Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal NeoplasmsSpinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Spinal DiseasesCervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Epidural Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary: The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Scheuermann Disease: A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of disease or dysfunction by examination of the pathological site or operative field during surgical intervention.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Hyperostosis: Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Rheumatic Nodule: A small round or oval, mostly subcutaneous nodule made up chiefly of a mass of Aschoff bodies and seen in cases of rheumatic fever. It is differentiated from the RHEUMATOID NODULE which appears in rheumatoid arthritis, most frequently over bony prominences. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Spinal Dysraphism: Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Osteochondroma: A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Balloon Embolectomy: The use of balloon CATHETERS to remove emboli by retraction of the balloon that is inflated behind the EMBOLUS.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Odontoid Process: The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.Epidural Abscess: Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Arachnoid Cysts: Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)Exostoses, Multiple Hereditary: Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Diphosphonates: Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Hemangioma: A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Data Compression: Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Fractures, Spontaneous: Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Stockings, Compression: Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blood Loss, Surgical: Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.Fractures, Compression: Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Ligamentum Flavum: The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Cervical Atlas: The first cervical vertebra.Osteochondromatosis: A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Kyphosis: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament: A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
... or spinal cord tumors can cause compression of the spinal cord with similar signs to degenerative myelopathy.[7] ... and the pathologic spinal lesions of ALS are similar to those of canine DM, making canine DM a potentially useful animal model ... Myelin is an insulating sheath around neurons in the spinal cord. One proposed cause of degenerative myelopathy is that the ... 2014). "Neuronal Loss and Decreased GLT-1 Expression Observed in the Spinal Cord of Pembroke Welsh Corgi Dogs With Canine ...
... a tumor, abscess, ruptured intervertebral disc or other lesion. It is regarded as a medical emergency independent of its cause ... Spinal cord compression develops when the spinal cord is compressed by bone fragments from a vertebral fracture, ... Tumors that commonly cause cord compression are lung cancer (non-small cell type), breast cancer, prostate cancer, renal cell ... The most common causes of cord compression are tumors, but abscesses and granulomas (e.g. in tuberculosis) are equally capable ...
Causes include tumors, physical trauma, and ischemia. Cauda equina syndrome (CES) results from a lesion below the level at ... The cause is often compression, e.g. by a ruptured intervertebral disk or tumor. Since the nerves damaged in CES are actually ... A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. ... At each level of the spinal column, spinal nerves branch off from either side of the spinal cord and exit between a pair of ...
... or spinal cord tumors can cause compression of the spinal cord with similar signs to degenerative myelopathy. Degenerative ... and the pathologic spinal lesions of ALS are similar to those of canine DM, making canine DM a potentially useful animal model ... Known causes of spinal cord dysfunction should be excluded before accepting the diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy; disc ... Myelin is an insulating sheath around neurons in the spinal cord. One proposed cause of degenerative myelopathy is that the ...
... transection of the cervical spinal cord). Second-order neuron disorder: Preganglionic lesions (e.g. compression of the ... Third-order neuron disorder: Postganglionic lesions at the level of the internal carotid artery (e.g. a tumor in the cavernous ... The nerves of the sympathetic trunk arise from the spinal cord in the chest, and from there ascend to the neck and face. The ... such as a Pancoast tumor (tumor in the apex of the lung) or thyrocervical venous dilatation). Causes can be divided according ...
Osteolytic lesions can cause pain, increased risk of bone fracture, and spinal chord compression. These lesions can be treated ... is a specific drug given to cancer patients to prevent the worsening of bone lesions and has been reported to have anti-tumor ... "Myeloma Bone Lesions - Lytic Bone Lesions - Bone Lesion Myeloma". Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation. Retrieved 2017-03-14. ... though any cancer can cause bone lesions. Lesions are most often found in larger bones, such as the skull, pelvis, radius, and ...
Spinal cord stimulators use electrodes placed adjacent to but outside the spinal cord. The overall complication rate is one- ... Neuropathic pain is common in cancer as a direct result of cancer on peripheral nerves (e.g., compression by a tumor), or as a ... After a peripheral nerve lesion, aberrant regeneration may occur. Neurons become unusually sensitive and develop spontaneously ... Central neuropathic pain is found in spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and some strokes. Aside from diabetes (see ...
Spinal cord compression. Spinal-cord compression is an oncological emergency, as untreated spinal cord compression may cause ... Apart from the breast tumor cells, the resident stromal cells also contribute to tumor survival. Growth factors such as ... Multiple metastases (up to three) may be removed surgically with a risk similar to that of a single lesion, providing similar ... In breast cancer, spinal-cord compression occurs when a bone metastasis or spinal metastasis begins to push on the spinal cord ...
Primary spinal tumors begin in either the spinal cord or spinal column, whereas secondary spinal tumors begin elsewhere and ... and therefore exposing the spinal cord through an opening in the back. In general, the higher the spinal lesion, the greater ... This may lead to compression of the nerve root of the spinal cord and result in pain of the lower back and lower extremities. ... TumorsEdit. A spinal tumor is when unusual tissue begins growing and spreading in the spinal columns or spinal cords. The ...
Effects of bone metastasis severe pain bone fractures spinal cord compression hypercalcemia anemia spinal instability decreased ... Primary tumors Osteoblastic lesions Prostate cancer Osteolytic lesions Lung cancer Thyroid cancer Kidney cancer Mixed lesions ... spinal cord compression, hypercalcemia, anemia, spinal instability, decreased mobility, and rapid degradation in the quality of ... spinal compression, and spinal instability. Malformed bones may also mechanically trigger pain receptors both within the bone ...
April-June 2009). "Localisation of cervical spinal cord compression by TMS and MRI". Funct Neurol. 24 (2): 99-105. PMID ... tumors, metastases and space-occupying lesions, as well as to evaluate the efficacy of potential treatment options. ... A primary focus of surgery is to remove pressure or reduce mechanical compression on a neural element- either the spinal cord, ... It can show the spinal cord, nerve roots, and surrounding areas, as well as enlargement, degeneration, and tumors. It shows ...
... of the spinal cord is usually marked with bleeding from tumor growth in the subarachnoid space and is the result of compression ... Kizawa, M., Mori, N., Hashizume, Y., & Yoshida, M. (2008). Pathological examination of spinal lesions in meningeal ... a 3mm deep furrow on the anterior side of the spinal cord, to the anterior horn of the spinal cord, the ventral grey matter of ... Tumor cell infiltration is associated with spongy changes in the white matter of the spinal cord beneath the pia mater with ...
Encysted hydrocele of the cordEdit. There is a smooth oval swelling near the spermatic cord which is liable to be mistaken for ... it may be difficult to be sure that the swelling is not due to a testicular tumour. Indeed, a tumour may present as a ... However the long continued presence of large hydroceles causes atrophy of testis due to compression or by obstructing blood ... while spinal anesthesia is usually sufficient in adults. Local infiltration anesthesia is not satisfactory because it cannot ...
Finally, radicular pain, loss of bowel or bladder control (due to involvement of spinal cord leading to cord compression) or ... Femur with multiple myeloma lesions. Same femur before myeloma lesions for comparison Humerus with multiple myeloma lesions. ... It does not really quantify tumor burden or extent unlike staging systems used in other cancers. It is more of a prognostic ... Involvement of the vertebrae may lead to spinal cord compression or kyphosis. Myeloma bone disease is due to the overexpression ...
... tumor spinal cord compression, 5% of cases), treatment-resistant diarrhea (tumor vasoactive intestinal peptide secretion, 4% of ... When the lesion is localized, it is generally curable. However, long-term survival for children with advanced disease older ... A tumor in the chest may cause breathing problems.. *A tumor pressing on the spinal cord may cause weakness, thus an inability ... Note: Not all brain tumors are of nervous tissue, and not all nervous tissue tumors are in the brain (see brain metastasis).. ...
It can show the spinal cord, nerve roots, and surrounding areas, as well as enlargement, degeneration, and tumors. It shows ... tumors, metastases and space-occupying lesions as well as evaluate the efficacy of potential treatment options. These tests may ... Surgical goals include relief of nerve compression, allowing the nerve to recover, as well as the relief of associated back ... it can show the presence of structures that can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves, such as herniated discs, tumors, ...
... abnormal sensation in one dermatome due to compression of a specific spinal nerve by a tumor deposit). General principles ... If subcortical, clarifying whether it is white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem, or spinal cord. If the process involves the ... Establishing the lesion's location. If the process involves the CNS, clarifying if it is cortical, subcortical, or multifocal. ... Examinations are aimed at ruling out the most clinically significant causes (even if relatively rare, e.g., brain tumor in a ...
... it may be difficult to be sure that the swelling is not due to a testicular tumour. Indeed, a tumour may present as a ... Unlike a hydrocele of the cord, a hydrocele of the canal of Nuck is always at least partially within the inguinal canal. The ... Method of choice is open operation under general or spinal anesthesia, which is sufficient in adults. General anesthesia is the ... However the long continued presence of large hydroceles causes atrophy of testis due to compression or by obstructing blood ...
Positioning and spinal bracing for pain relief in metastatic spinal cord compression in adults PMID 26400848 https://doi.org/ ... Done Anti-tumour necrosis factor biological therapies for the treatment of uveitic macular oedema (UMO) for non-infectious ... Diagnostic tests for oral cancer and potentially malignant disorders in patients presenting with clinically evident lesions ... Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults PMID 26337716 https://doi.org/ ...
The spinal cord is made up of bundles of these axons. Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord ... Benign brain tumors often show up as hypodense (darker than brain tissue) mass lesions on CT scans. On MRI, they appear either ... A bilateral temporal visual field defect (due to compression of the optic chiasm) or dilation of the pupil, and the occurrence ... There are two main types of tumors: malignant or cancerous tumors and benign tumors.[2] Cancerous tumors can be divided into ...
A primary SCI is caused by spinal cord compression or transection, leading to glutamate excitotoxicity, sodium and calcium ion ... and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) are secreted, activating local microglia and attracting various immune cells such as naive ... "The formation of inflammatory demyelinated lesions in cerebral white matter". Annals of Neurology. 76 (4): 594-608. doi:10.1002 ... Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) can be divided into three separate phases. The primary or acute phase occurs from seconds to minutes ...
... lateral cord, median nerve, medial cord, and ulnar nerve. The five roots are the five anterior rami of the spinal nerves, after ... Additionally, the compression of cords can cause pain radiating down the arm, numbness, paresthesia, erythema, and weakness of ... Tumors that may occur in the brachial plexus are schwannomas, neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors. ... Lesions can lead to severe functional impairment. Brachial plexus injury affects cutaneous sensations and movements in the ...
In advanced stages of prostate cancer, radiation is used to treat painful bone metastases or reduce spinal cord compression. ... with a needle through the skin of the perineum directly into the tumor while under spinal or general anesthetic. These seeds ... A small prospective study published in European Urology in February 2015 assessed the focal treatment of index lesions with ... and hormonal therapy is used for some early stage tumors. Cryotherapy (the process of freezing the tumor), hormonal therapy, ...
Spinal cord compression can occur with metastases to the spine and can be treated with steroids, surgery, or radiation therapy ... Tumor markers. Tissue samples can be stained for the presence of PSA and other tumor markers in order to determine the origin ... The LNCaP cancer cell line was established from a human lymph node metastatic lesion of prostatic adenocarcinoma. PC-3 and DU- ... Prostate cancer in the spine can also compress the spinal cord, causing tingling, leg weakness and urinary and fecal ...
Macewan W (1893). Pyogenic Infective Diseases of the Brain and Spinal Cord. Glasgow: James Maclehose and Sons. Ingraham FD, ... the immature lesion does not have a capsule and it may be difficult to distinguish it from other space-occupying lesions or ... An abscess in the cerebellum, for instance, may cause additional complaints as a result of brain stem compression and ... and some brain tumors. However, in the presence of the rapidly progressive course with fever, focal neurologic findings ( ...
... describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord. When due to trauma, it is known as (acute) spinal cord injury. When inflammatory, it is known as myelitis. Disease that is vascular in nature is known as vascular myelopathy. The most common form of myelopathy in human, cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM), is caused by arthritic changes (spondylosis) of the cervical spine, which result in narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) ultimately causing compression of the spinal cord. In Asian populations, spinal cord compression often occurs due to a different, inflammatory process ...
... (OPLL) is a process of fibrosis, calcification, and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine, that may involve the spinal dura. Once considered a disorder unique to people of Asian heritage, it is now recognized as an uncommon disorder in a variety of patients with myelopathy. The causes of OPLL are unknown. However, genetic and environmental factors appear to play a role in pathogenesis. OPLL may also be associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis Myeolography, including post-myelographic CT is likely the most effective imaging study an accurate diagnosis. Surgical management options include extensive cervical laminectomy with or without an additional posterior arthrodesis, anterior decompression and arthrodesis, and posterior cervical laminoplasty. Treatment decisions can be made based on a grading systems devised by Hirabayashi et al., supplemented by the Nurick myelopathy classification system. ...
Testosterone promotes growth of many prostate tumors and therefore reducing circulating testosterone to very low (castration) levels is often the treatment goal in the management of men with advanced prostate cancer. GnRH antagonists are used to provide fast suppression of testosterone without the surge in testosterone levels that is seen when treating patients with GnRH agonists.[1] In patients with advanced disease, this surge in testosterone can lead to a flare-up of the tumour, which can precipitate a range of clinical symptoms such as bone pain, urethral obstruction, and spinal cord compression. Drug agencies have issued warnings regarding this phenomenon in the prescribing information for GnRH agonists. As testosterone surge does not occur with GnRH antagonists, there is no need for patients to receive an antiandrogen as flare protection during prostate cancer treatment. GnRH agonists also induce an ...
... is bleeding into the epidural space in the spine. These may arise spontaneously (e.g. during childbirth), or as a rare complication of epiduralanaesthesia or of surgery (such as laminectomy).[citation needed] Symptoms usually include back pain which radiates to the arms or the legs. They may cause pressure on the spinal cord or cauda equina, which may present as pain, muscle weakness, or dysfunction of the bladder and bowel. The best way to confirm the diagnosis is MRI. Risk factors include anatomical abnormalities and bleeding disorders. Treatment is generally with emergency surgery. The risk following epidural anaesthesia is difficult to quantify; estimates vary from 1 per 10,000 to 1 per 100,000 epidural anaesthetics.[citation needed] The anatomy of the epidural space is such that spinal epidural hematoma has a different presentation from intracranial epidural hematoma. In the spine, ...
... is an orthopaedic/neurosurgical surgical procedure for treating spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal cord. The procedure involves cutting the lamina on both sides of the affected vertebrae (cutting through on one side and merely cutting a groove on the other) and then "swinging" the freed flap of bone open thus relieving the pressure on the spinal cord. The spinous process may be removed to allow the lamina bone flap to be swung open. The bone flap is then propped open using small wedges or pieces of bone such that the enlarged spinal canal will remain in place. This technique contrasts with vertebral laminectomy in the amount of bone and muscle tissue that has to be removed, displaced, or dissected in the procedure. Animated Cervical ...
A spinal tumor is when unusual tissue begins growing and spreading in the spinal columns or spinal cords. The unusual tissue builds up from abnormal cells that multiply quickly in a specific region. Tumors generally are broken down into categories known as benign, meaning non-cancerous, or malignant, meaning cancerous, and also primary or secondary. Primary spinal tumors begin in either the spinal cord or spinal column, whereas secondary spinal tumors begin elsewhere and spread to the spinal region.[9] Symptoms for ...
A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes changes in its function, either temporary or permanent. These changes translate into loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the lesion. Injuries can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be classified as complete injury, a total loss of sensation and muscle function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord. Depending on the location and severity of damage along the spinal cord, the symptoms can vary widely, from pain or numbness to paralysis to ...
... s are illnesses that affect the cervical spine, which is made up of the upper first seven vertebrae, encasing and shielding the spinal cord. This fragment of the spine starts from the region above the shoulder blades and ends by supporting and connecting the Skull. The cervical spine contains many different anatomic compositions, including muscles, bones, ligaments, and joints. All of these structures have nerve endings that can detect painful problems when they occur. Such nerves supply muscular control and sensations to the skull and arms while correspondingly providing our bodies with flexibility and motion.[1] However, if the cervical spine is injured it can cause many minor or traumatic problems, and although these injuries vary specifically they are more commonly known as "cervical spine disorders" as a whole.[1] It is through upper frontal chest discomfort (also known as cervical angina) and scapular pains which signs of cervical ...
A compression lock, muscle lock, muscle slicer or muscle crusher, is a grappling hold which causes severe pain by pressing a muscle into a bone. A compression lock can cause a joint lock in a nearby joint when it is applied by squeezing a limb over a fulcrum. A forceful compression lock may damage muscles and tendons, and if accompanied by a joint lock, may also result in torn ligaments, dislocation or bone fractures. Compression locks can be used as pain compliance holds, and are sometimes featured in combat sports as submission holds. An Achilles lock (also called an Achilles hold or Achilles squeeze or Ashi-Hishigi in judo) is a compression lock that involves pressing the Achilles tendon into the back of the ankle or lower leg. It is typically performed by wedging a forearm, especially a bony part of it, into the Achilles tendon, while leveraging the foot and the leg over the forearm serving as a fulcrum. This causes ...
Spinal tumors are neoplasms located in the spinal cord. Extradural tumors are more common than intradural neoplasms. Depending on their location, the spinal cord tumors can be: Extradural - outside the dura mater lining (most common) Intradural - part of the dura Intramedullary - inside the spinal cord Extramedullary- inside the dura, but outside the spinal cord Extradural tumors are mostly metastases from primary cancers elsewhere (commonly breast, prostate and lung cancer). Intradural tumours can be classified as intramedullary (within the spinal parenchyma) or ...
... was an American medical device company with headquarters in San Jose, California. It was known for its development of minimally invasive therapeutic devices built upon a radiofrequency platform for the treatment of spinal diseases. The platform included two applications, the StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation System for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and the STAR Tumor Ablation System for pain relief treatment of metastatic spinal tumors. DFINE was founded in 2004 in San Jose, California. It has had five rounds of funding since inception. The first being $35 million in 2009 led by Prospect Venture Partners. In January 2010 it received an additional $2.8 million. It received $36.2 million in equity finance in July 2010, led by Split Rock Partners with participation from OrbiMed, Prospect Venture Partners, and Vanguard Ventures. Its fourth round was $25 ...
A spinal tumor is when unusual tissue begins growing and spreading in the spinal columns or spinal cords. The unusual tissue builds up from abnormal cells that multiply quickly in a specific region. Tumors generally are broken down into categories known as benign, meaning non-cancerous, or malignant, meaning cancerous, and also primary or secondary. Primary spinal tumors begin in either the spinal cord or spinal column, whereas secondary spinal tumors begin elsewhere and spread to the spinal region.[9] Symptoms for ...
Four Guardians of the Kōdōkan refers to the four notable judo competitors of the early Kōdōkan: Tsunejiro Tomita, Yamashita Yoshiaki, Yokoyama Sakujiro, and Saigō Shirō. "Kōdōkan Shiten'nō" (講道館四天王) literally translates as Four Heavenly Kings of the Kōdōkan. Shiten'nō refers to four Devarajas, Hindu gods, historically adapted by the Japanese in Buddhism. Traditionally, the Four Heavenly Kings are the guardian gods that are worshipped as the protecting deities of Buddhist sanctuaries. When Kanō Jigorō began to develop judo from jujutsu, his efforts met with opposition from jujutsu practitioners. However, Kano drew a loyal following that included exceptional fighters. Hence the term "Four Guardians of the Kōdōkan" came into existence referring to Tsunejiro Tomita along with Yamashita Yoshiaki, Yokoyama Sakujiro, and Saigō Shirō. Shitennō (samurai) Shitennō (Tokugawa clan) Brown, Ju; Brown, John (2006). China, Japan, Korea Culture and Customs. Ju Brown. p. 93. ISBN ...
He was found to have a metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC), a PSA exceeding 27,000, and biopsy-confirmed prostate cancer ... "cord compression", or "spinal tumor". All relevant abstracts and articles were thoroughly examined. Studies were included if ... Harrington KD: Anterior cord decompression and spinal stabilization for patients with metastatic lesions of the spine. J ... Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) occurs in 5-14% of patients with cancer during the course of their disease [1-2]. ...
... revealed the compression of spinal cord at the C6/7 and spinal canal stenosis at the L3/4 level. The tumor was hypointense or ... 1980) reported a case of recurrence treated by curettage of the tumor lesion. Bess et al. (2005) described two cases of ... We diagnosed him with cervical myelopathy caused by the compression of the spinal cord due to an intra-canal tumor, and ... Magnetic resonance images of whole spine showed severe compression of spinal cord at the C6/7 and spinal canal stenosis at the ...
No untreated brain metastases, spinal cord compression, or primary brain tumors. *No history or evidence of CNS disease by ... Patients also undergo collection of tumoral sections from paraffin embedded primary and/or metastatic lesions periodically for ... Some block the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. Others find tumor cells and help kill them or carry tumor-killing ... Giving combination chemotherapy together with bevacizumab may kill more tumor cells.. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial ...
Depends on level of lesion and complete vs. partial lesion. Trauma, spinal cord compression by tumor, cervical spondylitis, MS ... LMN lesion, cerebellar; rarely myopathies, "spinal shock" (e.g. early response after a spinal cord trauma) ... LMN lesion at level of the absent reflex, with UMN below (spinal cord involvement at the level of the absent reflex) ... Anterior Cord Syndrome15: ǞǞ Caused by infarction in anterior spinal artery territory, tumor invasion or inflammatory myelitis ...
3) Patients with known spinal cord compression.. 4) Symptomatic, untreated, or actively progressing central nervous system (CNS ... 6) At least 1 lesion, not previously irradiated, that qualifies as a RECIST 1.1 target lesion (TL) at baseline.. 7) Feasibility ... The patient has no history of intracranial hemorrhage or spinal cord hemorrhage.. - The patient has not undergone stereotactic ... Untreated central nervous system metastatic disease, leptomeningeal disease, or cord compression.. -Hypertension unable to be ...
Read about multiple myeloma lesions and bone pain. ... Multiple myeloma lesions occur when cancerous cells cause bones ... If tumors press up against the nerves or cause spinal cord compression, you may experience long-term nervous system damage. ... Myeloma can also cause nerve damage or pain when a tumor presses up against a nerve. Tumors can also compress the spinal cord, ... Radiation therapy is often used to attempt to shrink tumors. This can help to relieve pinched nerves or compressed spinal cords ...
... including tumors, inflammatory lesions, spinal cord compression and degenerative myelopathy. Clinically, the diagnosis of ... Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in the diagnosis and follow-up of the lesions of the spinal cord using ... quantitatively using ADC and FA measurement and qualitatively using tractogram to assess spinal cord lesions and compare the ... Sometimes a studied spinal cord may appear normal on conventional MRI even though patients have symptoms of myelopathy causing ...
... a tethered cord, or intraspinal tumors. Compression of the spinal cord can also be assessed. ... occult spinal cord lesions cannot be detected. Imaging might be difficult because of the presence of spinal instruments. ... spinal cord tumors, dysraphism, a tethered cord, diastematomyelia, lipomas, neurofibromas, and Chiari malformations (see the ... MRI is useful for diagnosing associated spinal and neurologic lesions. Small tumors and infections can be localized by using ...
Cord compression, due to tumor within the spinal canal, was evident at surgery. Pathologically, the tumor was felt to represent ... Chordoma Presenting as a "Cold" Lesion on Bone Scintigraphy. Edward B. Cronin, M.D.. Henry D. Royal, M.D.. September 10, 1985. ... "Cold" bone lesions: a newly recognized phenomenon of bone imaging. J Nucl Med 1974; 15:1120-1124.. 3) Sy WM, Westring DW and ... Axial lesions, as in this case, tend to be easier to identify, because the higher count density in adjacent normal bone ...
Cord compression by a bulging or ruptured intervertebral disc, tumor, hematoma, abscess or other mass lesion, or stenosis of ... Spinal trauma leading to cord damage, as in intervertebral disc rupture, a fall, or a motor accident ... The cause of the weakness is a partial interruption of the nerve impulses passing along the spinal cord, hence the muscles ... Evolving flaccid paralysis may occur due to myelopathies involving the spinal cord itself or peripheral nerves. ...
Due to the vulnerable and complex anatomic nature of the spinal cord, maximal resection of the tumors can be achieved with the ... Nerve sheath tumors, including schwannomas and neurofibromas, are closely associated with spinal nerves. Half of the spinal ... A curable complete resection should be achieved if possible while preserving the nervous function of the spinal cord and ... The three most common benign SCTs are meningioma, nerve sheath tumors, and ependymoma. Both meningioma and nerve sheath tumors ...
They account for only 0.04-1.2% of all spinal tumors. We report two cases of lumbar... ... Spinal angiolipomas are benign uncommon neoplasm composed of mature lipocytes admixed with abnormal blood vessels. ... Angiolipoma MR imaging Spinal cord Spinal epidural tumor Spinal cord compression This is a preview of subscription content, log ... All angiolipomas show iso- or hyperintensity on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity on T2-weighted images and most lesions ...
A patient with Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome who presented with spinal cord compression from a spinal extradural mass lesion ... Extradural tumor causing spinal cord compression in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome Surg Neurol. 1995 Mar;43(3):257-60. doi: ... Background: Myelopathy in Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome is uncommon but has been reported secondary to spinal vascular ... Spinal Cord Compression / etiology* * Spinal Cord Compression / pathology * Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications* ...
... it is useful to understand the structure of the spinal cord and to understand the difference between the spinal cord and the ... Source for information on Spinal Cord Compression: Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer dictionary. ... Spinal cord compression Description In order to understand spinal cord compression, ... A metastasis is a cancerous lesion that arises from another tumor somewhere else in the body. Vertebral metastases account for ...
... such as neural tumors, spinal cord compression, dural ectasia, instability, etc. ... If the radiographs are suspicious, MRI, CT, and flexion-extension radiographs will further define possible lesions, ... Figure 3. Sagittal MRI showing ventral spinal cord compression at C5-C6. Image courtesy of Christopher I. Shaffrey, MD, and ... The imaging studies demonstrated the severe C4-C6 kyphotic deformity and compression of the spinal cord. Although the child had ...
This type of tumor is usually regarded as benign. ... Giant cell tumor of the bone is a relatively uncommon tumor ... The tumor can cause vertebral collapse and spinal cord compression, especially when it involves the posterior elements. ... Unfortunately, overlap in the angiographic features of malignant bone tumors, benign tumors, and nonneoplastic lesions ... Vertebral giant cell tumors may extend into the spinal canal and compress the spinal cord, resulting in neurologic symptoms. ...
... radioresistant tumors and those causing fracture and bony compression of the spinal cord often require direct surgical ... Although most spinal lesions respond well to radiotherapy, ... Anterior spinal cord decompression for lesions of the thoracic ... Anterior decompression successfully treats spinal cord compression caused by fracture and tumor mass. Performed for lesions ... Epidural spinal cord compression from metastatic tumor: diagnosis and treatment. Ann Neurol. 1978;3(1):40-51.CrossRefPubMed ...
... abnormal tissue within or surrounding the spinal cord and spinal column, at Brigham and Womens Hospital. ... These tumors grow outside the spinal cord but can cause significant compression of the cord or nerve structures. Complete ... This often presents as a painful lesion and requires a thorough evaluation. This is often treated with chemotherapy followed by ... Spinal Cord Tumors. Spinal cord tumors are tumors that arise from the spinal cord and/or nerve structures. They occur in the ...
... cervical spine MRIs with/without gadolinium shows a large C5-C6 epidural tumor causing severe spinal cord compression and ... The cervical spine CT images show diffuse osteolytic lesions involving the patients cervical and thoracic spine; the most ... The anterior approach to both decompression of the spinal cord and resection of the tumor, is the initial approach of choice. ... and is causing severe compression of the spinal cord, with resultant neurological issues. In addition, the spine is falling ...
Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a potentially devastating consequence of cancer. Early recognition of the signs and ... Degenerative changes of the cervical spinal column are the most common cause of spinal cord lesions in the elderly. ... Introduction: The article describes a clinical case of a malignant tumor of the brain and spinal cord with metastasis, which ... spinal cord compression.". Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a potentially devastating consequence of cancer. Early ...
Extradural compression: by metastatic tumour, abscess or degenerative spinal disease. -Intradural, extramedullary compression: ... NEURO - Spinal cord compression Flashcards Preview ► Med Misc 43 , NEURO - Spinal cord compression , Flashcards ... Severe local spinal pain. -Rapidly progressive neurological deficit. -Systemic features of infection. Spinal cord compression ... Common causative cancers of malignant spinal cord compression & most common spinal level affected ...
spinal cord structure in relation to vertebrae types of lesions fibre tracts in spinal cord sensory loss motor loss reflexes ... Orientation of spinal cord and spinal roots with respect to vertebrae. Posterior. Slideshow 6341268 by oren-livingston ... Hemicord lesion. Brown-Sequard. Eg. Penetrating injuries,. lateral compression from tumors,. multiple sclerosis ... Anatomy of the Spinal Cord Structure of the spinal cord Tracts of the spinal cord Spinal cord syndromes ...
Patients with symptomatic central nervous system (CNS) metastases or other tumor location (such as spinal cord compression, ... other compressive mass, uncontrolled painful lesion, bone fracture, etc.) necessitating an urgent therapeutic intervention, ...
Neurological lesions (cerebral tumors). *Spinal cord injury or compression.* *Paraplegia. *Cerebrovascular accident with ... Spinal cord injury or compression, fractures, fatigue, weakness, or inactivity (including bedrest). ... Spinal Cord 51 (10): 732-8, 2013. [PUBMED Abstract]. *Christensen P, Bazzocchi G, Coggrave M, et al.: A randomized, controlled ... Structural disorders, such as intraluminal and extraluminal bowel lesions caused by primary or metastatic tumor, postoperative ...
Cervical cord lesions may have pain radiating down the arms. Patients with thoracic cord lesions may complain about "girdle ... Diagnostic Confirmation: Are you sure your patient has spinal cord tumor and compression?. Reliable, consistent elicitation of ... C. History Part 3: Competing diagnoses that can mimic spinal cord tumors and compression.. Differential diagnosis includes ... C. History Part 3: Competing diagnoses that can mimic spinal cord tumors and compression. ...
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