Spinal Cord Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Spinal Cord Diseases: Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.Spinal Cord Compression: Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.Spinal Cord Ischemia: Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Paraplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Spinal Cord Regeneration: Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.Spinal NeoplasmsSpinal Canal: The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Thoracic Vertebrae: A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.Spinal DiseasesUmbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Posterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Laminectomy: A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Spinal Cord Stimulation: Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Spinal Fusion: Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)Spinal Injuries: Injuries involving the vertebral column.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Cordotomy: Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Muscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neoplasms, Cystic, Mucinous, and Serous: Neoplasms containing cyst-like formations or producing mucin or serum.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Electric Stimulation Therapy: Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Myelography: X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Epidural Space: Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic: Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.Hematoma, Epidural, Spinal: A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lumbar Vertebrae: VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Neoplasms, Multiple Primary: Two or more abnormal growths of tissue occurring simultaneously and presumed to be of separate origin. The neoplasms may be histologically the same or different, and may be found in the same or different sites.Lampreys: Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Autonomic Dysreflexia: A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Tuberculosis, Spinal: Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Contusions: Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Kidney Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Spinal Curvatures: Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Spermatic Cord: Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Syringomyelia: Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)Neoplasms, Second Primary: Abnormal growths of tissue that follow a previous neoplasm but are not metastases of the latter. The second neoplasm may have the same or different histological type and can occur in the same or different organs as the previous neoplasm but in all cases arises from an independent oncogenic event. The development of the second neoplasm may or may not be related to the treatment for the previous neoplasm since genetic risk or predisposing factors may actually be the cause.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Cauda Equina: The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.Spinal Muscular Atrophies of Childhood: A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Paraparesis: Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.Spinal Fractures: Broken bones in the vertebral column.Wheelchairs: Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.

Extraneural metastasizing ependymoma of the spinal cord. (1/586)

This paper reports a case of the rare entity of an extraneural metastasizing ependymoma of the spinal cord. The tumor which arose in the conus medullaris and in the cauda equina was first diagnosed in 1956 when a thoracolumbar myeloresection was performed. At autopsy, 40 years after the primary diagnosis, a massive local tumor recurrence with extraneural metastases in the lungs, the pleura, the liver, and the thoracal and abdominal lymph nodes were found. Immunohistochemical stains of the extraneural metastases showed a strong cytoplasmatic expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Neither the primary tumor nor its metastases showed any of the conventional morphological criteria of malignancy. Reviewing the literature we discuss the possible mechanism of extraneural tumor spread and the incidence of metastases with regard to the tumor type.  (+info)

Recurrent spinal epidural metastases: a prospective study with a complete follow up. (2/586)

OBJECTIVES: Prospective studies with a complete follow up in patients with spinal epidural metastases (SEM) are rare, so little is known of the incidence and relevance of recurrent spinal epidural metastases (RSEM). This prospective study was undertaken as a part of a previously started and extended prospective study to determine the occurrence and details of RSEM. METHODS: Patients with SEM of various primary malignancies were followed up until death. The diagnosis was confirmed after neurological examination by imaging studies visualising not only the clinically suspected level, but also as much of the spinal canal as possible. RESULTS: Recurrent spinal epidural metastases (RSEM) occurred in 21 of the 103 patients (20%) after a median interval of 7 months and, after treatment, a second recurrence occurred in 11 patients (11%), a third recurrence in two patients (2%), and a sixth recurrence in one patient (1%). RSEM developed about as often at the initial level (55%) as at a different level (45%), did not occur more often in patients with initially multiple SEM, but, not surprisingly, occurred much more often in patients with longer survival. About one half of the patients surviving 2 years, and nearly all patients surviving 3 years or longer developed RSEM. Ambulatory state could be preserved in most patients, even after their second recurrence. CONCLUSION: RSEM are common and even several episodes of RSEM in the same patient are not rare. Patients with SEM who survive long enough have a high risk of RSEM and prompt treatment of RSEM to maintain the ambulatory state of the patient is valuable.  (+info)

Phase I trial of methotrexate-albumin in a weekly intravenous bolus regimen in cancer patients. Phase I Study Group of the Association for Medical Oncology of the German Cancer Society. (3/586)

Methotrexate-albumin conjugate (MTX-HSA) is a novel human albumin-based prodrug conjugate of methotrexate (MTX). A low MTX loading rate provided optimal tumor targeting and therapeutic efficacy during preclinical testing. The objectives of this first Phase I study of MTX-HSA were to determine dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in a weekly regimen. Seventeen cancer patients who were no longer amenable to standard treatment were enrolled and were evaluable for DLT. Up to eight injections were performed in weekly intervals. Dose escalation was as follows: 20, 40, 50, and then 60 mg/m2 MTX-HSA (based on the amount of MTX bound to albumin). Additional MTX-HSA courses were feasible in case of tumor response. DLT (mainly stomatitis, Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3) occurred, beginning at the 50 mg/m2 dose level after repeated administrations; in one case, thrombocytopenia was dose-limiting. Two events of DLT occurred at the 60 mg/m2 dose level within the first two administrations. Mild anemia, transaminitis, and one case of skin toxicity were found. No significant leukopenia, nausea, renal toxicity, or other toxicities were observed. MTX-HSA was well tolerated. Drug accumulation occurred on the weekly schedule. The half-life of the drug was estimated to be up to 3 weeks. Tumor responses were seen in three patients: (a) a partial response was seen in one patient with renal cell carcinoma (response duration, 30 months, ongoing); (b) a minor response was seen in one patient with pleural mesothelioma (response duration, 31 months, ongoing); and (c) a minor response was seen in one patient with renal cell carcinoma (response duration, 14 months until progression). Poststudy treatment was administered at 2-4-week intervals. No signs of toxicity or drug accumulation were seen. Altered pharmacological properties of MTX-HSA such as plasma half-life, tumor targeting, or intracellular metabolism might have contributed to these responses. The MTD for weekly administration was 4 x 50 mg/m2 MTX-HSA during short-term treatment. A regimen with MTX-HSA injections of 50 mg/m2 every 2 weeks was recommended for a further clinical Phase I study.  (+info)

Diffusion tensor MR imaging and comparative histology of glioma engrafted in the rat spinal cord. (4/586)

MR imaging using contrast material derived from the diffusion of tissue water was tested for its ability to provide a nondestructive histologic analysis of tumor morphology. An apparent diffusion tensor MR image of a glioma engrafted within a rat spinal cord was generated in which fiber orientation in three dimensions was displayed in color. This imaging method clearly separated tumor from host white and gray matter and corresponded well with conventional histologic microscopy.  (+info)

Second lung adenocarcinoma after combination chemotherapy in two patients with primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (5/586)

We report a rare complication of a secondary malignant solid tumor in two patients with non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma who developed lung adenocarcinoma after treatments with combination chemotherapies. The first was a case of primary malignant lymphoma of the cervical spinal cord which had been previously treated with radiation to the spinal lesion and combination chemotherapies and entered complete remission. The patient was further treated for relapse with autologous bone marrow transplantation preconditioned with high-dose chemotherapy. Lung adenocarcinoma developed 5.5 years after the initial diagnosis. The second case of malignant lymphoma of lymph nodes did not respond to conventional combination chemotherapies and did not enter remission. Lung adenocarcinoma developed 1 year after the initial diagnosis. The two patients died of lung carcinoma. The clinical profiles of these cases are presented and the causal relationship of primary malignant neoplasms to the second malignant neoplasms is discussed.  (+info)

Molecular genetic analysis of ependymal tumors. NF2 mutations and chromosome 22q loss occur preferentially in intramedullary spinal ependymomas. (6/586)

Ependymal tumors are heterogeneous with regard to morphology, localization, age at first clinical manifestation, and prognosis. Several molecular alterations have been reported in these tumors, including allelic losses on chromosomes 10, 17, and 22 and mutations in the NF2 gene. However, in contrast to astrocytic gliomas, no consistent molecular alterations have been associated with distinct types of ependymal tumors. To evaluate whether morphological subsets of ependymomas are characterized by specific genetic lesions, we analyzed a series of 62 ependymal tumors, including myxopapillary ependymomas, subependymomas, ependymomas, and anaplastic ependymomas, for allelic losses on chromosome arms 10q and 22q and mutations in the PTEN and NF2 genes. Allelic losses on 10q and 22q were detected in 5 of 56 and 12 of 54 tumors, respectively. Six ependymomas carried somatic NF2 mutations, whereas no mutations were detected in the PTEN gene. All six of the NF2 mutations occurred in ependymomas of WHO grade II and were exclusively observed in tumors with a spinal localization (P = 0.0063). These findings suggest that a considerable fraction of spinal ependymomas are associated with molecular events involving chromosome 22 and that mutations in the NF2 gene may be of primary importance for their genesis. Furthermore, our data suggest that the more favorable clinical course of spinal ependymomas may relate to a distinct pattern of genetic alterations different from that of intracerebral ependymomas.  (+info)

Association of lower cranial nerve schwannoma with spinal ependymoma in ? NF2. (7/586)

A 15 year old male, who had earlier been operated for intraspinal intramedullary ependymoma, subsequently developed a right cerebello pontine (CP) angle mass. A diagnosis of right CP angle ependymoma was considered, in view of established histology of previously operated spinal lesion. Histopathological examination of the well defined extra-axial mass, which was attached with ninth cranial nerve, however revealed a schwannoma. A diagnosis of Neurofibromatosis-2 (NF2) is strongly suspected, because of well established fact, that the spinal ependymomas may have association with lower cranial nerve schwannomas in NF2. Cranial and spinal MRI screening for early diagnosis of associated, asymptomatic lesions, in suspected cases of NF2, particularly in children, is recommended.  (+info)

Management of intramedullary spinal cord tumours: review of 68 patients. (8/586)

68 consecutive patients admitted with intramedullary spinal cord tumours and operated at Vellore during a six year period from January 1990 are discussed. 41 tumours were radically resected, 11 partially excised while 14 had only a biopsy. Radiation therapy was advised post operatively to those patients for whom a partial excision or biopsy was done. There was no postoperative mortality. Two patients developed wound infection and one developed postoperative hydrocephalus. Postoperative clinical assessment between four to eight weeks after surgery showed that 25 out of 68 patients improved, 29 remained unchanged, while 14 had worsening of deficits. Immediate post operative assessment, however, was less encouraging. Evaluation of these patients was done using a functional scoring system and Karnofsky rating. The follow up period ranged from 2 weeks to 64 months after discharge from hospital with a mean of 14.6 months. The indicators of radical excision were good tumour-cord interface, cranially located tumours, presence of syringomyelia and histology of ependymoma. Two patients had recurrence of tumour.  (+info)

  • As a resident, Dr. Veeravagu was appointed by the President of the United States as a White House Fellow in 2012, serving as Special Assistant to Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta and Chuck Hagel to guide Department of Defense Policy on traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and mental health treatment for the United States military. (stanford.edu)
  • From traumatic brain injury to spinal scoliosis, the ability to capture detailed data regarding clinical symptoms and treatment outcomes has empowered us to do better for patients. (stanford.edu)
  • We publish unsolicited papers detailing original work/research that covers the full life span and range of neurological disabilities including stroke, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, neuromuscular disease and other neurological disorders. (iospress.com)
  • New skills are applied daily in this delicate field by the spinal surgeon: this professional can be either an orthopaedic surgeon or a neurosurgeon dedicated to the treatment of spinal diseases. (springer.com)
  • Differentiate spinal cord infarction from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (AIDP, Guillain-Barré syndrome ) by following the diagnostic criteria for AIDP. (medscape.com)
  • Due to the vulnerable and complex anatomic nature of the spinal cord, maximal resection of the tumors can be achieved with the aid of appropriate intraoperative neural monitoring and meanwhile preserve nervous function. (intechopen.com)
  • In this course, you will discover the organization of the neural systems in the brain and spinal cord that mediate sensation, motivate bodily action, and integrate sensorimotor signals with memory, emotion and related faculties of cognition. (coursera.org)
  • This book offers a comprehensive approach and reviews all of the possible errors encountered by spinal surgeons in the clinical practice. (springer.com)
  • Tosi L, Rigoli G, Beltramello A. Fibrocartilaginous embolism of the spinal cord: a clinical and pathogenetic reconsideration. (medscape.com)
  • Weidauer S, Nichtweiss M, Lanfermann H. Spinal cord infarction: MR imaging and clinical features in 16 cases. (medscape.com)
  • Conventional clinical, electrophysiological and radiological diagnostics of spinal c. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Clinical and pathological features of bovine lymphoma involving the spinal cord were evaluated through a retrospective study of the necropsy database from 2005 to 2017. (scielo.br)
  • S. hematobium infection of the spinal cord was presumptively diagnosed based on the clinical presentation, exposure history, and positive serology. (cdc.gov)
  • The most important information in the assessment of a possible spinal cord emergency comes from the history and the clinical evaluation. (aafp.org)
Pitfalls in Cervical Spine Surgery | SpringerLink
Pitfalls in Cervical Spine Surgery | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
The Longitudinal CONQUER Study of Rare Neuroimmunologic Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The Longitudinal CONQUER Study of Rare Neuroimmunologic Disorders - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov)
Anand Veeravagu | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Anand Veeravagu | Stanford Medicine Profiles (med.stanford.edu)
Иван Сергеевич Тургенев - Wikimedia Commons
Иван Сергеевич Тургенев - Wikimedia Commons (commons.wikimedia.org)
Neurology and Clinical Neuroanatomy on the Move: 1st Edition (e-Book) - Routledge
Neurology and Clinical Neuroanatomy on the Move: 1st Edition (e-Book) - Routledge (routledge.com)
Tumors of the Spine and Spinal Cord | SpringerLink
Tumors of the Spine and Spinal Cord | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Not Recruiting for Clinical Trials | New Mesothelioma Treatment Studies
Not Recruiting for Clinical Trials | New Mesothelioma Treatment Studies (mesothelioma.com)
Neoplasms and ALS Flashcards by Anna Lee | Brainscape
Neoplasms and ALS Flashcards by Anna Lee | Brainscape (brainscape.com)
Ependymoma Workup: Approach Considerations, Imaging Studies, Procedures
Ependymoma Workup: Approach Considerations, Imaging Studies, Procedures (emedicine.medscape.com)
NPTE & NPTAE Flashcards [with NPTE & NPTAE Practice Questions]
NPTE & NPTAE Flashcards [with NPTE & NPTAE Practice Questions] (flashcardsecrets.com)
Clinical Utility of Evoked Potentials: Overview, Visual Evoked Potential, Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials
Clinical Utility of Evoked Potentials: Overview, Visual Evoked Potential, Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (emedicine.medscape.com)
Goodman and Fuller's Pathology, 5th Edition - 9780323673556
Goodman and Fuller's Pathology, 5th Edition - 9780323673556 (evolve.elsevier.com)
Malignant spinal cord compression.
Malignant spinal cord compression. (bioportfolio.com)
Establishing a Rabbit Spinal Tumor Model for Nonvascular Interventional Therapy through CT-Guided Percutaneous Puncture...
Establishing a Rabbit Spinal Tumor Model for Nonvascular Interventional Therapy through CT-Guided Percutaneous Puncture... (ajnr.org)
Case #37849
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Case #37849 | Neurology Image Library | Internet Stroke Center (strokecenter.org)
Radiology In Ped Emerg Med, Vol 3, Case 9
Radiology In Ped Emerg Med, Vol 3, Case 9 (hawaii.edu)
4.2e Spina Bifida (Q05.0-Q05.9) | CDC
4.2e Spina Bifida (Q05.0-Q05.9) | CDC (cdc.gov)
Dr. Michael A Gleiber MD Reviews | West Palm Beach, FL | Vitals.com
Dr. Michael A Gleiber MD Reviews | West Palm Beach, FL | Vitals.com (vitals.com)
Treating Specific Types of Brain Tumors and Spinal Cord Tumors
Treating Specific Types of Brain Tumors and Spinal Cord Tumors (cancer.org)
Can Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Be Prevented?
Can Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Be Prevented? (cancer.org)