Forced Expiratory Volume
Respiratory Function Tests
Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive
Lung Diseases, Obstructive
Maximal Midexpiratory Flow Rate
Forced Expiratory Flow Rates
Peak Expiratory Flow Rate
Respiratory Tract Diseases
Bronchial Provocation Tests
Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate
Lung Volume Measurements
Severity of Illness Index
Plethysmography, Whole Body
Pulmonary Diffusing Capacity
Primary Health Care
Total Lung Capacity
Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curves
Respiratory Physiological Phenomena
Reproducibility of Results
Education, Nursing, Continuing
Practice Guidelines as Topic
Air Pollutants, Occupational
Physician's Practice Patterns
Respiratory Therapy Department, Hospital
September 11 Terrorist Attacks
Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial
Predictive Value of Tests
Maximal Voluntary Ventilation
Adrenal Cortex Hormones
Intermittent Positive-Pressure Breathing
Functional Residual Capacity
Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/2225)The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists. (+info)
Decline in FEV1 related to smoking status in individuals with severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (PiZZ). (2/2225)Severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency predisposes to emphysema development. Highly variable rates of decline in lung function are reported in PiZZ individuals. The annual decline in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1; delta FEV1) was analysed in relation to smoking status in a cohort of 608 adult PiZZ individuals included in the Swedish national AAT deficiency register. Delta FEV1 was analysed in 211 never-smokers, in 351 exsmokers, and in 46 current smokers after performing at least two spirometries during a follow-up time of 1 yr or longer (median 5.5 yrs, range 1-31). The adjusted mean delta FEV1 in never-smokers was 47 mL x yr(-1) (95% confidence interval (CI) 41-53 mL x yr(-1)), 41 mL x yr(-1) (95% CI 36-48 mL x yr(-1)) in exsmokers, and 70 mL x yr(-1) (95% CI 58-82 mL x yr(-1)) in current smokers. A dose-response relationship was found between cigarette consumption and delta FEV1 in current smokers and exsmokers. In never-smokers, a greater delta FEV1 was found after 50 yrs of age than before. No sex differences were found in delta FEV1. In conclusion, among PiZZ individuals, the change in forced expiratory volume in one second is essentially the same in never-smokers and exsmokers. Smoking is associated with a dose-dependent increase in the change in forced expiratory volume in one second. (+info)
Exhaled and nasal NO levels in allergic rhinitis: relation to sensitization, pollen season and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. (3/2225)Exhaled nitric oxide is a potential marker of lower airway inflammation. Allergic rhinitis is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. To determine whether or not nasal and exhaled NO concentrations are increased in allergic rhinitis and to assess the relation between hyperresponsiveness and exhaled NO, 46 rhinitic and 12 control subjects, all nonasthmatic nonsmokers without upper respiratory tract infection, were randomly selected from a large-scale epidemiological survey in Central Norway. All were investigated with flow-volume spirometry, methacholine provocation test, allergy testing and measurement of nasal and exhaled NO concentration in the nonpollen season. Eighteen rhinitic subjects completed an identical follow-up investigation during the following pollen season. Exhaled NO was significantly elevated in allergic rhinitis in the nonpollen season, especially in perennially sensitized subjects, as compared with controls (p=0.01), and increased further in the pollen season (p=0.04), mainly due to a two-fold increase in those with seasonal sensitization. Nasal NO was not significantly different from controls in the nonpollen season and did not increase significantly in the pollen season. Exhaled NO was increased in hyperresponsive subjects, and decreased significantly after methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction, suggesting that NO production occurs in the peripheral airways. In allergic rhinitis, an increase in exhaled nitric oxide on allergen exposure, particularly in hyperresponsive subjects, may be suggestive of airway inflammation and an increased risk for developing asthma. (+info)
Acute saline infusion reduces alveolar-capillary membrane conductance and increases airflow obstruction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. (4/2225)BACKGROUND: Impaired alveolar-capillary membrane conductance is the major cause for the reduction in pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in heart failure. Whether this reduction is fixed, reflecting pulmonary microvascular damage, or is variable is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess whether DLCO and its subdivisions, alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (DM) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc), were sensitive to changes in intravascular volume. In addition, we examined the effects of volume loading on airflow rates. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) and 8 healthy volunteers were studied. DM and Vc were determined by the Roughton and Forster method. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), vital capacity, and peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were also recorded. In patients with LVD, infusion of 10 mL. kg-1 body wt of 0.9% saline acutely reduced DM (12.0+/-3.3 versus 10.4+/-3.5 mmol. min-1. kPa-1, P<0.005), FEV1 (2.3+/-0.4 versus 2.1+/-0.4 L, P<0.0005), and PEFR (446+/-55 versus 414+/-56 L. min-1, P<0.005). All pulmonary function tests had returned to baseline values 24 hours later. In normal subjects, saline infusion had no measurable effect on lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Acute intravascular volume expansion impairs alveolar-capillary membrane function and increases airflow obstruction in patients with LVD but not in normal subjects. Thus, the abnormalities of pulmonary diffusion in heart failure, which were believed to be fixed, also have a variable component that could be amenable to therapeutic intervention. (+info)
Spirometric reference equations for older adults. (5/2225)The objective of this study was to develop spirometric reference equations for healthy, never-smoking, older adults. It was designed as a cross-sectional observational study consisting of 1510 Seventh Day Adventists, ages 43-79 years enrolled in a study of health effects of air pollutants. Individuals were excluded from the reference group (n = 565) for a history of current respiratory illness, smoking, or chronic respiratory disease, and for a number of 'non-respiratory' conditions which were observed in these data to be related to lower values of FEV1. Gender-specific reference equations were developed for the entire reference group and for a subset above 65 years of age (n = 312). Controlling for height and age, lung function was found to be positively related to the difference between armspan and height, and in males was found to be quadratically related to age. The predicted values for this population generally fell within the range of those of other population groups containing large numbers of adults over the age of 65 years. Individuals with lung function below the 5th percentile in this sample, however, could not be reliably identified by using the lower limits of normal predictions commonly used in North America and Europe. (+info)
The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children. (6/2225)The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors. (+info)
Time course of respiratory decompensation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, double-blind study of peak flow changes prior to emergency department visits. (7/2225)The aim of this study was to look at changes in peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) prior to emergency department visits for decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It was designed as a prospective, double-blind study at the Albuquerque Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Twelve patients with an irreversible component of airflow obstruction on pulmonary function tests were assessed. At entry, all subjects were instructed in the use of a mini-Wright peak flow meter with electronic data storage. They then entered a 6-month monitoring phase in which they recorded PEFR twice daily, before and after bronchodilators. The meter displays were disabled so that the patients and their physicians were blinded to all values. Medical care was provided in the customary manner. Patients were considered to have respiratory decompensation if they required treatment for airflow obstruction in the Emergency Department (ED) and no other causes of dyspnea could be identified. Simple linear regression was used to model changes in PEFR over time. The 12 subjects had 22 episodes of respiratory decompensation during 1741 patient-days of observation. Two episodes could not be analysed because of missing values. Ten episodes in seven subjects were characterized by a significant linear decline in at least one peak flow parameter prior to presentation. The mean rates of change for the four daily parameters varied from 0.22% to 0.27% predicted per day (or 1.19 to 1.44 1 min-1 day-1). The average decrement in these parameters ranged from 30.0 to 33.8 1 min-1 (or 18.6%-25.9% of their baseline values). No temporal trends were found for the 10 episodes occurring in the other five subjects. We concluded that respiratory decompensation is characterized by a gradual decline in PEFR in about half of cases. Future studies should be done to elucidate the mechanisms of respiratory distress in the other cases. (+info)
Plasma levels of enalaprilat in chronic therapy of heart failure: relationship to adverse events. (8/2225)Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are established as first-line therapy in chronic heart failure (CHF). However, little is known about the dosage-plasma-level relationship of ACE inhibitors in CHF and its relation to drug-induced adverse effects. We investigated 45 patients (age 55 +/- 10 years) with stable CHF who presented with a maintenance dosage of enalapril of either 5 mg b.i.d. (E10, n = 16), 10 mg b.i.d. (E20, n = 18), or 20 mg b.i.d. (E40, n = 11). This dosage was changed three times to treat all patients with lower, higher, and, finally, the initial dosage for 4 weeks each. Patients were examined clinically, by questionnaire, and by spiroergometry. In addition, neurohormones (atrial and brain natriuretic peptide and norepinephrine), enalaprilat trough levels, and serum potassium and creatinine were measured. Enalaprilat trough levels differed significantly between the three groups at study entry but also varied markedly within each group. In addition to the dose of enalapril, serum creatinine, severity of CHF, basal metabolic rate, and body weight significantly influenced enalaprilat trough levels (R2 =.84, p <.001). Within-patient comparisons revealed that serum creatinine (107 +/- 26 versus 102 +/- 20 micromol/liter) and potassium (3.8 +/- 0.4 versus 3.7 +/- 0. 3mmol/liter) were higher, cough was more common (scored on a scale of 0-8: 1.7 +/- 2.1 versus 1.4 +/- 1.8), and blood pressure was lower (systolic, 112 +/- 14 versus 117 +/- 13 mm Hg; diastolic, 66 +/- 9 versus 69 +/- 11 mm Hg) on the highest than on the lowest enalaprilat trough level (all p <.05). Highly variable enalaprilat trough levels and the fact that adverse effects were more common on high enalaprilat trough levels provide a rationale for individually adjusting ACE-inhibitor dose in case of adverse effects. (+info)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term lung disease characterized by a persistent and progressive airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes. COPD includes two main conditions: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Chronic bronchitis is characterized by inflammation and thickening of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which leads to increased mucus production and difficulty breathing. Emphysema, on the other hand, involves damage to the air sacs in the lungs, which makes it difficult to exhale and leads to shortness of breath. Symptoms of COPD include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. The severity of symptoms can vary from person to person and can worsen over time. COPD is a progressive disease, and there is currently no cure. However, treatment can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by inflammation and narrowing of the airways in the lungs. This can cause symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Asthma can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens, irritants, exercise, and respiratory infections. It is a common condition, affecting millions of people worldwide, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment typically involves the use of medications to control inflammation and open up the airways, as well as lifestyle changes to avoid triggers and improve overall lung function.
Airway obstruction refers to a blockage or narrowing of the airways that prevents air from flowing freely in and out of the lungs. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, swelling, mucus production, foreign objects, or physical compression of the airways. Airway obstruction can be classified as either partial or complete. Partial airway obstruction is when the airway is narrowed but not completely blocked, while complete airway obstruction is when the airway is completely blocked, preventing air from entering or leaving the lungs. Airway obstruction can be a serious medical condition, particularly if it is not treated promptly. It can lead to difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and even respiratory failure if left untreated. Treatment for airway obstruction depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or in severe cases, emergency medical intervention such as intubation or surgery.
Lung diseases, obstructive, refer to a group of conditions that obstruct the flow of air in and out of the lungs. These conditions are characterized by a blockage or narrowing of the airways, which can make it difficult to breathe. Some common examples of obstructive lung diseases include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and bronchitis. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including smoking, air pollution, and genetics. Treatment for obstructive lung diseases typically involves medications to open up the airways and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.
Lung diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the lungs and their ability to function properly. These conditions can be acute or chronic, and can range from mild to severe. Some common examples of lung diseases include: 1. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and coughing. 3. Pulmonary Fibrosis: A progressive lung disease that causes scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, causing coughing, fever, and weight loss. 5. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, and can cause fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. 6. Emphysema: A lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 7. Interstitial Lung Disease: A group of lung diseases that affect the tissue between the air sacs in the lungs, causing difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 8. Lung Cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the lungs and can spread to other parts of the body. These are just a few examples of the many different types of lung diseases that can affect people. Treatment for lung diseases depends on the specific condition and can include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Dyspnea is a medical term that refers to difficulty breathing or shortness of breath. It can be a symptom of a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, lung disease, and anxiety disorders. Dyspnea can range from mild and occasional to severe and persistent, and it can be a sign of a serious underlying condition that requires medical attention. In some cases, dyspnea may be a symptom of a life-threatening emergency, such as a heart attack or a severe asthma attack.
Respiration disorders refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the normal functioning of the respiratory system. The respiratory system is responsible for breathing, exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment, and regulating the pH of the blood. Respiration disorders can be classified into two main categories: obstructive and restrictive. Obstructive disorders occur when there is a blockage or narrowing of the airways, making it difficult to breathe. Examples of obstructive disorders include asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and sleep apnea. Restrictive disorders, on the other hand, occur when the lungs are unable to expand fully, reducing the amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. Examples of restrictive disorders include interstitial lung disease, cystic fibrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis. Respiration disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, infections, and lifestyle choices such as smoking. Treatment for respiration disorders depends on the specific condition and may include medications, oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation, and in severe cases, surgery.
Respiratory tract diseases refer to any medical conditions that affect the organs and structures involved in breathing, including the nose, throat, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm. These diseases can range from mild to severe and can affect individuals of all ages and genders. Some common respiratory tract diseases include: 1. Asthma: a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 2. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a group of lung diseases that include chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. 3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi. 4. Tuberculosis: a bacterial infection that primarily affects the lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body. 5. Influenza: a viral infection that affects the respiratory system and can cause symptoms such as fever, cough, and body aches. 6. Bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchial tubes that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or irritants. 7. Sinusitis: inflammation of the sinuses that can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or allergies. 8. Emphysema: a chronic lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. These diseases can be treated with medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Respiratory sounds are the sounds produced by the movement of air through the respiratory system. These sounds can be heard with a stethoscope and are an important part of the physical examination of the lungs. There are two main types of respiratory sounds: wheezing and crackles. Wheezing is a high-pitched, whistling sound that is heard during inspiration (breathing in). It is caused by the narrowing of the airways, which can be due to inflammation, mucus production, or spasms of the muscles in the airways. Crackles, also known as rales, are a harsh, crackling or popping sound that is heard during both inspiration and expiration (breathing out). They are caused by the presence of fluid or mucus in the airways, which can be due to inflammation, infection, or other lung diseases. Other types of respiratory sounds include bronchial breath sounds, which are heard during inspiration and expiration and are caused by the movement of air through the bronchi, and adventitious sounds, which are abnormal sounds that are not part of the normal respiratory cycle and can be caused by a variety of conditions, including pneumonia, pleurisy, and lung cancer.
Albuterol is a medication that is used to treat asthma and other conditions that cause difficulty breathing. It is a type of bronchodilator, which means that it helps to relax and widen the muscles in the airways, making it easier to breathe. Albuterol is available in a variety of forms, including inhalers, nebulizers, and tablets. It is also sometimes used to treat heart conditions, such as heart failure, because it can help to improve blood flow and reduce the workload on the heart.
Methacholine chloride is a bronchoconstrictor drug that is used in the medical field to test the responsiveness of the airways to bronchoconstricting agents. It is typically administered through inhalation or intravenous injection, and its effects are measured by observing changes in lung function, such as changes in lung volume or air flow. Methacholine chloride works by stimulating muscarinic receptors in the airways, which can cause the smooth muscle in the walls of the airways to contract and narrow. This can lead to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing, which are characteristic of asthma and other respiratory conditions. In the medical field, methacholine chloride is often used as part of a diagnostic test called a bronchial challenge test, which is used to help diagnose asthma and other respiratory conditions. During the test, the patient is given increasing doses of methacholine chloride, and their lung function is monitored to see how their airways respond to the drug. If the airways become more constricted in response to the drug, it may indicate that the patient has asthma or another respiratory condition that is sensitive to bronchoconstricting agents.
In the medical field, a cough is a reflex action that involves the contraction of muscles in the chest and throat to expel air from the lungs. It is a common symptom of many respiratory conditions, including colds, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, and asthma. A cough can be dry, meaning that no phlegm or mucus is produced, or wet, meaning that mucus is produced. A persistent cough that lasts for more than three weeks or is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, chest pain, or difficulty breathing may be a sign of a more serious condition and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Treatment for a cough depends on the underlying cause. For example, a cough caused by a cold or flu may be treated with over-the-counter cough suppressants or expectorants, while a cough caused by a more serious condition may require prescription medication or other medical interventions.
Occupational diseases are illnesses or injuries that are caused by exposure to hazards or conditions in the workplace. These hazards or conditions can include chemicals, dusts, fumes, radiation, noise, vibration, and physical demands such as repetitive motions or awkward postures. Occupational diseases can affect various systems in the body, including the respiratory system, skin, eyes, ears, cardiovascular system, and nervous system. Examples of occupational diseases include asbestosis, silicosis, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, carpal tunnel syndrome, and hearing loss. Occupational diseases are preventable through proper safety measures and regulations in the workplace. Employers are responsible for providing a safe and healthy work environment for their employees, and workers have the right to report hazards and seek medical attention if they experience any symptoms related to their work.
In the medical field, dust refers to a mixture of small particles that are suspended in the air. These particles can come from a variety of sources, including soil, pollen, pet dander, and human skin cells. Dust can be inhaled and can cause a range of health problems, including respiratory issues such as asthma, bronchitis, and pneumonia. It can also cause irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat, and can exacerbate existing conditions such as allergies and eczema. In some cases, exposure to certain types of dust can be hazardous, such as asbestos or silica dust, which can cause serious health problems if inhaled in large quantities.
Pulmonary emphysema is a chronic lung disease characterized by the destruction of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, leading to a loss of elasticity and a decrease in the ability of the lungs to expand and contract properly. This results in difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, and a persistent cough, which may produce mucus or blood. Pulmonary emphysema is typically caused by long-term exposure to cigarette smoke or other irritants, and is a common complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is a progressive disease that can lead to respiratory failure and death if left untreated. Treatment options for pulmonary emphysema include medications to manage symptoms, oxygen therapy, and in severe cases, lung transplantation.
Pulmonary atelectasis is a medical condition in which the lung tissue collapses or becomes partially or completely deflated. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including inflammation, injury, or obstruction of the airways. Symptoms of pulmonary atelectasis may include shortness of breath, coughing, chest pain, and fever. Treatment for pulmonary atelectasis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or surgery. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.
Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) is a condition in which the bronchial tubes (airways) of the lungs become excessively sensitive to stimuli such as cold air, exercise, or allergens. This sensitivity causes the airways to narrow, leading to symptoms such as wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. BHR is a common feature of asthma and other respiratory conditions, and it can also occur in people without a diagnosed respiratory condition. BHR can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including spirometry and bronchial provocation testing. Treatment for BHR typically involves avoiding triggers that cause symptoms, taking medications to open the airways, and using breathing techniques to manage symptoms.
Asthma, Occupational is a type of asthma that is caused or exacerbated by exposure to specific substances or conditions in the workplace. It is also known as occupational asthma or work-related asthma. The symptoms of occupational asthma can include wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms may be triggered by exposure to various substances, such as chemicals, dusts, fumes, or gases, that are commonly found in certain industries, such as agriculture, construction, manufacturing, and healthcare. Occupational asthma can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and lung function tests. Treatment typically involves avoiding exposure to the triggering substance or condition, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent exacerbations. It is important for individuals who suspect they may have occupational asthma to inform their employer and seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and management of the condition.
Bronchitis is a respiratory condition characterized by inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which are the airways that carry air from the nose and mouth to the lungs. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is a short-term condition that typically lasts for a few weeks and is caused by a viral or bacterial infection. Symptoms of acute bronchitis include coughing, chest discomfort, and difficulty breathing. In some cases, fever, fatigue, and body aches may also occur. Chronic bronchitis, on the other hand, is a long-term condition that lasts for at least three months each year for two consecutive years. It is usually caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, or dust. Symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a persistent cough that produces mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Both acute and chronic bronchitis can be treated with medications such as antibiotics, bronchodilators, and cough suppressants. In some cases, oxygen therapy may also be necessary. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of bronchitis, as untreated bronchitis can lead to more serious respiratory problems such as pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems. It is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which codes for a protein that regulates the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. In people with CF, the protein is not functioning properly, leading to the production of thick, sticky mucus in the lungs, pancreas, and other organs. The thick mucus can cause blockages in the airways, leading to chronic lung infections and damage to the lungs over time. It can also affect the pancreas, making it difficult to produce digestive enzymes and leading to malnutrition. In the reproductive system, it can cause infertility in both men and women. CF is a lifelong condition that requires ongoing medical care and management. Treatment typically involves medications to thin the mucus, antibiotics to treat infections, and physical therapy to improve lung function. With proper care, people with CF can lead long and relatively healthy lives, although the condition can still be challenging and require significant lifestyle adjustments.
Scopolamine derivatives are a class of drugs that are derived from the plant Datura stramonium, also known as the Jimson weed. These drugs are known for their potent anticholinergic effects, which means that they block the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a key role in many bodily functions. Scopolamine derivatives are often used in the medical field to treat certain conditions, such as motion sickness, nausea, and vomiting. They are also sometimes used to treat certain types of tremors and to reduce muscle spasms. However, these drugs can also have serious side effects, including confusion, dizziness, and hallucinations, and they can be addictive if used for a long period of time. Scopolamine derivatives are available in a variety of forms, including tablets, patches, and injections. They are typically prescribed by a healthcare provider and should only be used under the supervision of a qualified medical professional.
Chronic bronchitis is a long-term respiratory condition characterized by inflammation and thickening of the lining of the bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from the lungs. It is a type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is often associated with smoking or exposure to other irritants such as air pollution or dust. The symptoms of chronic bronchitis include a persistent cough that produces mucus, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms may be worse in the morning or after exercise, and may be accompanied by fatigue, loss of appetite, and weight loss. Chronic bronchitis is typically diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as chest X-rays or CT scans. Treatment may include medications to manage symptoms, such as bronchodilators and corticosteroids, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, oxygen therapy or lung transplantation may be necessary.
Rhinitis, allergic, perennial is a type of chronic inflammation of the nasal passages that is caused by an allergic reaction to substances such as pollen, dust mites, or pet dander. It is called "perennial" because it can occur all year round, rather than just during certain seasons. Symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis may include a runny or stuffy nose, sneezing, itchy or watery eyes, and postnasal drip. Treatment typically involves avoiding triggers whenever possible, as well as medications such as antihistamines, decongestants, and nasal corticosteroids. In some cases, immunotherapy (allergy shots) may also be recommended.
Ipratropium is a medication that is used to treat respiratory conditions such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. It is a long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator, which means that it works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a chemical that causes the muscles in the airways to contract and narrow. This helps to relax the muscles and open up the airways, making it easier to breathe. Ipratropium is usually administered through an inhaler and is available in both short-acting and long-acting forms. It is also sometimes used in combination with other medications to treat COPD and asthma.
Bronchial diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the bronchi, which are the two tubes that carry air from the trachea (windpipe) to the lungs. These diseases can cause inflammation, narrowing, or blockage of the bronchi, leading to difficulty breathing, coughing, and other respiratory symptoms. Some common bronchial diseases include: 1. Chronic bronchitis: A long-term condition characterized by persistent coughing and production of mucus. 2. Asthma: A chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways that causes wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing. 3. Emphysema: A progressive lung disease that causes damage to the air sacs in the lungs, making it difficult to breathe. 4. Bronchiectasis: A condition in which the bronchi become enlarged and infected, leading to chronic coughing and production of mucus. 5. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD): A lung disease that occurs in premature babies and is characterized by abnormal lung development. 6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): A group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema, characterized by chronic airflow obstruction and breathlessness. Treatment for bronchial diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, lifestyle changes, and in some cases, surgery.
Bronchiectasis is a chronic lung disease characterized by the abnormal widening and dilatation of the bronchi, which are the airways that carry air from the trachea to the lungs. This abnormal widening can lead to the accumulation of mucus and other secretions in the bronchi, which can cause inflammation, infection, and damage to the lung tissue. Bronchiectasis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections such as tuberculosis, pneumonia, and bronchopneumonia, as well as genetic disorders, environmental factors, and immune system disorders. Symptoms of bronchiectasis may include chronic cough, coughing up mucus, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and fever. Treatment for bronchiectasis typically involves a combination of medications to manage symptoms and prevent infections, as well as lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking and avoiding exposure to irritants. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged lung tissue or to improve airflow in the affected bronchi.
Adrenal cortex hormones are a group of hormones produced by the adrenal gland's outer layer, the cortex. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and the body's response to stress. The adrenal cortex hormones are divided into three main categories based on their chemical structure and function: 1. Glucocorticoids: These hormones, including cortisol, are responsible for regulating metabolism and the body's response to stress. They help the body break down stored carbohydrates and fats to provide energy, and they also suppress the immune system to reduce inflammation. 2. Mineralocorticoids: These hormones, including aldosterone, regulate the body's electrolyte balance and blood pressure. They help the kidneys retain sodium and excrete potassium, which helps maintain proper blood pressure. 3. Androgens: These hormones, including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), are responsible for the development of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and deepening of the voice. They also play a role in the body's response to stress. Adrenal cortex hormones are produced in response to signals from the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, and their levels can be affected by a variety of factors, including stress, illness, and medications. Imbalances in adrenal cortex hormone levels can lead to a range of health problems, including Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and adrenal insufficiency.
Emphysema is a chronic lung disease characterized by the destruction of the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs, leading to difficulty breathing and shortness of breath. This destruction of the air sacs is caused by the breakdown of the walls of the alveoli, which allows air to enter and not be able to leave the lungs properly. As a result, the lungs become overinflated and lose their elasticity, making it difficult to take in and exhale air. Emphysema is usually caused by long-term exposure to cigarette smoke, but it can also be caused by exposure to other irritants such as air pollution or chemical fumes. Other risk factors for emphysema include a family history of the disease, a history of chronic bronchitis, and a history of exposure to respiratory infections. Symptoms of emphysema can include shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, and chest tightness. As the disease progresses, symptoms may become more severe and may require the use of oxygen therapy or other medical interventions. There is currently no cure for emphysema, but treatments can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
Race and health
Mohammed Fazle Rabbee
Bronchial challenge test
Pulmonary function testing
Workplace health surveillance
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease
Artificial butter flavoring
Gary R. Epler
Restrictive lung disease
Vocal cord dysfunction
Guidance on Spirometry | CDC
Spirometry: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia Image
Getting a Spirometry Test (Video) (for Kids) - Nemours KidsHealth
Spirometry Data (1971-75)
Spirometry test and follow up questions?
Spirometry Outside the Hospital | Archivos de Bronconeumología
GHO | By indicator | General availability of peak flow measurement spirometry at the primary health care level (Noncommunicable...
Spirometry Testing Form Mobile App - iPhone, iPad, Android
Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations | European...
Uncertain role of spirometry in managing childhood asthma in the UK 2019 | Archives of Disease in Childhood
Revista de Pediatría de Atención Primaria - Nurse experience in performing spirometry in a pediatric team
Spirometry in primary care: is it good enough to face demands like World COPD Day?
Oral buckling psychological ottawa prednisone reply spirometry. | Diễn Đàn Tuổi Trẻ Việt Nam Uhm.VN
Spirometry - wikidoc
Spirometry Testing - Respiratory Teacher
Spirometry Refresher Course - RESPTREC®
Spirometry Performance and Interpretation Training
Spirometry - Allergy Asthma & Sinus Associates
Spirometry training course (Shepparton) - Murray PHN
Spirometry (Filter - Yourself) - Education For Health
Pediatric Lung Transplantation: Overview of Pediatric Lung Transplantation, History of Lung Transplantation, Frequency of...
The importance of spirometry in Cystic Fibrosis
Scout Archives - National Asthma Council: Spirometry Handbook
NDD EasyOne Air Spirometry System 2500-2A
- Of the 81 tests, 16% were baseline tests, 32.1% were spirometry with bronchodilator responsiveness testing (BRT), and 51.9% spirometry with exercise challenge and BRT All tests were performed with a Sibelmed Datospir Touch 511-B00-MU1 spirometer. (pap.es)
- 3,6,7 There are additional methods used to assess lung function in children, such as spirometry with bronchodilator responsiveness testing and spirometry with bronchial challenge tests. (pap.es)
- PFT consisted of full PFTs, forced inspiratory/expiratory pressures , post- spirometry bronchodilator testing, IOS, exhaled nitric oxide , and methacholine challenge testing. (bvsalud.org)
- The RESPTREC ® Spirometry Refresher course is intended for those who conduct spirometry and is a review of how to conduct quality spirometry in light of the Standardization of Spirometry 2019 Update - An Official American Thoracic Society and European Respiratory Society Technical Statement. (resptrec.org)
- Our facilities are fully equipped with the tools and machinery necessary to conduct spirometry testing as well as other pulmonary function testing to address your child's healthcare needs. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- RESULTS: At the second examination, 24.1% of individuals had abnormal spirometry findings. (cdc.gov)
- Two prevalent cases of abnormal spirometry were observed among participants with no history of respiratory disease: one participant had borderline obstruction (88% predicted FEV1, and 112% predicted FVC) and another had mild restriction (75% predicted FVC and 87% predicted FEV1). (cdc.gov)
- Spirometry is frequently used to evaluate lung function in people with obstructive or restrictive lung diseases such as asthma or cystic fibrosis. (medlineplus.gov)
- Asthma guidelines recommend that spirometry should be used for monitoring the condition in children. (bmj.com)
- 1,2 Still, these signs and symptoms are not specific to asthma, so clinical practice guidelines recommend performance of objective diagnostic tests, such as forced spirometry. (pap.es)
- Spirometry is an important tool used for generating pneumotachograph to assessing conditions such as asthma , pulmonary fibrosis , and COPD . (wikidoc.org)
- At Allergy, Asthma & Sinus Associates all of our clinical faculties offer spirometry services. (allergysfl.com)
- At Pediatrics By the Sea, a majority of our providers will use spirometry as a means of identifying a viral disease, or to diagnose and treat a patient's asthma. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- All 7 had normal spirometry but, three were taking asthma medication. (cdc.gov)
- In this new informative capsule we discuss the importance of spirometry in Cystic Fibrosis with Josep L. Valera, nurse at Hospital Son Espases . (respiralia.org)
- Although spirometry provides results that should be taken into account, there are other tests that can give a relative value to the FEV1 and FVC data obtained. (respiralia.org)
- The spirometry test is performed using a device called a spirometer , which comes in several different varieties. (wikidoc.org)
- The MIR Spirolab Desktop Spirometer is a wireless real-time all-in-one portable spirometry unit with the option of. (jakenmedical.com)
- The MIR Spirodoc Bluetooth Spirometer is a one-touch spirometry laboratory to help you analyze your. (jakenmedical.com)
- Llame al 866.731.COPD (2673) y presione 9 para hablar en español con un paciente o cuidador. (copdfoundation.org)
- Spirometry in primary care: is it good enough to face demands like World COPD Day? (ers-education.org)
- Effect of spirometry on COPD management in primary care: where are the studies that we really need? (ers-education.org)
- Home-based spirometry transmits the lung function data from patients' home to a remote monitoring center (generally on a daily basis from previously trained patients) for a cautious evaluation by a respiratory function technician and interpretation by an expert physician, upholding the quality of the lung function assessment. (archbronconeumol.org)
- This Spirometry Interactive Blended Online Learning Package including ARTP assessment access course is designed for healthcare professionals who are responsible for performing, recording and interpreting spirometry in adults, or a combination of these. (educationforhealth.org)
- This training is designed to help you prepare for ARTP Spirometry Assessment. (eastkenttraininghub.nhs.uk)
- Longitudinal assessment of spirometry in the World Trade Center medical monitoring program. (cdc.gov)
- Comment in Longitudinal assessment of spirometry in World Trade Center responders. (cdc.gov)
- Spirometry is a painless study of air volume and flow rate within the lungs. (medlineplus.gov)
- A spirometry test measures the health of the lungs and helps diagnose and monitor lung disease. (respiralia.org)
- Our pediatricians will often complete spirometry testing for spirometry their patient along with several other breathing examinations as part of pulmonary function testing, which is used to assess the functionality and health of a child's lungs. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- This ensures that all available air is being assessed through the mouthpiece used during spirometry testing. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
Shortness of bre1
- For individuals who experience difficulty breathing, shortness of breath, or other common respiratory symptoms, a spirometry test can help to determine the source of these issues. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- Spirometry data is pivotal to assessing primary or secondary outcomes in most respiratory trials. (ctc-ab.se)
- Information for this component will be obtained from spirometry examinations which will be performed on all examinees over the age of eight years, and data collection from interviews and physical examinations. (cdc.gov)
- METHODS: Prebronchodilator and postbronchodilator spirometry, demographics, occupational history, smoking status, and respiratory symptoms and exposure onset were obtained at both examinations (about 3 years apart). (cdc.gov)
- Our office spirometry testing allows for our physicians to assess a patient's lung function, diagnose certain lung conditions, monitor pulmonary function, and assess for improvement of symptoms. (allergysfl.com)
- Chronic lung conditions can be especially difficult to diagnose without spirometry, as their symptoms can vary widely from one child to the next, and compromised lung function may not be the most prevalent symptom. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- RespiriCare are leading several Spirometry performance and interpretation training dates. (eastkenttraininghub.nhs.uk)
- the aim of the study was to describe our experience in performing spirometry in the paediatric population and encourage other primary care centres to offer this test to their patients. (pap.es)
- a total of 81 spirometry tests were performed in 67 patients aged 5 to 14 years between January 2019 and February 2020. (pap.es)
- it is possible to perform forced spirometry in paediatric patients with high-quality results at the primary care level if the necessary material resources and qualified personnel are available. (pap.es)
- Spirometry with and without bronchodilators is used to evaluate all patients with ongoing respiratory illnesses. (wikidoc.org)
- Some patients may be evaluated using a pre and post spirometry testing where we assess a patient's lung function and then give them a breathing treatment. (allergysfl.com)
- Participants will demonstrate understanding of the revisions in the 2019 ATS/ERS technical standards for spirometry relating to equipment, quality control, patient instruction and conducting and evaluating spirometry manoeuvres. (resptrec.org)
- RESPTREC ® gratefully acknowledges Dr. Brian Graham, PhD, lead author of the 2019 ATS/ERS Spirometry Standards, for his work in creating this course. (resptrec.org)
- The pediatrician will analyze the results from the spirometry and calculate their findings. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- Spirometry testing (a type of pulmonary or lung function test) may identify breathing problems early, which may prevent more serious problems. (cdc.gov)
- Spirometry test and follow up questions? (copdfoundation.org)
- I was hoping someone might be able to comment on the results of my recent spirometry test, and suggest any questions or further tests I should request from my GP, for when I have the follow up consultation. (copdfoundation.org)
- Then on Thursday, I finally had my spirometry test appointment. (copdfoundation.org)
- When would a spirometry test be useful? (respiratoryteacher.com)
- How is a spirometry test prepared? (respiralia.org)
- What results does a spirometry test measure? (respiralia.org)
- Is spirometry a reference test? (respiralia.org)
- In addition, spirometry should be used as a time trend test, because the person's conditions can vary in a short time for good and for not so good, so the test done in short periods of time would give disparate results. (respiralia.org)
- Spirometry is used to test lung function. (msdmanuals.com)
- A versatile device for Practical and Clinical Spirometry. (jakenmedical.com)
- Spirometry (meaning the measuring of breath ) is the most common of the Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs), measuring lung function, specifically the measurement of the amount (volume) and/or speed (flow) of air that can be inhaled and exhaled. (wikidoc.org)
- The Schiller Ganshorn SpiroScout Spirometry System is a complete lung function laboratory based on the ultrasonic measurement principle of. (jakenmedical.com)
- twenty-six spirometry tests included a BRT, with negative results of the BRT in 15 and positive results in 11. (pap.es)
- By assessing these three main components of the spirometry results, your pediatrician will be better able to determine if the child suffers from a respiratory condition, or if ongoing treatment for their condition is working as desired. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- If the spirometry results are inconclusive, additional diagnostic testing will often be recommended as the next step toward finding a solution. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- Forced spirometry is used to confirm the diagnosis, rule out other diseases, assess severity, assess the response to treatment and monitor the course of disease. (pap.es)
- At CTC, our study nurses are well-trained in performing spirometry testing, ensuring high data quality. (ctc-ab.se)
- Therefore, it is important to relativize the data obtained from spirometry with other tests such as plethysmography. (respiralia.org)
- We collected questionnaire and spirometry data during the crew's preseason training session in May and for 10 days during a wildfire in Alaska in July 2004. (cdc.gov)
- Other tests used for restrictive lung patterns along with spirometry are helium lung volumes and diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. (wikidoc.org)
- Home-based spirometry, particularly, those with on-screen encouragement and/or remote guidance by a technician, could be an alternative to conventional spirometry for management and telemonitoring of chronic respiratory diseases. (archbronconeumol.org)
- Spirometry revealed nearly normal dynamic lung volumes. (cdc.gov)
- The reasoning for making spirometry an option for NISA member companies are included in the Spirometry Testing mobile app. (gocanvas.com)
- Spirometry testing typically lasts for 10-30 minutes in total depending on how many times the patient is asked to breathe through the spirometric device. (pediatricsbythesea.com)
- The NDD EasyOne Air Spirometry System utilizes Trueflow technology that provides highly accurate measurements in all flow ranges, independent of gas composition, pressure, temperature, and humidity. (jakenmedical.com)
- Spirometry is an optional component of the NISA respiratory medical surveillance program. (gocanvas.com)
- individuals with a score of ≤18 had a spirometry examination. (who.int)