Spinal Cord Neoplasms
Spinal Cord Injuries
Spinal Cord Diseases
Spinal Cord Compression
Spinal Cord Ischemia
Spinal Nerve Roots
Spinal Cord Regeneration
Posterior Horn Cells
Recovery of Function
Spinal Cord Stimulation
Anterior Horn Cells
Muscular Atrophy, Spinal
Disease Models, Animal
Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous
Electric Stimulation Therapy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal
Neoplasms, Multiple Primary
Central Nervous System
Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory
Neoplasms, Second Primary
Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein
Extraneural metastasizing ependymoma of the spinal cord. (1/586)This paper reports a case of the rare entity of an extraneural metastasizing ependymoma of the spinal cord. The tumor which arose in the conus medullaris and in the cauda equina was first diagnosed in 1956 when a thoracolumbar myeloresection was performed. At autopsy, 40 years after the primary diagnosis, a massive local tumor recurrence with extraneural metastases in the lungs, the pleura, the liver, and the thoracal and abdominal lymph nodes were found. Immunohistochemical stains of the extraneural metastases showed a strong cytoplasmatic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Neither the primary tumor nor its metastases showed any of the conventional morphological criteria of malignancy. Reviewing the literature we discuss the possible mechanism of extraneural tumor spread and the incidence of metastases with regard to the tumor type. (+info)
Recurrent spinal epidural metastases: a prospective study with a complete follow up. (2/586)OBJECTIVES: Prospective studies with a complete follow up in patients with spinal epidural metastases (SEM) are rare, so little is known of the incidence and relevance of recurrent spinal epidural metastases (RSEM). This prospective study was undertaken as a part of a previously started and extended prospective study to determine the occurrence and details of RSEM. METHODS: Patients with SEM of various primary malignancies were followed up until death. The diagnosis was confirmed after neurological examination by imaging studies visualising not only the clinically suspected level, but also as much of the spinal canal as possible. RESULTS: Recurrent spinal epidural metastases (RSEM) occurred in 21 of the 103 patients (20%) after a median interval of 7 months and, after treatment, a second recurrence occurred in 11 patients (11%), a third recurrence in two patients (2%), and a sixth recurrence in one patient (1%). RSEM developed about as often at the initial level (55%) as at a different level (45%), did not occur more often in patients with initially multiple SEM, but, not surprisingly, occurred much more often in patients with longer survival. About one half of the patients surviving 2 years, and nearly all patients surviving 3 years or longer developed RSEM. Ambulatory state could be preserved in most patients, even after their second recurrence. CONCLUSION: RSEM are common and even several episodes of RSEM in the same patient are not rare. Patients with SEM who survive long enough have a high risk of RSEM and prompt treatment of RSEM to maintain the ambulatory state of the patient is valuable. (+info)
Phase I trial of methotrexate-albumin in a weekly intravenous bolus regimen in cancer patients. Phase I Study Group of the Association for Medical Oncology of the German Cancer Society. (3/586)Methotrexate-albumin conjugate (MTX-HSA) is a novel human albumin-based prodrug conjugate of methotrexate (MTX). A low MTX loading rate provided optimal tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy during preclinical testing. The objectives of this first Phase I study of MTX-HSA were to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in a weekly regimen. Seventeen cancer patients who were no longer amenable to standard treatment were enrolled and were evaluable for DLT. Up to eight injections were performed in weekly intervals. Dose escalation was as follows: 20, 40, 50, and then 60 mg/m2 MTX-HSA (based on the amount of MTX bound to albumin). Additional MTX-HSA courses were feasible in case of tumor response. DLT (mainly stomatitis, Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3) occurred, beginning at the 50 mg/m2 dose level after repeated administrations; in one case, thrombocytopenia was dose-limiting. Two events of DLT occurred at the 60 mg/m2 dose level within the first two administrations. Mild anemia, transaminitis, and one case of skin toxicity were found. No significant leukopenia, nausea, renal toxicity, or other toxicities were observed. MTX-HSA was well tolerated. Drug accumulation occurred on the weekly schedule. The half-life of the drug was estimated to be up to 3 weeks. Tumor responses were seen in three patients: (a) a partial response was seen in one patient with renal cell carcinoma (response duration, 30 months, ongoing); (b) a minor response was seen in one patient with pleural mesothelioma (response duration, 31 months, ongoing); and (c) a minor response was seen in one patient with renal cell carcinoma (response duration, 14 months until progression). Poststudy treatment was administered at 2-4-week intervals. No signs of toxicity or drug accumulation were seen. Altered pharmacological properties of MTX-HSA such as plasma half-life, tumor targeting, or intracellular metabolism might have contributed to these responses. The MTD for weekly administration was 4 x 50 mg/m2 MTX-HSA during short-term treatment. A regimen with MTX-HSA injections of 50 mg/m2 every 2 weeks was recommended for a further clinical Phase I study. (+info)
Diffusion tensor MR imaging and comparative histology of glioma engrafted in the rat spinal cord. (4/586)MR imaging using contrast material derived from the diffusion of tissue water was tested for its ability to provide a nondestructive histologic analysis of tumor morphology. An apparent diffusion tensor MR image of a glioma engrafted within a rat spinal cord was generated in which fiber orientation in three dimensions was displayed in color. This imaging method clearly separated tumor from host white and gray matter and corresponded well with conventional histologic microscopy. (+info)
Second lung adenocarcinoma after combination chemotherapy in two patients with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (5/586)We report a rare complication of a secondary malignant solid tumor in two patients with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma who developed lung adenocarcinoma after treatments with combination chemotherapies. The first was a case of primary malignant lymphoma of the cervical spinal cord which had been previously treated with radiation to the spinal lesion and combination chemotherapies and entered complete remission. The patient was further treated for relapse with autologous bone marrow transplantation preconditioned with high-dose chemotherapy. Lung adenocarcinoma developed 5.5 years after the initial diagnosis. The second case of malignant lymphoma of lymph nodes did not respond to conventional combination chemotherapies and did not enter remission. Lung adenocarcinoma developed 1 year after the initial diagnosis. The two patients died of lung carcinoma. The clinical profiles of these cases are presented and the causal relationship of primary malignant neoplasms to the second malignant neoplasms is discussed. (+info)
Molecular genetic analysis of ependymal tumors. NF2 mutations and chromosome 22q loss occur preferentially in intramedullary spinal ependymomas. (6/586)Ependymal tumors are heterogeneous with regard to morphology, localization, age at first clinical manifestation, and prognosis. Several molecular alterations have been reported in these tumors, including allelic losses on chromosomes 10, 17, and 22 and mutations in the NF2 gene. However, in contrast to astrocytic gliomas, no consistent molecular alterations have been associated with distinct types of ependymal tumors. To evaluate whether morphological subsets of ependymomas are characterized by specific genetic lesions, we analyzed a series of 62 ependymal tumors, including myxopapillary ependymomas, subependymomas, ependymomas, and anaplastic ependymomas, for allelic losses on chromosome arms 10q and 22q and mutations in the PTEN and NF2 genes. Allelic losses on 10q and 22q were detected in 5 of 56 and 12 of 54 tumors, respectively. Six ependymomas carried somatic NF2 mutations, whereas no mutations were detected in the PTEN gene. All six of the NF2 mutations occurred in ependymomas of WHO grade II and were exclusively observed in tumors with a spinal localization (P = 0.0063). These findings suggest that a considerable fraction of spinal ependymomas are associated with molecular events involving chromosome 22 and that mutations in the NF2 gene may be of primary importance for their genesis. Furthermore, our data suggest that the more favorable clinical course of spinal ependymomas may relate to a distinct pattern of genetic alterations different from that of intracerebral ependymomas. (+info)
Association of lower cranial nerve schwannoma with spinal ependymoma in ? NF2. (7/586)A 15 year old male, who had earlier been operated for intraspinal intramedullary ependymoma, subsequently developed a right cerebello pontine (CP) angle mass. A diagnosis of right CP angle ependymoma was considered, in view of established histology of previously operated spinal lesion. Histopathological examination of the well defined extra-axial mass, which was attached with ninth cranial nerve, however revealed a schwannoma. A diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2) is strongly suspected, because of well established fact, that the spinal ependymomas may have association with lower cranial nerve schwannomas in NF2. Cranial and spinal MRI screening for early diagnosis of associated, asymptomatic lesions, in suspected cases of NF2, particularly in children, is recommended. (+info)
Management of intramedullary spinal cord tumours: review of 68 patients. (8/586)68 consecutive patients admitted with intramedullary spinal cord tumours and operated at Vellore during a six year period from January 1990 are discussed. 41 tumours were radically resected, 11 partially excised while 14 had only a biopsy. Radiation therapy was advised post operatively to those patients for whom a partial excision or biopsy was done. There was no postoperative mortality. Two patients developed wound infection and one developed postoperative hydrocephalus. Postoperative clinical assessment between four to eight weeks after surgery showed that 25 out of 68 patients improved, 29 remained unchanged, while 14 had worsening of deficits. Immediate post operative assessment, however, was less encouraging. Evaluation of these patients was done using a functional scoring system and Karnofsky rating. The follow up period ranged from 2 weeks to 64 months after discharge from hospital with a mean of 14.6 months. The indicators of radical excision were good tumour-cord interface, cranially located tumours, presence of syringomyelia and histology of ependymoma. Two patients had recurrence of tumour. (+info)
Spinal cord neoplasms are tumors that develop in the spinal cord, which is a bundle of nerves that runs from the base of the brain down through the back. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can occur at any point along the length of the spinal cord. Spinal cord neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common symptoms include back pain, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, difficulty walking or standing, and changes in bladder or bowel function. In some cases, spinal cord neoplasms can also cause problems with sensation, coordination, and balance. Diagnosis of spinal cord neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans, and a physical examination by a healthcare provider. Treatment options for spinal cord neoplasms depend on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.
Spinal cord injuries (SCI) are a type of injury that occurs when the spinal cord is damaged or disrupted, usually as a result of trauma or disease. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the back of the neck and lower back, and it is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body. When the spinal cord is injured, it can result in a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the injury. These can include loss of sensation or movement in the affected area, difficulty with bladder or bowel control, and changes in sexual function. SCI can be caused by a variety of factors, including car accidents, falls, sports injuries, and acts of violence. Treatment for SCI typically involves a combination of medical and rehabilitative care, and the goal is to help individuals with SCI regain as much function as possible and improve their quality of life.
Spinal cord diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the spinal cord, which is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nerves that runs from the base of the brain down through the back. The spinal cord is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body, and any damage to the spinal cord can result in a range of symptoms and complications. Spinal cord diseases can be classified into several categories, including: 1. Inflammatory diseases: These are conditions that cause inflammation of the spinal cord, such as multiple sclerosis, spinal cord inflammation, and transverse myelitis. 2. Traumatic injuries: These are injuries to the spinal cord caused by accidents, falls, or other external forces, such as spinal cord compression, spinal cord contusion, and spinal cord avulsion. 3. Tumors: These are abnormal growths of cells that can develop on or within the spinal cord, such as spinal cord tumors, schwannomas, and meningiomas. 4. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that cause the spinal cord to deteriorate over time, such as spinal stenosis, spinal cord compression, and spinal cord atrophy. 5. Genetic disorders: These are conditions that are caused by genetic mutations and can affect the spinal cord, such as spinal muscular atrophy, Friedreich's ataxia, and spinal muscular dystrophy. Spinal cord diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, weakness, loss of sensation, difficulty walking, and loss of bladder or bowel control. Treatment for spinal cord diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition, and may include medications, physical therapy, surgery, or other interventions.
Spinal cord compression is a medical condition in which the spinal cord is compressed or squeezed, leading to damage or dysfunction of the spinal cord. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or tumors. The spinal cord is a long, thin bundle of nerves that runs down the center of the spinal column, or spine. It is responsible for transmitting signals between the brain and the rest of the body, controlling movement, sensation, and other bodily functions. When the spinal cord is compressed, it can disrupt these signals and cause a range of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the compression. Symptoms of spinal cord compression may include pain or discomfort in the back or neck, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, difficulty walking or standing, loss of bladder or bowel control, and changes in sensation or reflexes. In severe cases, spinal cord compression can lead to paralysis or even death. Treatment for spinal cord compression depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the compression. In some cases, conservative treatments such as rest, physical therapy, or medication may be sufficient to relieve symptoms and prevent further damage. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the spinal cord and restore function.
Spinal cord ischemia is a medical condition that occurs when the spinal cord is deprived of blood flow, leading to a lack of oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord cells. This can result in damage to the spinal cord and can cause a range of symptoms, including weakness, numbness, and loss of sensation in the affected area. There are several causes of spinal cord ischemia, including atherosclerosis (narrowing of the arteries), blood clots, and trauma to the spine. Treatment for spinal cord ischemia depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to repair damaged blood vessels, or physical therapy to help patients regain strength and mobility. In severe cases, spinal cord ischemia can lead to permanent paralysis or even death.
Paraplegia is a medical condition characterized by the loss of sensation and movement in the lower half of the body, including the legs and sometimes the pelvis and lower abdomen. It is usually caused by damage to the spinal cord, which can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or infection. In paraplegia, the affected individual may retain some sensation and movement in the upper half of the body, including the arms and hands. However, they may have difficulty with activities such as walking, standing, and bowel and bladder control. The severity of paraplegia can vary widely, depending on the location and extent of the spinal cord damage. Some individuals with paraplegia may be able to walk with the assistance of braces or other mobility aids, while others may be completely paralyzed from the waist down. Treatment for paraplegia typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and assistive devices to help individuals maintain their independence and quality of life. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged spinal cord tissue.
Spinal neoplasms refer to tumors that develop in or on the spinal cord or spinal column. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Spinal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on their location and size. Some common symptoms include back pain, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, difficulty walking or standing, and changes in bladder or bowel function. Diagnosis of spinal neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging tests, such as MRI or CT scans, and a biopsy to confirm the presence of cancer cells. Treatment options for spinal neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Quadriplegia is a type of paralysis that affects all four limbs and sometimes the trunk of the body. It is caused by damage to the spinal cord, which can result from a variety of factors such as trauma, infection, or tumors. Quadriplegia can be classified as complete or incomplete, depending on the extent of the damage to the spinal cord and the degree of muscle weakness and loss of sensation. Complete quadriplegia results in total paralysis of all four limbs and the trunk, while incomplete quadriplegia may result in some muscle function and sensation remaining. Treatment for quadriplegia typically involves physical therapy, assistive devices, and medications to manage symptoms such as pain and muscle spasms.
Spinal diseases refer to a wide range of medical conditions that affect the spine, which is the column of bones in the back that protects the spinal cord. These conditions can affect any part of the spine, including the vertebrae, discs, nerves, muscles, ligaments, and other supporting structures. Some common spinal diseases include: 1. Herniated disc: A condition where the soft tissue inside a spinal disc bulges out through a tear in the outer layer. 2. Degenerative disc disease: A condition where the discs between the vertebrae in the spine break down over time, causing pain and stiffness. 3. Spinal stenosis: A condition where the spinal canal narrows, putting pressure on the spinal cord and nerves. 4. Scoliosis: A condition where the spine curves abnormally to the side. 5. Osteoporosis: A condition where the bones become weak and brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. 6. Spinal cord injury: An injury to the spinal cord that can result in loss of sensation, movement, or other functions below the level of the injury. 7. Spinal tumors: Tumors that grow on or in the spine, which can cause pain, weakness, and other symptoms. 8. Spondylolisthesis: A condition where one vertebra slips over another, causing pain and instability in the spine. These conditions can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, injury, age, and lifestyle factors such as poor posture and repetitive strain. Treatment for spinal diseases may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these approaches.
Spinal stenosis is a medical condition that occurs when the spinal canal, which is the channel that runs through the spine and contains the spinal cord, becomes narrowed. This narrowing can put pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that exit from the spinal cord, leading to a variety of symptoms. There are several types of spinal stenosis, including foraminal stenosis, central stenosis, and foraminal-central stenosis. Foraminal stenosis occurs when the openings that allow the nerves to exit the spinal canal become narrowed. Central stenosis occurs when the spinal canal itself becomes narrowed. Foraminal-central stenosis is a combination of both types of stenosis. Symptoms of spinal stenosis can include back pain, leg pain, numbness or tingling in the legs, weakness in the legs, and difficulty walking. In severe cases, spinal stenosis can lead to loss of bladder or bowel control. Treatment for spinal stenosis may include physical therapy, pain medication, and lifestyle changes such as exercise and weight loss. In more severe cases, surgery may be necessary to relieve pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.
Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen behind the stomach. These neoplasms can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Pancreatic neoplasms can occur in various parts of the pancreas, including the exocrine gland (which produces digestive enzymes), the endocrine gland (which produces hormones), and the ducts (which carry digestive juices from the pancreas to the small intestine). Symptoms of pancreatic neoplasms can vary depending on the location and size of the tumor, but may include abdominal pain, weight loss, jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), nausea, vomiting, and unexplained fatigue. Diagnosis of pancreatic neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as CT scans, MRI scans, or ultrasound, as well as blood tests and biopsies. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these approaches, depending on the type and stage of the neoplasm.
Spinal injuries refer to any damage or trauma that affects the spinal cord or the surrounding structures, such as the vertebrae, discs, ligaments, or muscles. These injuries can range from minor to severe and can result from a variety of causes, including falls, car accidents, sports injuries, and acts of violence. Spinal injuries can be classified into two main categories: complete and incomplete. A complete spinal cord injury results in a complete loss of function below the level of the injury, while an incomplete spinal cord injury results in some remaining function below the level of the injury. The severity of a spinal injury is typically determined by the level of the injury on the spinal cord, the extent of the damage, and the presence of any associated injuries. Treatment for spinal injuries may include surgery, physical therapy, and rehabilitation, depending on the severity and location of the injury.
Myelitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the spinal cord, which is a bundle of nerves that runs from the brain down through the back of the neck and back to the pelvis. The inflammation can cause damage to the spinal cord, leading to a range of symptoms, including pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling sensations in the affected area. Myelitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, autoimmune disorders, and certain medications. Some common causes of myelitis include viral infections such as herpes simplex virus, West Nile virus, and poliovirus, as well as bacterial infections such as tuberculosis and Lyme disease. Autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica can also cause myelitis. The symptoms of myelitis can vary depending on the location and severity of the inflammation. In some cases, the symptoms may be mild and resolve on their own, while in other cases, they can be severe and require medical treatment. Treatment for myelitis typically involves managing symptoms and addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation. This may include medications, physical therapy, and other supportive care.
In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.
In the medical field, paralysis refers to a loss of muscle function or weakness in one or more areas of the body. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, disease, or neurological disorders. There are several types of paralysis, including: 1. Complete paralysis: This is when a person is unable to move any part of their body. 2. Partial paralysis: This is when a person has some muscle function, but not all of it. 3. Flaccid paralysis: This is when the muscles are weak and floppy, and the person may have difficulty moving or maintaining their posture. 4. Spastic paralysis: This is when the muscles are tight and tense, and the person may have difficulty controlling their movements. Paralysis can affect any part of the body, including the arms, legs, face, and voice. It can be temporary or permanent, and can range from mild to severe. Treatment for paralysis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, medication, surgery, or other interventions.
In the medical field, pain is defined as an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. Pain is a complex phenomenon that involves both physical and emotional components, and it can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, illness, inflammation, and nerve damage. Pain can be acute or chronic, and it can be localized to a specific area of the body or can affect the entire body. Acute pain is typically short-lived and is a normal response to injury or illness. Chronic pain, on the other hand, persists for more than three months and can be caused by a variety of factors, including nerve damage, inflammation, and psychological factors. In the medical field, pain is typically assessed using a pain scale, such as the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which measures pain intensity on a scale of 0 to 10. Treatment for pain depends on the underlying cause and can include medications, physical therapy, and other interventions.
Muscular atrophy, spinal, is a medical condition characterized by the wasting away or shrinkage of muscles in the spinal cord. This type of atrophy is caused by damage or injury to the spinal cord, which can result from a variety of factors such as trauma, disease, or surgery. Symptoms of spinal muscular atrophy may include weakness or paralysis in the affected muscles, difficulty with movement or coordination, and muscle cramps or spasms. The severity of the condition can vary widely depending on the extent of the spinal cord damage and the location of the affected muscles. Treatment for spinal muscular atrophy typically involves a combination of physical therapy, medication, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to address underlying spinal cord damage or to improve mobility and function.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Neoplasms, cystic, mucinous, and serous are types of tumors that can occur in various organs of the body. Cystic neoplasms are tumors that are filled with fluid or semi-solid material. They can be benign or malignant and can occur in various organs, including the liver, kidneys, ovaries, and pancreas. Mucinous neoplasms are tumors that produce a thick, gelatinous substance called mucus. They can be benign or malignant and are most commonly found in the ovaries, appendix, and colon. Serous neoplasms are tumors that produce a clear, watery fluid called serous fluid. They can be benign or malignant and are most commonly found in the ovaries, peritoneum, and pleura. It's important to note that not all cystic, mucinous, and serous neoplasms are cancerous, and some may be benign and not require treatment. However, it's important to have any suspicious cystic, mucinous, or serous neoplasm evaluated by a medical professional to determine the best course of action.
Hyperalgesia is a medical condition characterized by an increased sensitivity to pain. It is a type of pain that is caused by an overactive nervous system, which results in a heightened perception of pain in response to a normal or low-intensity stimulus. Hyperalgesia can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury, inflammation, nerve damage, and certain medical conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic pain syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. It can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as opioids. Symptoms of hyperalgesia may include increased pain sensitivity, a heightened response to touch or pressure, and a reduced ability to tolerate pain. Treatment for hyperalgesia may involve a combination of medications, physical therapy, and other interventions aimed at reducing pain and improving quality of life.
Neuralgia is a medical condition characterized by pain that is felt along the path of a nerve. It is caused by damage or irritation to the nerve, which can result in a variety of symptoms, including sharp, stabbing, or burning pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness. Neuralgia can affect any nerve in the body, but it is most commonly associated with the trigeminal nerve, which supplies sensation to the face. There are several different types of neuralgia, including trigeminal neuralgia, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and postherpetic neuralgia. Treatment for neuralgia typically involves medications to manage pain and other symptoms, as well as lifestyle changes and physical therapy. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of the neuralgia.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ located in the pelvis that stores urine until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra. The term "neurogenic" refers to a condition or disorder that is caused by damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. Therefore, "Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic" refers to a condition where the normal functioning of the urinary bladder is affected due to damage or dysfunction of the nervous system. This can result in a variety of symptoms, such as difficulty emptying the bladder, frequent urination, and incontinence. The underlying cause of neurogenic bladder can be a variety of conditions, including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and diabetes. Treatment for neurogenic bladder typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.
Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal is a medical condition that refers to the accumulation of blood within the epidural space of the spinal cord. The epidural space is a potential space between the dura mater (outermost layer of the spinal cord) and the outer layer of the spinal canal. An epidural hematoma can occur due to a variety of reasons, including trauma, bleeding disorders, or the use of anticoagulant medications. The accumulation of blood in the epidural space can put pressure on the spinal cord, leading to symptoms such as back pain, weakness, numbness, and loss of sensation in the legs or arms. If left untreated, an epidural hematoma can cause permanent damage to the spinal cord, leading to paralysis or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma to relieve pressure on the spinal cord.
Multiple primary neoplasms, also known as synchronous or metachronous neoplasms, are two or more neoplasms (cancerous or non-cancerous tumors) that occur in the same individual at the same time or at different times. In the medical field, multiple primary neoplasms can occur in different organs or tissues of the body, and they can be either cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). The occurrence of multiple primary neoplasms can be due to various factors, including genetic predisposition, exposure to environmental toxins, lifestyle factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption, and certain medical conditions such as immunosuppression. The diagnosis of multiple primary neoplasms typically involves a thorough medical history, physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy of the tumors. Treatment options depend on the type, location, and stage of the neoplasms, as well as the overall health of the individual.
Skin neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the skin. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Skin neoplasms can occur anywhere on the body and can vary in size, shape, and color. Some common types of skin neoplasms include basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma, and keratosis. These growths can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy. It is important to have any unusual skin growths evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.
Autonomic dysreflexia is a life-threatening medical condition that occurs when there is an overreaction of the autonomic nervous system in response to a noxious stimulus, such as a urinary tract infection, injury, or manipulation of an intravenous line. This overreaction can cause a sudden increase in blood pressure, heart rate, and sweating, which can lead to a stroke or other serious complications if not treated promptly. Autonomic dysreflexia is most commonly seen in people with spinal cord injuries above the T6 level, but it can also occur in people with other conditions that affect the autonomic nervous system. Treatment typically involves medications to lower blood pressure and prevent complications, as well as prompt medical attention if symptoms become severe.
Tuberculosis (TB) is a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis, also known as Pott's disease, is a form of TB that affects the vertebrae in the spine. It is a serious condition that can lead to deformity of the spine, paralysis, and other complications if left untreated. Spinal TB typically affects the thoracic spine, which is the middle section of the spine that supports the rib cage. The infection can spread from other parts of the body, such as the lungs, to the spine through the bloodstream. It can also spread from one vertebra to another through the intervertebral discs. Symptoms of spinal TB may include back pain, stiffness, and tenderness, as well as fever, night sweats, and weight loss. In severe cases, the infection can cause the vertebrae to collapse, leading to spinal deformity and paralysis. Treatment for spinal TB typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery to remove any damaged bone or tissue. It is important to diagnose and treat spinal TB promptly to prevent complications and improve the chances of a full recovery.
Contusions, also known as bruises, are a type of injury that occurs when blood vessels in the skin and underlying tissues are damaged, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can result in a discoloration of the skin, usually appearing as a dark, blue or purple mark. Contusions can be caused by a variety of factors, including blunt trauma, falls, and sports injuries. They are typically not serious and can be treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation. In some cases, however, more severe contusions may require medical attention.
Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the kidneys. These tumors can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Kidney neoplasms are also known as renal neoplasms or renal tumors. There are several types of kidney neoplasms, including: 1. Renal cell carcinoma (RCC): This is the most common type of kidney cancer and accounts for about 80-90% of all kidney neoplasms. 2. Wilms tumor: This is a type of kidney cancer that is most common in children. 3. Angiomyolipoma: This is a benign tumor that is made up of fat, smooth muscle, and blood vessels. 4. Oncocytoma: This is a benign tumor that is made up of cells that resemble normal kidney cells. 5. Papillary renal cell carcinoma: This is a type of kidney cancer that is less common than RCC but has a better prognosis. 6. Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: This is a type of kidney cancer that is the most common in adults and has a poor prognosis. The diagnosis of kidney neoplasms typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as a biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options for kidney neoplasms depend on the type, size, and stage of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or targeted therapy.
Spinal curvatures refer to the natural curves that exist in the spine. The spine has three main curves: the cervical curve (at the neck), the thoracic curve (in the chest), and the lumbar curve (in the lower back). These curves help to distribute the weight of the body and provide flexibility and stability to the spine. In the medical field, spinal curvatures are important for diagnosing and treating spinal conditions such as scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis. Scoliosis is a condition in which the spine has an abnormal curvature to one side, while kyphosis is a curvature of the spine that causes the upper back to become hunched forward. Lordosis is a curvature of the spine that causes the lower back to become excessively curved. Abnormal spinal curvatures can cause pain, discomfort, and decreased mobility. Treatment options may include physical therapy, bracing, and surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.
Syringomyelia is a medical condition characterized by the formation of fluid-filled cysts (syringes) within the spinal cord. These cysts can cause damage to the spinal cord and lead to a range of symptoms, including pain, weakness, numbness, and tingling in the arms and legs. Syringomyelia can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma to the spine, spinal cord infections, and inherited conditions such as Chiari malformation. The condition can also be idiopathic, meaning its cause is unknown. Diagnosis of syringomyelia typically involves imaging tests such as MRI or CT scans, which can show the presence of the cysts within the spinal cord. Treatment options for syringomyelia depend on the severity of the symptoms and the underlying cause of the condition. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the cysts or relieve pressure on the spinal cord. Other treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle changes.
In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Second Primary" refers to the development of a new cancer in a person who has already been diagnosed with one or more primary cancers. This type of cancer is also known as a "metastatic cancer" or a "secondary cancer." When a person develops a second primary cancer, it means that the cancer has spread from its original location to a new part of the body. This can happen through the bloodstream, lymphatic system, or other means of spread. The development of a second primary cancer can be a complex and challenging situation for both the patient and their healthcare team. Treatment options may depend on the type and location of the second cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.
Muscle spasticity is a condition characterized by increased muscle tone or stiffness, which can result in difficulty with movement and range of motion. It occurs when the normal balance between the excitatory and inhibitory signals in the nervous system is disrupted, leading to an overactive response from the muscles. In the medical field, muscle spasticity is often seen in patients with neurological conditions such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, and cerebral palsy. It can also be a symptom of certain genetic disorders, such as Huntington's disease. Symptoms of muscle spasticity may include muscle tightness, spasms, cramps, and difficulty with movement and coordination. Treatment options for muscle spasticity may include physical therapy, medication, and in some cases, surgery.
Strychnine is a highly toxic alkaloid found in certain plants, including the seeds of the Strychnos nux-vomica tree. It is known for its ability to stimulate the central nervous system, leading to symptoms such as muscle spasms, convulsions, and hallucinations. In the medical field, strychnine is sometimes used as a muscle relaxant or as a treatment for certain types of muscle spasms. However, due to its toxicity, it is only used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and is typically administered in very small doses. Strychnine is also used as a pesticide and is sometimes found in illicit drugs.
Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood (SMA) is a group of genetic disorders that affect the muscles responsible for movement. SMA is caused by a deficiency or absence of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is necessary for the development and maintenance of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem. There are four main types of SMA, which are classified based on the severity of the symptoms and the age of onset. Type I SMA, also known as Werdnig-Hoffmann disease, is the most severe form of SMA and typically presents in infancy, with symptoms including weakness and loss of muscle tone in the arms and legs, difficulty breathing, and poor head control. Type II SMA, also known as intermediate SMA, typically presents in early childhood and is characterized by progressive weakness and loss of muscle tone in the arms and legs, but with better head control and breathing ability than in type I SMA. Type III SMA, also known as Kugelberg-Welander disease, typically presents in late childhood or adolescence and is characterized by progressive weakness and loss of muscle tone in the arms and legs, but with better head control and breathing ability than in type I and II SMA. Type IV SMA, also known as adult-onset SMA, typically presents in adulthood and is characterized by progressive weakness and loss of muscle tone in the arms and legs, but with better head control and breathing ability than in the other types of SMA. SMA is a progressive disorder, meaning that the symptoms typically worsen over time. There is currently no cure for SMA, but there are treatments available that can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life. These treatments include physical therapy, respiratory support, and, in some cases, medication and surgery.
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) is a protein that is primarily found in astrocytes, which are a type of glial cell in the central nervous system. GFAP is a structural protein that helps to maintain the shape and stability of astrocytes, and it is also involved in various cellular processes such as cell signaling and communication. In the medical field, GFAP is often used as a diagnostic marker for certain neurological conditions, particularly those that involve damage or dysfunction of astrocytes. For example, increased levels of GFAP in the cerebrospinal fluid or brain tissue have been associated with a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury. Additionally, GFAP has been studied as a potential therapeutic target for these and other neurological conditions, as it plays a key role in astrocyte function and may be involved in the development and progression of disease.
Paraparesis is a medical term used to describe a type of partial paralysis that affects the lower extremities of the body. It is characterized by weakness or loss of muscle control on one or both sides of the body below the waist. Paraparesis can be caused by a variety of factors, including injury to the spinal cord, multiple sclerosis, stroke, spinal cord tumors, and infections such as polio or meningitis. The severity of paraparesis can vary widely, ranging from mild weakness to complete paralysis. Treatment for paraparesis depends on the underlying cause and can include physical therapy, medication, surgery, and other interventions. The goal of treatment is to improve muscle strength and function, prevent complications, and improve the patient's quality of life.
Spinal fractures refer to a break or crack in one or more of the bones that make up the spine, also known as vertebrae. These fractures can occur in the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions of the spine and can be caused by a variety of factors, including trauma, degenerative conditions, and tumors. Spinal fractures can be classified into several types, including compression fractures, burst fractures, andChance fractures. Compression fractures occur when the vertebrae are compressed, causing the bone to collapse. Burst fractures occur when the vertebrae are crushed, resulting in a "burst" or "explosion" of the bone. Chance fractures occur when the vertebrae are twisted or bent, causing a crack or fracture to occur. Spinal fractures can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, numbness, weakness, and difficulty moving. In severe cases, spinal fractures can lead to paralysis or even death if the spinal cord is damaged. Treatment for spinal fractures depends on the severity of the injury and may include rest, physical therapy, pain management, and surgery.
Deaths in July 1995
List of ICD-9 codes 140-239: neoplasms
Medial longitudinal fasciculus
List of diseases (T)
List of diseases (S)
Tumefactive multiple sclerosis
List of MeSH codes (C21)
Stem cell marker
List of MeSH codes (C10)
Nerve sheath tumor
WHO classification of tumours of the central nervous system
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Deficits referable to the spinal cord2
Central nervous s2
Neoplastic spinal cord compre2
- Metastatic lesions are responsible for about 85% of neoplastic spinal cord compression cases, with the other 15% due to primary neoplastic lesions of the spine. (medscape.com)
- Metastatic lesions are featured in this discussion since they cause 85% of the cases of neoplastic spinal cord compression. (medscape.com)
- Metastases to the substance of the cord (intramedullary) are relatively rare. (medscape.com)
- Principles of treating intramedullary cancer are similar to those for epidural spinal cord compression. (medscape.com)
- Anatomically, neoplasms of the spinal cord may be classified according to the compartment of origin, either intramedullary (inside the cord) or extramedullary (outside the cord). (medscape.com)
- Most primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors are astrocytomas or ependymomas . (medscape.com)
- Scholars@Duke publication: The role of concurrent fusion to prevent spinal deformity after intramedullary spinal cord tumor excision in children. (duke.edu)
- OBJECTIVES: Spinal deformity is a common development after laminectomy and resection of pediatric intramedullary spinal cord tumors. (duke.edu)
- Our objective is to compare the occurrence of postlaminectomy spinal deformity in children with intramedullary spinal cord tumors that underwent decompression with fusion at the time of surgery to those that did not undergo fusion. (duke.edu)
- Of these, 52 patients with a biopsy-proven intramedullary spinal cord tumor had complete clinical records and radiographic data. (duke.edu)
- CONCLUSIONS: In the surgical treatment of patients with intramedullary spinal cord tumors, those that undergo instrumentation or in situ fusion at the time of spinal cord tumor excision are significantly less likely to develop postresection spinal deformity. (duke.edu)
- Case Description: We present an illustrative case of a 47-year-old female with metastatic lesions to the lumbosacral vertebrae years after the initial diagnosis of an intradural, intramedullary spinal cord tumor (IMSCT). (bvsalud.org)
- Spinal tumors may be intramedullary (within the cord parenchyma) or extramedullary (outside the parenchyma). (msdmanuals.com)
- Intramedullary tumors infiltrate the parenchyma and expand rather than displace the spinal cord. (msdmanuals.com)
Cavitation within the spinal cord2
- Occasionally, an extramedullary neoplasm composed from myelocytic precursor cells occurs in patients without evidence of leukemia. (nel.edu)
- Minimally invasive resection of intradural-extramedullary spinal neoplasms. (backbonejournal.com)
- An unusual case with a solitary spinal cord haemangioblastoma located purely in the intradural extramedullary space is presented. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- Intradural extramedullary spinal neoplasms: Radiologic-pathologic correlation. (msdmanuals.com)
- Neoplastic disease that involves the spine and results in spinal cord or cauda equina compression may have devastating neurologic and functional consequences. (medscape.com)
- Neoplastic disease that involves the spine with spinal cord compression may be devastating. (medscape.com)
- Consequent signs and symptoms may be referable to the spine or spinal cord. (medscape.com)
- Isolated extradural Rosai-Dorfman disease of the thoracic spine: A rare cause of spinal cord compression: Case report. (jbstjournal.com)
- The future of spine surgery: New horizons in the treatment of spinal disorders. (backbonejournal.com)
- Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms . (lookformedical.com)
- For the emergency physician, however, the cell origin of the tumor is less of a concern than the consequent syndromes of spinal cord dysfunction. (medscape.com)
- The severity of spinal cord compromise secondary to a tumor spans a wide range. (medscape.com)
- En bloc spondylectomy with chemotherapy postoperatively constituted the treatment of choice for this tumor. (nel.edu)
- Gliomatosis cerebri (GC) is a rare difuse, infiltrative and non destructive primary brain tumor from glial origin The term GC implies the affection of two or more brain lobes with possible extension to brain stem, cerebellum, spinal cord and subarachnoid space. (isciii.es)
- Metastatic lesions that involve the spinal cord affect about 5-10% of patients with cancer. (medscape.com)
- [ 3 ] Approximately 15% of all primary CNS lesions arise from the spinal cord, with an estimated incidence rate of 0.5-2.5 cases per 100,000 population. (medscape.com)
- Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease with multiple spinal lesions: Arare presentation. (jbstjournal.com)
- Findings from a 51-year-old immunocompetent woman with a benign neoplasm and Cryptosporidium baileyi pulmonary infection, Poland, 2015. (cdc.gov)
- The differential diagnosis of an acute disease of the spinal cord includes many conditions [6,7]. (who.int)
- Myelopathy is a clinical diagnosis with localization of the neurological findings to the spinal cord, rather than the brain or the peripheral nervous system, and then to a particular segment of the spinal cord. (bvsalud.org)
- Our lab is currently working on understanding the extreme responders and extreme clinical phenotypes of brain and spinal cord tumors to identify factors that may modulate responses to therapy. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- We performed a blinded, retrospective study of 38 ALS patients, examining the association between pathologic measures in motor cortex, hypoglossal nucleus, and lumbar cord with clinical data, including progression rate and disease duration, site of symptom onset, and upper and lower motor neuron signs. (bvsalud.org)
- 3 Çukurova University Medical Faculty Department of Pathology, Adana Haemangioblastomas are true vascular neoplasms which progress inexorably to a atastrophic clinical situation if left untreated. (turkishneurosurgery.org.tr)
- Neoplastic disease can cause neurologic symptoms by compression of the thecal sac, spinal cord, or cauda equina, as well as compression of the attendant vascular supply, which results in cord edema and ischemia. (medscape.com)
- Metastatic spinal cord compression is due to invading lesion(s) in the epidural space, between the vertebral bones and the dura of the thecal sac, compressing the thecal sac, spinal cord, or cauda equina. (medscape.com)
- Additionally, cancers that metastasize to the vertebrae or surrounding tissues frequently cause spinal cord compression. (medscape.com)
- Most primary spinal cord cancers do not disseminate widely through the CNS or body. (medscape.com)
- Purpose To utilize off‐cord arc beams in RapidArc planning for head/neck cancers. (elsevierpure.com)
- Zhang, J 2010, ' SU‐GG‐T‐169: The Utility of Off‐Cord Arc Beams in RapidArc Planning for Head/Neck Cancers ', Medical Physics , vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 3224. (elsevierpure.com)
- Moreover, cancers induce neurochemical reorganization of the spinal cord, which contributes to spontaneous activity and enhanced responsiveness. (nyu.edu)
- Metastatic spinal cord compression usually follows arterial hematogenous dissemination of malignant cells to the vertebral bodies, with subsequent expansion into the epidural space. (medscape.com)
- Metastatic tumors that cause epidural cord compression and dysfunction are the most common causes of oncologic CNS injury. (medscape.com)
- The previously mentioned tendency of medulloblastoma to spread via CSF pathways can lead to diffuse "sugar coating" of the subarachnoid space and to nodular growths along the spinal cord or even ventricular surfaces. (medscape.com)
- Primary spinal cord tumors arise from the different elements of the central nervous system (CNS), including neurons, supporting glial cells, and meninges. (medscape.com)
- Primary spinal cord tumors arise from the different elements of the CNS, including neurons, supporting glial cells, and meninges. (medscape.com)
- however, the metastasis of primary spinal cord tumors to other regions in the body is an infrequent occurrence. (bvsalud.org)
- A few case reports have described the metastasis of primary spinal cord tumors, and in most cases, patients were younger than 30 years of age. (bvsalud.org)
- Additionally, neoplasms may compromise the vascular supply, causing edema or ischemia. (medscape.com)
- Сиринкс спинного або стовбура головного мозку A syrinx is a fluid-filled cavity within the spinal cord (syringomyelia) or brain stem (syringobulbia). (msdmanuals.com)
- Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue. (lookformedical.com)
- The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause. (lookformedical.com)
- Myelopathy can be the result of primary intrinsic disorders of the spinal cord or from secondary conditions, which result in extrinsic compression of the spinal cord. (bvsalud.org)
- Mrs A was transferred to Hospital 2 on 1 Month10, where she was diagnosed with multiple myeloma and underwent spinal stabilisation surgery. (hdc.org.nz)
- We have shown that each colon neoplasm arises from a clonal expansion of one transformed cell. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. (lookformedical.com)
Compress the cord2
- METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 255 children with spinal cord tumors treated at 2 tertiary pediatric cancer centers between was performed. (duke.edu)
- Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient. (lookformedical.com)
- Bacterial abscesses, spinal cord tumours, vascular malformations and haematomas can be excluded with neuro-imaging methods. (who.int)
- Rarely, undiagnosed leukemia occurs initially manifesting with paralysis to spinal cord GS. (nel.edu)
- We did not detect any changes in the bronchial trees, vocal cords, or trachea. (cdc.gov)
- In addition to confirming the spinal injury, a solitary pulmonary nodule (SPN), 1.3-1.8 cm, in the third segment of the right lung upper lobe was detected by chest radiography and computed tomography ( Figure , panels A, B). The lesion was of high density and had well-defined borders. (cdc.gov)
- These findings were typical of spinal cord syndrome, warranting urgent imaging of the cord to exclude a space-occupying lesion such as a neoplasm, vascular malformation or haemorrhage. (who.int)
- In order to rule out spinal cord pathology, craniospinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained immediately. (who.int)
- Consequent disability relates to the degree of cord impairment and anatomic level of cord injury. (medscape.com)