Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
Spinal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, and originate from cells within the spinal structure or spread to the spine from other parts of the body (metastatic).
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Neoplasms located in the space between the vertebral PERIOSTEUM and DURA MATER surrounding the SPINAL CORD. Tumors in this location are most often metastatic in origin and may cause neurologic deficits by mass effect on the spinal cord or nerve roots or by interfering with blood supply to the spinal cord.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
'Spinal diseases' is a broad term referring to various medical conditions that affect the structural integrity, function, or health of the spinal column, including degenerative disorders, infections, inflammatory processes, traumatic injuries, neoplasms, and congenital abnormalities.
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
A type of juvenile osteochondrosis affecting the fibrocartilaginous disc (INTERVERTEBRAL DISC) in the thoracic or thoracolumbar region of the SPINE. It is characterized by a forward concave SPINAL CURVATURE or KYPHOSIS.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Increase in the mass of bone per unit volume.
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
A small round or oval, mostly subcutaneous nodule made up chiefly of a mass of Aschoff bodies and seen in cases of rheumatic fever. It is differentiated from the RHEUMATOID NODULE which appears in rheumatoid arthritis, most frequently over bony prominences. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A cartilage-capped benign tumor that often appears as a stalk on the surface of bone. It is probably a developmental malformation rather than a true neoplasm and is usually found in the metaphysis of the distal femur, proximal tibia, or proximal humerus. Osteochondroma is the most common of benign bone tumors.
The use of balloon CATHETERS to remove emboli by retraction of the balloon that is inflated behind the EMBOLUS.
The toothlike process on the upper surface of the axis, which articulates with the CERVICAL ATLAS above.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)
Hereditary disorder transmitted by an autosomal dominant gene and characterized by multiple exostoses (multiple osteochondromas) near the ends of long bones. The genetic abnormality results in a defect in the osteoclastic activity at the metaphyseal ends of the bone during the remodeling process in childhood or early adolescence. The metaphyses develop benign, bony outgrowths often capped by cartilage. A small number undergo neoplastic transformation.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Organic compounds which contain P-C-P bonds, where P stands for phosphonates or phosphonic acids. These compounds affect calcium metabolism. They inhibit ectopic calcification and slow down bone resorption and bone turnover. Technetium complexes of diphosphonates have been used successfully as bone scanning agents.
Intracranial or spinal cavities containing a cerebrospinal-like fluid, the wall of which is composed of arachnoidal cells. They are most often developmental or related to trauma. Intracranial arachnoid cysts usually occur adjacent to arachnoidal cistern and may present with HYDROCEPHALUS; HEADACHE; SEIZURES; and focal neurologic signs. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch44, pp105-115)
A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
A vascular anomaly due to proliferation of BLOOD VESSELS that forms a tumor-like mass. The common types involve CAPILLARIES and VEINS. It can occur anywhere in the body but is most frequently noticed in the SKIN and SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE. (from Stedman, 27th ed, 2000)
Information application based on a variety of coding methods to minimize the amount of data to be stored, retrieved, or transmitted. Data compression can be applied to various forms of data, such as images and signals. It is used to reduce costs and increase efficiency in the maintenance of large volumes of data.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Fractures occurring as a result of disease of a bone or from some undiscoverable cause, and not due to trauma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The spinal or vertebral column.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Tight coverings for the foot and leg that are worn to aid circulation in the legs, and prevent the formation of EDEMA and DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS. PNEUMATIC COMPRESSION STOCKINGS serve a similar purpose especially for bedridden patients, and following surgery.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Crumbling or smashing of cancellous BONE by forces acting parallel to the long axis of bone. It is applied particularly to vertebral body fractures (SPINAL FRACTURES). (Blauvelt and Nelson, A Manual of Orthopedic Terminology, 1994, p4)
Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Narrowing of the spinal canal.
A condition marked by the presence of multiple osteochondromas. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The first cervical vertebra.
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.

Neurologic complications of systemic cancer. (1/809)

Neurologic complications occur frequently in patients with cancer. After routine chemotherapy, these complications are the most common reason for hospitalization of these patients. Brain metastases are the most prevalent complication, affecting 20 to 40 percent of cancer patients and typically presenting as headache, altered mental status or focal weakness. Other common metastatic complications are epidural spinal cord compression and leptomeningeal metastases. Cord compression can be a medical emergency, and the rapid institution of high-dose corticosteroid therapy, radiation therapy or surgical decompression is often necessary to preserve neurologic function. Leptomeningeal metastases should be suspected when a patient presents with neurologic dysfunction in more than one site. Metabolic encephalopathy is the common nonmetastatic cause of altered mental status in cancer patients. Cerebrovascular complications such as stroke or hemorrhage can occur in a variety of tumor-related conditions, including direct invasion, coagulation disorders, chemotherapy side effects and nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis. Radiation therapy is the most commonly employed palliative measure for metastases. Chemotherapy or surgical removal of tumors is used in selected patients.  (+info)

Neurological complications of neurofibromatosis type 1 in adulthood. (2/809)

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disease with a wide range of neurological manifestations. To examine these, and to evaluate neurological morbidity in adulthood of patients with NF1, we studied a hospital-based series of 158 patients that included 138 adult patients aged >18 years and 20 children. NF1 evaluation included a multidisciplinary clinical and a clinically oriented radiological investigation. Neurological events occurring during childhood (in both children and adults of the series) and adulthood were recorded. One or several neurological manifestations have been observed in 55% of patients (adults and children) (n = 87). These included: headache (28 patients); hydrocephalus (7); epilepsy (5); lacunar stroke (1); white matter disease (1); intraspinal neurofibroma (3); facial palsy (1); radiculopathy (5); and polyneuropathy (2). Tumours included: optic pathway tumours (20); meningioma (2); cerebral glioma (3); and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours (6). Life-threatening complications were observed in five adults and included four malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours and one meningioma. Pain was the leading symptom in 11 adults and was related to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours, complications of intraspinal neurofibromas, subcutaneous neurofibromas and peripheral nerve neurofibromas. NF1 in adults was not associated with other disabling or life-threatening neurological complications. Symptomatic optic pathway tumours, cerebral gliomas, symptomatic aqueductal stenosis and spinal compression due to intraspinal NF were observed exclusively during childhood. In this series, the predominant neurological features of adults with NF1 were chronic pain and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours.  (+info)

A clinico-pathological study of cervical myelopathy in rheumatoid arthritis: post-mortem analysis of two cases. (3/809)

Two patients who developed cervical myelopathy secondary to rheumatoid arthritis were analyzed post mortem. One patient had anterior atlanto-axial subluxation (AAS) combined with subaxial subluxation (SS), and the other had vertical subluxation (VS) combined with SS. In the patient with AAS, the posterior aspect of the spinal cord demonstrated severe constriction at the C2 segment, which arose from dynamic osseous compression by the C1 posterior arch. A histological cross-section of the spinal cord at the segment was characterized by distinct necrosis in the posterior white columns and the gray matter. In the patient with VS, the upper cervical cord and medulla oblongata showed angulation over the invaginated odontoid process, whereas no significant pathological changes were observed. At the level of SS, the spinal cord was pinched and compressed between the upper corner of the vertebral body and the lower edge of the lamina. Histologically, demyelination and gliosis were observed in the posterior and lateral white columns.  (+info)

Cervical spondylotic myelopathy in elderly people: a high incidence of conduction block at C3-4 or C4-5. (4/809)

OBJECTIVES: To precisely localise the site of conduction block in elderly patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy in the presence of multilevel compression shown by MRI. METHODS: A total of 44 patients aged 65 and older underwent serial intervertebral recording of spinal somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) from either the intervertebral disc or the ligamentum flavum after epidural stimulation. The site of conduction block identified by abrupt reduction in size of the negative peak was designated as the 0 level with the other levels numbered in order of distance assigning a minus sign caudally. RESULTS: A single site of focal conduction block was disclosed in 42 patients, 23 (55%) at C3-4, 17 (40%) at C4-5, and two (5%) at C5-6. At these levels (0), the amplitude of the negative component was reduced (p<0.0001) to 29% and the area to 22%, with a concomitant increase (p<0.0001) of the initial positive component to 150% in amplitude and 293% in area as compared to the-2 level which was taken as the baseline (100%). CONCLUSIONS: A high incidence (95%) of focal conduction block at C3-4 or C4-5 with normal conduction at C5-6 and C6-7 characterises cervical spondylotic myelopathy in elderly people. Incremental SSEP studies documenting the site of conduction block will help exclude clinically silent cord compression, directing the surgical intervention to the appropriate level of concern.  (+info)

Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha transport across the blood-brain barrier after acute compressive spinal cord injury. (5/809)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) is a cytokine that is involved in the inflammatory process after CNS injury and is implicated in neuroregeneration. A saturable transport system for TNF located at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is responsible for the limited entry of TNF from blood to the CNS in normal mice. After partial disruption of the BBB by compression of the lumbar spinal cord, permeability to TNF was increased not only in the lumbar spinal cord but also in brain and distal spinal cord segments, where the BBB remained intact. The increase in the entry of TNF to the CNS followed a biphasic temporal pattern, with a first peak immediately after injury and a second peak starting on day 3; these changes lasted longer than the mere disruption of the BBB. The increased entry of TNF was abolished by addition of excess unlabeled TNF, showing that the transport system for TNF remained saturable after spinal cord injury (SCI) and providing evidence that the enhanced entry of TNF could not be explained by diffusion or leakage. This study adds strong support for our concept that the saturable transport system for TNF across the BBB can be upregulated in the diseased state, and it suggests that the BBB is actively involved in the modulation of the processes of degeneration and regeneration after SCI.  (+info)

Unusual presentation of spinal cord compression related to misplaced pedicle screws in thoracic scoliosis. (6/809)

Utilization of thoracic pedicle screws is controversial, especially in the treatment of scoliosis. We present a case of a 15-year-old girl seen 6 months after her initial surgery for scoliosis done elsewhere. She complained of persistent epigastric pain, tremor of the right foot at rest, and abnormal feelings in her legs. Clinical examination revealed mild weakness in the right lower extremity, a loss of thermoalgic discrimination, and a forward imbalance. A CT scan revealed at T8 and T10 that the right pedicle screws were misplaced by 4 mm in the spinal canal. At the time of the revision surgery the somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP) returned to normal after screw removal. The clinical symptoms resolved 1 month after the revision. The authors conclude that after pedicle instrumentation at the thoracic level a spinal cord compression should be looked for in case of subtle neurologic findings such as persistent abdominal pain, mild lower extremity weakness, tremor at rest, thermoalgic discrimination loss, or unexplained imbalance.  (+info)

Successful conservative treatment of rheumatoid subaxial subluxation resulting in improvement of myelopathy, reduction of subluxation, and stabilisation of the cervical spine. A report of two cases. (7/809)

OBJECTIVE: To report the efficacy of conservative treatment with cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest, in two consecutive rheumatoid arthritis patients with progressive cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation. METHODS: Description of neurological symptoms and signs and findings in plain radiography (PR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine before and after treatment of the subaxial subluxation by traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest during four months. RESULTS: During four months of traction and immobilisation neurological examination showed a considerable improvement of the signs and symptoms of cervical myelopathy. Afterwards PR and MRI of the cervical spine showed reduction of the subaxial subluxation. Eventually firm stabilisation was obtained in both patients without surgery of the cervical spine. CONCLUSION: Cervical traction and immobilisation with a Halo vest can be considered as an independent conservative treatment in rheumatoid arthritis patients with cervical myelopathy caused by subaxial subluxation.  (+info)

The value of MR imaging in differentiating between hard and soft cervical disc disease: a comparison with intraoperative findings. (8/809)

The aim of this study is to assess the accuracy of MRI alone in the differentiation of soft cervical disc protrusion from osteophytic compression in cervical disc disease. In a retrospective study, the MRI scans of 41 patients with cervical disc disease, who had previously undergone surgery, were presented to three independent observers, randomly on two different occasions, to identify the accuracy of the diagnosis of the presence of hard or soft disc or both as a cause of compression. The observers (two neurosurgeons and one neuroradiologist) were not involved with the treatment of the cases at any stage and were unaware of the surgical findings. Their observations were compared with those of the surgeon recorded at operation. The intra-observer agreement was poor for diagnosis into three categories as hard or soft disc or both. In distinguishing between the presence or absence of hard disc, there was moderate to good (Kappa = 0.6) intra observer and fair to moderate (Kappa = 0.4) interobserver agreement. The sensitivity of diagnosis of a hard disc was high (87%) but specificity was low (44%), due to the overestimation of the presence of hard disc. There was a significantly higher incidence of hard disc in the elderly age group (76% over the fifth decade, P = 0.0073). It is concluded that MRI alone is not a very efficient diagnostic tool in distinguishing between hard and soft disc in the cervical disc disease.  (+info)

Spinal cord compression is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, which puts pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from it. This can occur due to various reasons such as degenerative changes in the spine, herniated discs, bone spurs, tumors, or fractures. The compression can lead to a range of symptoms including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of bladder and bowel control. In severe cases, it can cause paralysis. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

Spinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors found within the spinal column, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can originate in the spine itself, called primary spinal neoplasms, or they can spread to the spine from other parts of the body, known as secondary or metastatic spinal neoplasms. Spinal neoplasms can cause various symptoms, such as back pain, neurological deficits, and even paralysis, depending on their location and size. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent or minimize long-term complications and improve the patient's prognosis.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Spinal cord neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors within the spinal cord. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). They originate from the cells within the spinal cord itself (primary tumors), or they may spread to the spinal cord from other parts of the body (metastatic tumors). Spinal cord neoplasms can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including back pain, neurological deficits, and even paralysis. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

Spinal cord injuries (SCI) refer to damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function, such as mobility or feeling. This injury can be caused by direct trauma to the spine or by indirect damage resulting from disease or degeneration of surrounding bones, tissues, or blood vessels. The location and severity of the injury on the spinal cord will determine which parts of the body are affected and to what extent.

The effects of SCI can range from mild sensory changes to severe paralysis, including loss of motor function, autonomic dysfunction, and possible changes in sensation, strength, and reflexes below the level of injury. These injuries are typically classified as complete or incomplete, depending on whether there is any remaining function below the level of injury.

Immediate medical attention is crucial for spinal cord injuries to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery. Treatment usually involves immobilization of the spine, medications to reduce swelling and pressure, surgery to stabilize the spine, and rehabilitation to help regain lost function. Despite advances in treatment, SCI can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities.

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the lamina, which is the back part of the vertebra that covers the spinal canal. This procedure is often performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves caused by conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or tumors. By removing the lamina, the surgeon can access the affected area and alleviate the compression on the spinal cord or nerves, thereby reducing pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Laminectomy may be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other surgical techniques such as discectomy, foraminotomy, or spinal fusion. The specific approach and extent of the surgery will depend on the patient's individual condition and symptoms.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

Epidural neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the epidural space, which is the area between the dura mater (the outermost protective covering of the spinal cord) and the vertebral column. These tumors can be either primary, originating directly from the cells in the epidural space, or secondary, resulting from the spread (metastasis) of cancerous cells from other parts of the body.

Epidural neoplasms can cause various symptoms due to the compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. These symptoms may include localized back pain, radiating pain, sensory changes, motor weakness, and autonomic dysfunction. The diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, followed by a biopsy for histopathological examination to confirm the type and grade of the tumor. Treatment options depend on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and size of the tumor, and the type and extent of neurological deficits. Treatment may involve surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Spinal cord diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the spinal cord, which is a part of the central nervous system responsible for transmitting messages between the brain and the rest of the body. These diseases can cause damage to the spinal cord, leading to various symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, pain, bladder and bowel dysfunction, and difficulty with movement and coordination.

Spinal cord diseases can be congenital or acquired, and they can result from a variety of causes, including infections, injuries, tumors, degenerative conditions, autoimmune disorders, and genetic factors. Some examples of spinal cord diseases include multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, spinal cord injury, herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

The treatment for spinal cord diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, and rehabilitation. In some cases, the damage to the spinal cord may be irreversible, leading to permanent disability or paralysis.

Paraplegia is a medical condition characterized by partial or complete loss of motor function and sensation in the lower extremities, typically affecting both legs. This results from damage to the spinal cord, often due to trauma such as accidents, falls, or gunshot wounds, or from diseases like spina bifida, polio, or tumors. The specific area and extent of the injury on the spinal cord determine the severity and location of paralysis. Individuals with paraplegia may require assistive devices for mobility, such as wheelchairs, and may face various health challenges, including pressure sores, urinary tract infections, and chronic pain.

Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is defined as the production of blood cells outside of the bone marrow in adults. In normal physiological conditions, hematopoiesis occurs within the bone marrow cavities of flat bones such as the pelvis, ribs, skull, and vertebrae. However, certain disease states or conditions can cause EMH to occur in various organs such as the liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood.

EMH can be seen in several pathological conditions, including hematologic disorders such as myeloproliferative neoplasms (e.g., polycythemia vera, essential thrombocytopenia), myelodysplastic syndromes, and leukemias. It can also occur in response to bone marrow failure or infiltration by malignant cells, as well as in some non-hematologic disorders such as fibrocystic disease of the breast and congenital hemolytic anemias.

EMH may lead to organ enlargement, dysfunction, and clinical symptoms depending on the site and extent of involvement. Treatment of EMH is generally directed at managing the underlying condition causing it.

Spinal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the spinal column, which is made up of vertebrae (bones), intervertebral discs, facet joints, nerves, ligaments, and muscles. These diseases can cause pain, discomfort, stiffness, numbness, weakness, or even paralysis, depending on the severity and location of the condition. Here are some examples of spinal diseases:

1. Degenerative disc disease: This is a condition where the intervertebral discs lose their elasticity and height, leading to stiffness, pain, and decreased mobility.
2. Herniated disc: This occurs when the inner material of the intervertebral disc bulges or herniates out through a tear in the outer layer, causing pressure on the spinal nerves and resulting in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area.
3. Spinal stenosis: This is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramen (the openings where the spinal nerves exit the spinal column), which can cause pressure on the spinal cord or nerves and result in pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness.
4. Scoliosis: This is a curvature of the spine that can occur in children or adults, leading to an abnormal posture, back pain, and decreased lung function.
5. Osteoarthritis: This is a degenerative joint disease that affects the facet joints in the spine, causing pain, stiffness, and decreased mobility.
6. Ankylosing spondylitis: This is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints, leading to pain, stiffness, and fusion of the vertebrae.
7. Spinal tumors: These are abnormal growths that can occur in the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, causing pain, neurological symptoms, or even paralysis.
8. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections can affect the spine, leading to pain, fever, and other systemic symptoms.
9. Trauma: Fractures, dislocations, or sprains of the spine can occur due to accidents, falls, or sports injuries, causing pain, neurological deficits, or even paralysis.

Myelography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the spinal cord and surrounding structures, such as the spinal nerves, intervertebral discs, and the spinal column. This procedure involves the injection of a contrast dye into the subarachnoid space, which is the area surrounding the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The dye outlines the spinal structures, making them visible on X-ray or CT scan images.

The primary purpose of myelography is to diagnose various spinal conditions, including herniated discs, spinal stenosis, tumors, infection, and traumatic injuries. It can help identify any compression or irritation of the spinal cord or nerves that may be causing pain, numbness, weakness, or other neurological symptoms.

The procedure typically requires the patient to lie flat on their stomach or side while the radiologist inserts a thin needle into the subarachnoid space, usually at the lower lumbar level. Once the contrast dye is injected, the patient will be repositioned for various X-ray views or undergo a CT scan to capture detailed images of the spine. After the procedure, patients may experience headaches, nausea, or discomfort at the injection site, but these symptoms usually resolve within a few days.

Scheuermann's Disease, also known as Scheuermann's Kyphosis, is a medical condition that affects the spine. It is a developmental disorder of the vertebral bodies involving anterior wedging of at least three adjacent vertebrae, leading to a progressive rounded or hunchback-like curvature of the upper (thoracic) spine. This deformity can result in a rigid, angular kyphosis and may cause back pain, breathing difficulties, or cosmetic concerns. The exact cause of Scheuermann's Disease is unknown, but it tends to run in families and is more common in males than females. Treatment typically includes physical therapy, bracing, and, in severe cases, surgery.

The epidural space is the potential space located outside the dura mater, which is the outermost of the three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord (the meninges). This space runs the entire length of the spinal canal and contains fatty tissue, blood vessels, and nerve roots. It is often used as a route for administering anesthesia during childbirth or surgery, as well as for pain management in certain medical conditions. The injection of medications into this space is called an epidural block.

The spinal canal is the bony, protective channel within the vertebral column that contains and houses the spinal cord. It extends from the foramen magnum at the base of the skull to the sacrum, where the spinal cord ends and forms the cauda equina. The spinal canal is formed by a series of vertebral bodies stacked on top of each other, intervertebral discs in between them, and the laminae and spinous processes that form the posterior elements of the vertebrae. The spinal canal provides protection to the spinal cord from external trauma and contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that circulates around the cord, providing nutrients and cushioning. Any narrowing or compression of the spinal canal, known as spinal stenosis, can cause various neurological symptoms due to pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

An epidural spinal hematoma is a rare but potentially serious medical condition characterized by the accumulation of blood in the epidural space of the spinal canal. The epidural space is the outermost layer of the spinal canal and it contains fat, blood vessels, and nerve roots.

In an epidural spinal hematoma, blood collects in this space, often as a result of trauma or injury to the spine, or due to complications from medical procedures such as spinal taps or epidural anesthesia. The buildup of blood can put pressure on the spinal cord and nerves, leading to symptoms such as back pain, muscle weakness, numbness, or paralysis below the level of the hematoma.

Epidural spinal hematomas require immediate medical attention and may necessitate surgical intervention to relieve the pressure on the spinal cord and prevent further nerve damage. Risk factors for developing an epidural spinal hematoma include bleeding disorders, anticoagulant medication use, and spinal trauma or surgery.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Hyperostosis is a medical term that refers to an excessive growth or abnormal thickening of bone tissue. It can occur as a result of various conditions, such as inflammation, injury, or genetic disorders. The extra bone growth can cause pain, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. In some cases, hyperostosis can also lead to deformities and other complications.

There are several types of hyperostosis, including:

1. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH): This is a condition that affects the spine, causing calcification and stiffening of the ligaments and bone spurs to form along the edges of the vertebrae. It is often asymptomatic but can cause pain and stiffness in some cases.
2. Flat bone hyperostosis: This type of hyperostosis affects the flat bones of the body, such as the skull, ribs, and pelvis. It can be caused by various conditions, including Paget's disease, fibrous dysplasia, and certain types of cancer.
3. Focal hyperostosis: This refers to localized areas of bone overgrowth that can occur in response to injury, infection, or inflammation. Examples include heterotopic ossification (the formation of bone in soft tissues) and Freiberg's infarction (a condition that affects the joint surface of the metatarsal bones in the foot).
4. Hyperostosis frontalis interna: This is a benign condition that causes thickening of the inner table of the frontal bone in the skull. It is more common in women and often asymptomatic but can cause headaches and other symptoms in some cases.

Treatment for hyperostosis depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, no treatment may be necessary. However, if the condition causes pain or limits mobility, various treatments may be recommended, such as medication, physical therapy, or surgery.

Paraparesis is a medical term that refers to a mild to moderate form of paralysis affecting the lower limbs, specifically the legs. It is characterized by partial loss of strength and mobility, which may result in difficulty walking or maintaining balance. Paraparesis can be caused by various conditions such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, or other neurological disorders affecting the spinal cord.

The term "para" means "two," and "paresis" comes from the Greek word "paresis," which means "loosening" or "relaxation." Therefore, paraparesis implies weakness or partial paralysis in two lower extremities. It is important to note that while paraparesis can impact a person's ability to walk and perform daily activities, it does not necessarily lead to complete loss of movement or sensation in the affected limbs.

Proper diagnosis and management of the underlying cause are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing further progression of paraparesis. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications, assistive devices, or surgical interventions depending on the specific condition causing the paraparesis.

A rheumatic nodule is not a specific medical definition, but rather a descriptive term for a type of nodule that can be found in certain medical conditions. These nodules are typically associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), although they can also occur in other diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and dermatomyositis.

Rheumatic nodules are small, firm, round or oval-shaped lumps that develop under the skin or in certain organs such as the lungs. They can vary in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter. In RA, these nodules usually appear on the forearms, elbows, fingers, knees, and ankles, although they can occur in other areas of the body as well.

Histologically, rheumatic nodules are characterized by a central area of fibrinoid necrosis surrounded by palisading histiocytes and fibroblasts. They may also contain lymphocytes, plasma cells, and eosinophils. The presence of these nodules is thought to be related to the immune system's response to the underlying disease process, although their exact cause and significance are not fully understood.

It is important to note that rheumatic nodules can also occur in individuals without any known medical condition, and their presence does not necessarily indicate the presence of a specific disease. However, if you notice any new or unusual lumps or bumps on your body, it is always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional for further evaluation and diagnosis.

Osteochondroma is a benign (noncancerous) bone tumor that typically develops during childhood or adolescent growth years. It usually forms near the end of long bones, such as those in the arms and legs, but can also occur in other bones. An osteochondroma may have a cartilage cap covering its surface.

This type of tumor often grows slowly and typically stops growing once the person has stopped growing. In many cases, an osteochondroma doesn't cause any symptoms and doesn't require treatment. However, if it continues to grow or causes problems such as pain, restricted movement, or bone deformity, surgical removal may be necessary.

Most osteochondromas are solitary (occurring singly), but some people can develop multiple tumors, a condition known as multiple hereditary exostoses or diaphyseal aclasis. This genetic disorder is associated with a higher risk of developing sarcoma, a type of cancerous tumor that can arise from osteochondromas.

It's essential to have regular follow-ups with your healthcare provider if you have an osteochondroma to monitor its growth and any potential complications.

A balloon embolectomy is a medical procedure used to remove blood clots from blood vessels. It involves inserting a catheter into the affected blood vessel, which has a deflated balloon at its tip. The catheter is guided to the site of the clot, and then the balloon is inflated to trap and remove the clot when the catheter is pulled back. This procedure can help restore blood flow and prevent tissue damage in the affected area. It is often used as an emergency procedure in cases of acute pulmonary embolism or arterial occlusion.

The odontoid process, also known as the dens, is a tooth-like projection from the second cervical vertebra (axis). It fits into a ring formed by the first vertebra (atlas), allowing for movement between these two vertebrae. The odontoid process helps to support the head and facilitates movements such as nodding and shaking. It is an essential structure in maintaining stability and mobility of the upper spine.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

An epidural abscess is a localized collection of pus (abscess) in the epidural space, which is the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) and the vertebral column. The infection typically occurs as a result of bacterial invasion into this space and can cause compression of the spinal cord or nerves, leading to serious neurological deficits if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Epidural abscesses can occur in any part of the spine but are most commonly found in the lumbar region. They may develop as a complication of a nearby infection, such as a skin or soft tissue infection, or as a result of hematogenous spread (spread through the bloodstream) from a distant site of infection. Risk factors for developing an epidural abscess include diabetes, intravenous drug use, spinal surgery, and spinal instrumentation.

Symptoms of an epidural abscess may include back pain, fever, neck stiffness, weakness or numbness in the limbs, and bladder or bowel dysfunction. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans, along with laboratory tests to identify the causative organism. Treatment usually consists of surgical drainage of the abscess and administration of antibiotics to eliminate the infection. In some cases, corticosteroids may be used to reduce inflammation and prevent further neurological damage.

Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE) is a genetic condition characterized by the growth of multiple benign tumors known as osteochondromas. These tumors typically develop at the ends of long bones near the growth plates and can cause various skeletal deformities, limitations in mobility, and other health issues.

MHE is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the condition if one parent has it. However, some cases may result from spontaneous mutations. The condition typically becomes apparent during childhood or adolescence and can affect both sexes equally.

The primary diagnostic feature of MHE is the presence of multiple osteochondromas, which are made up of bone and cartilage. These growths can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, decreased mobility, and an increased risk of fractures. In some cases, they may also lead to complications such as nerve compression or vascular damage.

Treatment for MHE typically involves surgical removal of the osteochondromas, particularly if they are causing significant symptoms or complications. Regular monitoring is also important to detect any new growths and assess their potential impact on health. In addition, physical therapy and other supportive measures may be recommended to help manage symptoms and maintain mobility.

Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a medical condition characterized by paralysis affecting all four limbs and the trunk of the body. It results from damage to the cervical spinal cord, typically at levels C1-C8, which controls signals to the muscles in the arms, hands, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs. The extent of quadriplegia can vary widely, ranging from weakness to complete loss of movement and sensation below the level of injury. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The severity and prognosis depend on the location and extent of the spinal cord injury.

Diphosphonates are a class of medications that are used to treat bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease. They work by binding to the surface of bones and inhibiting the activity of bone-resorbing cells called osteoclasts. This helps to slow down the breakdown and loss of bone tissue, which can help to reduce the risk of fractures.

Diphosphonates are typically taken orally in the form of tablets, but some forms may be given by injection. Commonly prescribed diphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), risedronate (Actonel), and ibandronate (Boniva). Side effects of diphosphonates can include gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, heartburn, and abdominal pain. In rare cases, they may also cause esophageal ulcers or osteonecrosis of the jaw.

It is important to follow the instructions for taking diphosphonates carefully, as they must be taken on an empty stomach with a full glass of water and the patient must remain upright for at least 30 minutes after taking the medication to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation. Regular monitoring of bone density and kidney function is also recommended while taking these medications.

An Arachnoid cyst is a type of abnormal fluid-filled sac that develops between the brain or spinal cord and the arachnoid membrane, which is one of the three layers that cover and protect the central nervous system. These cysts are filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which is the same fluid that surrounds and cushions the brain and spinal cord.

Arachnoid cysts can vary in size and may be present at birth or develop later in life due to trauma, infection, or other factors. While many arachnoid cysts are asymptomatic and do not cause any problems, larger cysts or those that grow or shift over time can put pressure on the brain or spinal cord, leading to a range of neurological symptoms such as headaches, seizures, hearing or vision changes, balance or coordination difficulties, and cognitive impairments.

Treatment for arachnoid cysts depends on their size, location, and associated symptoms. In some cases, observation and monitoring may be sufficient, while in others, surgical intervention may be necessary to drain the cyst or create a connection between it and the surrounding CSF space to relieve pressure.

The arachnoid is one of the three membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord, known as the meninges. It is located between the dura mater (the outermost layer) and the pia mater (the innermost layer). The arachnoid is a thin, delicate membrane that is filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which provides protection and nutrition to the central nervous system.

The arachnoid has a spider-web like appearance, hence its name, and it is composed of several layers of collagen fibers and elastic tissue. It is highly vascularized, meaning that it contains many blood vessels, and it plays an important role in regulating the flow of cerebrospinal fluid around the brain and spinal cord.

In some cases, the arachnoid can become inflamed or irritated, leading to a condition called arachnoiditis. This can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, muscle weakness, and sensory changes, and it may require medical treatment to manage.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the spine, also known as Pott's disease, is a specific form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that involves the vertebral column. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which primarily affects the lungs but can spread through the bloodstream to other parts of the body, including the spine.

In Pott's disease, the infection leads to the destruction of the spongy bone (vertebral body) and the intervertebral disc space, resulting in vertebral collapse, kyphosis (hunchback deformity), and potential neurological complications due to spinal cord compression. Common symptoms include back pain, stiffness, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Early diagnosis and treatment with a multidrug antibiotic regimen are crucial to prevent long-term disability and further spread of the infection.

A hemangioma is a benign (noncancerous) vascular tumor or growth that originates from blood vessels. It is characterized by an overgrowth of endothelial cells, which line the interior surface of blood vessels. Hemangiomas can occur in various parts of the body, but they are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes.

Hemangiomas can be classified into two main types:

1. Capillary hemangioma (also known as strawberry hemangioma): This type is more common and typically appears during the first few weeks of life. It grows rapidly for several months before gradually involuting (or shrinking) on its own, usually within the first 5 years of life. Capillary hemangiomas can be superficial, appearing as a bright red, raised lesion on the skin, or deep, forming a bluish, compressible mass beneath the skin.

2. Cavernous hemangioma: This type is less common and typically appears during infancy or early childhood. It consists of large, dilated blood vessels and can occur in various organs, including the skin, liver, brain, and gastrointestinal tract. Cavernous hemangiomas on the skin appear as a rubbery, bluish mass that does not typically involute like capillary hemangiomas.

Most hemangiomas do not require treatment, especially if they are small and not causing any significant problems. However, in cases where hemangiomas interfere with vital functions, impair vision or hearing, or become infected, various treatments may be considered, such as medication (e.g., corticosteroids, propranolol), laser therapy, surgical excision, or embolization.

Data compression, in the context of medical informatics, refers to the process of encoding data to reduce its size while maintaining its integrity and accuracy. This technique is commonly used in transmitting and storing large datasets, such as medical images or genetic sequences, where smaller file sizes can significantly improve efficiency and speed up processing times.

There are two main types of data compression: lossless and lossy. Lossless compression ensures that the original data can be reconstructed exactly from the compressed data, making it essential for applications where data accuracy is critical, such as medical imaging or electronic health records. On the other hand, lossy compression involves discarding some redundant or less important data to achieve higher compression rates, but at the cost of reduced data quality.

In summary, data compression in a medical context refers to the process of reducing the size of digital data while maintaining its accuracy and integrity, which can improve efficiency in data transmission and storage.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

Spontaneous fractures are bone breaks that occur without any identifiable trauma or injury. They are typically caused by underlying medical conditions that weaken the bones, making them more susceptible to breaking under normal stress or weight. The most common cause of spontaneous fractures is osteoporosis, a condition characterized by weak and brittle bones. Other potential causes include various bone diseases, certain cancers, long-term use of corticosteroids, and genetic disorders affecting bone strength.

It's important to note that while the term "spontaneous" implies that the fracture occurred without any apparent cause, it is usually the result of an underlying medical condition. Therefore, if you experience a spontaneous fracture, seeking medical attention is crucial to diagnose and manage the underlying cause to prevent future fractures and related complications.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

A spinal fracture, also known as a vertebral compression fracture, is a break in one or more bones (vertebrae) of the spine. This type of fracture often occurs due to weakened bones caused by osteoporosis, but it can also result from trauma such as a car accident or a fall.

In a spinal fracture, the front part of the vertebra collapses, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease, while the back part of the vertebra remains intact. This results in a wedge-shaped deformity of the vertebra. Multiple fractures can lead to a hunched forward posture known as kyphosis or dowager's hump.

Spinal fractures can cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms, depending on the location and severity of the fracture. In some cases, spinal cord compression may occur, leading to more severe symptoms such as paralysis or loss of bladder and bowel control.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Spinal cord ischemia refers to a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the spinal cord, leading to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply. This condition can cause damage to the spinal cord tissue, potentially resulting in neurological deficits, such as muscle weakness, sensory loss, or autonomic dysfunction. Spinal cord ischemia may be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, embolism, spinal artery stenosis, or complications during surgery. The severity and extent of the neurological impairment depend on the duration and location of the ischemic event in the spinal cord.

The umbilical cord is a flexible, tube-like structure that connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy. It arises from the abdomen of the fetus and transports essential nutrients, oxygen, and blood from the mother's circulation to the growing baby. Additionally, it carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetus back to the placenta for elimination. The umbilical cord is primarily composed of two arteries (the umbilical arteries) and one vein (the umbilical vein), surrounded by a protective gelatinous substance called Wharton's jelly, and enclosed within a fibrous outer covering known as the umbilical cord coating. Following birth, the umbilical cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind the stump that eventually dries up and falls off, resulting in the baby's belly button.

Spinal osteophytosis, also known as spinal osteophyte formation or bone spurs on the spine, refers to the abnormal growth of bony projections along the vertebral column's margins. These bony outgrowths develop due to degenerative changes, inflammation, or injury in the joints between the vertebrae (facet joints) and can cause stiffness, pain, and reduced mobility. In some cases, spinal osteophytosis may lead to complications such as spinal stenosis or nerve compression.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Compression stockings are a specialized type of hosiery that applies pressure to your legs, promoting better blood flow. They are tightest at the ankle and gradually become less constrictive up the leg. This gradient compression helps to counteract the force of gravity and promote venous return, reducing the pooling of blood in the lower extremities.

Compression stockings are often used to help prevent or treat various conditions related to poor circulation, including:

1. Varicose veins: Enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins that are easily visible just under the surface of the skin.
2. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs. Compression stockings can help reduce the risk of DVT after certain surgeries or during long periods of immobilization.
3. Edema: Swelling in the legs and ankles due to fluid buildup.
4. Chronic venous insufficiency: A condition where the veins have difficulty returning blood from the legs back to the heart, leading to symptoms like leg pain, swelling, and skin changes.
5. Post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS): A long-term complication of DVT characterized by chronic leg pain, swelling, and skin ulcers. Compression stockings can help manage symptoms and prevent further complications.

There are different levels of compression available, ranging from mild (15-20 mmHg) to extra firm (50-60 mmHg). Your healthcare provider will recommend the appropriate level based on your specific condition and needs. It is essential to wear compression stockings correctly for them to be effective and avoid skin irritation or other complications.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Cancer care facilities are healthcare institutions that provide medical and supportive services to patients diagnosed with cancer. These facilities offer a range of treatments, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and hormone therapy. They also provide diagnostic services, pain management, rehabilitation, palliative care, and psychosocial support to help patients cope with the physical and emotional challenges of cancer and its treatment.

Cancer care facilities can vary in size and scope, from large academic medical centers that offer cutting-edge clinical trials and specialized treatments, to community hospitals and outpatient clinics that provide more routine cancer care. Some cancer care facilities specialize in specific types of cancer or treatments, while others offer a comprehensive range of services for all types of cancer.

In addition to medical treatment, cancer care facilities may also provide complementary therapies such as acupuncture, massage, and yoga to help patients manage symptoms and improve their quality of life during and after treatment. They may also offer support groups, counseling, and other resources to help patients and their families cope with the challenges of cancer.

Overall, cancer care facilities play a critical role in diagnosing, treating, and supporting patients with cancer, helping them to achieve the best possible outcomes and quality of life.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

A compression fracture is a type of bone fracture that occurs when there is a collapse of a vertebra in the spine. This type of fracture is most commonly seen in the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spine. Compression fractures are often caused by weakened bones due to osteoporosis, but they can also result from trauma or tumors that weaken the bone.

In a compression fracture, the front part (anterior) of the vertebra collapses, while the back part (posterior) remains intact, causing the height of the vertebra to decrease. This can lead to pain, deformity, and decreased mobility. In severe cases, multiple compression fractures can result in a condition called kyphosis, which is an abnormal curvature of the spine that leads to a hunchback appearance.

Compression fractures are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment may include pain medication, bracing, physical therapy, or in some cases, surgery. Preventive measures such as maintaining a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and taking medications to prevent or treat osteoporosis can help reduce the risk of compression fractures.

An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous structure found between the vertebrae of the spinal column in humans and other animals. It functions as a shock absorber, distributes mechanical stress during weight-bearing activities, and allows for varying degrees of mobility between adjacent vertebrae.

The disc is composed of two parts: the annulus fibrosus, which forms the tough, outer layer; and the nucleus pulposus, which is a gel-like substance in the center that contains proteoglycans and water. The combination of these components provides the disc with its unique ability to distribute forces and allow for movement.

The intervertebral discs are essential for the normal functioning of the spine, providing stability, flexibility, and protection to the spinal cord and nerves. However, they can also be subject to degeneration and injury, which may result in conditions such as herniated discs or degenerative disc disease.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal or the neural foramina (the openings through which nerves exit the spinal column), typically in the lower back (lumbar) or neck (cervical) regions. This can put pressure on the spinal cord and/or nerve roots, causing pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected areas, often in the legs, arms, or hands. It's most commonly caused by age-related wear and tear, but can also be due to degenerative changes, herniated discs, tumors, or spinal injuries.

Osteochondromatosis is a benign (non-cancerous) condition where bone and cartilage grow outside the ends of bones, forming growths known as osteochondromas. These growths typically occur in areas where bones are growing actively, such as near the joints.

Osteochondromatosis can be hereditary or may develop sporadically. The hereditary form is called hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) or multiple osteochondromas, and it affects several bones in the body. In contrast, the sporadic form typically affects only one bone or a small number of bones.

Osteochondromatosis can cause various symptoms depending on the location and size of the growths. Some people with this condition may not experience any symptoms at all. However, if the osteochondromas grow near joints, they can cause pain, stiffness, or limited mobility. In some cases, the growths may also compress nerves or blood vessels, leading to additional complications such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limbs.

It is important to note that while osteochondromatosis itself is not cancerous, there is a small risk that the osteochondromas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into chondrosarcoma, a type of bone cancer. Regular follow-up with an orthopedic specialist is recommended to monitor any changes in the growths over time.

The Cervical Atlas, also known as C1 or the atlas vertebra, is the uppermost and most superior of the seven cervical vertebrae in the human spine. It plays a crucial role in supporting and facilitating the movement of the head, as it articulates with both the occipital bone (forming the joint called the atlanto-occipital joint) and the axis (or C2) vertebra (forming the atlantoaxial joint). The unique structure of the cervical atlas lacks a body, instead having an anterior and posterior arch with two lateral masses that form the facet joints for articulation with the axis. This arrangement allows for a wide range of motion in the neck, including flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation.

The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands of tissue located in the spine. They connect the laminae, which are parts of the vertebral arch, from one vertebra to the next in the spine. These ligaments help maintain the stability and alignment of the vertebral column, allowing for a limited range of movement while preventing excessive motion that could cause injury. The elasticity of the ligamentum flavum also facilitates the return of the spinal column to its normal position after flexion.

These ligaments are named "flavum" because they have a yellowish color due to their high elastin content. They play an essential role in protecting the spinal cord and nerve roots from damage during movements of the spine. Any degeneration, thickening, or calcification of the ligamentum flavum may lead to conditions such as spinal stenosis, which can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

Palliative care is a type of medical care that focuses on relieving the pain, symptoms, and stress of serious illnesses. The goal is to improve quality of life for both the patient and their family. It is provided by a team of doctors, nurses, and other specialists who work together to address the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of the patient. Palliative care can be provided at any stage of an illness, alongside curative treatments, and is not dependent on prognosis.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines palliative care as: "an approach that improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychological and spiritual."

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

"Spinal Cord Compression - Neurologic Disorders". "Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM) - Spinal Cord Compression - OrthoInfo ... Spinal cord compression is a form of myelopathy in which the spinal cord is compressed. Causes can be bone fragments from a ... Regardless of the pace, spinal cord compression will predictably progress over time. The most common causes of cord compression ... Typically, the symptoms of spinal cord compression develop slowly and progress steadily over several years. In some patients, ...
The following year he received a grant from the United States Public Health Service to study spinal cord compression. He ... Tarlov, I.M. (1957). Spinal Cord Compression; Mechanism of Paralysis and Treatment. Springfield, Ill.: C.C. Thomas. Tarlov, I.M ... Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine. 32 (2): 191-197. doi:10.1080/10790268.2009.11760771. PMC 2678291. PMID 19569467.{{cite journal ... He was the first doctor to provide a methodical description of perineurial cysts of the spinal region, which are now known as ...
Rubin, Michael (October 2014). "Compression of the Spinal Cord". Merck Manual. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Retrieved 25 November ... in the legs or loss of bowel or bladder control in the presence of thoracic spine pain can indicate spinal cord compression and ... a spontaneous vertebral compression fracture is possible. Other, less common causes of thoracic back pain include a spinal disc ... side bending and with prolonged bent spinal postures. A compression fracture of the vertebra can also cause acute and/or ...
A surgical treatment of nerve root or spinal cord compression by decompressing the spinal cord and nerve roots of the cervical ... Spinal cord compression "Spinal Stenosis". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. 11 April 2017 ... Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or ... Such severe spinal stenosis symptoms are virtually absent in lumbar stenosis, however, as the spinal cord terminates at the top ...
"Cord compression". "What is metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC)". Prostate Cancer UK. June 2022. Retrieved 25 June 2023. ... as well as surgery and radiotherapy to shrink spinal tumors and relieve pressure on the spinal cord. Those with advanced ... Growing metastases can also compress the spinal cord causing weakness in the legs and feet, or limb paralysis. Prostate cancer ... Metastases can also compress the spinal cord in up to 12% of those with metastatic prostate cancer causing pain, weakness, ...
Others though can cause compression of the spinal cord. Wedge-shaped vertebrae, called hemivertebrae can cause an angle to form ... Severe cases can cause spinal cord compression. Block vertebrae where some vertebrae have become fused can cause problems. ... Vertebrae contain a vertebral foramen for the passage of the spinal canal and its enclosed spinal cord and covering meninges. ... central opening that accommodates the spinal canal, which encloses and protects the spinal cord. Vertebrae articulate with each ...
Gelfan, Samuel; Tarlov, I. M. (1956). "Physiology of Spinal Cord, Nerve Root and Peripheral Nerve Compression". American ... At NYMC he did research on spinal cord physiology with grants from the National Institutes of Health. Gelfan was the author or ... Gelfan, Samuel (1963). "Neurone and Synapse Populations in the Spinal Cord: Indication of Role in Total Integration". Nature. ... Gelfan, S. (1964). "Neuronal Interdependence". Organization of the Spinal Cord. Progress in Brain Research. Vol. 11. pp. 238- ...
... ultimately causing compression of the spinal cord. When due to trauma, myelopathy is known as (acute) spinal cord injury. When ... In Asian populations, spinal cord compression often occurs due to a different, inflammatory process affecting the posterior ... April-June 2009). "Localisation of cervical spinal cord compression by TMS and MRI". Funct Neurol. 24 (2): 99-105. PMID ... The best way to visualize the spinal cord is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Apart from T1 and T2 MRI images, which are ...
This can in turn lead to spinal cord compression causing paraplegia. In addition to tuberculosis, other possible causes of ... Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Somvanshi, Dilip Singh (2011-09-01). "Spinal tuberculosis: A review". The Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine ... Gibbus deformity most often develops in young children as a result of spinal tuberculosis and is the result of collapse of ... Gibbus deformity is included in a subset of structural kyphosis that is distinguished by a higher-degree angle in the spinal ...
... three rapid evaluation field studies 2008 Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in ... "Interventions for the treatment of metastatic extradural spinal cord compression in adults". The Cochrane Database of ...
Neurological damage is also often seen including spinal cord compression and deafness. Even among survivors of the prenatal ...
Bone metastases can cause pain, bone fractures, and compression of the spinal cord. Metastasis into the bone marrow can deplete ...
... s can cause pain, increased risk of bone fracture, and spinal cord compression. These lesions can be treated ...
Castel E, Lazennec JY, Chiras J, Enkaoua E, Saillant G (1999). "Acute spinal cord compression due to intraspinal bleeding from ... hemangiomas can produce neurologic deficits without prominent evidence of spinal cord compression. The deficits in these cases ... When symptomatic, they can cause pain and myelopathy by intra-spinal bleeding, bony expansion or extra-osseous extension into ... Cloran FJ, Pukenas BA, Loevner LA, Aquino C, Schuster J, Mohan S (2015). "Aggressive spinal haemangiomas: imaging correlates to ...
Instability of the vertebrae of the neck (usually the caudal neck) causes spinal cord compression. In younger dogs such as ... One method is the use of titanium baskets, placed to fuse the vertebrae, thereby preventing compression of the spinal cord. ... spinal cord compression (sometimes referred to colloquially among horse owners as "cervical arthritis" due to the arthritis ... or surgical to correct the spinal cord compression. The prognosis is guarded in either case. Surgery may fully correct the ...
Occasionally, surgery is necessary to control symptoms, such as spinal cord compression or bowel obstruction. This is referred ...
It is caused by degeneration and protrusion of the disk and compression of the spinal cord. It occurs most commonly in the ... Most are not clinically significant, but they can cause compression of the spinal cord by deforming the vertebral canal or ... Syringomyelia* is a condition where a fluid filled sac develops in the spinal cord. The most important cause in dogs is by a ... They are very common and can be caused by genetics or by traction on the umbilical cord or by the cord being cut too close to ...
Akalan, N; Ozgen, T (2000). "Infection as a cause of spinal cord compression: a review of 36 spinal epidural abscess cases". ... Due to its location adjacent to brain or spinal cord, epidural abscesses have the potential to cause weakness, pain, and ... and removing pressure from the spinal cord and nerve roots. Antibiotic therapy should start after obtaining pus for ... A spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a collection of pus or inflammatory granulation between the dura mater and the vertebral ...
Spinal cord compression is commonly found in patients with metastatic malignancy. Back pain is a primary symptom of spinal cord ... Most symptoms from spinal tumors occur due to compression of the spinal cord as it plays a primary role in motor and sensory ... Spinal tumors are neoplasms located in either the vertebral column or the spinal cord. There are three main types of spinal ... Spinal cord tumors are classified based on their location within the spinal cord: intradural (intradmedullary and ...
A tumor near the spinal cord may cause spinal deformity or spinal compression, leading to pain and loss of muscle control or ... Compression of the spinal cord may result in paralysis, especially if the cause is not detected promptly. Jedynak A. Naul GL ( ... If the tumor has been present for a long time and has pressed on the spinal cord or caused other symptoms, it may have caused ... and trachea compression. If the tumor is located lower in the abdomen, it may cause abdominal pain and bloating. ...
The cause of her death was a broken neck with compression and hemorrhage of the spinal cord. The victim had not been raped and ... The victim had been bound at the ankles and wrists, raped and slowly strangled with a cord for an estimated thirty minutes. ...
Spinal cord compression. Spinal-cord compression is an oncological emergency, as untreated spinal cord compression may cause ... In breast cancer, spinal-cord compression occurs when a bone metastasis or spinal metastasis begins to push on the spinal cord ... spinal cord injury. Radiotherapy is an important component of therapy for cord compression secondary to metastatic breast ...
In advanced stages of prostate cancer, radiation is used to treat painful bone metastases or reduce spinal cord compression. ... with a needle through the skin of the perineum directly into the tumor while under spinal or general anesthetic. These seeds ...
... location and extent of spinal cord compression. Incidence of CSM increases with age, where spinal cord compression is bound to ... It more effectively displays spinal compression than X-rays Computed Tomography (CT) scans - locate the site of spinal cord and ... This gives rise to CSM via vertebral compression fractures promoting further compression of the spinal cord and nerve roots. ... "Spinal cord tumor - Symptoms and causes". Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 2023-03-28. "Diagnostic Tests for Spinal Cord Injury". ...
... pathological fractures and spinal cord compression. Some findings also suggest that some cancer cells, particularly prostate ... a delay response in both pathological fractures and spinal cord compression. However, survival rates for both clinical groups ... patients who received denosumab had a decrease in pathological fractures and spinal cord compression; however, as time ...
In the cervical and thoracic spine it is used to treat myelopathy caused by compression of the spinal cord itself. Traction is ... Spinal decompression is the relief of pressure on the spinal cord or on one or more compressed nerve roots passing through or ... Decompression of the spinal neural elements is a key component in treating spinal radiculopathy, myelopathy and claudication. ... In the lumbar spine it is commonly used to treat spinal claudication caused by spinal stenosis, and is considered the most ...
Jack sustained a fracture-dislocation of several vertebrae and spinal cord compression, which resulted in paralysis from the ... He had spinal surgery at North Tees Hospital and spent three months' rehab at James Cook University Hospital spinal unit. Just ...
... or spinal cord tumors can cause compression of the spinal cord with similar signs to degenerative myelopathy. Degenerative ... Known causes of spinal cord dysfunction should be excluded before accepting the diagnosis of degenerative myelopathy; disc ... Myelin is an insulating sheath around neurons in the spinal cord. One proposed cause of degenerative myelopathy is that the ... 2014). "Neuronal Loss and Decreased GLT-1 Expression Observed in the Spinal Cord of Pembroke Welsh Corgi Dogs With Canine ...
... of a cervical collar is increasingly encouraged as therapeutic for arresting further compression of the cervical spinal cord. ... Studies consistently note a loss of normal neck curvature (the cervical lordosis) and compression of the cervical chord by the ... It is most commonly believed the condition occurs by asymmetrical compression of the cervical spinal column by the cervical ... Hirayama, K.; Tokumaru, Y. (23 May 2000). "Cervical dural sac and spinal cord in juvenile muscular atrophy of distal upper ...
... and reduced spinal cord compression stress. Ki-Yeon, Chang; Seung Chul, Chon (April 2012). "The Effect of Abdominal-Compression ... A compression belt is a type of spinal brace worn around the waist and lower back that compresses the abdomen, centers the ... "Effects of the abdominal belt on muscle-generated spinal stability and L4/L5 joint compression force". Ergonomics. 45 (7): 501- ...
"Spinal Cord Compression - Neurologic Disorders". "Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM) - Spinal Cord Compression - OrthoInfo ... Spinal cord compression is a form of myelopathy in which the spinal cord is compressed. Causes can be bone fragments from a ... Regardless of the pace, spinal cord compression will predictably progress over time. The most common causes of cord compression ... Typically, the symptoms of spinal cord compression develop slowly and progress steadily over several years. In some patients, ...
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
Kaya RA, Cavuşoğlu H, Tanik C et al (2007) Spinal cord compression caused by a brown tumor at the cervicothoracic junction. ... et al. Uremic tumoral calcinosis causing atlantoaxial subluxation and spinal cord compression in a patient on continuous ... Uremic tumoral calcinosis causing atlantoaxial subluxation and spinal cord compression in a patient on continuous ambulatory ... dialysis who developed UTC in the peri-odontoid region with consequent atlantoaxial subluxation and spinal cord compression, ...
The most frequently used experimental animals in spinal cord injury (SCI) studies are mice and rats. Recent data demonstrate ... Experimental Model of Spinal Cord Compression Injury in Minipigs: A Behavioural and MRI Study. ... Results: On the 2nd day following 0,8 kg spinal cord compression injury the experimental animals demonstrated an incomplete ... The exposed L1 spinal cord segment was compressed by a computer operated 5mm thick circular rod with a peak force 0,8 kg at a ...
Surgery better than radiation & steroids for metastatic spinal cord compression Lancet has published a randomized controlled ... Patients with very radiosensitive tumours, multiple areas of spinal cord compression, or total paraplegia for longer than 48 h ... steroids alone in patients with spinal cord compression from metastatic CA. 50 patients were randomized to each arm and the ...
Spinal Cord Compression - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... occlude the spinal cords blood supply, causing spinal cord infarction Spinal Cord Infarction Spinal cord infarction usually ... Symptoms and Signs of Spinal Cord Compression Acute or advanced spinal cord compression causes segmental deficits, paraparesis ... See also Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders Spinal cord disorders can cause permanent severe ...
... enhancing mass within the left epaxial muscles that invaded the L5-6 vertebral canal and caused spinal cord compression. ... Imaging Diagnosis-Infiltrative Lipoma Causing Spinal Cord And Lumbar Nerve Root Compression In A Dog. ... enhancing mass within the left epaxial muscles that invaded the L5-6 vertebral canal and caused spinal cord compression. ...
... can occur anywhere along your spine. Symptoms include numbness, pain, and weakness. ...
Using the latest methods and treatments for spinal cord compression, the expert team of spine care specialists at AdventHealth ... provides a comprehensive approach to the education, management, and treatment of compression of the spine. ... Spinal cord compression and spinal compression fractures occur when something puts pressure on the spinal cord, from normal ... Identifying the Signs of Spinal Cord Compression You may not always be aware of your spinal cord, but its constantly working ...
183 - Surgical decompression of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) in lung cancer: the Manchester experience. / Beckett, ... 183 - Surgical decompression of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) in lung cancer: the Manchester experience. Abstract ... title = "183 - Surgical decompression of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) in lung cancer: the Manchester experience", ... 183 - Surgical decompression of malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) in lung cancer: the Manchester experience. ...
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Wang S, & Dea T.O. Wang, Sunny, and Tiffany O. Dea. "Cancer-Related Spinal Cord Compression." Current Medical Diagnosis & ... Wang S, & Dea T.O. Wang, Sunny, and Tiffany O. Dea.Cancer-Related Spinal Cord Compression. In: Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, Rabow ... Wang S, & Dea T.O. Wang, Sunny, and Tiffany O. Dea. (2023). Cancer-related spinal cord compression. Papadakis MA, McPhee SJ, ... Cancers that cause spinal cord compression most commonly metastasize to the vertebral bodies, resulting in physical damage to ...
... of cases of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. If untreated, metastatic epidural compression progresses, causing ... MALIGNANT SPINAL CORD COMPRESSION, EARLY CLINICAL OUTCOME. Journal: International Journal of Advanced Research (Vol.7, No. 5). ... Introduction: Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is usually an oncological emergency and a well-recognized complication ... Breast cancer was the most incident (27%) to cause spinal cord compression. Dorsal vertebra was the most common site affected ( ...
Spinal Cord Compression treatment in Singapore prevents paralysis by releasing the pressure off the spinal cord. Never leave it ... Whatever the cause is, the treatment of spinal cord compression is surgery to free up the spinal cord. Spinal cord compression ... People with spinal cord compression do not necessarily complain of neck pain or back pain. Spinal cord compression can occur in ... Spinal cord is a big nerve that connection the brain with the arms and legs. External compression to the spinal cord can ...
Spinal cord injury and compression are therefore important to understand well. ... Acute spinal cord compression is a neurosurgical emergency. ... Causes of spinal cord compression. * Spinal cord compression ... Spinal Cord Compression. Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. In this article. * Causes of spinal cord compression ... Acute spinal cord compression is a neurosurgical emergency. Rapid diagnosis and management of spinal cord compression are ...
... you could be suffering from spinal cord compression. ... How Spinal Cord Compression Limits Every Aspect of Your Life ... Treating Spinal Cord Compression As you seek treatment for spinal cord compression, you may see a variety of specialists. This ... Even with insurance, the costs associated with treating spinal cord compression and other spinal injuries can be steep. Between ... This compression puts pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord. If you did not receive medical treatment at the scene or in ...
Spinal Cord Compression from a Mass - Recognizing. You do not have access to this note. ...
Spinal metastases and metastatic spinal cord compression: summary of updated NICE guidance ...
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Spinal Cord Compression Due to Tophaceous Vertebral Gout: A Case Report ... July 21, 2022) Spinal Cord Compression Due to Tophaceous Vertebral Gout: A Case Report. Cureus 14(7): e27101. doi:10.7759/ ... Spinal Cord Compression Due to Tophaceous Vertebral Gout: A Case Report. By Admin , August 01, 2022 ... For more info please read, Spinal Cord Compression Due to Tophaceous Vertebral Gout: A Case Report, by Cureus ...
Compression fractures of the back are broken vertebrae. Vertebrae are the bones of the spine. ... These fractures often do not cause injury to the spinal cord. The condition is usually treated with medicines and calcium ... Compression fractures can occur suddenly. This can cause severe back pain. *The pain is most commonly felt in the middle or ... Compression fractures due to osteoporosis may cause no symptoms at first. Often, they are discovered when x-rays of the spine ...
Spinal cord stimulation may be considered on a case-by-case basis for refractory pain that is related to cancer treatment, such ... Vertebral augmentation should be strongly considered for patients with symptomatic vertebral compression fractures from spinal ... for treatment of severe back pain from spinal tumors and has proved safe and effective as palliative therapy for painful spinal ...
Precision Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Final Results of the PRE-MODE Trial. / Rades, Dirk; ... Precision Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Final Results of the PRE-MODE Trial. In: International ... Precision Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Final Results of the PRE-MODE Trial. International Journal ... Dive into the research topics of Precision Radiation Therapy for Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression: Final Results of the PRE- ...
Transverse myelitis Definition Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of the full width of the spinal cord [1] that disrupts ... Spinal cord compression. -A condition resulting from pressure being applied on the spinal cord, as from a tumor or spinal ... Myelogram- An x-ray examination of the brain and spinal cord with the aid of a contrast dye, to look for tumors or spinal cord ... also evidence suggesting that TM occurs as a result of spinal cord compression by tumors or as a result of direct spinal cord ...
spinal cord compression *severe back pain. *muscle weakness or numbness in your legs ...
keywords = "Metastatic spinal cord compression, Non-small cell lung cancer, Radiotherapy",. author = "Dirk Rades and Stalpers ... Defining the appropriate radiotherapy regimen for metastatic spinal cord compression in non-small cell lung cancer patients. ... Defining the appropriate radiotherapy regimen for metastatic spinal cord compression in non-small cell lung cancer patients. / ... Defining the appropriate radiotherapy regimen for metastatic spinal cord compression in non-small cell lung cancer patients. In ...
4. Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC). Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a complication of cancer that often ... is the bundle of spinal nerves at the end of the spinal cord. CES occurs due to spinal nerve compression which also disturbs ... It happens when the cancer cells spread in or near the spine and press onto the spinal cord. One of its symptoms is severe back ... If the nerves and/or the spinal cord are involved in the fracture, the person may also experience bladder or bowel dysfunction ...
4. Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC). Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a complication of cancer that often ... is the bundle of spinal nerves at the end of the spinal cord. CES occurs due to spinal nerve compression which also disturbs ... It happens when the cancer cells spread in or near the spine and press onto the spinal cord. One of its symptoms is severe back ... If the nerves and/or the spinal cord are involved in the fracture, the person may also experience bladder or bowel dysfunction ...
4. Metastatic Spinal Cord Compression (MSCC). Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a complication of cancer that often ... is the bundle of spinal nerves at the end of the spinal cord. CES occurs due to spinal nerve compression which also disturbs ... It happens when the cancer cells spread in or near the spine and press onto the spinal cord. One of its symptoms is severe back ... If the nerves and/or the spinal cord are involved in the fracture, the person may also experience bladder or bowel dysfunction ...
Patients diagnosed with impending paralysis due to spinal cord compression or patients with pathologic fractures should be ... Also consider consultations with a neurosurgeon for spinal cord compression, an orthopedic surgeon for pathologic fractures, ... An indication for immediate bilateral orchiectomy is spinal cord compression. Surgical intervention is mandatory for pathologic ... and were less likely to require external beam radiation therapy for bone pain and spinal cord compression. [35] ...
  • Acute compression may follow subacute and chronic compression, especially if the cause is abscess or tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaya RA, Cavuşoğlu H, Tanik C et al (2007) Spinal cord compression caused by a brown tumor at the cervicothoracic junction. (springer.com)
  • Spinal cord compression and spinal compression fractures occur when something puts pressure on the spinal cord, from normal wear-and-tear caused by osteoarthritis to a tumor, scoliosis, or spinal injury. (adventhealth.com)
  • He has a special interest in nerve compression and spine problems such as back & neck pain, scoliosis, kyphosis, spine tumor & infection, spinal cord injury, osteoporosis fracture, spinal stenosis and slipped disc. (spring-hope.com)
  • For compression fractures caused by tumors, the outcome depends on the type of tumor involved. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The presence of a spinal cord tumor or another condition that is exerting pressure on the spinal cord, vitamin B12 deficiency, or a history of radiation therapy to or cyclophosphamide injection into the spinal cord excludes the possibility of a diagnosis of transverse myelitis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When a space occupying lesion (something that doesn't belong in a space, i.e. splinter, bullet or tumor) or in the form of a herniated disc (by definition always from trauma), goes beyond the borders of the disc/vertebrate into the spinal canal, it can touch and/or push the spinal cord. (chiropractormaitland.com)
  • Lumbar Spinal Stenosis Lumbar spinal stenosis is narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal causing compression of the nerve rootlets and nerve roots in the cauda equina before their exit from the foramina. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of one or more bony openings (foramina) in the vertebrae of the spine. (spine-health.com)
  • When spinal stenosis occurs in the spinal canal, it is called central canal stenosis and may cause compression of the spinal cord. (spine-health.com)
  • 1 Meyer F, Börm W, Thomé C. Degenerative cervical spinal stenosis: current strategies in diagnosis and treatment. (spine-health.com)
  • Spinal stenosis. (spine-health.com)
  • Typically, stenosis is seen in up to 80% of people above 60 years of age, with an estimated 5% having coexisting cervical and lumbar stenosis (also called tandem spinal stenosis). (spine-health.com)
  • 2014. doi:10.1016/c2009-0-42800-9 Spine surgery in people over 65 years is most commonly performed for treating spinal stenosis. (spine-health.com)
  • Spinal cord compression is a form of myelopathy in which the spinal cord is compressed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute myelopathy in patients with cancer can also be caused by irradiation, paraneoplastic necrotising myelitis, ruptured intervertebral disc and meningeal carcinomatosis with spinal cord involvement. (patient.info)
  • Predictors of symptomatic myelopathy in degenerative cervical spinal cord compression. (spine-health.com)
  • Myelopathy caused by metastatic spinal epidural neoplasms. (nih.gov)
  • Distribution of diseases included equine cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy (n=224), fracture/subluxation (n=123), abnormal spinal curvature (n=51), osteomyelitis (n=13), intervertebral disc disease (n=7), congenital vertebral anomaly (n=5), and neoplasia (n=3). (thehorse.com)
  • Myelopathy is a clinical diagnosis with localization of the neurological findings to the spinal cord, rather than the brain or the peripheral nervous system, and then to a particular segment of the spinal cord. (bvsalud.org)
  • Myelopathy can be the result of primary intrinsic disorders of the spinal cord or from secondary conditions, which result in extrinsic compression of the spinal cord. (bvsalud.org)
  • We also review other reported unusual cases of UTC involving the cervical spine and discuss the differential diagnosis of destructive spinal lesions in uremic patients, such as UTC, dialysis-related amyloidosis, and brown tumors. (springer.com)
  • Immediate care Trauma to the spine may cause injuries involving the spinal cord, vertebrae, or both. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our compassionate spine care specialists create personalized plans for every aspect of spinal cord compression recovery. (adventhealth.com)
  • Understanding the signs of compression of the spine can help you stay proactive about your spinal cord care and help us start a treatment plan. (adventhealth.com)
  • It happens when the cancer cells spread in or near the spine and press onto the spinal cord. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • Arrested bone growth at the base of the skull and the spine can cause the spinal cord and brain stem to become compressed. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • These five types of malignancy, in addition to sarcomas and renal cancers account for about 70% of cases of metastatic epidural spinal cord compression. (researchbib.com)
  • Patients with metastatic epidural spinal cord compression can be treated with direct decompressive surgery alongside post-operative radiotherapy. (indiatimes.com)
  • Emergency radiation therapy (usually 20 grays in 5 fractions, 30 grays in 10 fractions or 8 grays in 1 fraction) is the mainstay of treatment for malignant spinal cord compression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The median survival of patients with metastatic spinal cord compression is about 12 weeks, reflecting the generally advanced nature of the underlying malignant disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Material and Methods: Prospective descriptive cross sectional study to assess prognostic factors and clinical outcome of malignant spinal compression among patients attending Suez Canal university hospital in period from 2016 to 2017. (researchbib.com)
  • Trauma from a car accident can put tremendous pressure on the spinal cord. (bressmanlaw.com)
  • A simple and reproducible model of spinal cord injury induced by epidural balloon inflation in the rat. (cns.org)
  • Symptoms suggestive of cord compression are back pain, a dermatome of increased sensation, paralysis of limbs below the level of compression, decreased sensation below the level of compression, urinary and fecal incontinence and/or urinary retention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, the symptoms of spinal cord compression develop slowly and progress steadily over several years. (wikipedia.org)
  • We're attuned to the symptoms of spinal cord compression and spinal compression fractures. (adventhealth.com)
  • Treatment for your symptoms could include surgery, spinal injections, or physical therapy, depending on the severity of your injury. (bressmanlaw.com)
  • Compression fractures due to osteoporosis may cause no symptoms at first. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The types of symptoms and their severity are dependent on the area of the spinal cord affected. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Symptom criteria include the evolution of symptoms peaking over four hours to 21 days, with symptoms clearly traceable to spinal cord dysfunction, and including muscle weakness or paralysis and sensory defects such as numbness occurring on both sides of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Osseous destruction is often associated with mechanical instability, intractable pain, radiculopathy, and symptoms of cord compression. (ajnr.org)
  • Due to the insensitivity of the body's reaction ability in the elderly, the early clinical symptoms are not typical, and the imaging findings are easily confused with spinal tuberculosis. (scirp.org)
  • Brainstem compression can ultimately lead to death if it is left untreated, so parents and physicians of children with achondroplasia should watch for these symptoms. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The actual cause of compression to the spinal cord that causes the clinical signs or symptoms. (cornell.edu)
  • Occasionally, the spinal nerves are affected. (msdmanuals.com)
  • It also protects your spinal cord, an important bundle of nerves that carries messages from your brain to the rest of your body. (adventhealth.com)
  • External compression to the spinal cord can interfere with the normal function of the nerves. (spring-hope.com)
  • This compression puts pressure on the nerves in the spinal cord. (bressmanlaw.com)
  • If the nerves and/or the spinal cord are involved in the fracture, the person may also experience bladder or bowel dysfunction, tingling, weakness in the limbs and numbness. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • Cauda equina (the Latin word for hose's tail) is the bundle of spinal nerves at the end of the spinal cord. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • Spinal nerves branch off from the spinal cord at each spinal segment through intervertebral foramina between adjacent vertebrae. (spine-health.com)
  • A bundle of nerves descends from the bottom of the spinal cord to form the cauda equina. (spine-health.com)
  • Sometimes the vertebrae of children with achondroplasia do not grow enough to allow sufficient space for nerves exiting and entering the spinal cord to pass in and out of the bony spinal column. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The intervertebral discs (the cushion that resides in the space between adjacent spinal vertebrae) are subject to a number of degenerative conditions and forces that predispose them to bulge or rupture over time. (homevet.com)
  • Wobbler syndrome occurs when malformation of the cervical vertebrae results in spinal canal narrowing and cervical spinal cord compression. (thehorse.com)
  • The spinal cord runs through holes in the center of the vertebrae and above the intervertebral discs, safely protected from harm. (cornell.edu)
  • You have back pain and you think you may have a compression fracture. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most common horse vertebral issues seen over a decade at one diagnostic lab were wobbler syndrome, fracture/subluxation, and abnormal spinal curvature. (thehorse.com)
  • When acute it can cause a medical emergency independent of its cause, and require swift diagnosis and treatment to prevent long-term disability due to irreversible spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acute compression develops within minutes to hours. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hurlbert RJ, Hamilton MG. Methylprednisolone for acute spinal cord injury: 5-year practice reversal. (cns.org)
  • may cause acute, subacute, or chronic spinal cord compression. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Acute spinal cord compression is a neurosurgical emergency. (patient.info)
  • Spinal infections can be acute or chronic. (patient.info)
  • The term acute flaccid myelitis was created in fall of 2014 to describe patients with sudden onset of acute flaccid limb weakness without a known cause and with lesions in gray matter of the spinal cord. (cdc.gov)
  • Our laboratory has previously described the characteristics of neuronal injury in a rat compression model of spinal cord injury (SCI), focussing on the impact of this injury on the gray matter. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Introduction: Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is usually an oncological emergency and a well-recognized complication of cancer. (researchbib.com)
  • Many different schedules are used world wide for radiotherapy (RT) of metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). (elsevierpure.com)
  • Metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a complication of cancer that often requires emergency care. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • Anterior surgical decompression and stabilization are the treatments of choice for radiation-resistant metastatic spinal tumors, resulting in improved neurologic function and pain reduction in more than 80% of patients (4, 5) . (ajnr.org)
  • Surgery is generally conducted among patients suffering from spinal cord compression caused by metastatic cancer. (indiatimes.com)
  • Computed tomography revealed a large, homogeneous, hypoattenuating, noncontrast enhancing mass within the left epaxial muscles that invaded the L5-6 vertebral canal and caused spinal cord compression. (avmi.net)
  • The ageing process can lead to narrowing of the spinal canal due to osteophytes, herniated discs and ligamentum flavum hypertrophy. (patient.info)
  • Spinal cord sections, staining and immunohistochemistry were performed 8 weeks after surgery, the ratio of the central canal to the spinal cord area was calculated, and ependymal cells were counted. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The ratio of the central canal to the spinal cord area reached (2.9 ± 2.0) × 10 −2 , while that of the sham group was (5.4 ± 1.5) × 10 −4 . (biomedcentral.com)
  • this may be the first case of HADD inside the spinal canal. (medscape.com)
  • Vertebral Compression Fractures Most vertebral compression fractures are a consequence of osteoporosis, are asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic, and occur with no or minimal trauma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Compression fractures can occur suddenly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most compression fractures are seen in older people with osteoporosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These fractures often do not cause injury to the spinal cord. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most compression fractures due to injury heal in 8 to 10 weeks with rest, wearing of a brace, and pain medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Taking steps to prevent and treat osteoporosis is the most effective way to prevent compression or insufficiency fractures. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal fractures are caused by accidents or high-energy trauma. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • Dans une étude cas-témoins rétrospective menée en milieu hospitalier en 2011-2012, des adultes atteints de maladies lymphoprolifératives (n = 130) ont été recrutés dans des services de consultations externes à Menoufia (Égypte), tandis que les témoins appariés pour l'âge et le sexe (n = 130) recrutés souffraient de fractures. (who.int)
  • However, when the spinal cord compression occurs rapidly or suddenly, the patient may become paralysed. (spring-hope.com)
  • CES occurs due to spinal nerve compression which also disturbs the sensory and motor function of the bladder and lower extremities. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • This study demonstrates that substantial white matter damage occurs following compression SCI in the rat. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Surgical repair of spinal metastases from renal origin is often complicated by excessive bleeding. (ajnr.org)
  • Twenty spinal metastases from renal origin (17 patients) treated by preoperative embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles were analyzed retrospectively. (ajnr.org)
  • A control group of 10 patients with 11 spinal metastases of renal origin underwent surgery without embolization. (ajnr.org)
  • Preoperative embolization of spinal metastases of renal origin with polyvinyl alcohol particles is safe and might reduce intraoperative blood loss significantly. (ajnr.org)
  • There is, however, limited data about the effect of preoperative embolization on intraoperative blood loss in spinal metastases of renal origin (6, 7, 15) . (ajnr.org)
  • This retrospective study included 18 consecutive patients with 21 symptomatic spinal metastases who underwent preoperative spinal angiography and embolization at our institution between October 1995 and August 1999. (ajnr.org)
  • The control group consisted of 10 consecutive patients with 11 spinal metastases of renal carcinoma, which were treated surgically without preoperative embolization between April 1994 and April 1997. (ajnr.org)
  • Patients with known brain metastases, leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, and/or spinal cord compression. (who.int)
  • The most common causes of cord compression are tumors, but abscesses and granulomas (e.g. in tuberculosis) are equally capable of producing the syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumors that commonly cause cord compression are lung cancer (non-small cell type), breast cancer, prostate cancer, renal cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, lymphoma and multiple myeloma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embolization has been used as a presurgical maneuver in the treatment of a variety of primary and secondary spinal tumors (6-22) . (ajnr.org)
  • Even minor spinal injuries can cost patients an average of $347,484 for just the first year alone, according to Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation. (bressmanlaw.com)
  • Spinal Services work together with other specialities to provide the best possible care for patients. (uhb.nhs.uk)
  • The team provides a supraregional tertiary referral service for patients requiring specialist spinal input. (uhb.nhs.uk)
  • Patients will be assessed by a member of the multidisciplinary team (e.g. consultant, spinal physiotherapist, specialist registrar and clinical nurse specialist) and treatment options will be discussed. (uhb.nhs.uk)
  • Referrals and appointments Patients can be referred to Spinal Services by their GP or contact their consultants' secretary for follow up appointments. (uhb.nhs.uk)
  • Patients presented with spinal cord compression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Les étudiants en année de doctorat affectés dans le service de médecine interne étaient responsables de la gestion quotidienne du CTE sous la supervision des spécialistes en médecine interne Ce service était subdivisé en deux parties: le CTE qui prenait en charge les cas de Covid -19 et le reste du service qui devait continuer à accueillir les patients atteints d'autres affections ou qui y étaient régulièrement suivies. (bvsalud.org)
  • Jackson W, Sethi A, Vaidya R et al (2007) Unusual spinal manifestation in secondary hyperparathyroidism: a case report. (springer.com)
  • Oyinbo CA. Secondary injury mechanisms in traumatic spinal cord injury: a nugget of this multiply cascade. (cns.org)
  • Dexamethasone (a potent glucocorticoid) in doses of 16 mg/day may reduce edema around the lesion and protect the cord from injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most frequently used experimental animals in spinal cord injury (SCI) studies are mice and rats. (cns.org)
  • On the 2nd day following 0,8 kg spinal cord compression injury the experimental animals demonstrated an incomplete paraplegia. (cns.org)
  • The cost of a spinal cord injury can be extensive and long-lasting. (bressmanlaw.com)
  • Car accidents can result in various types of injuries, and one of the most severe is spinal cord injury. (bwglaw.com)
  • The severity of the injury to the spinal cord depends both on the amount of pressure, and the duration of the condition. (acvs.org)
  • MRI showed extradural masses compressing the spinal cord and roots at two spinal levels. (apexionmsolutions.com)
  • We placed cotton strips under the T13 lamina of 40 8-week-old rats and blocked CSF flow by extradural compression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe a 44-year-old uremic female on long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who developed UTC in the peri-odontoid region with consequent atlantoaxial subluxation and spinal cord compression, featuring severe neck soreness, headache, and hypertension. (springer.com)
  • Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders Spinal cord disorders can cause permanent severe neurologic disability. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If that cord gets injured, or compressed from impact, disease, or normal wear-and-tear, you may find yourself experiencing severe pain or weakness in the legs or a loss of balance - and looking for answers. (adventhealth.com)
  • Victims of spinal cord injuries - from minor to severe - may also experience depression, anxiety, and other psychological effects. (bressmanlaw.com)
  • Large bone spurs and severe disc herniation cause spinal cord compression. (spine-health.com)
  • People with spinal cord compression do not necessarily complain of neck pain or back pain. (spring-hope.com)
  • Damage to the spinal cord may be a very rare complication of chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation of the neck. (patient.info)
  • The spinal cord descends from the brain, traveling down through the neck and ending at the upper part of the low back. (spine-health.com)
  • Spinal cord compression in the neck may cause bending or twisting of blood vessels that supply the spinal cord and the brain. (spine-health.com)
  • Depending on where the problem is and how the disc presses against the spinal cord, only one leg may be affected, or the dog might walk well but have neck pain. (cornell.edu)
  • Neurological impairment is caused by compression created as children grow faster than their bones. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Because there is limited space in a tunnel of bone, the spinal cord can become pinched, resulting in pain and neurological issues. (cornell.edu)
  • Compression is caused far more commonly by lesions outside the spinal cord (extramedullary) than by lesions within it (intramedullary). (msdmanuals.com)
  • There may be a history of trauma, a recent spinal procedure and/or the patient may be on anticoagulant therapy. (patient.info)
  • Vertebral osteomyelitis is the most common kind of spinal infection which can be caused by spinal trauma and/or bacterial or fungal infection that spread from the blood. (westbocamedctr.com)
  • Yathiraj PH, Singh A, Vidyasagar S, Varma M, Mamidipudi V. Excellent and durable response to radiotherapy in a rare case of spinal cord compression due to extra-medullary hematopoiesis in β-thalassemia intermedia: case report and clinicoradiological correlation. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal Cord Compression treatment Singapore stop paralysis. (spring-hope.com)
  • Transverse myelitis is an inflammation of the full width of the spinal cord that disrupts communication to the muscles, resulting in pain , weakness, and muscle paralysis. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Syringomyelia is a common spinal cord lesion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging undertaken on 31 Month9 identified an L2 lytic lesion, as well as significant spinal cord compression. (hdc.org.nz)
  • There are just a few case reports about spinal cord disorders caused by the accumulation of monosodium urate crystals in the vertebral column joints. (apexionmsolutions.com)
  • Diagnosis involves meeting specific symptom criteria, as well as demonstrating spinal cord involvement with MRI scanning and examination of cerebrospinal fluid. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This can compress key nervous system structures, like the brain stem, spinal cord, spinal nerve roots and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Complete transection of the spinal cord can occur. (patient.info)
  • Hemisection of the spinal cord can occur and is known as Brown-Séquard's syndrome. (patient.info)
  • Spinal Cord Arteriovenous Malformations (AVMs) Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in or around the spinal cord can cause cord compression, ischemia, parenchymal hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or a combination. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Spinal arteriovenous malformation with hypogastric blood supply. (nih.gov)
  • But the induction with kaolin is irreversible, the damage to spinal cord is persistent, and it is impossible to observe any recovery process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rapid diagnosis and management of spinal cord compression are essential to have the highest chances of preventing permanent loss of function. (patient.info)
  • Surgery is indicated in localised compression as long as there is some hope of regaining function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever the cause is, the treatment of spinal cord compression is surgery to free up the spinal cord. (spring-hope.com)
  • This requires urgent surgery to free up the spinal cord. (spring-hope.com)
  • A cervical MRI may also be done before spinal surgery. (ucsfhealth.org)
  • Patient information Patient information outlining the various areas of spinal surgery and the treatments available. (uhb.nhs.uk)
  • Fellowships The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham offer a combined 12 month advanced training fellowship in spinal surgery. (uhb.nhs.uk)
  • Mrs A was transferred to Hospital 2 on 1 Month10, where she was diagnosed with multiple myeloma and underwent spinal stabilisation surgery. (hdc.org.nz)
  • Subacute compression develops over days to weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • The BBB score indicated that the locomotor deficit caused by compression is temporary and can spontaneously recover. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Objective: To investigate precision radiation therapy for metastatic spinal cord compression and compare it to conventional radiation therapy. (uni-luebeck.de)
  • The exposed L1 spinal cord segment was compressed by a computer operated 5mm thick circular rod with a peak force 0,8 kg at a velocity of 3cm/sec. (cns.org)
  • MRI analyses showed loss of spinal white matter integrity and cavitations in epicentre of SCI with longitudinal spreading for one segment cranially and caudally. (cns.org)
  • We're here to provide those answers as well as treatments for spinal cord compression, not just with clinical solutions, but with a comprehensive, whole-person approach that addresses all of your physical, emotional, and spiritual needs. (adventhealth.com)
  • Clinical features depend upon the extent and rate of development of spinal cord compression. (patient.info)
  • On the 12th postoperative day minipigs were perfusion fixed and the extent of damage was evaluated by postmortem MRI of dissected spinal cords. (cns.org)
  • This rupture leads to two types of damage to the spinal cord, compression and concussion. (homevet.com)
  • Home » Blog » Car Accidents » Do I have spinal cord compression from my car accident? (bressmanlaw.com)
  • Compression can be aggravated by a herniated disk and hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Even with insurance, the costs associated with treating spinal cord compression and other spinal injuries can be steep. (bressmanlaw.com)