Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Spinal DiseasesSpinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Spinal NeoplasmsBone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Scoliosis: An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Intervertebral Disc Displacement: An INTERVERTEBRAL DISC in which the nucleus pulposus has protruded through surrounding fibrocartilage. This occurs most frequently in the lower lumbar region.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Zygapophyseal Joint: The joint that occurs between facets of the interior and superior articular processes of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Lordosis: The anterior concavity in the curvature of the lumbar and cervical spine as viewed from the side. The term usually refers to abnormally increased curvature (hollow back, saddle back, swayback). It does not include lordosis as normal mating posture in certain animals ( = POSTURE + SEX BEHAVIOR, ANIMAL).Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Orthopedic Fixation Devices: Devices which are used in the treatment of orthopedic injuries and diseases.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Diskectomy: Excision, in part or whole, of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC. The most common indication is disk displacement or herniation. In addition to standard surgical removal, it can be performed by percutaneous diskectomy (DISKECTOMY, PERCUTANEOUS) or by laparoscopic diskectomy, the former being the more common.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Spondylolisthesis: Forward displacement of a superior vertebral body over the vertebral body below.Silver Staining: The use of silver, usually silver nitrate, as a reagent for producing contrast or coloration in tissue specimens.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Spondylitis: Inflammation of the SPINE. This includes both arthritic and non-arthritic conditions.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Sacrum: Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.DislocationsMagnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal: Metabolic disorder associated with fractures of the femoral neck, vertebrae, and distal forearm. It occurs commonly in women within 15-20 years after menopause, and is caused by factors associated with menopause including estrogen deficiency.Spondylosis: A degenerative spinal disease that can involve any part of the VERTEBRA, the INTERVERTEBRAL DISK, and the surrounding soft tissue.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).AxisMyelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Radiculopathy: Disease involving a spinal nerve root (see SPINAL NERVE ROOTS) which may result from compression related to INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; SPINAL CORD INJURIES; SPINAL DISEASES; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include radicular pain, weakness, and sensory loss referable to structures innervated by the involved nerve root.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Neck Injuries: General or unspecified injuries to the neck. It includes injuries to the skin, muscles, and other soft tissues of the neck.Atlanto-Axial Joint: The joint involving the CERVICAL ATLAS and axis bones.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Discitis: Inflammation of an INTERVERTEBRAL DISC or disk space which may lead to disk erosion. Until recently, discitis has been defined as a nonbacterial inflammation and has been attributed to aseptic processes (e.g., chemical reaction to an injected substance). However, recent studies provide evidence that infection may be the initial cause, but perhaps not the promoter, of most cases of discitis. Discitis has been diagnosed in patients following discography, myelography, lumbar puncture, paravertebral injection, and obstetrical epidural anesthesia. Discitis following chemonucleolysis (especially with chymopapain) is attributed to chemical reaction by some and to introduction of microorganisms by others.Total Disc Replacement: The replacement of intervertebral discs in the spinal column with artificial devices. The procedure is done in the lumbar or cervical spine to relieve severe pain resulting from INTERVERTEBRAL DISC DEGENERATION.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Ilium: The largest of three bones that make up each half of the pelvic girdle.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Bone Diseases, MetabolicSpondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Cell Surface Extensions: Specialized structures of the cell that extend the cell membrane and project out from the cell surface.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Post-Synaptic Density: Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Guanylate Kinase: Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.Prostheses and Implants: Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.Nerve Tissue ProteinsRetrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Manipulation, Spinal: Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Hyperostosis, Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal: A disease of elderly men characterized by large osteophytes that bridge vertebrae and ossification of ligaments and tendon insertions.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Atlanto-Occipital Joint: The point of articulation between the OCCIPITAL BONE and the CERVICAL ATLAS.Radius: The outer shorter of the two bones of the FOREARM, lying parallel to the ULNA and partially revolving around it.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ligaments: Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Purkinje Cells: The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.Pseudarthrosis: A pathologic entity characterized by deossification of a weight-bearing long bone, followed by bending and pathologic fracture, with inability to form normal BONY CALLUS leading to existence of the "false joint" that gives the condition its name. (Dorland, 27th ed)Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Pseudopodia: A dynamic actin-rich extension of the surface of an animal cell used for locomotion or prehension of food.Vertebroplasty: Procedures to repair or stabilize vertebral fractures, especially compression fractures accomplished by injecting BONE CEMENTS into the fractured VERTEBRAE.Spondylolysis: Deficient development or degeneration of a portion of the VERTEBRA, usually in the pars interarticularis (the bone bridge between the superior and inferior facet joints of the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE) leading to SPONDYLOLISTHESIS.Organ Culture Techniques: A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)Whiplash Injuries: Hyperextension injury to the neck, often the result of being struck from behind by a fast-moving vehicle, in an automobile accident. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Bone Plates: Implantable fracture fixation devices attached to bone fragments with screws to bridge the fracture gap and shield the fracture site from stress as bone heals. (UMDNS, 1999)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth: A type of endoplasmic reticulum lacking associated ribosomes on the membrane surface. It exhibits a wide range of specialized metabolic functions including supplying enzymes for steroid synthesis, detoxification, and glycogen breakdown. In muscle cells, smooth endoplasmic reticulum is called SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Osteoblastoma: A benign, painful, tumor of bone characterized by the formation of osteoid tissue, primitive bone and calcified tissue. It occurs frequently in the spine of young persons. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Ankylosis: Fixation and immobility of a joint.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Laryngoscopes: Endoscopes for examining the interior of the larynx.Wounds, Nonpenetrating: Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2: A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.Mice, Inbred C57BLAnalysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Synovial Cyst: Non-neoplastic tumor-like lesions at joints, developed from the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE of a joint through the JOINT CAPSULE into the periarticular tissues. They are filled with SYNOVIAL FLUID with a smooth and translucent appearance. A synovial cyst can develop from any joint, but most commonly at the back of the knee, where it is known as POPLITEAL CYST.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Receptors, Glutamate: Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Alendronate: A nonhormonal medication for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women. This drug builds healthy bone, restoring some of the bone loss as a result of osteoporosis.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Osteoma, Osteoid: Benign circumscribed tumor of spongy bone occurring especially in the bones of the extremities and vertebrae, most often in young persons. (Dorland, 27th ed)Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Chordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)OsteomyelitisSurgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Ischium: One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors: Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Polyradiculopathy: Disease or injury involving multiple SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Polyradiculitis refers to inflammation of multiple spinal nerve roots.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Neuronavigation: Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein: A RNA-binding protein that is found predominately in the CYTOPLASM. It helps regulate GENETIC TRANSLATION in NEURONS and is absent or under-expressed in FRAGILE X SYNDROME.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 1: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.

Microdeletion 22q11 and oesophageal atresia. (1/2187)

Oesophageal atresia (OA) is a congenital defect associated with additional malformations in 30-70% of the cases. In particular, OA is a component of the VACTERL association. Since some major features of the VACTERL association, including conotruncal heart defect, radial aplasia, and anal atresia, have been found in patients with microdeletion 22q11.2 (del(22q11.2)), we have screened for del(22q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) in 15 syndromic patients with OA. Del(22q11.2) was detected in one of them, presenting with OA, tetralogy of Fallot, anal atresia, neonatal hypocalcaemia, and subtle facial anomalies resembling those of velocardiofacial syndrome. The occurrence of del(22q11.2) in our series of patients with OA is low (1/15), but this chromosomal anomaly should be included among causative factors of malformation complexes with OA. In addition, clinical variability of del(22q11.2) syndrome is further corroborated with inclusion of OA in the list of the findings associated with the deletion.  (+info)

Cat-scratch disease with paravertebral mass and osteomyelitis. (2/2187)

The case of a 9-year-old girl with cat-scratch disease (CSD) complicated by development of a paravertebral mass and osteomyelitis is presented. Following multiple scratches and inguinal lymphadenopathy, she developed back pain, and imaging demonstrated a paravertebral mass with evidence of osteomyelitis involving vertebra T9. The diagnosis was made on the basis of detection of Bartonella henselae by use of molecular techniques on an aspirate from the vertebral column and supportive serology for infection with B. henselae. Eleven other cases of this unusual manifestation associated with CSD have been reported in the literature and are reviewed. The patient was treated with gentamicin, followed by rifampicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, orally and made a favorable recovery over 7 months. This is comparable with other case reports, regardless of the choice of antibiotic therapy. CSD in immunocompetent hosts is not always self-limiting, and tissues beyond the lymph nodes can be involved.  (+info)

Morphological adaptation to thermal stress in a marine fish, Fundulus heteroclitus. (3/2187)

Populations of Fundulus heteroclitus (Cyprinodontidae), a coastal marine fish, were studied in control and artificially heated environments on the north shore of Long Island to determine patterns of variation in morphology and the extent to which this variation reflected adaptation to environmental characteristics. Principal components and discriminant function analyses were used to analyze variation in and among seventeen morphological characters. Fishes living in water artificially heated by a power plant exhibited marked divergence from control populations in head morphology, and convergence with a population sampled at more southern latitudes. Hence, these differences were interpreted as adaptations to warm environments. Greater morphological variation is detected at the heated locality than at control localities, and this may be partially due to a breakdown in developmental homeostasis, and partially due to selection favoring phenotypes that are rare in this environment.  (+info)

Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation for the treatment of severe scoliosis. (4/2187)

In a multicentric study, 36 cases (40 curves) of severe scoliosis were analysed; 19 were idiopathic and 17 neurological, Cobb angles ranged from 70 degrees to 145 degrees, all had undergone three-rod Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) instrumentation. The correction on the frontal plane achieved more than 50% of the preoperative angle (53.9% for idiopathic curves and 55.6% for neurological ones). On the sagittal plane the pathological shape of the spine was reduced and distinctly ameliorated. In ten patients, the authors successfully applied a technique, alternative to the original one, which was based on the use of two or three screws in the lumbar area, one supplementary pedicle transverse claw on the cranial area and two rods connected by a domino, instead of a single rod (the longer one applied on the concave side). The main complications were: one case of infection, three of vascular compression of the duodenum, one of crank-shaft phenomenon and one laminar hook displacement. The excellent result achieved in both, idiopathic and neurological severe and stiff scoliosis shows the efficacy, reliability and versatility of CD three-rod instrumentation.  (+info)

Long-term three-dimensional changes of the spine after posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. (5/2187)

This is a prospective study comparing the short- and long-term three-dimensional (3D) changes in shape, length and balance of the spine after spinal instrumentation and fusion in a group of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the stability over time of the postoperative changes of the spine after instrumentation with multi rod, hook and screw instrumentation systems. Thirty adolescents (average age: 14.5+/-1.6 years) undergoing surgery by a posterior approach had computerized 3D reconstructions of the spine done at an average of 3 days preoperatively (stage I), and 2 months (stage II) and 2,5 years (stage III) after surgery, using a digital multi-planar radiographic technique. Stages I, II and III were compared using various geometrical parameters of spinal length, curve severity, and orientation. Significant improvement of curve magnitude between stages I and II was documented in the frontal plane for thoracic and lumbar curves, as well as in the orientation of the plane of maximum deformity, which was significantly shifted towards the sagittal plane in thoracic curves. However, there was a significant loss of this correction between stages II and III. Slight changes were noted in apical vertebral rotation, in thoracic kyphosis and in lumbar lordosis. Spinal length and height were significantly increased at stage II, but at long-term follow-up spinal length continued to increase while spinal height remained similar. These results indicate that although a significant 3D correction can be obtained after posterior instrumentation and fusion, a significant loss of correction and an increase in spinal length occur in the years following surgery, suggesting that a crankshaft phenomenon may be an important factor altering the long-term 3D correction after posterior instrumentation of the spine for idiopathic scoliosis.  (+info)

Complications of scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele. (6/2187)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the high incidence of complications in scoliosis surgery in myelomeningocele (MMC) could be attributed to the surgical technique and whether improvements were possible. Between 1984 and 1996, 77 patients with MMC and scoliosis were treated surgically. The clinical and radiological follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. The mean age at time of surgery was 12 years 8 months. The average preoperative scoliosis measured 90.20 degrees and was corrected by 47%. The first four patients were stabilized with Harrington rods after anterior correction with a Zielke device (group 1). Twenty-five patients were operated only from posterior, using Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) instrumentation (group 2). In 13 patients an anterior release and discectomy was performed prior to CD posterior instrumentation (group 3). In 26 patients (group 4) this was combined with an anterior instrumentation. The 9 patients of group 5 had congenital vertebral malformations which made a special treatment necessary. Complications could be divided into hardware problems, such as implant failure, dislocation or pseudarthrosis, infections, anesthetic, and neurologic complications. Hardware problems were seen in 29% of all patients. More hardware problems were seen with the Harrington rod (75%) and after solitary posterior instrumentation (30%). The occurrence of pseudarthrosis was dependent on the surgical technique, the extent of posterior spondylodesis, and lumbosacral fusion. Patients with hardware problems had a mean loss of correction of 49% compared to 13% in the other patients. Depending on the different surgical techniques a loss of more than 30% was seen in 12-75% of the cases. Early postoperative shunt failure occurred in four cases; delayed failure - after more than 1 year - in three cases. One patient died within 1 day due to an acute hydrocephalus, another died after 2 1/2 years because of chronic shunt insufficiency with herniation. Wound problems were not dependent on the surgical technique, but on the extent of posterior spondylodesis and the lumbosacral fusion. Based on this analysis we believe our current practice of instrumented anterior and posterior fusion is justified. Further, we are very careful to check shunt function prior to acute correction of spinal deformity.  (+info)

Characteristics of an extended internal fixation system for polysegmental transpedicular reduction and stabilization of the thoracic, lumbar, and lumbosacral spine. (7/2187)

The Kluger internal fixator, with its artificial fulcrum outside the operative site, had to be extended for multisegmental use. Three different prototypes, called Central Bar (CB), Double Bar I (DB I) and Double Bar II (DB II) were designed, which were fully compatible with the existing reduction system. To evaluate the ability of these newly developed systems to provide primary stability in a destabilized spine, their stiffness characteristics and stabilizing effects were investigated in multidirectional biomechanical stability tests and compared with those of the clinically well-known Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) system. The investigations were performed on a spine tester using freshly prepared calf spines. The model tested was that of an intact straight spine followed by a defined three-column lesion simulating the most destabilizing type of injury. Pure moments of up to 7.5 Nm were continuously applied to the top of each specimen in flexion/extension, left/right axial rotation, and left/right lateral bending. Segmental motion was measured using a three-dimensional goniometric linkage system. Range of motion and stiffness within the neutral zone were calculated from obtained load-displacement curves. The DB II attained 112.5% (P = 0.26) of the absolute stiffness of the CD system in flexion and enhanced its stability in extension by up to 144.3% (P = 0.004). In axial rotation of the completely destabilized spine, this system achieved 183.3% of the stiffness of the CD system (P < 0.001), and in lateral bending no motion was measured in the most injured specimens stabilized by the DB II. The DB I, which was the first to be designed and was considered to provide high biomechanical stability, did not attain the stiffness standard set by the CD system in either flexion/extension or axial rotation of the most injured spine. The study confirms that it is worthwhile to evaluate in vitro the biomechanical properties of a newly developed implant before its use in patients, in order to refine weak construction points and help to reduce device-related complications and to better evaluate its efficacy in stabilizing the spine.  (+info)

Prenatal sonographic features of spondylocostal dysostosis and diaphragmatic hernia in the first trimester. (8/2187)

Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder characterized by multiple malformations of the vertebrae and ribs. We describe the sonographic features of an affected fetus at 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The fetus had thoracic scoliosis, multiple vertebral and rib malformations and a grossly dilated stomach that had herniated into the chest through a left-sided diaphragmatic hernia. The stomach spanned the whole length of the fetal trunk.  (+info)

  • The new, innovative robotic guidance technology's software allows surgeons to pre-plan a patient's spine surgery virtually, using a 3-D simulation of the spinal anatomy based upon their most recent CT scan. (uconn.edu)
  • Two other UConn Health surgeons in addition to Moss - Dr. Hilary Onyiuke , director of the Comprehensive Spine Center at the UConn Musculoskeletal Institute and chief of the Division of Neurosurgery, and Dr. Ryan Zengou , assistant professor in the Department of Surgery's Division of Neurosurgery and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery - plan to use the robotic guidance system. (uconn.edu)
  • Dr. Isaac Moss of the UConn Musculoskeletal Institute will be New England's and Connecticut's first surgeon to use pioneering robotic guidance technology to assist him during spine surgery at UConn John Dempsey Hospital. (uconn.edu)
  • Beginning in January, Dr. Isaac Moss , assistant professor of orthopaedic surgery and neurosurgery at the Comprehensive Spine Center of the UConn Musculoskeletal Institute , will be New England's and Connecticut's first surgeon to use the new Mazor Robotics Renaissance Guidance System to assist him during spine surgery at UConn John Dempsey Hospital. (uconn.edu)
  • Orthopaedic surgeon Dr. Isaac Moss holds the technology's small robotic arm, about the size of a soda can, which will help him pinpoint the most precise spot to place screws and other hardware into a patient's spine. (uconn.edu)
  • During the procedure, the technology guides its robotic arm along the spine to help the surgeon pinpoint the precise location to place his tools to ensure for the greatest accuracy and safe placement of screws and other hardware into the spine. (uconn.edu)
  • Dr. Magdon is a fellowship-trained, board-eligible orthopaedic spine surgeon. (blueridgeortho.com)
  • Other potential benefits of the robotic guidance technology include smaller incisions, shorter operative times, shorter hospitalization and recovery, less pain for patients, and less exposure to fluoroscopy X-ray radiation during a spine procedure for both a patient and their surgical team. (uconn.edu)
  • His clinical expertise is in the non-surgical and surgical care of diseases of the spine. (blueridgeortho.com)
  • Blue Ridge operates a fully accredited out-patient surgical center on its campus, as well as a dedicated physical therapy center, pain management team, nutrition services and spine team. (blueridgeortho.com)
  • At each vertebral level of the spine there is a pair of nerve roots which supply particular parts of the body with electrical pulses. (jointimplant.com)
  • Once inside the operating room, the Mazor technology matches, in real time, the surgeon's pre-operative 3-D plan with intra-operative X-ray imaging of the patient's spine. (uconn.edu)
  • Blue Ridge Orthopaedic & Spine Center was recently voted by Virginia Living Magazine for a 2020 Best of Northern Virginia award. (blueridgeortho.com)
  • Dr. Hyder and his team believe that the majority of spine issues can be resolved without surgery, through non-invasive treatments like physical therapy and pain management. (true-mis.com)
  • Dr. Choll Kim graduated cum laude from Harvard Medical School and completed his fellowship training in complex spine surgery at the Mayo Clinic. (empowher.com)
  • However, if the cervical spine is injured it can cause many minor or traumatic problems, and although these injuries vary specifically they are more commonly known as "cervical spine disorders" as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subaxial cervical spine Atlanto-axial joint The elderly Because of such symptoms, people often mistake cervical spine disorder indicators for coronary artery disease, and although individuals of any age can develop spine threatening injuries, the people that are affected by it the most are the elderly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Veritas Health platform comprising of Spine-health.com , Arthritis-health.com , Sports-health.com , and Pain-health.com , provides comprehensive information on back pain, arthritis, sports injuries, and chronic pain conditions. (spine-health.com)
  • The site aims to make it easier for those suffering from chronic pain, sports injuries, leg, foot and ankle problems or people with physical therapy needs to learn more about the medical team and services at Spine Institute Northwest. (24-7pressrelease.com)
  • The Fellowship involves a one-year experience of intensive post-residency training in disorders and injuries of the spine in adult and pediatric patients. (brown.edu)
  • Sports injuries, car crashes and work place incidents are just some causes of underlying spine conditions. (vancouversun.com)
  • First are the vertebrae of the spine, and underneath those are three layers of tough membrane called the meninges. (healthline.com)
  • Basically, chiropractors adjust the vertebrae of the spine because signs of articular dysfunction (eg, restricted mobility, abnormal alignment, or inflammation) are present. (chiro.org)
  • Spine Deformity , the official journal of the Scoliosis Research Society, is a peer-refereed publication to disseminate knowledge on basic science and clinical research into the etiology , biomechanics , treatment methods and outcomes of all types of spinal deformities . (springer.com)
  • The journal will enhance the mission of the Society, which is to foster the optimal care of all patients with spine deformities worldwide. (springer.com)
  • The physician education and training GSO provides is invaluable to the spine industry's success and advancement in first-rate treatment of the most severe spinal deformities," said Chris Fair, Amendia's CEO. (prweb.com)
  • Global Spine Outreach is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization providing medical treatment to children suffering from the effects of spinal deformities worldwide without charge to the patient or their families. (prweb.com)
  • Over time, muscles surrounding the spine atrophy, and the joints of the spine develop deformities called contractures that restrict movement. (medlineplus.gov)
  • As part of the Growing Spine Study Group , Children's National is one of 25 hospitals around the globe working to improve care for early onset scoliosis and related deformities. (childrensnational.org)
  • Your backbone, or spine, is made up of 26 bone discs called vertebrae. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is possible to fracture more than one bone in the spine. (webmd.com)
  • The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. (innerbody.com)
  • Bone fractures in the spine can come from a variety of causes, including osteoporosis, hyperthyroidism, or cancer and its treatments including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In these cases the anterior structures of the spine, the vertebral body, lose enough bone mass to become weaker. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • If you have an injury such as a compression fracture of the spine, you usually wear a rigid brace made with metal or hard plastic. (ohsu.edu)
  • If you have an unstable spine fracture, your doctor might give you a rigid brace that acts like a cast. (ohsu.edu)
  • Many people report some type of back pain when they have a spine fracture, but others don't have any symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Fracture patterns of the adolescent porcine spine: an experimental loading study in bending-compression. (springer.com)
  • Using a high definition camera and other diagnostic tools, the AccuraScope procedure's goal is to pinpoint all sources of chronic lower spine symptoms and treat them with advanced tools. (prnewswire.com)
  • Fractures in the lower spine often cause greater pain and trouble moving than those in the upper spine. (webmd.com)
  • Colonoscopy , polyp s, biopsy , ulcer s, arthritis in both of my hips and lower spine and high blood pressure . (everything2.com)
  • A cervical spine X-ray can help find the cause of symptoms such as neck, shoulder, upper back, or arm pain, as well as tingling, numbness, or weakness in the arm or hand. (kidshealth.org)
  • MRI of the cervical spine can be useful in evaluating problems such as pain, numbness, tingling or weakness in the arms, shoulder or neck area, and can help detect certain chronic diseases of the nervous system. (kidshealth.org)
  • By extending the spine and increasing your spine's ability to extend, you can drastically reduce pain, tension and stress on your neck and improve your everyday posture. (google.com)
  • Support your neck when foam rolling your spine. (google.com)
  • MESA, Ariz., Aug. 11, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- BackFit Health + Spine announced the launch of a new website to better serve neck and back pain patients in the greater Phoenix area. (cnbc.com)
  • Chandler, Gilbert, Mesa and Phoenix back pain and neck pain patients can now learn more about chiropractic care by visiting the redesigned website for BackFit Health + Spine. (cnbc.com)
  • Is any of these symptoms due to the straightening of the spine, degenerative disc disease or could this all possible be related to my shoulders? (medhelp.org)
  • NJ Spine and Wellness presents a lecture about the latest findings about concussions, identification of symptoms and proper management for parents, coaches, athletic trainers and directors, reports NJ Spine and Wellness. (cnbc.com)
  • 5. What are the biggest coding and payment hurdles facing spine specialists as less physicians are in private practice than in years past? (spine.org)
  • Edited by Dr. John Mathis, a former president of the American Society of Spine Radiology, and Dr. Stanley Golovac, who both have clinical practices devoted solely to spine procedures and pain management, the book will be useful to all physicians dealing with back pain, including radiologists, pain anesthesiologists, spine neurosurgeons, and orthopedists. (springer.com)
  • Physicians will once again find that Image-Guided Spine Interventions, 2nd Edition , is the pivotal authority on image-guided techniques for the spine. (springer.com)
  • Usually, three different pictures usually are taken of the cervical spine: one from the front (AP or anterior-posterior view), one from the side (lateral view), and another from the front through an open mouth (odontoid view). (kidshealth.org)
  • The anterior superior iliac spine is the area where the iliac crest terminates anteriorly. (innerbody.com)
  • The reversal of the usual lordotic curve of the spine means that these vertebrae are pushing anterior just alittle and therefore changing the curve of the spine. (medhelp.org)
  • Cervical Spine Injury Mechanisms," SAE Technical Paper 831616, 1983, https://doi.org/10.4271/831616 . (sae.org)
  • In addition, each Fellows will be responsible for managing his/her own limited private practice of spine patients and will be responsible for evaluating and managing the care of spine trauma patients admitted through the Level I Trauma Center at Rhode Island Hospital. (brown.edu)
  • Lastly, the Fellowship Directors will provide instruction in the business side of organizing and managing a spine practice. (brown.edu)
  • While this issue is not unique to spine care, the timeliness of certain spine-related diagnosis highlights a certain urgency, and advocating for patients with limited resources can be a frustrating part of the day-to-day practice. (spine.org)
  • Who's Most Likely to Get Spine Fractures? (webmd.com)
  • Women, especially those older than 50, are most likely to get spine fractures. (webmd.com)
  • Women and men who have osteoporosis have much higher chances of getting spine fractures. (webmd.com)
  • What's the Treatment for Spine Fractures? (webmd.com)
  • How Can I Prevent Spine Fractures? (webmd.com)
  • One other problem is that if you stiffen several segments in fusion in an osteoporotic spine, there will be additional stresses delivered to the first open motion segment, and this vertebra often fractures later. (emoryhealthcare.org)
  • Abnormal magnetic resonance scans of the lumbar spine in asymptomatic subjects: a prospective investigation. (springer.com)