An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.
Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES.

Strain variation in glycosaminoglycan recognition influences cell-type-specific binding by lyme disease spirochetes. (1/171)

Lyme disease, a chronic multisystemic disorder that can affect the skin, heart, joints, and nervous system is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Lyme disease spirochetes were previously shown to bind glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). In the current study, the GAG-binding properties of eight Lyme disease strains were determined. Binding by two high-passage HB19 derivatives to Vero cells could not be inhibited by enzymatic removal of GAGs or by the addition of exogenous GAG. The other six strains, which included a different high-passage HB19 derivative (HB19 clone 1), were shown to recognize both heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate in cell-binding assays, but the relative efficiency of binding to these two GAGs varied among the strains. Strains N40, CA20-2A, and PBi bound predominantly to heparan sulfate, PBo bound both heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate roughly equally, and VS461 and HB19 clone 1 recognized primarily dermatan sulfate. Cell binding by strain HB19 clone 1 was inhibited better by exogenous dermatan sulfate than by heparin, whereas heparin was the better inhibitor of binding by strain N40. The GAG-binding preference of a Lyme disease strain was reflected in its cell-type-specific binding. Strains that recognized predominantly heparan sulfate bound efficiently to both C6 glioma cells and EA-Hy926 cells, whereas strains that recognized predominantly dermatan sulfate bound well only to the glial cells. The effect of lyase treatment of these cells on bacterial binding was consistent with the model that cell-type-specific binding was a reflection of the GAG-binding preference. We conclude that the GAG-binding preference varies with the strain of Lyme disease spirochete and that this variation influences cell-type-specific binding in vitro.  (+info)

Identification of a Treponema denticola OppA homologue that binds host proteins present in the subgingival environment. (2/171)

Proteins secreted or exported by Treponema denticola have been implicated as mediators of specific interactions between the spirochete and subgingival tissues in periodontal diseases. However, limited information is available on the ability of this peptidolytic organism to bind or transport soluble peptides present in the subgingival environment. A prominent 70-kDa protein was isolated from surface extracts of T. denticola ATCC 35405. A clone expressing a portion of the protein was identified in an Escherichia coli expression library of T. denticola DNA. DNA sequence analysis showed that the cloned gene encoded a peptide homologous to OppA, the solute binding protein of an ATP-binding cassette-type peptide transporter involved in peptide uptake and environmental signaling in a wide range of bacteria. Genes encoding OppB, -C, -D, and -F were identified directly downstream of oppA in T. denticola. OppA was present in representative strains of T. denticola and in Treponema vincentii but was not detected in Treponema pectinovorum or Treponema socranskii. Immunogold electron microscopy suggested that OppA was accessible to proteins at the surface of the spirochete. Native OppA bound soluble plasminogen and fibronectin but did not bind to immobilized substrates or epithelial cells. A T. denticola oppA mutant bound reduced amounts of soluble plasminogen, and plasminogen binding to the parent strain was inhibited by the lysine analog epsilon-aminocaproic acid. Binding of soluble host proteins by OppA may be important both for spirochete-host interactions in the subgingival environment and for uptake of peptide nutrients.  (+info)

Papillomatous pastern dermatitis with spirochetes and Pelodera strongyloides in a Tennessee Walking Horse. (3/171)

Papillomatous digital dermatitis is a common disease in cattle. The pastern dermatitis observed in a horse shared many of the gross characteristics of papillomatous digital dermatitis in cattle. Lesions included a mixture of proliferative and erosive changes, with a verrucose appearance in some areas. Microscopic similarities included pseudoepitheliomatous and papillomatous epidermal hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis, spongiosis of the epidermis, and intraepidermal spirochetes. The horse was also concurrently infected with Pelodera strongyloides. Papillomatous digital dermatitis in cattle is associated with poor husbandry practices. The environment of the affected horse was heavily contaminated with urine, manure, and other organic debris. Verrucous pododermatitis of horses may be the same as or similar to bovine papillomatous digital dermatitis, and these conditions have similar etiologies.  (+info)

Flexible community structure correlates with stable community function in methanogenic bioreactor communities perturbed by glucose. (4/171)

Methanogenic bioreactor communities were used as model ecosystems to evaluate the relationship between functional stability and community structure. Replicated methanogenic bioreactor communities with two different community structures were established. The effect of a substrate loading shock on population dynamics in each microbial community was examined by using morphological analysis, small-subunit (SSU) rRNA oligonucleotide probes, amplified ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction analysis (ARDRA), and partial sequencing of SSU rDNA clones. One set of replicated communities, designated the high-spirochete (HS) set, was characterized by good replicability, a high proportion of spiral and short thin rod morphotypes, a dominance of spirochete-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosarcina-related SSU rRNA. The second set of communities, designated the low-spirochete (LS) set, was characterized by incomplete replicability, higher morphotype diversity dominated by cocci, a predominance of Streptococcus-related and deeply branching Spirochaetales-related SSU rDNA genes, and a high percentage of Methanosaeta-related SSU rRNA. In the HS communities, glucose perturbation caused a dramatic shift in the relative abundance of fermentative bacteria, with temporary displacement of spirochete-related ribotypes by Eubacterium-related ribotypes, followed by a return to the preperturbation community structure. The LS communities were less perturbed, with Streptococcus-related organisms remaining prevalent after the glucose shock, although changes in the relative abundance of minor members were detected by morphotype analysis. A companion paper demonstrates that the more stable LS communities were less functionally stable than the HS communities (S. A. Hashsham, A. S. Fernandez, S. L. Dollhopf, F. B. Dazzo, R. F. Hickey, J. M. Tiedje, and C. S. Criddle, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:4050-4057, 2000).  (+info)

The spirochete FlaA periplasmic flagellar sheath protein impacts flagellar helicity. (5/171)

Spirochete periplasmic flagella (PFs), including those from Brachyspira (Serpulina), Spirochaeta, Treponema, and Leptospira spp., have a unique structure. In most spirochete species, the periplasmic flagellar filaments consist of a core of at least three proteins (FlaB1, FlaB2, and FlaB3) and a sheath protein (FlaA). Each of these proteins is encoded by a separate gene. Using Brachyspira hyodysenteriae as a model system for analyzing PF function by allelic exchange mutagenesis, we analyzed purified PFs from previously constructed flaA::cat, flaA::kan, and flaB1::kan mutants and newly constructed flaB2::cat and flaB3::cat mutants. We investigated whether any of these mutants had a loss of motility and altered PF structure. As formerly found with flaA::cat, flaA::kan, and flaB1::kan mutants, flaB2::cat and flaB3::cat mutants were still motile, but all were less motile than the wild-type strain, using a swarm-plate assay. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis indicated that each mutation resulted in the specific loss of the cognate gene product in the assembled purified PFs. Consistent with these results, Northern blot analysis indicated that each flagellar filament gene was monocistronic. In contrast to previous results that analyzed PFs attached to disrupted cells, purified PFs from a flaA::cat mutant were significantly thinner (19.6 nm) than those of the wild-type strain and flaB1::kan, flaB2::cat, and flaB3::cat mutants (24 to 25 nm). These results provide supportive genetic evidence that FlaA forms a sheath around the FlaB core. Using high-magnification dark-field microscopy, we also found that flaA::cat and flaA::kan mutants produced PFs with a smaller helix pitch and helix diameter compared to the wild-type strain and flaB mutants. These results indicate that the interaction of FlaA with the FlaB core impacts periplasmic flagellar helical morphology.  (+info)

Comparative prevalences of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli as etiologic agents of histologically identified intestinal spirochetosis in Australia. (6/171)

DNA from gastrointestinal biopsy specimens from 28 Australian patients with histologic evidence of intestinal spirochetosis (IS) was subjected to PCRs to amplify segments of the 16S rRNA and NADH oxidase genes of Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira (Serpulina) pilosicoli. B. aalborgi was identified in specimens from 24 (85.7%) patients and B. pilosicoli in those from 4 (14.3%) patients (2 of whom were also positive for B. aalborgi). For two patients, no product was amplified. This study demonstrates that B. aalborgi is much more commonly involved in histologically identified IS in Australian patients than is B. pilosicoli. This is the first report of amplification of B. pilosicoli DNA from humans with IS.  (+info)

Naturally occurring spirochetes in the colonic mucosa of raccoons (Procyon lotor). (7/171)

The large intestines of 21 raccoons (Procyon lotor; 11 wild caught, 10 laboratory confined) were examined for the presence of intestinal spirochetes. Light microscopy of sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Warthin-Starry stain showed the presence of spiral shaped organisms deep within the lumina of intestinal glands at the ileocolonic junction of 16 raccoons (76% prevalence). All laboratory-confined, group-housed raccoons harbored the organisms, but only 6/11 (55% prevalence) live-trapped raccoons were positive for these spirochetes. The organisms were free in the glandular lumina, and there were no microscopic lesions. Two types of spirochetes were identified in the colonic glands: a slender spirochete 10-13 microm in length, 0.3 microm in diameter, and possessing long, thin tapered ends and a larger, regularly waved spiral organism (0.5 microm in diameter). The slender spirochete did not resemble any of the known spirochete genera and failed to grow on medium used to propagate oral treponemes and members of the genus Brachyspira.  (+info)

Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modulates phenotype and effector functions of porcine CD8(+) lymphocytes. (8/171)

In vivo vaccination and challenge studies have demonstrated that CD8(+) lymphocytes are essential for the development of cell-mediated protection against intracellular pathogens and neoplastic cells. Depletion of peripheral blood CD8(+) cells interferes with clearance of viruses and intracellular fungi, induction of delayed type hypersensitivity responses and antitumoral activity. In contrast to humans or mice, porcine peripheral CD8(+) lymphocytes are characterized by a heterogeneous expression pattern (i.e., CD8alphabeta and CD8alphaalpha) that facilitates the study of distinctive traits among minor CD8(+) cell subsets. A factorial (2 x 2) arrangement within a split-plot design, with 16 blocks of two littermate pigs as the experimental units for immunization treatment (i.e., unvaccinated or vaccinated with a proteinase-digested Brachyspira hyodysenteriae bacterin) and pig within block as the experimental unit for dietary treatment (soybean oil or conjugated linoleic acid) were used to investigate the phenotypic and functional regulation of CD8(+) cells by dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Dietary CLA supplementation induced in vivo expansion of porcine CD8(+) cells involving T-cell receptor (TCR)gammadeltaCD8alphaalpha T lymphocytes, CD3(-)CD16(+)CD8alphaalpha (a porcine natural killer cell subset), TCRalphabetaCD8alphabeta T lymphocytes and enhanced specific CD8(+)-mediated effector functions (e.g., granzyme activity). Expansion of peripheral blood TCRalphabetaCD8alphabeta cells was positively correlated (r = 0.89, P < 0.01) with increased percentages of CD8alphabeta(+) thymocytes. Functionally, CLA enhanced the cytotoxic potential of peripheral blood lymphocytes and proliferation of TCRgammadeltaCD8alphaalpha cells. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary CLA enhances cellular immunity by modulating phenotype and effector functions of CD8(+) cells involved in both adaptive and innate immunity.  (+info)

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that are characterized by their unique spiral or corkscrew shape. This shape allows them to move in a flexing, twisting motion, which can be quite rapid. They are gram-negative, meaning they do not retain crystal violet stain in the Gram staining method, and they have a unique structure with endoflagella (also known as axial filaments) located inside their outer membrane.

The Spirochaetales order includes several families and genera of bacteria, some of which are free-living, while others are parasitic or symbiotic. The parasitic spirochetes can cause various diseases in humans and animals. For example, Treponema pallidum is the causative agent of syphilis, a serious sexually transmitted infection. Another species, Borrelia burgdorferi, causes Lyme disease, which is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected black-legged ticks.

It's important to note that spirochetes are a diverse group with varying characteristics and pathogenic potential. While some species can cause significant harm, others are not associated with diseases and play essential roles in various ecosystems.

Spirochaetales is an order of bacteria that includes several species known to cause infections in humans. The term "Spirochaetales infections" generally refers to diseases caused by these spirochete bacteria. The most well-known Spirochaetales infections include:

1. Syphilis - Caused by Treponema pallidum, syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that can have serious consequences if left untreated. It progresses through several stages, with symptoms ranging from painless sores to rashes, and may eventually affect the heart, brain, and other organs.

2. Lyme disease - Caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and transmitted through tick bites, Lyme disease is an inflammatory illness that can cause a variety of symptoms, such as rash, fever, fatigue, and joint pain. In later stages, it may lead to neurological and cardiac complications if not treated promptly.

3. Leptospirosis - Caused by Leptospira spp., leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that humans usually acquire through exposure to infected animal urine or contaminated water. Symptoms can range from mild flu-like illness to severe complications, such as kidney and liver failure, meningitis, and respiratory distress.

4. Relapsing fever - Caused by Borrelia recurrentis and transmitted through the bite of lice, relapsing fever is characterized by recurring episodes of high fever, chills, headache, and muscle aches. The disease can be severe and may lead to complications such as myocarditis, hepatitis, and neurological issues.

5. Pinta - Caused by Treponema carateum, pinta is a tropical skin infection that primarily affects the outer layers of the skin, causing lesions and discoloration. While not typically life-threatening, it can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated.

Treatment for Spirochaetales infections generally involves antibiotics, such as penicillin or doxycycline, depending on the specific infection and its severity. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, using insect repellent to prevent insect bites, avoiding contact with potentially infected animals, and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms develop after potential exposure.

The Spirochaetales are an order of spirochete bacteria. Some species within this order are known to causes syphilis, Lyme ...
sp., Spirochaetales in the intestine of Calotermes praecox]". Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Série D. 265 (18): ...
1992 {Spirochaetales_A} Spirochaetales_E "Treponematales" Song et al. 2021 Class "Uabimicrobiia" Lodha, Narvekar & Karodi 2021 ... Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917 "Borreliales" Spirochaeta cellobiosiphila Breznak & Warnecke 2008 {DSM-17781: DSM-17781} " ...
The Spirochaetales order harbours two families, Spirochaetaceae and Borreliaceae. Molecular markers in the form of conserved ... Additional CSIs have been found exclusively shared by each family within the Spirochaetales. These molecular markers are in ... Historically, all families belonging to the Spirochaetota phylum were assigned to a single order, the Spirochaetales. However, ... 2008 Order Spirochaetales Buchanan 1917 ["Entomospirales" Pallen, Rodriguez-R & Alikhan 2022; "Marispirochaetales" Pallen, ...
2001). Ticks (Acari : Ixodidae) and spirochetes (Spirochaetaceae : Spirochaetales) recovered from birds on a Georgia barrier ...
Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) (JDI strain) by Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), Dermacentor variabilis, and Amblyomma ...
Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae)". Environmental Entomology. Entomological Society of America (OUP). 38 (4): 977-984. doi: ...
The PPi-dependent phosphofrucktokinase sequences are only available from three organisms in the Spirochaetales order: ... spirochaete that seems to be the most thermophilic of the Spirochaetales order. The type species was discovered in 1992 in ...
The taxonomic lineage of Treponema socranskii is Bacteria, Spirochaetes, Spirochaetia, Spirochaetales, Spirochaetaceae, ...
The Spirochaetales are an order of spirochete bacteria. Some species within this order are known to causes syphilis, Lyme ...
Spirochaetales, Leptospiraceae). Most mammals can be infected, but rats are considered the main reservoir, maintaining ...
Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in Wisconsin. J. Med. Entomol. 2021, 58, ... Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae). J. Med. Entomol. 2020, 57, 927-932. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] ... Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: ...
Leptospires belong to the order Spirochaetales and the family Leptospiraceae. Traditionally, the organisms are classified based ... and the order Spirochaetales. These spirochetes are finely coiled, thin, motile, obligate, slow-growing aerobes. ...
Categories: Spirochaetales Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 266 ...
Presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) in southern Kettle Moraine State Forest, Wisconsin, and ...
Leptospires belong to the order Spirochaetales and the family Leptospiraceae. Traditionally, the organisms are classified based ... and the order Spirochaetales. These spirochetes are finely coiled, thin, motile, obligate, slow-growing aerobes. ...
Spirochaetales;PL-11B10;NA RSV_genus1303 Bacteria;Spirochaetae;Spirochaetes;Spirochaetales;Spirochaetaceae;NA RSV_genus1304 ... Spirochaetales;Leptospiraceae RSV_family453 Bacteria;Spirochaetae;Spirochaetes;Spirochaetales;PL-11B10 RSV_family454 Bacteria; ... Spirochaetales;Leptospiraceae;NA RSV_genus1301 Bacteria;Spirochaetae;Spirochaetes;Spirochaetales;Leptospiraceae;Turneriella RSV ... Spirochaetales;Spirochaetaceae;Spirochaeta_2 RSV_genus1306 Bacteria;Spirochaetae;Spirochaetes;Spirochaetales;Spirochaetaceae; ...
Spirochaetales: Borreliaceae), the causative agent of Lyme disease. Cervids (Artiodactyla: Cervidae), which are the primary ...
Spirochaetales, Leptospiraceae). Most mammals can be infected, but rats are considered the main reservoir, maintaining ...
Panthi, B., Cloonan, K. R., Rodriguez-Saona, C., Short, B. D., Kirkpatrick, D. M., Loeb, G. M., Aflitto, N. C., Wiman, N., Andrews, H., Drummond, F. A., Fanning, P. D., Ballman, E., Johnson, B., Beal, D. J., Beers, E. H., Burrack, H. J., Isaacs, R., Perkins, J., Liburd, O. E., Lambert, A. R., & 7 othersWalton, V. M., Harris, E. T., Mermer, S., Polk, D., Wallingford, A. K., Adhikari, R. & Sial, A. A., Dec 1 2022, In: Journal of economic entomology. 115, 6, p. 1995-2003 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Spirochetes isolated from arthropods constitute a novel genus Entomospira genus novum within the order Spirochaetales ...
Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae ...
Spirochaetales. order. 1551. 5448. 13579.1. 32843.8. 37. 244. Terrabacteria group. clade. 721047. 521084. 231350.3. 165314.8. ...
Host Lineage: Brachyspira pilosicoli; Brachyspira; Brachyspiraceae; Spirochaetales; Spirochaetes; Bacteria. General Information ...
Host Lineage: Sphaerochaeta globosa; Sphaerochaeta; Spirochaetaceae; Spirochaetales; Spirochaetes; Bacteria. General ...
Spirochaetales. Family. Treponemataceae Genus. Treponema. Type Strain: Not defined. Macromorphology (smell): Cannot be ...
DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ... DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ... INFECCIONES POR SPIROCHAETALES, infecciones micóticas, INFECCIONES POR PROTOZOOS, HELMINTIASIS y ENFERMEDADES POR PRIONES ...
DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ...
Infezioni Da Spirochaetales 0 domande Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES. ... DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal ...
Spirochaetales (fr) * Spiroplasmataceae (fr) * Staphylococcus (fr) * Streptobacillus (fr) * Streptococcaceae (fr) * Taylorella ...
Spirochaetales Infections [C01.252.847]. *Borrelia Infections [C01.252.847.193]. *Lyme Disease [C01.252.847.193.569] ...
Leptospira (Leptospiraceae/spirochaetales) IgG. 2 hours. 20. LPM. Leptospira (Leptospiraceae/spirochaetales) IgM. 2 hours. 20. ...
Spirochaetales Infections [C01.252.847]. *Borrelia Infections [C01.252.847.193]. *Lyme Disease [C01.252.847.193.569] ...
Spirochaetales Medicine & Life Sciences 51% * T-Lymphocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 48% * Thymus Gland Medicine & Life ...
Spirochaetales Medicine & Life Sciences 88% * Peptidoglycan Medicine & Life Sciences 81% * Syphilis Medicine & Life Sciences 76 ...
Spirochaetales Medicine & Life Sciences 34% * Ticks Medicine & Life Sciences 30% * Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay ...
Spirochaetales Medicine & Life Sciences 38% * Extracellular Matrix Medicine & Life Sciences 16% * Borrelia Medicine & Life ...
  • The Spirochaetales are an order of spirochete bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infezioni Da Spirochaetales 0 domande Infections with bacteria of the order SPIROCHAETALES. (lookformedical.com)
  • Detection of Genetic Variability in Borrelia miyamotoi (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Between and Within the Eastern and Western United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Deer keds, such as Lipoptena cervi Linnaeus (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), are blood-feeding flies from which several human and animal pathogens have been detected, including Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Johnson (Spirochaetales: Borreliaceae), the causative agent of Lyme disease. (usda.gov)
  • Spirochaetales, Leptospiraceae). (cdc.gov)
  • Inclusion of higher-MW CT fractions F1 and/or F2 decreased the relative abundance of minor genera such as Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium XIVa and Anaeroplasma but increased the relative abundance of Acinetobacter, Treponema, Selenomonas, Succiniclasticum and unclassified Spirochaetales compared with the control and lower-MW CT fractions. (upm.edu.my)
  • SPIROCHETE is any bacterium of the order Spirochaetales including those causing syphilis and relapsing fever. (protectedart.org)
  • Results from a survey of species from the order Spirochaetales showed that all of the tested species of Spirochaeta, both thermophilic and mesophilic species/strains, possessed a PPᵢ-dependent PFK (PPᵢ-PFK) activity. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • For example, if you first clicked on "Order", you can then click on a specific order such as Spirochaetales to list the categories at the level below, in this case families. (vetbact.org)
  • At WC 400, Spirochete infections was changed to Spirochaetales infections . (nih.gov)