipelago… ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen; Norwegian: Vest Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen, Urban East Norwegian: [ˈvɛ̂st ... Arctic charr inhabit Linne´vatn and other freshwater lakes on the island. Polar bears are the iconic symbol of Spitsbergen and ... The Arctic tern has the furthest migration, all the way to Antarctica. Only two songbirds migrate to Spitsbergen to breed: the ...
1924 - The Oxford University Arctic expedition,. *1925 - The dispersal of insects to Spitsbergen, ... 1927 - The Nature and Origin of Soil-polygons in Spitsbergen,. *1929 - Aphids and hover-flies in North-East Land Spitsbergen in ... 1949 - Movements of Arctic Fox Populations in the Region of Baffin Bay and Smith Sound, University Press, ... 1931 - On a Collection of Raised Beach Fossils from Spitsbergen (z Donaldem Ferlysem i Wilsonem Baden Powellem), ...
"Northernmost movie theater reopens on Spitsbergen". Arctic.ru. Retrieved 13 January 2021. Back in Pyramiden, Svalbard Archived ... It lies at the foot of the Billefjorden on the island of Spitsbergen and is named after the pyramid-shaped mountain with the ... Spitsbergen: Svalbard, Franz Josef, Jan Mayen, 3rd: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides, 2005. ISBN 1841620920, ... Pyramiden as a touristic facility is maintained by Arctic Travel Company Grumant, a division of Arktikugol Trust. Tours through ...
Survey of moss-dwelling bdelloid rotifers from middle Arctic Spitsbergen (Svalbard). (2010) in Polar biology (Print) ...
The Arctic front marks the transition between the southern Atlantic water and northern Arctic water dominated parts of the ... The Arctic front marks the transition between the southern Atlantic water and northern Arctic water dominated parts of the ... 10 to 8.8 ka BP, the Barents Sea Arctic front followed the Barents Sea margin and the northern and southern borders of the Bear ... The northwestern Barents Sea Arctic front was close to the present location from ca. 8.8 to 7.4 ka BP, however, it was still ...
This hotel is situated on the island of Spitsbergen, in Norways Arctic Archipelago, Svalbard. It offers stunning views, free ...
... squeeze Russia out of Spitsbergen, RosBalt reported. Spitsbergen is an island in the Arctic Ocean that is administered by ... Russian media have repeatedly suggested this year that Russia could lose its right to inhabit Spitsbergen because Moscow is ... FOREIGN MINISTER DENIES NORWAY WANTS RUSSIA OUT OF SPITSBERGEN. Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov told journalists after meeting ...
A survey of feces from the main host, the arctic fox, showed that only the area occupied by the intermediate host is associated ... Arctic foxes are common throughout Spitsbergen (4); they are most plentiful near seabird cliffs along the coast and less ... In the Arctic, E. multilocularis depends on the arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus, formerly Alopex lagopus) or domestic dog (Canis ... multilocularis was first identified on the Arctic island Spitsbergen, in the Svalbard archipelago (3); since then, several ...
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2016). The AW mix with Arctic and local waters over the West Spitsbergen shelf and form shelf-transformed waters (STWs; Cottier ... In the present study, we aimed to assess seasonal environmental changes in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, W Spitsbergen) and ... 2017a) in the Hornsund fjord (S Spitsbergen). The recent intensification of the inflow of AW to the Spitsbergen coasts has had ... Korsun S, Hald M (1998) Modern benthic foraminifera off Novaya Zemlya tidewater glaciers, Russian Arctic. Arctic Alpine Res 30: ...
  • This voyage captures the essence of the Arctic, taking you on an unforgettable trip around Spitsbergen, the largest island of Norway's Svalbard archipelago. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • Norwegian: Vest Spitsbergen or Vestspitsbergen, Urban East Norwegian: [ˈvɛ̂stˌspɪtsbærɡn̩], also sometimes spelled Spitzbergen) is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in northern Norway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Constituting the westernmost bulk of the archipelago, it borders the Arctic Ocean, the Norwegian Sea, and the Greenland Sea. (wikipedia.org)
  • The name Spitsbergen, meaning "pointed mountains" (from the Dutch spits - pointed, bergen - mountains), at first applied both to the main island and to the associated archipelago as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Norwegian administrating authorities named the archipelago Svalbard in 1925, the main island becoming Spitsbergen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spitsbergen, the Realm of the Polar Bear, is the largest island in Norway's Svalbard archipelago. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • 2018. The Island of Amsterdamøya: A key site for studying past climate in the Arctic Archipelago of Svalbard. (uib.no)
  • Crew and engineers aboard R/V Helmer Hanssen prepare to deploy specially-designed lander commissioned by Norway's Centre for Arctic Gas Hydrate, Environment and Climate (CAGE) for one-year mission monitoring Arctic Ocean methane off west coast of Spitsbergen, Svalbard archipelago, Norway. (aliciapatterson.org)
  • Scientists gather around computer and video monitors in instrument room aboard R/V Helmer Hanssen to monitor descent and release of unique seafloor lander at start of one-year CAGE mission tracking Arctic Ocean methane off west coast of Svalbard archipelago, Norway. (aliciapatterson.org)
  • Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. (hindawi.com)
  • For the Spitsbergen region, this process is particularly important due to the existence of an extended open water area (a quasi-steady-state polynya) bordered by an MIZ, the so-called Whalers Bay, close to the northern coast of the archipelago. (hindawi.com)
  • Svalbard, is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. (thearda.com)
  • Spitsbergen is the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago, and on this voyage we'll attempt a circumnavigation of the island. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • We plan to circumnavigate the island of Spitsbergen, but if conditions are favorable, we will also attempt a circumnavigation of the whole Svalbard archipelago. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • To get your own account of what makes this Arctic archipelago so singularly special, here are 10 facts that just might prompt you to consider your own Svalbard cruise. (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • These are the aptly named Svalbard reindeer - also called Spitsbergen reindeer, after the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago. (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • Spitsbergen, Norway's Svalbard archipelago, is situated in the far north of the Arctic Circle. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Central Arctic archipelago. (arcus.org)
  • Located at the extreme northern end of the Svalbard Archipelago in Norway , Spitsbergen is an island paradise for the adventure traveler looking for some arctic fun. (gadling.com)
  • Specimens of the Arctic sympagic amphipod Gammarus wilkitzkii , which were collected in the ice-covered areas near Spitsbergen, Norway, were infested with protozoan epibionts in densities of 499 to 3346 individuals per amphipod. (bioone.org)
  • Poster session presented at Arctic Frontiers , Tromso, Norway. (rug.nl)
  • Spitsbergen covers an area of 37,673 km2 (14,546 sq mi), making it the largest island in Norway and the 36th-largest in the world. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marine scientists from Kiel, together with colleagues from Bremen, Great Britain, Switzerland and Norway, spent four and a half weeks examining methane emanation from the sea bed off the coast of Spitsbergen with the German research vessel MARIA S. MERIAN. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • 2019. Wintertime extreme events recorded by lake sediments in Arctic Norway. (uib.no)
  • Herein, we report the first empirical evidence of a dramatic shift in movement patterns and foraging behaviour of the arctic endemic ringed seal ( Pusa hispida ), before and after a major collapse in sea-ice in Svalbard, Norway. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The degree of cultural diversity in Svalbard would be impressive for a centrally located town, much less a scatter of Arctic islands halfway between Norway and the North Pole. (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • Depositional environment control on bryozoan faunas, Early Permian (Artinskian) Gipshuken Formation, Spitsbergen, Arctic Norway. (uio.no)
  • Although he retired from exploration after his return to Norway, his techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Arctic includes the Arctic Ocean (which overlies the North Pole) and parts of Canada , Greenland (a territory of Denmark ), Russia , the United States ( Alaska ), Iceland , Norway , Sweden and Finland . (statemaster.com)
  • The Kongsfjord (west Spitsbergen) hosts the most active glacier on the island. (springer.com)
  • More specifically, the North Cape Current (NCaC) turns into the Barents Sea through the Bear Island Trough (BIT) whereas the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) flows northwards along the western Barents Sea margin and enters the Arctic Ocean through the Fram Strait (Figure 1A ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The oceanographic conditions of west Spitsbergen fjords are mainly shaped by the inflow of warm and saline Atlantic Waters (AW) transported by the West Spitsbergen Current (Nilsen et al. (springer.com)
  • in Arctic lakes under natural and anthropogenic impact (West Spitsbergen). (arctichealth.org)
  • In this study, both a water supply system (Lake 1) under the natural impact of a bird-nesting area, and a wastewater receiver (Lake 2) were analysed in the vicinity of the Polish Polar Station on West Spitsbergen. (arctichealth.org)
  • The fjord is under the To adequately assess patterns of genetic diversity at the influence of the cold coastal South Cape Current and warmer, population level, fast-evolving markers should be used, par- more saline West Spitsbergen Current. (deepdyve.com)
  • The region where the team found the plumes is being warmed by the West Spitsbergen current, which has warmed by 1 °C over the past 30 years. (newscientist.com)
  • If that was the case, the warming of the West Spitsbergen current may not be to blame. (newscientist.com)
  • Here also ends the West Spitsbergen Current, a current which supplies the Arctic Ocean with warm and saline Atlantic water. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • By analyzing the winter temperature profile of five coastal stations it can be demonstrated that the climatic shift at the end of the 1910s had been closest to Spitsbergen, allowing the conclusion that circumstances related to the West Spitsbergen Current have caused the early Arctic warming almost a century ago. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • By the Fram Strait at about 80° North, between Greenland and Spitsbergen, it is connected with the Atlantic, which serves as a major gate for the supply of warm and saline water to the Arctic Ocean, which is coming with the West Spitsbergen Current. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • and (3) the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which carries warm Atlantic-derived water north. (int-res.com)
  • The call of the Arctic has a particular allure - a promise of vast icy plains, untouched fjords and wildlife rarely seen anywhere else. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • The recent intensification of the inflow of AW to the Spitsbergen coasts has had an unexpectedly high impact on the oceanography of the fjords, sea-ice formation (Tverberg et al. (springer.com)
  • Mitochondrial markers, which provide suitably variable sequences, are among the Our study area covered two fjords in the Atlantic sector of the most favored for tracking such events during the Quaternary Arctic Ocean. (deepdyve.com)
  • We start in Longyearbyen, and then concentrate our efforts on exploring some of the most scenic fjords along the west coast of Svalbard, all the way up to the northwest corner of Spitsbergen. (hurtigruten.com)
  • Can snow depth be used to predict the distribution of the high Arctic aphid Acyrthosiphon svalbardicum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Spitsbergen? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Navigating the icy channels of the High Arctic, follow in the footsteps of legendary explorers who braved the unknown to seek the fabled sea route to Asia. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • Steeped in polar history, the Russian High Arctic offers the rare opportunity to travel to remote archipelagos, including Severnaya Zemlya. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • 2018. Hydroclimate variability of High Arctic Svalbard during the Holocene inferred from hydrogen isotopes of leaf waxes. (uib.no)
  • 2018. Alkenone-based reconstructions reveal four-phase Holocene temperature evolution for High Arctic Svalbard. (uib.no)
  • The breeding system and floral development were compared in mid-range (West Greenland) and marginal (North Iceland) populations of Campanula uniflora , a widespread high arctic species which is rare in large parts of its range. (bioone.org)
  • This indicates that an evolutionary switch has occurred, from selection for outbreeding in the ancestral group toward inbreeding in the only truly high arctic species in the genus. (bioone.org)
  • It might travel with an arm of the Norwegian Current over Spitsbergen into the High Arctic. (whoi.edu)
  • We also thank Ch. Wiencke and his group from the AWI for the possibility to be guests at their research stations in Svalbard (High Arctic) and on King George Island (Antarctica). (springer.com)
  • We sampled layers at different depths from two high-Arctic peat soils in Svalbard for metatranscriptome preparation. (asm.org)
  • Our 11-day Spitsbergen - Realm of the Polar Bear tour has never failed to find this iconic arctic wanderer, and offers a spectacular supporting cast of Walrus, dramatic scenery and huge seabird colonies. (naturetrek.co.uk)
  • Our Spitsbergen destination guide is your best resource for learning everything there is to know about the Realm of the Polar Bear. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • Explore Norway's dramatic coastline before crossing the Arctic Circle to the realm of the polar bear. (australiangeographic.com.au)
  • En route to Antarctica, take the opportunity to encounter iconic wildlife and immerse yourself in early Antarctic exploration on these sub-Antarctic islands of the South Atlantic Ocean. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • Still visited by only the lucky few, the Arctic and Antarctic have for centuries held an irresistible magnetism for explorers. (naturetrek.co.uk)
  • The Arctic and Antarctic are like nowhere else on the planet - and once you've been, you will be hooked (I was! (naturetrek.co.uk)
  • Program intends to compare diversity between Arctic and Antarctic bacteria and lichens. (agiweb.org)
  • Sedimentation under the seasonal sea-ice cover, Arctic and Antarctic. (arcus.org)
  • Aitken AE (1990) Fossilization potential of Arctic fjord and continental shelf benthic macrofaunas. (springer.com)
  • In the present study, we aimed to assess seasonal environmental changes in an Arctic fjord (Adventfjorden, W Spitsbergen) and the structure and distribution of benthic foraminiferal assemblages during four seasons (January, May, August, November). (springer.com)
  • 2016 ), Isfjorden is one of the fjord systems that is most affected by AW in Spitsbergen due to the deep trough at its entrance. (springer.com)
  • 2017a ) in the Hornsund fjord (S Spitsbergen). (springer.com)
  • Sunshine Fjord straddles the Arctic Circle at 66 degrees, 33 minutes north of latitude. (expeditiontrips.com)
  • This unique seed vault is located on the Norwegian Island of Spitsbergen near the Arctic Circle. (apsnet.org)
  • Here the NAC gains a name change, to the Norwegian Atlantic Current, but its warmth still graces that nation with ice-free conditions north of the Arctic Circle. (whoi.edu)
  • Whichever way, it's a thrill to be above the Arctic Circle at last! (expeditiontrips.com)
  • Exactly when the Inuit (Eskimos) took up residence in the Arctic is not known, although both they and the Vikings arrived in Greenland about a thousand years ago, which means they did not completely circle the Arctic until historical times. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The boundary is generally considered to be north of the Arctic Circle (66° 33'N), which is the approximate limit of the midnight sun and the polar night . (statemaster.com)
  • For the fast food restaurant chain, see Arctic Circle Restaurants. (statemaster.com)
  • Climatic changes during the Quaternary period in Arctic regions, with CCMAR, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal repeated glacial and interglacial periods causing cyclical 1028 Mar Biodiv (2018) 48:1027-1035 expansions and contractions of species, have shaped their ge- Material and methods netic variation and genealogies. (deepdyve.com)
  • 2018. Reconstructing Holocene Glacier and Climate Fluctuations From Lake Sediments in Vårfluesjøen, Northern Spitsbergen. (uib.no)
  • Mölders, N. and Kramm, G. (2018) Climatology of Air Quality in Arctic Cities-Inventory and Assessment. (scirp.org)
  • Kwok, R. Arctic sea ice thickness, volume, and multiyear ice coverage: losses and coupled variability (1958-2018). (nature.com)
  • Remember the panic over methane seeping out of the Arctic seabed in 2009? (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • At an arctic site characterized by high methane flux from the seafloor, we measured methane and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange across the sea−air interface. (pnas.org)
  • Continued warming of the Arctic Ocean in coming decades is projected to trigger the release of teragrams (1 Tg = 10 6 tons) of methane from thawing subsea permafrost on shallow continental shelves and dissociation of methane hydrate on upper continental slopes. (pnas.org)
  • Deep in the Arctic Ocean, water warmed by climate change is forcing the release of methane from beneath the sea floor. (newscientist.com)
  • If methane began escaping at similar rates throughout the Arctic, it would dramatically increase methane levels in the atmosphere . (newscientist.com)
  • Cohen cautions that the Arctic methane may not be from hydrate, but could be coming from the methane's primary source, which might be deep within the Earth. (newscientist.com)
  • For years, methane emissions from the seabed have been observed in the Arctic Ocean off Spitsbergen. (phys.org)
  • The investigations off Spitsbergen show a methane release, which is not caused by climate warming. (azocleantech.com)
  • At the bottom of the Arctic Sea lie vast deposits of methane gas trapped in frozen, icy forms called methane hydrates, and climate scientists would very much prefer that it remains trapped down there. (discovermagazine.com)
  • If this process becomes widespread along Arctic continental margins, tens of megatonnes of methane a year - equivalent to 5-10% of the total amount released globally by natural sources, could be released into the ocean" [ BBC News ] , he says. (discovermagazine.com)
  • This article is an open access publication Abstract Calanus glacialis, a major contributor to zooplank- Introduction ton biomass in the Arctic shelf seas, is a key link between primary production and higher trophic levels that may be sen- A large part of zooplankton biomass in the Arctic shelf seas is sitive to climate warming. (deepdyve.com)
  • Your Spitsbergen arctic voyage begins when you board your ship in Longyearbyen, the island's largest settlement. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • A well preserved, low diversity assemblage of fossil echinoderms is described from the Volgian Slottsmøya Member (Agardhfjellet Formation) on central Spitsbergen. (uio.no)
  • Hydrocarbon potential of the Central Spitsbergen Basin. (uio.no)
  • Solution-collapse breccias of the Minkinfjellet and Wordiekammen Formations, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard: large gypsum palaeokarst system. (uio.no)
  • We report on a newly excavated Spathian (Lower Triassic) bonebed on Marmierfjellet, Central Spitsbergen. (uio.no)
  • The main aim of the present study is to determine and explain the spatial diversity of selected physical and chemical properties of surface horizons of Arctic soils from the non-glaciated Fuglebekken catchment located in the Hornsund area (SW Spitsbergen) by means of geostatistical approach. (degruyter.com)
  • Ornithocoprophilous plant communities on the southern slope of Ariekammen (Hornsund region, Spitsbergen). (degruyter.com)
  • 2016. Mapping sediment-landform assemblages to constrain lacustrine sedimentation in a glacier-fed lake catchment in northwest Spitsbergen. (uib.no)
  • Freely available data of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter (PM) observed in Arctic cities (north of 59.99 N) between 1972 and 2016 were compiled into an air-quality inventory of samples taken for limited periods. (scirp.org)
  • Sea ice drifts in the Arctic Ocean. (npolar.no)
  • Sea ice in the Arctic Ocean (AO) has been undergoing dramatic changes during the last two decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • The effects of climate change are clearly visible in the Arctic Ocean (AO) through the recent massive reduction in sea ice volume and extent. (frontiersin.org)
  • The areas of its occurrence, includ- in the distribution of haplotypes by geographic distance or ing peripheral seas of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent regions of over time. (deepdyve.com)
  • We investigated muscle and mitochondrial ultrastructure of Clione antarctica from the Southern Ocean (−1.8°C) and populations of a sister species, Clione limacina , from the Arctic (−0.5 to 3°C) and from the North Atlantic (10°C). We also measured oxygen consumption and the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS) in isolated wings of the two species. (biologists.org)
  • We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW) inflow in shaping ice conditions. (hindawi.com)
  • Under conditions of enhanced seasonality, the influence of ocean heat on Arctic ice cover is expected to grow. (hindawi.com)
  • On the opposite side of the Arctic Ocean the ice edge deviation from the climatic mean location was substantially smaller, for example, Figure 1 in [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • But the Arctic has warmed more than any other region on Earth-a phenomenon some scientists have linked to feedback from sea ice loss and changes in atmospheric and ocean circulation caused by overall planet warming. (phys.org)
  • Among other changes to the ice-regime, this collapse shifted the summer position of the marginal ice zone from over the continental shelf, northward to the deep Arctic Ocean Basin. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Continued declines are expected to result in an ice-free Arctic Ocean as early as 2037 [ 2 ], with transformative consequences for arctic ecosystems [ 3 , 4 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Among other changes, the southern edge of the summer arctic icecap (the marginal ice zone, MIZ) has shifted northward from its previous norm over the continental shelf to a location over the deep Arctic Ocean Basin ( figure 1 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The Arctic is an ocean. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Rises in surface air temperature (SAT) in response to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases are expected to be amplified in northern high latitudes, with warming most pronounced over the Arctic Ocean owing to the loss of sea ice", (Serreze, 2004). (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • In contrast to the nomenclature for the genus, use of the species name hispida for the Ringed Seals inhabiting the Arctic Ocean and adjoining seas has been broadly accepted (Rice 1998). (iucnredlist.org)
  • Hans Nansen (1598-1667), a trader, was an early explorer of the White Sea region of the Arctic Ocean. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surrounded by the Arctic Ocean, as well as the Greenland and Norwegian Seas, Spitsbergen is also a great place for sea kayaking, although hiking through glacier caverns may be the most unique reason to visit. (gadling.com)
  • Thenwe cross the Arctic Ocean to Bjørnøya, situated about halfway between Svalbard and the Norwegian mainland. (hurtigruten.com)
  • The mountain cliff rises 307 metres above the Arctic Ocean. (hurtigruten.com)
  • The Arctic region consists of a vast ice-covered ocean (which is sometimes considered to be a northern arm of the Atlantic Ocean ) surrounded by treeless, frozen ground. (statemaster.com)
  • An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. (statemaster.com)
  • Fig. 1: Schematic of seasonal sea-ice biogeochemical processes in the Arctic Ocean. (nature.com)
  • Fig. 3: Map of the Arctic Ocean. (nature.com)
  • Impacts of the changing ocean-sea ice system on the key forage fish Arctic cod ( Boreogadus saida ) and subsistence fisheries in the western Canadian Arctic-evaluating linked climate, ecosystem and economic (CEE) models. (nature.com)
  • The importance of ice algae-produced carbon in the central Arctic Ocean ecosystem: food web relationships revealed by lipid and stable isotope analyses. (nature.com)
  • The Arctic Ocean carbon sink. (nature.com)
  • Bates, N. R. & Mathis, J. T. The Arctic Ocean marine carbon cycle: evaluation of air-sea CO 2 exchanges, ocean acidification impacts and potential feedbacks. (nature.com)
  • Macrozoobenthic soft-sediment communities of central Arctic Kongsfjorden inhabiting six depth zones between 5 and 30 m were sampled using SCUBA-diving during June-August 2003 and analysed comparatively. (springer.com)
  • The hydrographic properties of the Kongsfjorden-Krossfjorden system (79 degrees N, Spitsbergen) are affected by Atlantic water incursions as well as glacier meltwater runoff. (rug.nl)
  • We are now seeing species that are not normally found in the Arctic," said Barrault, staring out over Kongsfjorden. (phys.org)
  • 15 Greenpeace activists boarded the Transocean Spitsbergen semi-submersible drilling rig this morning in protest of Statoil's arctic drilling plans and the environmental threat posed to Bear Island, a remote nature reserve located 98 miles to the northwest of the proposed well site in the Barents Sea. (gcaptain.com)
  • A main feature of the Barents Sea oceanography is the Arctic front. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Arctic front marks the transition between the dominating water masses of the Barents Sea: Atlantic Water in the south and Arctic Water in the north. (frontiersin.org)
  • Presently, the Barents Sea Arctic front is directed by the topography of the Bear Island Trough and to some degree the location of the sea ice boundary. (frontiersin.org)
  • The evolution of how the present location of the Barents Sea Arctic front established during the early Holocene is documented by foraminiferal relative assemblage data from six core sites along the western Barents Sea margin and opening. (frontiersin.org)
  • The relative abundance of Arctic front indicator Turborotalita quinqueloba , in combination with the cold, polar Neogloboquadrina pachyderma and warm, Atlantic Neogloboquadrina incompta , are used to infer the location of the Barents Sea Arctic front relative to the individual core sites. (frontiersin.org)
  • Until ca. 11 ka BP, the Barents Sea Arctic front followed the western margin of the Barents Sea. (frontiersin.org)
  • All sites along the Barents Sea margin where still dominated by Arctic Water between ca. 11 and 10.2 ka BP, however, the Barents Sea Arctic front turned eastwards into the southwestern Barents Sea. (frontiersin.org)
  • From ca. 10.2 to 8.8 ka BP, the Barents Sea Arctic front moved eastward and was located right above most sites as it followed the Barents Sea margin. (frontiersin.org)
  • The northwestern Barents Sea Arctic front was close to the present location from ca. 8.8 to 7.4 ka BP, however, it was still confined to the southwestern Barents Sea. (frontiersin.org)
  • From ca. 7.4 ka BP, the Barents Sea Arctic front has been located close to the present position, along the margin southwards from Svalbard, turning eastwards along and beyond the northern Bear Island Trough margin. (frontiersin.org)
  • North Atlantic: New Jersey, USA to Spitsbergen (Svalbard Islands) and the Barents Sea south to Ireland. (fishbase.org)
  • Loonen also charts the flying routes of the arctic tern. (rug.nl)
  • You can then follow Spitsbergen with a cruise around Greenland's Disko Bay, one of the few remaining haunts of the rare Bowhead Whale and edged by some of the largest glaciers in the world. (naturetrek.co.uk)
  • Now there is liquid water even in the coldest months, the glaciers are retreating at a rate of hundreds of metres per year, and alien species from warmer climes are making the bay their home, say longtime residents of the sparsely-populated town on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen. (phys.org)
  • Glaciers cover about 60 percent of Spitsbergen. (phys.org)
  • Recent warming in the high latitudes has prompted the accelerated retreat of ice caps and glaciers, especially in the Canadian Arctic. (clim-past.net)
  • We nonetheless present a model Arctic system that could form the basis for long term monitoring for climate- driven species shifts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For Arctic species strongly dependant on the number of degree days to successfully complete their life cycle, factors such as length of summer, temperature, timing of snow melt, snow thickness and overwintering conditions [ 4 ] are all likely to influence species presence or absence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Continued declines in sea-ice are likely to result in distributional changes, range reductions and population declines in this keystone arctic species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Ringed seals are a keystone, endemic arctic species that is the principal prey of polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) and an important resource for coastal arctic people. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Their circumpolar distribution and high abundance, along with their vital roles both as a high-trophic predator and as prey in this relatively species-poor system, makes them a key link in the arctic food web. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Such knowledge will greatly improve our predictive capacity regarding global warming impacts on this keystone species because the changes occurring currently in Svalbard are predicted to spread throughout the Arctic. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • But while charismatic polar bears may be umbrella species of the Arctic, zooplankton, scientists say, are the keystone. (upi.com)
  • Scientists have documented a population decline and range retreat in Calanus glacialis, one of the most critical species of zooplankton in the Arctic. (upi.com)
  • We may also see more southerly species of zooplankton move in the Arctic from the lower latitudes," Campbell says, noting that though species have been introduced before, they were never able to survive. (upi.com)
  • However, these species aren't as fatty or as long-lived as dominant Arctic species, like the large copepods Calanus borealis and Calanus glacialis that are excellent at transferring energy up the food chain. (upi.com)
  • After that, we head for Gjesværstappan, a bird cliff that will be teeming with breeding arctic species in a cacophony of sound. (hurtigruten.com)
  • On Spitsbergen, Loonen and other Groningen scientists are studying whale hunting, tourism, mining, ecosystems a nd the consequences of climate change for migratory birds. (rug.nl)
  • These effects may be exacerbated under warming in ecosystems like the Arctic, where the number and diversity of predators are low and small shifts in community interactions can alter carbon cycle feedbacks. (pnas.org)
  • Mesozoic marine reptiles from Spitsbergen and their ecosystems. (uio.no)
  • The Arctic region is a unique area among Earth's ecosystems. (statemaster.com)
  • Bick A, Arlt G (2005) Intertidal and subtidal soft-bottom macro- and meiofauna of the Kongsfjord (Spitsbergen). (springer.com)
  • Expect a new adventure every day as we begin our circumnavigation by heading north and around the island of Spitsbergen, exploring smaller, outlying islands. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • The island has an Arctic climate, although with significantly higher temperatures than other places at the same latitude. (wikipedia.org)
  • It lies at the foot of the Billefjorden on the island of Spitsbergen and is named after the pyramid-shaped mountain with the same name adjacent to the town. (wikipedia.org)
  • Robert Campbell, a zooplankton biologist at the University of Rhode Island unassociated with the project, says researchers expect the Arctic marine growing season will lengthen under a changing climate, and with sea ice melting and thinning out earlier, zooplankton may be forced farther down in the water column to feed on other nutrients, like phytoplankton - possibly easing the detrimental effects of a warming Arctic. (upi.com)
  • Walrus populations love Spitsbergen as well, feeding in the food-rich icy waters around the island. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • Svalbard is no different: Its total precipitation averages about 200 mm (7.8 inches) per year, with the northeastern island of Nordaustlandet claiming most of the "Arctic desert" characteristics. (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • The 'Big Warming' in 1918 started at the Norwegian Island Spitsbergen high in the North bordering the Arctic Sea. (trafford.com)
  • Proterozoic and Paleozoic geology of the Canadian Arctic, Ellesmere Island, and Devon Island, and Melville Peninsula, concentrating on the interpretation of siliciclastic fluvial and marine units. (arcus.org)
  • The island is a popular stop-over for cruise ships and it is often used as a launching point for expeditions headed into the Arctic as well. (gadling.com)
  • Throughout the coming days and the rest of the voyage, your on-board experts will educate you with a series of presentations about the environment, wildlife and history of Baffin Island and the Canadian Arctic. (expeditiontrips.com)
  • After an inspiring day of exploration, continue north along the coastline of Baffin Island, venturing deeper into the Arctic wilderness. (expeditiontrips.com)
  • A recent visit to the Arctic port of Vardø, on an island off the eastern extremity of the Varanger Peninsula, prompts us to reflect on Fridtjof Nansen's visit to the same place in 1893. (hiddeneurope.co.uk)
  • This hopeless quest led Hudson to explore the eastern coast of Greenland, gain more accurate information about Spitsbergen, and discover Hudson's "Tutches" (Jan Mayen Island). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Navigate the same waters and visit the same sites as early explorer Sir John Franklin on this epic expedition cruise of the Northwest Passage that connects the Canadian Arctic and Greenland. (wildernesstravel.com)
  • Precambrian sedimentary basins of the Canadian Arctic Islands. (arcus.org)
  • The assemblage is also present in sediments around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary in Spitsbergen. (gbif.org)
  • We propose that at around the Paleocene/Eocene boundary a distinct flora, named here as the Brito-Arctic Igneous Province (BIP) flora, occurred on the line of volcanicity stretching from Rockall to the Greenland Sea, and even to Spitsbergen. (gbif.org)
  • 2011, 'Sea-level and salinity fluctuations during the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum in Arctic Spitsbergen', Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 303, pp. 97-107. (edu.au)
  • Comparing the foraging behavior of little auk populations confined to Arctic versus Atlantic-influenced waters can provide insight into the potential impacts of future warming in the Greenland Sea. (int-res.com)
  • Karnovsky NJ, Brown ZW, Welcker J, Harding AMA and others (2011) Inter-colony comparison of diving behavior of an Arctic top predator: implications for warming in the Greenland Sea. (int-res.com)
  • Other definitions are based on climate and ecology, such as the 10°C (50°F) July isotherm , which roughly corresponds to the tree line in most of the Arctic. (statemaster.com)
  • There's plenty of opportunity to spot iconic wildlife, with polar bears, Arctic foxes, walruses and many varieties of seabirds all living in Spitsbergen's vast wilderness. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • When it comes to viewing arctic wildlife, Spitsbergen is known as one of the most prolific destinations. (quarkexpeditions.com)
  • Though in other respects Svalbard gun laws are not unlike those of most European communities - firearms are prohibited in public buildings, cannot be discharged in town, so forth - it is the unusual wildlife of these scattered Arctic islands that renders additional protection not only necessary, but enforced. (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • While stratospheric ozone depletion is indeed observed in the Arctic, it occurs to a much lesser extent due to the more important role of atmospheric dynamics in the Northern hemisphere. (awi.de)
  • It is reported that the stratospheric ozone was largely depleted over Arctic in the winter 1995/1996. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Shortly after whaling began (1611), the Danish-Norwegian crown in 1616 claimed ownership of Jan Mayen and the Spitsbergen islands, as all of Svalbard was then known, but in 1613, the English Muscovy Company had done the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after the discovery of the ozone hole over Antarctica in the 1980s, the question arose if similar ozone depletion was also to be expected for the Arctic. (awi.de)
  • Enjoy your first view of the island's rugged, glacier-topped mountains, rising majestically from icy Arctic waters. (intrepidtravel.com)
  • 2012). With the Arctic region likely genetics Genetic diversity to continue warming more rapidly than the global mean (IPCC 2014), changes are expected to affect Arctic marine biota. (deepdyve.com)
  • Shifts in aboveground-belowground trophic interactions due to climate change are particularly relevant in the Arctic, a region that is warming rapidly ( 6 ) and stores a large amount of soil organic carbon (C) ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Nowadays the polar region is often mentioned, because the Arctic is currently experiencing a rapid warming with a dramatic loss of Arctic sea ice, which could be due to a combination of a global warming signal and fortuitous phasing of intrinsic climate patterns (Overland, 2008:289). (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • After several arctic expeditions, he was the first to explore the region by air (1928), traveling from ALASKA to Spitsbergen. (angelfire.com)
  • The main purpose of this project is the research of the polar stratospheric clouds over Arctic region. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The first explorers of the North Polar region, the Arctic, probably crossed from northeastern Asia to northwestern North America more than 100,000 years ago, exploring the north as well as lands to the south. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This is due to the location of the constellation (a group of stars) Ursa Major , the "Great Bear", above the Arctic region. (statemaster.com)
  • There are numerous definitions of the Arctic region. (statemaster.com)
  • Socially and politically, the Arctic region includes the northern territories of the eight Arctic states, including Lapland , although by natural science definitions much of this territory is considered subarctic . (statemaster.com)
  • The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Canada and Siberia, the north of Scandinavia, northern Mongolia and the Chinese province of Heilongjiang. (statemaster.com)
  • The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions. (statemaster.com)
  • Physical and chemical properties of Arctic soils and especially the properties of surface horizons of the soils are very important because they are responsible for the rate and character of plant colonization, development of vegetation cover, and influence the rate and depth of thawing of soils and development of active layer of permafrost during summer. (degruyter.com)
  • The gas outlets off Spitsbergen lie approximately at a depth which marks the border between stability and dissolution. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Interdecadal changes in snow depth on Arctic sea ice. (nature.com)
  • During regular measurement campaigns, an international network of stations is brought together to coordinate ozone sonde launches, trace air parcels and detect their ozone content several times along their trajectory through the Arctic stratosphere. (awi.de)
  • Arctic C. limacina was intermediate between these two populations (43.7±0.5μm 2 μm −3 ). (biologists.org)
  • [ citation needed ] The side-wheeler S.S. Arctic sank September 27 1854, off Cape Race, Newfoundland, after colliding with the 250-ton French iron propeller ship SS Vesta. (statemaster.com)
  • Start of a ozone sensor in front of the balloon hall in Ny-Ålesund at Spitsbergen. (awi.de)
  • This method allowed to verify Arctic chemical ozone depletion and its causes . (awi.de)
  • We have obtained the following results by the research of the two years : 1) The vertical profiles of PSCs over spitsbergen were observed in the two winter seasons on 1995/1996 and 1996/1997.2) The vertical profiles of ozone over Fairbanks, Alaska were observed in the same winter seasons. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The Lillehookbreen glacier is seen from on board the research vessel Helmer Hanssen, northwest of Spitsbergen, Svalbard. (upi.com)
  • After the discovery in 2004of gigantic marine reptiles in the Upper Jurassic rocks of Spitsbergen, a multidisciplinary research project led by J.H. Hurum in cooperation with H.A. Nakrem, Ø. (uio.no)
  • The Norwegian Store Norske and the Russian Arktikugol are the only mining companies at Spitsbergen. (wikipedia.org)
  • During July 2000 and 2004, feces were collected around arctic fox dens during the annual den surveys conducted by the Norwegian Polar Institute in Svalbard. (cdc.gov)
  • Notz, D. & Stroeve, J. Observed Arctic sea-ice loss directly follows anthropogenic CO 2 emission. (nature.com)
  • Steady reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover throughout 1990s has accelerated in the 2000s [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore we presumed that a measurable rise in water temperature in the Arctic could dissolve the hydrates from the top downwards" explained Professor Berndt. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • In winter the presence of the large-scale open water zone substantially shapes local weather conditions, keeping air temperature well above average values for similar latitudes around the Arctic. (hindawi.com)
  • It may therefore be of interest to investigate if part of the temperature increase and large variations in Arctic temperatures may be attributed to solar influence. (hindawi.com)
  • One of the longest Arctic temperature series is from Svalbard. (hindawi.com)
  • I've stated here on several occasions that the 'Recent' Arctic ice thinning is more likely a current change issue rather than a temperature issue. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Already back in 1920s air temperature observation showed a strong warming at Spitsbergen during the winter season. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • A recent U.S. government report concluded that the "temperature change in the Arctic is happening at a greater rate than at other places in the Northern Hemisphere and that the ice cover in the Arctic began to diminish in the late 19th century and this shrinkage has accelerated during the last several decades (US Geological Survey, 2009:486, 6). (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • This became particularly obvious when an arctic winter befell Northern Europe only four months after World War II had started, ending a pronounced temperature rise all over the Northern Hemisphere which had started with the end of WWI in 1918. (trafford.com)
  • the Helvetiafjellet Formation in Nordenskiöld land, Spitsbergen. (uio.no)
  • Stratigraphy and age of the Grippia niveau bonebed, Lower Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation, Spitsbergen. (uio.no)
  • Nearly identical assemblages are found elsewhere in the Brito-Arctic Igneous Province, in intrabasaltic sediments from eastern Greenland, the Faeroe Islands, the Isle of Mull, and Antrim (Northern Ireland), and above basalt at the Rockall Plateau. (gbif.org)
  • Trophic interactions and abiotic factors drive functional and phylogenetic structure of vertebrate herbivore communities across the Arctic tundra biome. (uib.no)