A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Pathologic conditions which feature SPINAL CORD damage or dysfunction, including disorders involving the meninges and perimeningeal spaces surrounding the spinal cord. Traumatic injuries, vascular diseases, infections, and inflammatory/autoimmune processes may affect the spinal cord.
Acute and chronic conditions characterized by external mechanical compression of the SPINAL CORD due to extramedullary neoplasm; EPIDURAL ABSCESS; SPINAL FRACTURES; bony deformities of the vertebral bodies; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations vary with the anatomic site of the lesion and may include localized pain, weakness, sensory loss, incontinence, and impotence.
Benign and malignant neoplasms which occur within the substance of the spinal cord (intramedullary neoplasms) or in the space between the dura and spinal cord (intradural extramedullary neoplasms). The majority of intramedullary spinal tumors are primary CNS neoplasms including ASTROCYTOMA; EPENDYMOMA; and LIPOMA. Intramedullary neoplasms are often associated with SYRINGOMYELIA. The most frequent histologic types of intradural-extramedullary tumors are MENINGIOMA and NEUROFIBROMA.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Repair of the damaged neuron function after SPINAL CORD INJURY or SPINAL CORD DISEASES.
The cavity within the SPINAL COLUMN through which the SPINAL CORD passes.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Narrowing of the spinal canal.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Application of electric current to the spine for treatment of a variety of conditions involving innervation from the spinal cord.
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
Injuries involving the vertebral column.
MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.
Inflammation of the spinal cord. Relatively common etiologies include infections; AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES; SPINAL CORD; and ischemia (see also SPINAL CORD VASCULAR DISEASES). Clinical features generally include weakness, sensory loss, localized pain, incontinence, and other signs of autonomic dysfunction.
Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)
A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
X-ray visualization of the spinal cord following injection of contrast medium into the spinal arachnoid space.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The spinal or vertebral column.
Space between the dura mater and the walls of the vertebral canal.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Dysfunction of the URINARY BLADDER due to disease of the central or peripheral nervous system pathways involved in the control of URINATION. This is often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, but may also be caused by BRAIN DISEASES or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES.
A rare epidural hematoma in the spinal epidural space, usually due to a vascular malformation (CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS) or TRAUMA. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a neurologic emergency due to a rapidly evolving compressive MYELOPATHY.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Common name for the only family (Petromyzontidae) of eellike fish in the order Petromyzontiformes. They are jawless but have a sucking mouth with horny teeth.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A syndrome associated with damage to the spinal cord above the mid thoracic level (see SPINAL CORD INJURIES) characterized by a marked increase in the sympathetic response to minor stimuli such as bladder or rectal distention. Manifestations include HYPERTENSION; TACHYCARDIA (or reflex bradycardia); FEVER; FLUSHING; and HYPERHIDROSIS. Extreme hypertension may be associated with a STROKE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp538 and 1232; J Spinal Cord Med 1997;20(3):355-60)
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Osteitis or caries of the vertebrae, usually occurring as a complication of tuberculosis of the lungs.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by abnormal bending or flexure in the vertebral column. They may be bending forward (KYPHOSIS), backward (LORDOSIS), or sideway (SCOLIOSIS).
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.
Either of a pair of tubular structures formed by DUCTUS DEFERENS; ARTERIES; VEINS; LYMPHATIC VESSELS; and nerves. The spermatic cord extends from the deep inguinal ring through the INGUINAL CANAL to the TESTIS in the SCROTUM.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Longitudinal cavities in the spinal cord, most often in the cervical region, which may extend for multiple spinal levels. The cavities are lined by dense, gliogenous tissue and may be associated with SPINAL CORD NEOPLASMS; spinal cord traumatic injuries; and vascular malformations. Syringomyelia is marked clinically by pain and PARESTHESIA, muscular atrophy of the hands, and analgesia with thermoanesthesia of the hands and arms, but with the tactile sense preserved (sensory dissociation). Lower extremity spasticity and incontinence may also develop. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1269)
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
A group of recessively inherited diseases that feature progressive muscular atrophy and hypotonia. They are classified as type I (Werdnig-Hoffman disease), type II (intermediate form), and type III (Kugelberg-Welander disease). Type I is fatal in infancy, type II has a late infantile onset and is associated with survival into the second or third decade. Type III has its onset in childhood, and is slowly progressive. (J Med Genet 1996 Apr:33(4):281-3)
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Broken bones in the vertebral column.
Chairs mounted on wheels and designed to be propelled by the occupant.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Pathological processes involving any of the BLOOD VESSELS feeding the SPINAL CORD, such as the anterior and paired posterior spinal arteries or their many branches. Disease processes may include ATHEROSCLEROSIS; EMBOLISM; and ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS leading to ISCHEMIA or HEMORRHAGE into the spinal cord (hematomyelia).
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Gelatinous-appearing material in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, consisting chiefly of Golgi type II neurons and some larger nerve cells.
The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Five fused VERTEBRAE forming a triangle-shaped structure at the back of the PELVIS. It articulates superiorly with the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, inferiorly with the COCCYX, and anteriorly with the ILIUM of the PELVIS. The sacrum strengthens and stabilizes the PELVIS.
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.
An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stays in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.
Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.
The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The body region between (and flanking) the SACRUM and COCCYX.
STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Congenital defects of closure of one or more vertebral arches, which may be associated with malformations of the spinal cord, nerve roots, congenital fibrous bands, lipomas, and congenital cysts. These malformations range from mild (e.g., SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA) to severe, including rachischisis where there is complete failure of neural tube and spinal cord fusion, resulting in exposure of the spinal cord at the surface. Spinal dysraphism includes all forms of spina bifida. The open form is called SPINA BIFIDA CYSTICA and the closed form is SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p34)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
A region extending from the PONS & MEDULLA OBLONGATA through the MESENCEPHALON, characterized by a diversity of neurons of various sizes and shapes, arranged in different aggregations and enmeshed in a complicated fiber network.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
Adjustment and manipulation of the vertebral column.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.
A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.
The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A pinkish-yellow portion of the midbrain situated in the rostral mesencephalic tegmentum. It receives a large projection from the contralateral half of the CEREBELLUM via the superior cerebellar peduncle and a projection from the ipsilateral MOTOR CORTEX.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)
An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.
An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A syndrome associated with injury to the lateral half of the spinal cord. The condition is characterized by the following clinical features (which are found below the level of the lesion): contralateral hemisensory anesthesia to pain and temperature, ipsilateral loss of propioception, and ipsilateral motor paralysis. Tactile sensation is generally spared. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p162).
The act of constricting.
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.

Adenoviral gene transfer into the normal and injured spinal cord: enhanced transgene stability by combined administration of temperature-sensitive virus and transient immune blockade. (1/10835)

This study characterized gene transfer into both normal and injured adult rat dorsal spinal cord using first (E1-/E3-) or second (E1-/E2A125/E3-, temperature-sensitive; ts) generation of replication-defective adenoviral (Ad) vectors. A novel immunosuppressive regimen aimed at blocking CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors was tested for improving transgene persistence. In addition, the effect of gene transfer on nociception was also evaluated. Seven days after treatment, numerous LacZ-positive cells were observed after transfection with either viral vector. By 21 days after transfection, beta-galactosidase staining was reduced and suggestive of ongoing cytopathology in both Ad-treated groups, despite the fact that the immunogenicity of LacZ/Adts appeared less when compared with that elicited by the LacZ/Ad vector. In contrast, immunosuppressed animals showed a significant (P < or = 0.05) increase in the number of LacZ-positive cells not displaying cytopathology. In these animals, a concomitant reduction in numbers of macrophages/microglia and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes was observed. Only animals that received LacZ/Adts and immunosuppression showed transgene expression after 60 days. Similar results were observed in animals in which the L4-L5 dorsal roots were lesioned before transfection. Gene transfer into the dorsal spinal cord did not affect nociception, independent of the adenovirus vector. These results indicate that immune blockade of the CD4/CD45 lymphocytic receptors enhanced transgene stability in adult animals with normal or injured spinal cords and that persistent transgene expression in the spinal cord does not interfere with normal neural function.  (+info)

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (2/10835)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

Spinal cord-evoked potentials and muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation in 10 awake human subjects. (3/10835)

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TCMS) causes leg muscle contractions, but the neural structures in the brain that are activated by TCMS and their relationship to these leg muscle responses are not clearly understood. To elucidate this, we concomitantly recorded leg muscle responses and thoracic spinal cord-evoked potentials (SCEPs) after TCMS for the first time in 10 awake, neurologically intact human subjects. In this report we provide evidence of direct and indirect activation of corticospinal neurons after TCMS. In three subjects, SCEP threshold (T) stimulus intensities recruited both the D wave (direct activation of corticospinal neurons) and the first I wave (I1, indirect activation of corticospinal neurons). In one subject, the D, I1, and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously, and in another subject, the I1 and I2 waves were recruited simultaneously. In the remaining five subjects, only the I1 wave was recruited first. More waves were recruited as the stimulus intensity increased. The presence of D and I waves in all subjects at low stimulus intensities verified that TCMS directly and indirectly activated corticospinal neurons supplying the lower extremities. Leg muscle responses were usually contingent on the SCEP containing at least four waves (D, I1, I2, and I3).  (+info)

Complete compensation in skilled reaching success with associated impairments in limb synergies, after dorsal column lesion in the rat. (4/10835)

Each of the dorsal columns of the rat spinal cord conveys primary sensory information, by way of the medullary dorsal column nucleus, to the ventrobasal thalamus on the contralateral side; thus the dorsal columns are an important source of neural input to the sensorimotor cortex. Damage to the dorsal columns causes impairments in synergistic proximal or whole-body movements in cats and distal limb impairments in primates, particularly in multiarticulated finger movements and tactile foviation while handling objects, but the behavioral effects of afferent fiber lesions in the dorsal columns of rodents have not been described. Female Long-Evans rats were trained to reach with a forelimb for food pellets and subsequently received lesions of the dorsomedial spinal cord at the C2 level, ipsilateral to their preferred limb. Reaching success completely recovered within a few days of dorsal column lesion. Nevertheless, a detailed analysis of high-speed video recordings revealed that rotatory limb movements (aiming, pronation, supination, etc.) were irreversibly impaired. Compensation was achieved with whole-body and alternate limb movements. These results indicate the following: (1) in the absence of the dorsal columns, other sensorimotor pathways support endpoint success in reaching; (2) sensory input conveyed by the dorsal columns is important for both proximal and distal limb movements used for skilled reaching; and (3) detailed behavioral analyses in addition to endpoint measures are necessary to completely describe the effects of dorsal column lesions.  (+info)

Neurite outgrowth-regulating properties of GABA and the effect of serum on mouse spinal cord neurons in culture. (5/10835)

Time-lapse photography was used to examine the effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the outgrowth and motility of neurites in cultures from mouse spinal cord. GABA at concentrations of 100, 10 and 1 microM caused significant inhibition of neurite outgrowth and the motility of growth cones was significantly reduced by treatment with 100 and 10 microM GABA. This effect was mimicked by the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen, whereas the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol had no effect. The effect of GABA on outgrowth and motility seems to be dependent on the type of serum employed. The results reported here were obtained only when heat-inactivated serum was used and not when non heat-inactivated serum was added to the culture medium. They suggest that GABA has a role in the regulation of process outgrowth within the embryonic mouse spinal cord.  (+info)

Presence of the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter in GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic terminal boutons. (6/10835)

The characterization of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-47 gene recently allowed the identification of a mammalian (gamma)-amino butyric acid (GABA) transporter, presumed to be located in the synaptic vesicle membrane. In situ hybridization data in rat brain suggested that it might also take up glycine and thus represent a general Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transporter (VIAAT). In the present study, we have investigated the localization of VIAAT in neurons by using a polyclonal antibody raised against the hydrophilic N-terminal domain of the protein. Light microscopy and immunocytochemistry in primary cultures or tissue sections of the rat spinal cord revealed that VIAAT was localized in a subset (63-65%) of synaptophysin-immunoreactive terminal boutons; among the VIAAT-positive terminals around motoneuronal somata, 32.9% of them were also immunoreactive for GAD65, a marker of GABAergic presynaptic endings. Labelling was also found apposed to clusters positive for the glycine receptor or for its associated protein gephyrin. At the ultrastructural level, VIAAT immunoreactivity was restricted to presynaptic boutons exhibiting classical inhibitory features and, within the boutons, concentrated over synaptic vesicle clusters. Pre-embedding detection of VIAAT followed by post-embedding detection of GABA or glycine on serial sections of the spinal cord or cerebellar cortex indicated that VIAAT was present in glycine-, GABA- or GABA- and glycine-containing boutons. Taken together, these data further support the view of a common vesicular transporter for these two inhibitory transmitters, which would be responsible for their costorage in the same synaptic vesicle and subsequent corelease at mixed GABA-and-glycine synapses.  (+info)

Cannabinoid suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity in wide dynamic range neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat. (7/10835)

The effects of cannabinoid agonists on noxious heat-evoked firing of 62 spinal wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons were examined in urethan-anesthetized rats (1 cell/animal). Noxious thermal stimulation was applied with a Peltier device to the receptive fields in the ipsilateral hindpaw of isolated WDR neurons. To assess the site of action, cannabinoids were administered systemically in intact and spinally transected rats and intraventricularly. Both the aminoalkylindole cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (125 microg/kg iv) and the bicyclic cannabinoid CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv) suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity. Responses evoked by mild pressure in nonnociceptive neurons were not altered by CP55,940 (125 microg/kg iv), consistent with previous observations with another cannabinoid agonist, WIN55,212-2. The cannabinoid induced-suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity was blocked by pretreatment with SR141716A (1 mg/kg iv), a competitive antagonist for central cannabinoid CB1 receptors. By contrast, intravenous administration of either vehicle or the receptor-inactive enantiomer WIN55,212-3 (125 microg/kg) failed to alter noxious heat-evoked activity. The suppression of noxious heat-evoked activity induced by WIN55,212-2 in the lumbar dorsal horn of intact animals was markedly attenuated in spinal rats. Moreover, intraventricular administration of WIN55,212-2 suppressed noxious heat-evoked activity in spinal WDR neurons. By contrast, both vehicle and enantiomer were inactive. These findings suggest that cannabinoids selectively modulate the activity of nociceptive neurons in the spinal dorsal horn by actions at CB1 receptors. This modulation represents a suppression of pain neurotransmission because the inhibitory effects are selective for pain-sensitive neurons and are observed with different modalities of noxious stimulation. The data also provide converging lines of evidence for a role for descending antinociceptive mechanisms in cannabinoid modulation of spinal nociceptive processing.  (+info)

Pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2-(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone). (8/10835)

The pharmacodynamic actions of (S)-2-[4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-2(3H)-furylidene]-1,3-cyclopentanedione (oudenone) were studied in both anesthetized animals and isolated organs. Oudenone (10--40 mg/kg i.v.) induced an initial rise in blood pressure followed by a prolonged hypotension in the anesthetized rats. In unanesthetized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), oudenone (5--200 mg/kg p.o.) caused a dose-related decrease in the systolic blood pressure. The initial pressor effect was diminished by pretreatments with phentolamine, guanethidine, hexamethonium and was abolished in the pithed rats. In addition, intracisternal administrations of oudenone (100--600 mug/kg) showed a marked increase in blood pressure in the anesthetized rats, suggesting that the pressor effect may be due to centrally mediated actions. Oudenone, given intra-arterially into the femoral artery (400--800 mug/kg), caused a long-lasting vasodilation in anesthetized dogs. At a relatively high dose (40 mg/kg i.v.), oudenone antagonized all pressor responses to autonomic agents and central vagus nerve stimulation in anesthetized rats and dogs, however, oudenone showed no anti-cholinergic,-histaminergic, beta-adrenergic and adrenergic neuron blocking properties.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and serine-threonine kinase-like immunoreactivity in rabbit spinal cord after transient ischemia. AU - Sakurai, Masahiro. AU - Hayashi, Takeshi. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Itoyuama, Yasuto. AU - Tabayashi, Koichi. PY - 2001/4/13. Y1 - 2001/4/13. N2 - The mechanism of spinal cord injury has been thought to be related with tissue ischemia, and spinal motor neuron cells are suggested to be vulnerable to ischemia. To evaluate the mechanism of such vulnerability of motor neurons, we attempted to make a reproducible model of rabbit spinal cord ischemia. Using this model, the inductions of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-k) and serine-threonine kinase (Akt) were investigated with immunohistochemical analyses for up to 7 days of the reperfusion following 15 min of ischemia in rabbit spinal cord. It has been demonstrated that both PI3-k and its downstream effector, Akt mediate growth factor-induced neuronal survival. Spinal cord sections from ...
RSCBF - Regional Spinal Cord Blood Flow. Looking for abbreviations of RSCBF? It is Regional Spinal Cord Blood Flow. Regional Spinal Cord Blood Flow listed as RSCBF
article{181863, author = {Leybaert, Luc and DEHEMPTINNE, A}, issn = {0014-4819}, journal = {EXPERIMENTAL BRAIN RESEARCH}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {392--402}, title = {Changes of intracellular free calcium following mechanical injury in a spinal cord slice preparation.}, volume = {112}, year = {1996 ...
The phospholipid and phospholipid fatty acid compositions of mixed murine spinal cord neuronal cultures are reported. The phospholipid composition was primarily comprised of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids (44.8%) and choline glycerophospholipids (43.5%). Plasmalogens made up 29.1% of the ethanola...
The spinal cord is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (spinal fluid) throughout its course in the spinal canal. The spinal fluid serves as a buffer of fluid that surrounds the spinal cord providing protection and insulation from movements and trauma to the body. The spinal fluid is kept in place by two thin membranes- the arachnoid and dura. The arachnoid is a very thin see through membrane that is suspended in the spinal fluid while the dura is a slightly thicker and stronger membrane that surrounds the spinal fluid space.. A ventral spinal cord herniation may occur if a breach or weakness of the dura occurs. Spinal fluid can leak through this opening causing headaches as part of a condition called spontaneous intracranial hypotension. In rare circumstances, the spinal cord may be pushed forward and protrude through the breach in the dura to produce a ventral spinal cord herniation. This condition usually occurs in the thoracic spine and can cause numbness and weakness in the legs with walking ...
Methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord are described. In one aspect of the invention, a method of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord includes contacting the spinal cord with a biomembrane fusion agent such as a polyalkylene glycol, especially polyethylene glycol. In alternative embodiments of the invention, methods of treating an injured vertebrate spinal cord include contacting the cord with a biomembrane fusion agent and a potassium channel blocker. Other aspects of the invention include compositions for treating a vertebrate nervous system. A preferred composition includes a biomembrane fusion agent, such as a polyalkylene glycol, and a potassium channel blocker, such as an amino-substituted pyridine.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Draxin is involved in the proper development of the dI3 interneuron in chick spinal cord. AU - Su, Yuhong. AU - Zhang, Sanbing. AU - Islam, Shahidul M.. AU - Shinmyo, Yohei. AU - Bin Naser, Iftekhar. AU - Ahmed, Giasuddin. AU - Tanaka, Hideaki. PY - 2010/6. Y1 - 2010/6. N2 - Generation of the appropriate types, numbers and distribution of neurons during the development of the nervous system requires the careful coordination of proliferation, differentiation, and patterning. In this work, we analyzed the roles of a repulsive axon guidance protein, draxin, on the development of chick spinal cord dI3 interneuron. draxin mRNA and/or protein were detected in the roof plate at first and then the boundary region between the ventricular and the mantle zones in chick spinal cord and dorsal basement membrane of the chick spinal cord. Overexpression of draxin caused the decreased and delayed migration of the dI3 interneuron, the reduction of progenitor cell proliferation, and abnormal ...
Author(s): Papinutto, Nico; Schlaeger, Regina; Panara, Valentina; Zhu, Alyssa H; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Stern, William A; Hauser, Stephen L; Henry, Roland G | Abstract: The source of inter-subject variability and the influence of age and gender on morphometric characteristics of the spinal cord, such as the total cross-sectional area (TCA), the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) areas, currently remain under investigation. Understanding the effect of covariates such as age, gender, brain volumes, and skull- and vertebra-derived metrics on cervical and thoracic spinal cord TCA and GM areas in healthy subjects would be fundamental for exploring compartment specific changes in neurological diseases affecting the spinal cord. Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging at 3T we investigated 32 healthy subjects using a 2D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequence and we measured TCA, GM and WM areas at 4 cervical and thoracic levels of the spinal cord. We assessed age and gender relationships of cord measures and
Neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) transplantation is a promising therapy for spinal cord injury (SCI). However, little is known about NSPC from the adult human spinal cord as a donor source. We demonstrate for the first time that multipotent and self-renewing NSPC can be cultured, passaged and transplanted from the adult human spinal cord of organ transplant donors. Adult human spinal cord NSPC require an adherent substrate for selection and expansion in EGF (epidermal growth factor) and FGF2 (fibroblast growth factor) enriched medium. NSPC as an adherent monolayer can be passaged for at least 9 months and form neurospheres when plated in suspension culture. In EGF/FGF2 culture, NSPC proliferate and primarily express nestin and Sox2, and low levels of markers for differentiating cells. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) promotes NSPC proliferation and significantly enhances GFAP expression in hypoxia. In differentiating conditions in the presence of serum, these NSPC show multipotentiality, expressing
Assessment of spinal cord pathology following trauma using early changesin the spinal cord evoked potentials: a pharmacological and morphologicalstudy in the rat. ...
spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord, spinal cord anatomy, cauda equina, image, anatomy of spinal cord, spinal nerves, cauda equina anatomy, human spinal cord anatomy, sacral spinal cord, spinal cord nerves, Spinal Nerve Anatomy, spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord segments, conus medullaris, Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves, spinal cord, real spinal cord, thoracic spinal cord, human spinal cord, ...
The ability of regenerating fiber tracts to maintain or regain their normal pathways following a spinal cord transection was investigated. Utilizing the Holmes silver technique, examination of ran- domly chosen transected spinal cords of goldfish verified that the transections were complete. Normal goldfish spinal cords were studied using two micra plastic cross sections and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled longitudinal sections. Descending and ascending tracts were identified by transecting the spinal cord and examining sections for degeneration. Following regeneration, two micra plastic cross sections stained with toluidine blue, and longitudinal and cross sections of HRP labeled regenerate goldfish spinal cords (labeling of either the entire spinal cord or a limited number of fibers) were examined. Regeneration of the fibers was found to be limited to 5 or 6 millimeters. With HRP labeling of the regenerated spinal cord either rostral or caudal to the original transection, labeled fibers ...
In contrast to cyclin D1 and D2, the expression level of cyclin D3 was high in the hindbrain at the E15.5 stage (Figure 3I, arrowhead). Moreover, in the midbrain cyclin D3 was expressed in cells closer to the ventricle than those expressing cyclin D2 (Figure 3H, I, arrows).. Discussion. At the E10.5 stage, all three D-type cyclins were expressed in most of the spinal cord cells but cyclin D1 and D3 showed higher expression levels in the dorsal half of the spinal cord. Wianny et al. (1998) found that the dorso-ventral gradient of the cyclin D1 transcript also occurs in the spinal cord of 7-9 somite-stage embryos. However, in our study we found that at the E10.5 stage cyclin D2 was not missing from the floor plate and also that cyclin D3 was not expressed only ventrally, as was reported for the transcripts of the genes in 7-9 somite stage embryos by Wianny et al. (1998). This may have been due to altered expression patterns of these genes during the time course of spinal cord development and ...
Bcl11a is expressed in both presynaptic sensory neurons and postsynaptic spinal target neurons (Fig. 1). We next asked whether Bcl11a is required for correct wiring, and if so, on which site. Central axons of sensory neurons were labeled at E16.5 with DiI. In the superficial dorsal horns of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants, the density of DiI-positive fibers was greatly reduced and the remaining fibers appeared disorganized. Only a few axons crossing the midline or located in a dorsolateral region of the dorsal horn were detectable by DiI labeling in mutants (Fig. 5A,B). TrkA (Ntrk1 - Mouse Genome Informatics) -positive nociceptive fibers preferentially terminate in the superficial dorsal horn. Immunohistological analysis with antibodies against TrkA or aquaporin 1, a water channel protein that is expressed by small-diameter nociceptive fibers (Oshio et al., 2006), invariably revealed almost complete loss of such fibers in the dorsal horn of Brn4-Cre;Bcl11a mutants (Fig. 5C-F). Similar results were ...
Sweeney-Nixon, M. I., White, T., & Sawynok, J. (1989). Adenosine release from the spinal cord may mediate antinodideption by intracerebroventricular morphine. Society For Neuroscience Abstracts, 15, 371 ...
Spinal nerves carry nerve impulses to and from the spinal cord through two nerve roots: Motor (anterior) root: Located toward the front, this root carries impulses from the spinal cord to muscles to stimulate muscle movement. Sensory (posterior) root: Located toward the back, this root carries sensory information about touch, position, pain, and temperature from the body to the spinal cord. In the center of the spinal cord, a butterfly-shaped area of gray matter helps relay impulses to and from spinal nerves. Its wings are called horns. Motor (anterior) horns: These horns contain nerve cells that carry signals from the brain or spinal cord through the motor root to muscles. Posterior (sensory) horns: These horns contain nerve cells that receive signals about pain, temperature, and other sensory information through the sensory root from nerve cells outside the spinal cord. Impulses travel up (to the brain) or down (from the brain) the spinal cord through distinct pathways (tracts). Each tract ...
When spinal stenosis is present in the cervical spine (cervical stenosis), the spinal cord may be compressed. This may not only lead to pain, but it may lead to paralysis, due to compression of the spinal cord. Pressure on the spinal cord may also create a condition known as myelopathy, in which there is a partial injury to the spinal cord, leading to progressive loss of control of the lower extremities, and possibly a loss of control of bowel and bladder function. The patient may also experience shocks traveling from the neck down the spine, which is known as a LHermitte sign. When myelopathy is present, due to cervical spinal stenosis and spinal cord compression in the cervical spine, the MRI scan of the cervical spinal cord will frequently show a high intensity signal, or a bright spot, in the cervical spinal cord. This represents a spinal injury, and may be incomplete, in which case the patient will have function of the lower extremities, or may be a complete spinal cord injury, in where ...
Researchers at the University of Maine MicroInstruments and Systems Laboratory (MISL), in collaboration with The Jackson Laboratory, have developed a new microfluidic tool that reproduces in the laboratory the same physiochemical environment that instructs embryonic stem cells to develop into organized tissue.
Zett, W.; Lehmann, W.; Neumeister, K., 1968: Consequences of irradiation of the cervical spinal cord following radiotherapy of tumors in the cervical region. II. Electromyographic studies
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Nervous system development encompasses generation of neural cells, followed by their positioning and differentiation to culminate with establishment of specific connections that enable the execution of innumerable functions. Although both the developing and mature nervous system exhibit tremendous plasticity, comparatively, the former has a greater capacity for remodeling. When the neural tissue is injured or its function is imbalanced, as for patients suffering from spinal cord injury or epilepsy, recreating the remarkable plasticity of the developing nervous system towards repairing and regenerating damaged cells and connections is the ultimate goal. Understanding developmental processes becomes crucial to devising therapies targeting nervous system regeneration and repair. Two major developmental cues are key for nervous system development, the morphogentic protein, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), and early electrical activity. Although many aspects of their action ...
The nitric oxide synthase 1 adaptor protein (NOS1AP) is an adaptor protein implicated in a number of human conditions including schizophrenia, anxiety and cardiac QT syndrome. Previous studies have shown that NOS1AP and some of its isoforms associate with the tumor suppressor protein scribble. Since scribble has been linked to the Hippo pathway, I set out to determine if NOS1AP associates with the Hippo pathway and whether it controls aspects of neuronal development. Here I show that NOS1AP and NOS1APc interact with the transcriptional co-activator yes-associated protein (YAP), a component of the Hippo cascade. Further both NOS1APa and NOS1APc show partial co-distribute with YAP in HEK293Tcells, with NOS1APc having better co-distribution. In situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry studies reveal that NOS1APc is expressed in the developing spinal cord. NOS1APc is expressed in the floor plate and roof plate and shows a similar profile to radial glial cells. In ovo electroporation of cDNA ...
Spinal cord disorders like spina bifida arise during early development when future spinal cord cells growing in a flat layer fail to roll up into a tube. In the Dec. 6 issue of Nature Cell Biology, researchers from the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine team with colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley to report a never-before known link between protein transport and mouse spinal cord development, a discovery that opens new doors for research on all spinal defects.
Face & Neck Pain: Your C2 cervical space (upper neck) sends and receives nerve signals from the spinal cord to the face and neck. Chronic pain in the lower face region (below the upper jaw) may indicate damage or injury to the top of the spinal cord in this area. To relieve pain stemming from the cervical spinal area, the electrode leads would be placed in the C2 and/or C3 epidural space (empty space between the bones).. Neck, Shoulder, & Hand Pain: The C2 to C4 areas of the spinal cord are responsible for pain felt in the neck as well as pain that radiates into the shoulder and down into the hand. When an injury or damage occurs in this upper-to-mid cervical area, chronic pain can occur.. Forearm & Hand Pain: When the spinal cord suffers damage in the C4 to C7 portion of the spinal cord, pain can radiate into the forearm and/or hand. An SCS device can stop these pain signals at the source and provide relief.. Front of the Shoulder Pain: Chronic pain in the front of the shoulder may be an ...
Afferent input has been shown to play a major role in our capacity to reactivate spinal circuits that generate coordinated rhythmic flexion and extension of the limb muscles in spinal cord injury patients. Our studies revealed that stimulation of sacrocaudal afferents (SCA) is a potent means for activating the locomotor central pattern generators (CPGs) in rodents spinal cords that lack the descending control from the brain. These studies showed that capacity of SCA to induce the locomotor rhythm depends on activation of sacrocaudal neurons the crossed and uncrossed projections of which, ascend through the ventral and lateral white matter funiculi (VF,VLF, LF, and DLF) to the limb innervating segments of the cord. The project examines the axonal projections, spatial distribution, organization and physiological properties of these sacrocaudal neurons and evaluates their role in the generation of afferent induced rhythmicity in the spinal cord. The studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. ...
The spinal cord level of injury refers to the point where the spinal cord is injured and Marks a border between areas of the body that are affected and not affected by the spinal cord injury.
Full text for this publication is not currently held within this repository. Alternative links are provided below where available. ...
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study of corticospinal axonal sprouting in an organotypic slice culture model. OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model that simplifies the study of various factors regulating neuronal regeneration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal cord injury leads to permanent neurologic damage, mainly due to the inability of the adult central nervous system to regenerate. Much attention has been focused on promoting axonal regeneration and sprouting, either by exogenous administration of various neurotrophic factors or by the antagonization of factors inhibiting regeneration. METHODS: An in vitro system that allows coculture of slices from rat sensorimotor cortex and spinal cord (p4) was established. Two groups of cultures were investigated: In the first group, intact spinal cord slices were cultured adjacent to sensorimotor cortex slices, while in the second group the spinal cord slices were sagittally cut into halves, with the sectioned interface placed directly adjacent to the ...
5 Apr 2019 ... However, people with spinal cord injury (SCI) have to fight with their own and ... Love & Life aimed to enhance the psychological sexual health of ..... The project information was disseminated both orally and in paper format. Assessment of Psychological Screeners For Spinal Cord Stimulation ... 28 Oct 2014 ... Candidates for spinal cord stimulator implantation are typically referred for psychological ... This paper reviews the results of our study. Cervical Spinal Cord Injury , Prognosis & Recovery at Shepherd Center The Cervical portion of the spine comprises the top portion of the spinal cord, comprising seven vertebrae (C1 - C7) in the neck. Being closer to the brain and ... Multiple Sclerosis Essay , Bartleby. Free Essays from Bartleby , KIN 560 - Advanced Physiology of Exercise Exam 1 Please type all your responses in this word document. Save the document with... Nayef Al-Rodhan , University of Oxford - Academia.edu Nayef Al-Rodhan, University of Oxford, St. Antonys ...
These stem cells are called Human Spinal Stem Cells (HSSC) and have been engineered from the spinal cord of a single fetus electively aborted after 8 weeks of gestation. The tissue was obtained with the mothers consent. The cells will be transplanted into the ALS patients spinal cord after laminectomy, an operation that removes bone surrounding the spine. After the spinal cord is exposed, a device manufactured for this purpose will be mounted onto the patient and will hold a syringe filled with the cells. The syringe will have a needle attached and the needle will enter the spinal cord in specified areas. The device will minimize trauma to the spinal cord by the needle by making the puncture precise and steady and injecting the material at a slow and steady speed.. ALS is a universally fatal neurodegenerative condition that causes weakness leading to paralysis and death. Life expectancy is 2-5 years. The cause is unknown and there is no effective treatment. Previous research has shown that on ...
These stem cells are called Human Spinal Stem Cells (HSSC) and have been engineered from the spinal cord of a single fetus electively aborted after 8 weeks of gestation. The tissue was obtained with the mothers consent. The cells will be transplanted into the ALS patients spinal cord after laminectomy, an operation that removes bone surrounding the spine. After the spinal cord is exposed, a device manufactured for this purpose will be mounted onto the patient and will hold a syringe filled with the cells. The syringe will have a needle attached and the needle will enter the spinal cord in specified areas. The device will minimize trauma to the spinal cord by the needle by making the puncture precise and steady and injecting the material at a slow and steady speed.. ALS is a universally fatal neurodegenerative condition that causes weakness leading to paralysis and death. Life expectancy is 2-5 years. The cause is unknown and there is no effective treatment. Previous research has shown that on ...
Spinal Cord Cross Section Tracts Cross Section Of Spinal Cord Stock Vector Image 41446425 photo, Spinal Cord Cross Section Tracts Cross Section Of Spinal Cord Stock Vector Image 41446425 image, Spinal Cord Cross Section Tracts Cross Section Of Spinal Cord Stock Vector Image 41446425 gallery
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pseudoatrophy of the cervical portion of the spinal cord on MR images. T2 - A manifestation of the truncation artifact?. AU - Yousem, D. M.. AU - Janick, P. A.. AU - Atlas, S. W.. AU - Hackney, D. B.. AU - Glasser, S. A.. AU - Wehrli, F. W.. AU - Grossman, R. I.. PY - 1990/1/1. Y1 - 1990/1/1. N2 - Routine evaluation of axial MR images of the cervical spine with high-intensity CSF (long TR/TE spin-echo or gradient-echo images) revealed apparent narrowing of the cords anteroposterior diameter when these images were compared with corresponding postmyelography CT scans. This discrepancy was believed to be due to the truncation artifact at the CSF-cord boundary. To examine the truncation effect, we compared cord diameters in 12 patients on postmyelography CT scans and MR images and then compared these with MR scans of normal volunteers and of an agar-saline spine phantom. There was an artifactual diminution of the cord diameter in the 128-step phase-encoding axis of the 128 x ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synaptic corelease of ATP and GABA in cultured spinal neurons. AU - Jo, Young-Hwan. AU - Schlichter, Rémy. PY - 1999/3. Y1 - 1999/3. N2 - In the spinal dorsal horn (DH), transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive (pain-inducing) messages involve classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. We show that approximately half of DH neurons use ATP as a fast excitatory neurotransmitter acting at ionotropic P2X postsynaptic receptors. ATP was not codetected with glutamate but was coreleased with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Moreover, adenosine, probably generated by extracellular metabolism of ATP, finely tuned GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Differential modulation of excitatory versus inhibitory components of this mixed cotransmission may help to explain changes in sensory message processing in the DH during mechanical hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain.. AB - In the spinal dorsal horn (DH), transmission and modulation of peripheral nociceptive ...
A first-ever spinal cord imaging meeting was sponsored by the International Spinal Research Trust and the Wings for Life Foundation with the aim of identifying the current state-of-the-art of spinal cord imaging, the current greatest challenges, and greatest needs for future development. This meeting was attended by a small group of invited experts spanning all aspects of spinal cord imaging from basic research to clinical practice. The greatest current challenges for spinal cord imaging were identified as arising from the imaging environment itself; difficult imaging environment created by the bone surrounding the spinal canal, physiological motion of the cord and adjacent tissues, and small cross-sectional dimensions of the spinal cord, exacerbated by metallic implants often present in injured patients. Challenges were also identified as a result of a lack of critical mass of researchers taking on the development of spinal cord imaging, affecting both the rate of progress in the field, and the
We reviewed the MR images of 32 patients with cervical myelopathy, showing lesions of high signal intensity in the spinal cord on the sagittal T2 weighted images (T2WI) after surgery: 16 with OPLL; 9 with spondylosis; 4 with disc herniation and 3 with trauma. All images were obtained on a superconducting 1.5 Tesla system. The lesions were classified into five groups, according to the shape and grade of signal intensity on the sagittal T2WI: (I) oval-shaped lesion of signal intensity less brighter than CSF with blurred margin, (II) longitudinal linear-shaped lesion of signal intensity similar to CSF, (III) spindle-shaped lesion of signal intensity similar to CSF, (IV) round-shaped lesion of signal intensity similar to CSF and (V) mixed-types lesions which consisted of group I and II. The present study was summarized as follows: 1) Oval-shaped lesions were seen in the cases of disc herniation and spondylosis with relatively short duration of the symptom, presumptively with relatively short duration of the
Spinal Cord Function After Injury. spinal cord structure in relation to vertebrae types of lesions fibre tracts in spinal cord sensory loss motor loss reflexes and spinal shock neuropathic pain. Orientation of spinal cord and spinal roots with respect to vertebrae. Posterior. Slideshow 6341268 by oren-livingston
Nervous system development encompasses generation of neural cells, followed by their positioning and differentiation to culminate with establishment of specific...
A Web-based simulation system of the spinal cord circuitry responsible for muscle control is described. The simulator employs two-compartment motoneuron models for S, FR and FF types, with synaptic inputs acting through conductance variations. Four motoneuron pools with their associated interneurons are represented in the simulator, with the possibility of inclusion of more than 2,000 neurons and 2,000,000 synapses. ... Inputs to the motoneuron pool come from populations of interneurons (Ia reciprocal inhibitory interneurons, Ib interneurons, and Renshaw cells) and from stochastic point processes associated with descending tracts. ... The generation of the H-reflex by the Ia-motoneuron pool system and its modulation by spinal cord interneurons is included in the simulation system ...
Birth defects are the leading cause of infantile mortality, followed by neural tube defects (NTD) and congenital heart defects. Spina bifida and anencephaly are among the most common forms of NTD. NTD etiologies are complex, and are associated with both genetic and environmental factors. Polycomb gr …
During spinal cord development the proliferation, migration and survival of neural progenitors and precursors is tightly controlled, generating the fine spatial organisation of the cord. In order to understand better the control of these processes, we have examined the function of an orphan receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP) PTPγ, in the developing chick spinal cord. Widespread expression of PTPγ occurs post-embryonic day 3 in the early cord and is consistent with a potential role in either neurogenesis or neuronal maturation. Using gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches in ovo, we show that PTPγ perturbation significantly reduces progenitor proliferation rates and neuronal precursor numbers, resulting in hypoplasia of the neuroepithelium. PTPγ gain-of-function causes widespread suppression of Wnt/β-catenin-driven TCF signalling. One potential target of PTPγ may therefore be β-catenin itself, since PTPγ can dephosphorylate it in vitro, but alternative targets are also ...
Looking for Lumbar spinal cord? Find out information about Lumbar spinal cord. the part of the nervous system nervous system, network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the... Explanation of Lumbar spinal cord
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lignocaine selectively reduces C fibre-evoked neuronal activity in rat spinal cord in vitro by decreasing N-methyl-D-aspartate and neurokinin receptor-mediated post-synaptic depolarizations; implications for the development of novel centrally acting analgesics. AU - Nagy, I.. AU - Woolf, Clifford J.. PY - 1996/1. Y1 - 1996/1. N2 - The action of lignocaine on nociceptive transmission in the spinal cord has been studied in vitro using ventral root potential (VRP) recordings from 10-12-day-old rat hemisected spinal cord preparations. Single-shock stimulation of a dorsal root at intensities sufficient to activate high-threshold C-primary afferent fibres elicited VRPs lasting for 15-20 sec in the corresponding ventral root. The VRP consisted of 3 distinct parts: the early, slow and prolonged components, as previously described (Thompson et al. 1992), where the early represents Aβfibre-evoked mono- and polysynaptic responses lasting for tens of milliseconds, the slow is a largely ...
This dissertation describes research to elucidate the early steps in the process of synapse formation in the zebrafish spinal cord. One question is how presynaptic proteins are trafficked and recruited to nascent synapses. Previous work has suggested two possible models of presynaptic transport, either (1) most presynaptic proteins are transported together or (2) two types of transport packets, synaptic vesicle (SV) protein transport vesicles (STVs) and Piccolo-containing active zone precursor transport vesicles (PTVs), transport the necessary components separately. We tested these models using in vivo imaging in zebrafish spinal cord and found that the recruitment of at least three distinct transport packets during presynaptic assembly of a glutamatergic synapse occurs in an ordered sequence. First, STVs are stabilized at future synaptic sites, then PTVs, followed by a third transport packet type carrying Synapsin, a cytosolic protein that can tether SVs to actin. These results identify an ...
Researchers at University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report a previously unappreciated phenomenon in which the location of injury to a neurons communication wire in the spinal cord - the axon - determines whether the neuron simply stabilizes or attempts to regenerate. The study, published April 30 by Neuron, demonstrates how advances in live-imaging techniques are revealing new insights into the bodys ability to respond to spinal cord injuries.. While the body of a neuron is small, its axon can extend far up or down the spinal cord, which is about one and half feet long in humans. Along that distance, the axon branches out to make hundreds of connections with other cells, sending out signals that allow us to sense and respond to the world around us. Unless something happens to disrupt the axons reach, that is. Adult human axons in the brain and spinal cord are very limited in their ability to regenerate after injury - a hurdle that many researchers are trying to overcome in ...
Ischemic tolerance is an endogenous neuroprotective phenomenon induced by sublethal ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), the first discovered form of ischemic tolerance, is widely seen in many species and in various organs including the brain and the spinal cord. Ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord is less familiar among neurosurgeons, although it has been reported from the viewpoint of preventing ischemic spinal cord injury during aortic surgery. It is important for neurosurgeons to have opportunities to see patients with spinal cord ischemia, and to understand ischemic tolerance of the spinal cord as well as the brain. IPC has a strong neuroprotective effect in animal models of ischemia; however, clinical application of IPC for ischemic brain and spinal diseases is difficult because they cannot be predicted. In addition, one drawback of preconditioning stimuli is that they are also capable of producing injury with only minor changes to their intensity or duration. Numerous methods to ...
A joint study by Professor Jonas Friséns research group at Karolinska Institute and their colleagues from France and Japan, and published in Cell Stem Cell, shows how stem cells and several other cell types contribute to the formation of new spinal cord cells in mice and how this changes dramatically after trauma. The research group has identified a type of stem cell, called an ependymal cell, in the spinal cord. They show that these cells are inactive in the healthy spinal cord, and that the cell formation that takes place does so mainly through the division of more mature cells. When the spinal cord is injured, however, these stem cells are activated to become the dominant source of new cells ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are a unique system to model mammalian embryonic development in an accessible in vitro setting. The ability of ES cells to generate any cell type found in our organism can be harnessed to study how cellular diversity is established during development. We demonstrate this by recapitulating key aspects of neural tube patterning and spinal cord development in differentiating ES cells, leading to efficient production of spinal motor neurons in vitro. Access to a virtually unlimited supply of spinal motor neurons creates a unique opportunity to decipher molecular processes governing the conversion of a pluripotent stem cell to a committed and differentiated cell type at global and comprehensive level. Currently we examine how differentiating cells integrate patterning signals and translate them into lasting changes in chromatin architecture and in patterns of gene expression. We believe that the studies will not only elucidate the complex, yet highly reproducible processes ...
The axons of motoneurons, neurons that make synaptic contacts with muscle cells, and the axons of the neurons that send sensory information to the central nervous system, leave or enter the spinal cord, respectively, as bundles known as nerve roots. There are two types of nerve roots: ventral roots, which leave the spinal cord ventrally and carry motor information to muscle cells, and dorsal roots, which enter the spinal cord dorsally, and carry sensory information from most parts of the body. Furthermore, some axons from sympathetic preganglionar neurons (thoracic and lumbar levels: T1 to L3) or from parasympathetic neurons (sacral level: S2-S4), belonging to the autonomous nervous system, also travel through the ventral nerve roots. Both ventral and dorsal roots are distributed at more or less regular intervals along the spinal cord. They are sorted in couples, that is, two ventral roots and two dorsal roots are located at the same level of the spinal cord (one ventral root and one dorsal ...
Background: Secretagogin (Scgn), a member of the EF-hand calcium-binding protein (CaBP) superfamily, has recently been found in subsets of developing and adult neurons. Here, we have analyzed the expression of Scgn in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia (TGs), and in spinal cord of mouse at the mRNA and protein levels, and in comparison to the well-known CaBPs, calbindin D-28k, parvalbumin and calretinin. Rat DRGs, TGs and spinal cord, as well as human DRGs and spinal cord were used to reveal phylogenetic variations. Results: We found Scgn mRNA expressed in mouse and human DRGs and in mouse ventral spinal cord. Our immunohistochemical data showed a complementary distribution of Scgn and the three CaBPs in mouse DRG neurons and spinal cord. Scgn was expressed in similar to 7% of all mouse DRG neuron profiles, mainly small ones and almost exclusively co-localized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). This co-localization was also seen in human, but not in rat DRGs. Scgn could ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Numbers of axons in lateral and ventral funiculi of rat sacral spinal cord. AU - Chung, K.. AU - Coggeshall, R. E.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The present study determines the numbers of myelinated and unmyelinated axons in the ventral and lateral funiculi of rat sacral spinal cord. On average, there are 55,000 myelinated and 110,000 unmyelinated axons in the lateral funiculus and 26,000 myelinated and 9,000 unmyelinated axons in the ventral funiculus at these levels. These figures combined with data from earlier studies of the posterior funiculus and the tract of Lissauer give approximate figures of 88,500 myelinated and 131,500 unmyelinated axons for the entire white matter of one side of the rat sacral spinal cord. Thus unmyelinated axons predominate in the white matter of the rat sacral spinal cord. The majority of axons, particularly the unmyelinated axons, are located in the lateral funiculus. The axons are concentrated in the dorsolateral part of the lateral funiculus, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of aminophylline and isoproterenol on spinal cord blood flow after impact injury. AU - Dow-Edwards, D.. AU - DeCrescito, V.. AU - Tomasula, J. J.. AU - Flamm, Eugene S.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - A study of the effects of spinal cord injury upon spinal cord blood flow was carried out in cats. A 400 g-cm impact produced an overall reduction in spinal cord blood flow of 24% in the white matter and 30% in the gray matter, as determined by 14C-antipyrine autoradiography. At the level of the injury, white-matter flow was 8.1 ml/100 g/min, g/min, a reduction of 49%, and in the gray matter, 12.5 ml/100 g/min, a reduction of 76%. Treatment with aminophylline and isoproterenol improved the overall blood flow in the spinal cord. At the level of the injury, white-matter flow after this treatment was no longer significantly different from control values. The gray-matter flow remained decreased to 26.2 ml/100 g/min, a reduction of only 47%. It is proposed that aminophylline and ...
Introduction: The rate of spinal cord infarction associated with repair of an aortic aneurysm or dissection is uncertain.. Methods: We identified all adult patients discharged from nonfederal acute care hospitals in California, New York, and Florida who underwent surgical or endovascular repair of a thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm or dissection between 2005 and 2013. Our outcome was a spinal cord infarction (ICD9-CM codes: 336.1 or 344.1-5) occurring during the index hospitalization for aortic repair. Patients with a spinal cord infarction prior to the hospitalization for aortic repair were excluded. Descriptive statistics with exact confidence intervals (CIs) were used to report crude rates of spinal cord infarction in patients with repair of ruptured aortic aneurysm or dissection and in patients with repair of unruptured aneurysm. In a secondary analysis, we evaluated the rate of spinal cord infarction in these groups by treatment approach - surgical versus endovascular.. Results: We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adult spinal cord stem/progenitor cells transplanted as neurospheres preferentially differentiate into oligodendrocytes in the adult rat spinal cord. AU - Mothe, Andrea J.. AU - Kulbatski, Iris. AU - Parr, Ann. AU - Mohareb, Michael. AU - Tator, Charles H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) capable of generating new neurons and glia reside in the adult mammalian spinal cord. Transplantation of NSPCs has therapeutic potential for spinal cord injury, although there is limited information on the ability of these cells to survive and differentiate in vivo. Neurospheres cultured from the periventricular region of the adult spinal cord contain NSPCs that are self-renewing and multipo-tent. We examined the survival, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of adult spinal cord NSPCs generated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats and transplanted into the intact spinal ...
For Statistics: For Business: TDD:. Mar 05, · Key Statistics for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors The American Cancer Society s estimates for brain and spinal cord tumors in the United States for include both adults and children. About 23, 820 malignant tumors of the brain or spinal cord ( 13, 410 in males and 10, 410 in. 7 percent of spinal cord injury survivors are married, and the rate of marriage increases as spinal cord injury survivors age, suggesting that a spinal cord injury doesn t have to mean a life free of romantic relationships. And the higher the injury occurs in the spinal cord, the more severe the damage. Spinal Cord Injury Statistics Every year thousands of Americans experience a spinal cord injury. Does recovery occur after spinal cord injury? Annual incidence of spinal cord injury ( SCI) is approximately 54 cases per million population in the U. New SCI cases do not include those who die at the. New SCI cases do not include those who die at the scene of the accident ...
Spinal cord injuries can be life altering and devastating. Spinal cord injuries can occur as the result of a motor vehicle accident or other compensable accident, and may not always be apparent immediately following injury.. Traumatic spinal cord damage (damage caused by injury), can occur instantly or it can develop over time. A spinal cord injury typically results in full or partial loss of sensation and bodily function below the site of the injury. Some spinal cord injuries are obvious, as in paraplegia (loss of function involving the upper limbs) and quadriplegia (loss of function involving all four limbs), and some might be less obvious, at least initially, and may progress over time. A traumatic spinal cord injury might even be diagnosed as whiplash or other soft tissue injury early on. Damage to the spinal cord can be caused by compression, bruising, tearing or severing of the spinal cord, all of which can result from the forces involved in a motor vehicle accident, including whiplash ...
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) causes serious disruption of neuronal circuits that leads to motor functional deficits. Regeneration of disrupted circuits back to their original target is necessary for the restoration of function after SCI, but the pathophysiological condition of the caudal spinal cord has not been sufficiently studied. Here we investigated the histological and biological changes in the distal part of the injured spinal cord, using a mice model of complete thoracic SCI in the chronic stage (3 months after injury). Atrophic changes were widely observed in the injured spinal cord both rostral and caudal to the lesion, but the decrease in area was mainly in the white matter in the rostral spinal cord while both the white and gray matter decreased in the caudal spinal cord. The number of the motor neurons was maintained in the chronic phase of injury, but the number of presynaptic boutons decreased in the lumbar motor neurons caudal to the lesion. Using laser microdissection, to
BACKGROUND. Spinal cord tumors are rare in cats and dogs. The most common spinal cord tumors are lymphoma in cats and meningioma in dogs. The majority of cats with spinal lymphoma are FeLV positive. Other spinal cord tumors include intradural-extramedullary spinal cord tumor of young dogs (also known as nephroblastoma and ependymoma) and glial tumors such as astrocytomas, oligodendroglioma, and choroid plexus tumors. The spinal cord can also be affected by extension of peripheral nerve tumors into the spinal canal. Spinal cord tumors cause neurologic dysfunction with clinical signs being dependent on their location along the spinal cord. Metastasis is rare.. DIAGNOSIS. Survey and contrast radiographs (myelogram) are important to rule out other causes of neurologic disease, such as intervertebral disk disease and vertebral tumors. The contrast pattern on the myelogram is used to classify spinal cord tumors as extradural, intradural-extramedullary, or intramedullary. Meningiomas and peripheral ...
Spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord, which is the bundle of nerves housed within the spinal column (commonly known as the backbone). The spinal cord carries messages between the brain and body, and injury to the spinal cord may result in full or partial loss of motor control and sensation.. Spinal cord injuries may leave victims paralyzed in the lower parts of the body (paraplegic) or in all four limbs (quadriplegic). Because the spinal cord is responsible for a range of bodily functions (breathing, body temperature, bladder, and sexual function), accident victims can suffer a broad range of permanent and serious health problems. And with these physical challenges often come emotional and psychological problems because many men and women with some degree of paralysis dont feel whole, and they feel as though their lives will never be the same.. Spinal cord injuries, much like traumatic brain injuries, often change people lives forever in ways they never dreamed of, and many spinal ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MCI-186 prevents spinal cord damage and affects enzyme levels of nitric oxide synthase and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase after transient ischemia in rabbits. AU - Takahashi, Goro. AU - Sakurai, Masahiro. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Itoyama, Yasuto. AU - Tabayashi, Koichi. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Objective: The mechanism of spinal cord injury is believed to be related to the vulnerability of spinal motor neuron cells against ischemia. We tested whether MCI-186, which is useful for treating ischemic damage in the brain, can protect against ischemic spinal cord damage. Methods: After induction of ischemia, MCI-186 or vehicle was injected intravenously. Cell damage was analyzed by observing the function of the lower limbs and by counting the number of motor neurons. To investigate the mechanism by which MCI-186 prevents ischemic spinal cord damage, we observed the immunoreactivity of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. ...
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that results in a loss of function such as mobility or feeling. Frequent causes of damage are trauma (car accident, gunshot, sports accidents, falls, etc.) or disease (polio, spina bifida, spinal tumours, etc.). The spinal cord does not have to be severed in order for a loss of functioning to occur. In fact, in most people with SCI, the spinal cord is intact, but the damage to it results in loss of functioning. SCI is very different from other back injuries such as ruptured disks, or pinched nerves.. A person can break their back or neck yet not sustain a spinal cord injury if only the bones around the spinal cord (the vertebrae) are damaged, but the spinal cord is not affected. In these situations, the individual may not experience paralysis after the bones are stabilized.. What is the spinal cord and the vertebra? The spinal cord is about 18 inches long and extends from the base of the brain, down the middle of the back, to about the ...
Definition of acute spinal cord injury in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is acute spinal cord injury? Meaning of acute spinal cord injury as a legal term. What does acute spinal cord injury mean in law?
Looking for online definition of Lumbar spinal cord in the Medical Dictionary? Lumbar spinal cord explanation free. What is Lumbar spinal cord? Meaning of Lumbar spinal cord medical term. What does Lumbar spinal cord mean?
The protein kinase inhibitor K-252a increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity in rat embryonic spinal cord cultures in a dose-dependent manner (EC50 of approximately 100 nM) with maximal stimulatory activity at 300 nM resulting in as much as a fourfold increase. A single application of K-252a completely prevented the marked decline in ChAT activity occurring over a 5-day period following culture initiation. Of 11 kinase inhibitors, only the structurally related inhibitor staurosporine also increased ChAT activity (EC50 of approximately 0.5 nM). Effective concentrations of K-252a were not cytotoxic or mitogenic and did not alter the total protein content of treated cultures. Insulin-like growth factor I, basic fibroblast growth factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor, and leukemia inhibitory factor yielded dose-dependent increases in ChAT activity in spinal cord cultures. The combination of K-252a with insulin-like growth factor-I or basic fibroblast growth factor increased ChAT activity up ...
Clonus is a reflex typically caused by sudden, passive stretch of a muscle. For example, when you lift your leg and place your foot back on the ground, the slight upwards stretch of the ankle can trigger clonus. Clonus is most common in the ankles and feet. However, depending on your level of injury, it can also occur in the knees, calves, wrists, triceps, and biceps.. After a spinal cord injury, you might have spinal shock, which causes temporary loss of all reflexes below your level of injury. Once spinal cord inflammation starts to stabilize and swelling dies down, some reflexes may slowly start to return. The spinal cord can act independently from the brain. When messages from the brain cant reach the muscles due to spinal cord damage, your spinal cord may become hypersensitive and send nerve impulses to the muscles on its own. As a result, you experience two different extremes. Previously limp muscles can become hyperreactive to stimulation, which can cause clonus. ...
Spinal cord stimulation is a procedure that delivers low-level electrical signals to the spinal cord to block pain signals from reaching the brain.. Spinal cord stimulators consist of thin wires and a small, pacemaker-like battery pack. The electrodes are placed in between the spinal cord and the vertebrae, and the generator is placed under the skin, typically near the buttocks or abdomen. Spinal cord stimulators enable patients to send the electrical impulses with a remote control when they feel pain. Both the remote control and its antenna are outside the body.. Common biological complications include infection and pain over the implant. However, Spinal cord neurostimulation techniques are safe and reversible therapies.. The surgery for the implant typically takes up to 2 hours to complete.. SCS is deemed successful if the pain is reduced by at least half. Studies show good to excellent long-term relief in 50 to 80 per cent of patients suffering from chronic pain.. The implants cost about USD ...
We have shown previously that mats made from the glycoprotein fibronectin are permissive for axonal growth when implanted into the injured spinal cord. Recent evidence has indicated that fibronectin and its peptides also have neuroprotective effects in the CNS. We have therefore examined the neuroprotective effects of fibronectin applied to a spinal cord injury site. Adult rats with fibronectin mats implanted into a spinal cord lesion cavity had decreased apoptosis in the intact adjoining spinal cord tissue at 1 and 3 days post-injury compared to rats that had gelfoam implanted into the lesion cavity. Rats with fibronectin mat implants also showed enhanced hindlimb locomotor performance for the first 3 weeks post-surgery compared to control animals. To further examine the neuroprotective potential of fibronectin following spinal cord injury, we examined the effects of placing fibronectin mats over the site of a spinal cord hemisection or of delivering a solution derived from a dissolved ...
When the Good Lord made the human being, He gave us a very important piece of equipment- the spinal cord. It is an incredibly intricate, detailed and multi-facted part of our body.. Damage to the spinal cord can be a very big deal, that can have life-long ramifications.. I can help if your spinal cord has been injured as the result of anothers carelessness.. Spinal cord injuries occur when the spine (or rather, the discs and nerve tissues within the spine) become damaged, usually due to excessive force or some type of trauma. A large majority of spinal cord injuries occur as the result of some type of accident, such as auto accidents, motorcycle accidents, truck accidents, pedestrian accidents, bicycle accidents, slip and falls (due to dangerous property conditions), and more.. If you were injured or involved in an accident, and as a result have sustained a spinal cord injury, its to your advantage to speak with a skilled injury attorney right away. Spinal cord injuries can result in a number ...
Cervical myelopathy. Dvorak J, Sutter M, Herdmann J. Cervical myelopathy: clinical and neurophysiological evaluation. European Spine Journal. 2003 Oct 1;12(2):S181-7.. AYDEMIR, S., et al. The effect of melatonin on spinal cord after ischemia in rats. Spinal cord, 2015.. FATIMA, G.; SHARMA, V. P.; VERMA, N. S. Circadian variations in melatonin and cortisol in patients with cervical spinal cord injury. Spinal cord, 2015.. DURGA, Padmaja, et al. Neurological deterioration during intubation in cervical spine disorders. Indian journal of anaesthesia, 2014, 58. Jg., Nr. 6, S. 684.. ALSHAREEF, Mohammed, et al. Effect of Spinal Cord Compression on Local Vascular Blood Flow and Perfusion Capacity. PloS one, 2014, 9. Jg., Nr. 9, S. e108820.. LAGINHA, Inês, et al. Natural Killer (NK) Cell Functionality after human Spinal Cord Injury (SCI): protocol of a prospective, longitudinal study. BMC neurology, 2016, 16. Jg., Nr. 1, S. 170.. ...
Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program. People often ask me when or if there will ever be a cure for spinal cord injury. Although there are many differing opinions about this, I am confident there will be a cure in my lifetime. In the meantime, anyone with a spinal cord injury should have a long-term plan for their treatment and care.. The number of spinal cord injuries per year has remained fairly stable over the last two decades, with nearly 12,000 occurring each year mostly from sports injuries, car accidents and other forms of traumatic injury. Currently in the United States there are approximately 200,000 people are living with spinal cord injuries or spinal dysfunction. With todays advanced medical treatments, more spinal cord injury patients survive the trauma compared to just a few decades ago. This positive shift in mortality rate underlines the great importance of initial acute treatment and follow up rehabilitation.. Treatment for spinal cord injuries can be divided into ...
The present study investigated the projections of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (Gi) and its neighbors-the dorsal paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (DPGi), the alpha/ventral part of the gigantocellular reticular nucleus (GiA/V), and the lateral paragigantocellular reticular nucleus (LPGi)-to the mouse spinal cord by injecting the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the Gi, DPGi, GiA/GiV, and LPGi. The Gi projected to the entire spinal cord bilaterally with an ipsilateral predominance. Its fibers traveled in both the ventral and lateral funiculi with a greater presence in the ventral funiculus. As the fibers descended in the spinal cord, their density in the lateral funiculus increased. The terminals were present mainly in laminae 7-10 with a dorsolateral expansion caudally. In the lumbar and sacral cord, a considerable number of terminals were also present in laminae 5 and 6. Contralateral fibers shared a similar pattern to their ipsilateral counterparts and some ...
The results of spinal cord stimulation depend on the severity of your condition, your level of health, physical activity, among other factors. SCS does not intend to cure the condition leading to pain, rather it leads to successful pain management and successful outcomes are generally considered to be a reduction of pain by at least half. As this is a non-invasive procedure, there are no risks or general complications. SCS may be used in conjunction with medications as prescribed by Dr. Ali.. Common conditions that have been treated with spinal cord stimulation include, Sciatica or chronic leg or arm pain, spinal cord injuries, inflammation of the spinal nerves, pain from failed back surgeries, and others.. If you would like to schedule a consultation or find out more about spinal cord stimulation, please feel free to reach out to us and we will be more than happy to assist you.. ...
If the tumor is malignant and has spread into the spine from other parts of the body, treatment depends on the type of cancer it is. Surgery is usually the first step in treating cancerous and noncancerous tumors outside the spinalcord. Tumors inside the spinal cord may not be able to be completely removedwith surgery. If they cant be removed, radiation and chemotherapy treatments may ease symptoms. Treatment also may include pain relievers and drugs to lessen swelling around the tumor, and relieve pressure on the spinal cord.. Early diagnosis and treatment can produce a higher success rate. Long-term survival depends on the tumors type, location, and size. Surgery to remove thebone around the spinal cord can ease pressure on the spinal nerves and nervepathways, which will usually ease pain and other symptoms; however, it may make walking more difficult. Physical therapy and rehabilitation may help.. Since spinal cord tumors usually are caused by spread of cancer that has first appeared ...
After suffering with chronic back pain that cannot be alleviated with any other treatment, patients can be offered spinal cord stimulators. How does spinal cord stimulation work? Spinal cord stimulation is a procedure in which a device is implanted into the patients body to deliver electrical signals to the spinal cord (or to nerves) to block pain signals from getting to the brain - this effectively eliminates chronic pain that otherwise could not be addressed.. Spinal cord stimulation is typically a last resort for those suffering with chronic back pain. Although the procedure could work for some patients, other patients are likely to suffer irreversible harm associated with the procedure - paralysis being among the most severe. Although there are a number of risks associated with surgical procedures (like infection and bleeding), paralysis is not among the risks that are typically associated with the procedure; rather, paralysis typically occurs as a direct result of medical ...
Health conditions in people with spinal cord injury are major determinants for disability, reduced well-being, and mortality. However, population-based evidence on the prevalence and treatment of health conditions in people with spinal cord injury is scarce.; To investigate health conditions in Swiss residents with spinal cord injury, specifically to analyse their prevalence, severity, co-occurrence, and treatment.; Cross-sectional data (n = 1,549) from the community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) cohort study, including Swiss residents with spinal cord injury aged over 16 years, were analysed. Nineteen health conditions and their self-reported treatment were assessed with the spinal cord injury Secondary Conditions Scale and the Self-Administered Comorbidity Questionnaire. Prevalence and severity were compared across demographics and spinal cord injury characteristics. Co-occurrence of health conditions was examined using a binary non-metric dissimilarity measure and ...
spinal cord injuries - MedHelps spinal cord injuries Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for spinal cord injuries. Find spinal cord injuries information, treatments for spinal cord injuries and spinal cord injuries symptoms.
OVERVIEW. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a pain-relief technique that delivers a low-voltage electrical current continuously to the spinal cord to block the sensation of pain. SCS is the most commonly used implantable neurostimulator treatment for the management of chronic pain of the trunk and limbs (back, legs and arms).. WHAT IS CHRONIC PAIN?. Chronic pain is long standing pain that persists beyond the usual recovery period or that accompanies a chronic health condition. Because this pain is not protective and is not a result of an ongoing injury, it is referred to as "pathological" and is therefore treated as a condition, not as a symptom. Chronic pain may prevent people from working, eating properly, participating in physical activity or enjoying Life.. WHAT IS A SPINAL CORD STIMULATOR?. A Spinal Cord Stimulator (SCS) is a device surgically placed under the skin that sends mild electric current to the spinal cord. A small wire carries the current from a pulse generator to the ...
The purpose of this study was to study the acute phase effects of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)MgCl2 on experimental spinal cord clip compression injury. Spinal cord clip compression injury was performed on 36 albino Wistar rats. The rats were divided into five groups. T4-T8 total laminectomy was performed on all rats. Group 1: sham-operated group. Group 2: clip compression group. In group 3, ATP-MgCl2 (100 mumol/kg) was given 2 min before the clip compression injury. In group 4, ATP-MgCl2 (100 mumol/kg) was given 5 min after the clip compression injury. In group 5, ATP MgCl2 (100 mumol/kg) was administered 8 h after the injury. The spinal cords were excised for a length of 2 cm and deep frozen at -76degreesC. Tissue malondialdehyde (NIDA) levels were used to determine the effects of ATP-MgCl2 on spinal cord lipid peroxidation.. In the groups in which ATP MgCl2 was administered after the clip compression injury (groups 4 and 5), the decrease in spinal cord MDA levels was statistically ...
Any type of spinal cord injury is one that can alter your life in many ways. For this reason, its important to do two things:. - Pay close attention to the health of your spinal cord.. - Receive immediate medical treatment if your spinal cord is injured in any way.. With an incomplete spinal cord injury, its difficult to know what the future will bring. However, there are several things you should know about this:. - Spinal cord injuries that do not cause complete paralysis are those with which there is a greater chance of additional recovery in the future.. - When a person still has sensation in the lower part of his or her body, there is a chance that he or she could experience some muscle recovery.. - The sooner muscles begin to work after an incomplete spinal cord injury, the better chance there is that the person will experience additional recovery, especially as it pertains to walking.. While these are some of the most important facts associated with an incomplete spinal cord injury, ...
Graphic by Frank Jackson III/MEDILL based on data from The Chris and Dana Reeve Foundation, courtesy of the Medill School of Northwestern University. Click on image for larger version.. Direct injury, such as cuts, can occur to the spinal cord from broken vertebrae or foreign fragments entering the spinal cord or surrounding area. Direct damage can also occur if the spinal cord is pulled, pressed sideways or compressed. This may occur if the head, neck or back are pushed back or twisted abnormally during an accident. Bleeding, fluid buildup and swelling can also occur inside or outside the spinal cord. The swelling and buildup of blood or fluid can press on the spinal cord and also damage it.. Spinal cord injury happens to all age groups. Data from the 1970s showed young men from 16 to 30 years old had the highest incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury. The latest data from 2005 shows that the average age at injury is 41 years old. An increase in trauma to middle-aged as well as to the ...
Quantitative MRI techniques have the potential to characterize spinal cord tissue impairments occurring in various pathologies, from both microstructural and functional perspectives. By enabling very high image resolution and enhanced tissue contrast, ultra-high field imaging may offer further opportunities for such characterization. In this study, a multi-parametric high-resolution quantitative MRI protocol is proposed to characterize in vivo the human cervical spinal cord at 7T. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI acquizitions including T1, T2(*) relaxometry mapping and axial diffusion MRI were performed on ten healthy volunteers with a whole-body 7T system using a commercial prototype coil-array dedicated to cervical spinal cord imaging. Automatic cord segmentation and multi-parametric data registration to spinal cord templates enabled robust regional studies within atlas-based WM tracts and GM horns at the C3 cervical level. T1 value, cross-sectional area and GM/WM ratio evolutions along the cervical
Severe spinal cord injury is a very debilitating injury. This report presents information from the Australian Spinal Cord Injury Register on 381 cases from trauma and disease in 2004-05. During the year, 280 new cases of spinal cord injury from traumatic causes were registered in Australia, an age-adjusted incidence rate of 15.4 cases per million population. The most common clinical outcome of spinal cord injury was incomplete tetraplegia. Falling was the most common type of event leading to traumatic spinal cord injury at older ages. The Australian Spinal Cord Injury Register is a collaborative activity of the AIHW National Injury Surveillance Unit and all of the specialist spinal units in Australia.. ...
Effective therapeutic interventions for injuries of the central nervous system such as spinal cord injury are still unavailable, having a great impact on the quality of life of victims and their families, as well as high costs in medical care. Animal models of spinal cord injury are costly, time-consuming and labor-intensive, making them unsuitable for screening large numbers of experimental conditions. Thus, culture models that recapitulate key aspects of neuronal changes in central nervous system injuries are needed to gain further understanding of the pathological and regenerative mechanisms involved, as well as to accelerate the screening of potential therapeutic agents. In this study we differentiated adherent cultures of dissociated human fetal spinal cord neural precursors into postmitotic neurons which we could then detach from culture plates and successfully freeze down in a viable state. When replated in neuronal medium without neurodifferentiating factors, these ready-to-use human spinal cord
Although the spinal cord contains all the circuitry necessary for locomotion, due to the absence of commands from the brain, people with spinal cord injuries are unable to walk. Motor recovery can be partially achieved by strategies or therapies intended to regenerate axons from the brain to the spinal cord. Some of these approaches have reported such promising results in animal models that clinical trials are currently underway. However, a major obstacle to achieving this goal is the lack of identification and characterization of appropriate targets at the brain and spinal cord levels, as well as the lack of knowledge of the mechanisms of plasticity of these targets. Dr. Bretzners project aims to investigate the pathways between the brain and the spinal cord that are important for initiation and modulation of locomotion. This will allow for the identification and characterization of the nervous circuits that need to be repaired in order to improve functional recovery following spinal cord ...
spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord, spinal cord, spinocerebellar tract, corticospinal tract, spinal cord anatomy, Spinal cord tracts, lateral corticospinal tract, spinal cord anatomy, spinal cord tract, anatomy of spinal cord, spinal tract, Dorsal spinocerebellar tract, spinal cord, image, spinal tracts, vestibulospinal tract, lateral horn, human spinal cord, spinocerebellar tracts, ...
A spinal cord injury is an injury that causes the accident victims spinal cord to sever - either fully or partially - resulting in a limited or permanent inability to function. One of the primary consequences of a spinal cord injury is full or partial paralysis.. Spinal cord injuries often come about when the accident victim strikes his or her neck or back on the ground in an accident. Motorcycle and bicycle accident victims are especially prone to spinal cord injuries because the neck and back are not covered by a helmet and are at least partially exposed to the impact.. If you or a loved one suffered a spinal cord injury, an Atlanta spinal injury attorney might be able to help you recover damages. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Segmentation. T2 - Spinal Cord Segmentation and A-P Somite Patterning. AU - Cook, G. M.W.. AU - Lewis, K. E.. AU - Keynes, R. J.. PY - 2009/1/1. Y1 - 2009/1/1. N2 - Segmentation is conspicuous in the regular periodic spacing of vertebrate spinal nerves. Segmented spinal cord motor neurons and interneurons may have evolved in early vertebrates alongside the segmented somites. Zebra fish spinal motor neurons are organized segmentally, probably in response to somite-derived signals. In birds and mammals, spinal nerve segmentation is generated by an anterior-posterior somite polarity. Somite segmentation and polarization is established via cyclical Notch/Delta, Wnt, and Fgf signaling, and posterior half-somite cells express contact repellents. These force axons and neural crest cells to migrate in the anterior half-somites, ensuring a proper register between spinal nerves and the segmented vertebral column. Diffusible repellents from surrounding tissues also guide spinal axons in the ...
While the recommendations for spinesurgery in specific cases of acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) are well recognized, there is considerable uncertainty regarding the role of the timing of surgical decompression of the spinal cord in the management of patients with SCI. Given this, we sought to critically review the literature regarding the pre-clinical and clinical evidence on the potential impact of timing of surgicaldecompression of the spinal cord on outcomes after traumatic SCI. The primary literature search was performed using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A secondary search strategy incorporated articles referenced in prior meta-analyses and systematic and nonsystematic review articles. Two reviewers independently assessed every study with regard to eligibility, level of evidence, and studyquality. Of 198 abstracts of pre-clinical studies, 19 experimental studies using animal SCI models fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Despite some discrepancies ...
Aortic cross clamping is associated with spinal cord ischemia. This study used a rat spinal cord ischemia model to investigate the effect of distal aortic pressure on spinal cord perfusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were divided into thre
Spinal Cord Injury Services are described in the National Spinal Cord Injury Pathways, launched in September 2012 which are on www.nscisb.nhs.uk During 2014/15 the Provider shall agree with Commissioners a plan to progress towards full compliance with the National Spinal Cord Injury Pathways in respect of all Specialised SCI If used more widely, it is not expected that RT300 would lead to any major changes in infrastructure, but extra physiotherapy services (such as staff) may be needed. As if this wasnâ t enough, she represented Eksobionics at the Run In The Dark 5k event held by the Mark Pollock Trust at Battersea Park in November. What happens after a spinal cord injury? We are experts in securing the maximum amount of spinal cord injury compensation and getting rehabilitation support as quickly as possible. At Hobbs Rehabilitation, we offer a variety of services for treatment, management and rehabilitation of spinal cord injuries at any stage. The team are supported by a consultant who is ...
The mission of The Spinal Cord Injury Zone is to archive important Spinal Cord Injury News and Spinal Cord Injury Information for education and awareness. The Spinal Cord Injury Zone website is a not-for-profit Spinal Cord Injury educational Knowledge Base ...
The mission of The Spinal Cord Injury Zone is to archive important Spinal Cord Injury News and Spinal Cord Injury Information for education and awareness. The Spinal Cord Injury Zone website is a not-for-profit Spinal Cord Injury educational Knowledge Base ...
Spinal Cord Injury Ring,This ring contains web pages that pertain exclusively to spinal cord injury, spinal cord injury resources, and spinal cord injury rehabilitation facilities.
A method and apparatus for repairing a severed spinal cord using natural processes and patients own resources, which includes removing cells from the patient, such as embryonic and somatic cells, and a segment of vein from the patient. The vein segment is used to encase the severed portion of the spinal cord. The cultured cells of the patient are injected into the encasement of vein segment surrounding the severed spinal cord. A chip that can generate a magnetic or electric field is then placed on top of the vein to provide a magnetic or electric field on the severed area of the spinal cord that includes the patients cultured cells. The purpose is to repair spinal cord damage through regeneration using a patients own cells and magnetic or electromagnetic energy.
So how can hESCs be used to treat spinal cord injuries? It comes down to the different types of cells in the spinal cord, and their vital roles in making sure that everything works as it should. The two key cell types are neurons and oligodendrocytes. Neurons transmit information in the spinal cord, while oligodendrocytes protect these neurons. Oligodendrocytes do this mostly by making myelin, which is an insulating material that forms a sheath around part of the neuron (similar to how an electrical wire must be insulated to work properly). When the spinal cord is injured, large numbers of oligodendrocytes die and so the neurons no longer have a protective sheath. The oligodendrocytes can be so damaged, and are so important, that a person can become paralyzed even if the neurons themselves survive. To treat a spinal cord injury, its thought the best approach is to introduce new oligodendrocytes into the damaged spinal cord area.. In 2005, researchers found that hESCs could make oligodendrocyte ...
Glutamergic excitotoxicity has been shown to play a deleterious role in the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of dizocilpine maleate, MK801 (2 mg/Kg, 30 min and 6 hours after injury) in a mice model of SCI. The spinal cord trauma was induced by the application of vascular clips to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. Spinal cord injury in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration and apoptosis. In this study we clearly demonstrated that administration of MK801 attenuated all inflammatory parameters. In fact 24 hours after injury, the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (evaluated as histological score), infiltration of neutrophils, NF-κB activation, iNOS, cytokines levels (TNF-α and IL-1β), neurotrophin expression were markedly reduced by MK801 treatment. Moreover, in a separate set of experiments, we have demonstrated that MK801 treatment significantly improved
article{9a61eb3f-8c54-482b-b9ab-17e99c703a0d, abstract = {,p,Monoamine neurotransmitters play an important role in the modulation of sensory, motor and autonomic functions in the spinal cord. Although traditionally it is believed that in mammalian spinal cord, monoamine neurotransmitters mainly originate from the brain, accumulating evidence indicates that especially when the spinal cord is injured, they can also be produced in the spinal cord. In this review, I will present evidence for a possible pathway for two-step synthesis of dopamine and serotonin in the spinal cord. Published data from different sources and unpublished data from my own ongoing projects indicate that monoenzymatic cells expressing aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) or tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) are present in the spinal cord and that these TH and THP cells often lie in close proximity to AADC cells. Prompted by the above evidence, I hypothesize that dopamine and serotonin could be ...
Supplement The spinal nerve is a nerve that occurs in pairs emerging from the spinal cord. Each pair is attached to the cord by two roots, i.e. the anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) roots. Although these two roots unite in the intervertebral foramen they divide again into anterior division (or ventral ramus) and posterior division (or dorsal ramus).1 In humans, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the spinal cord and are grouped based on the corresponding regions of the vertebral column, i.e. cervical spinal nerves, thoracic spinal nerves, lumbar spinal nerves, sacral spinal nerves, and coccygeal spinal nerves. These nerves emerge from the spinal cord through an opening called intervertebral foramen (an opening between adjacent vertebrae of the vertebral column). The cervical spinal nerves are spinal nerves emerging from the cervical region of the spinal cord. They all emerge above their corresponding vertebrae except for the eighth cervical nerve, which emerges below the ...
The spinal cord is covered by three layers of tissue called meninges, the outermost being the dura mater. Although it is a rare complication, the dura may get injured or tear during spinal surgery resulting in the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which normally surrounds the brain and spinal cord. This can cause severe headaches and nausea. Spinal cord injury can occur as a result of trauma, or from arthritis, bleeding, cancer, infection and inflammation. The effects of a spinal cord injury can range from transient deficits to more serious complications such as paralysis or bladder and bowel dysfunction.. During spine surgery, injury may occur due to instruments used to decompress nerves, misplaced implants or grafts, manipulation and ischemia (compromised blood supply). The risk of having a spinal cord injury or a dural tear during spine surgery increases with age as your surgeon needs to cut through toughened spinal ligaments, and in the process, damage the dura. It may also occur in ...
Spinal cord injuries are one of the most common traumas brought into veterinary hospitals.[86] Spinal injuries occur in two ... Brain and spinal cord injury[edit]. Stroke and traumatic brain injury lead to cell death, characterized by a loss of neurons ... Clinical and animal studies have been conducted into the use of stem cells in cases of spinal cord injury.[21][22][23] ... 2005). "A 37-year-old spinal cord-injured female patient, transplanted of multipotent stem cells from human UC blood, with ...
Spinal pia mater[edit]. The spinal pia mater closely follows and encloses the curves of the spinal cord, and is attached to it ... Spinal cord compression[edit]. The pia mater also functions to deal with the deformation of the spinal cord under compression. ... it is able to provide a constraint on the surface of the spinal cord. This constraint stops the elongation of the spinal cord, ... At the point where the pia mater reaches the conus medullaris or medullary cone at the end of the spinal cord, the membrane ...
Spinal cord stimulators[edit]. Spinal cord stimulator appears to be an effective therapy in the management of patients with ... Taylor RS, Van Buyten JP, Buchser E (February 2006). "Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome: a systematic ... "A Comprehensive Outcome-Specific Review of the Use of Spinal Cord Stimulation for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome". Pain ...
1. Spinal Cord Metastasis. The management of spinal cord metastasis depends on whether or not the metastasis is causing ... 2. Spinal Cord Tumor Presentations. *Pain is the first symptom in ,90% of patients presenting with epidural metastasis and ... Neuro-oncology is the study of brain and spinal cord neoplasms, many of which are (at least eventually) very dangerous and life ... Diagnostic imaging of the brain and spinal cord[edit]. The imaging studies commonly used in neurooncology are computed ...
Persons with spinal cord injury are at increased risk for urinary tract infection in part because of chronic use of catheter, ... Eves, FJ; Rivera, N (April 2010). "Prevention of urinary tract infections in persons with spinal cord injury in home health ... those with spinal cord injuries, and those who have urinary catheters.[73][74] Pregnancy is an exception and it is recommended ... "Cranberry is not effective for the prevention or treatment of urinary tract infections in individuals with spinal cord injury ...
It is most usually observed in the part of the spinal cord corresponding to the neck area. Symptoms are due to spinal cord ... The diagnosis is confirmed with a spinal CT, myelogram or MRI of the spinal cord. The cavity may be reduced by surgical ... If the syrinx is higher up in the spinal cord or affecting the brainstem as in syringobulbia, vocal cord paralysis, ipsilateral ... These include Chiari malformation, spinal arachnoiditis, scoliosis, spinal vertebrae misalignment, spinal tumors, spina bifida ...
Onufronwicz B (1899), "Notes on the arrangement and function of the cell groups of the sacral region of the spinal cord", J ... Onufronwicz, B. (1899), "Notes on the arrangement and function of the cell groups of the sacral region of the spinal cord", J ... When the sacral sections of the spinal cord were studied in patients with Shy-Drager syndrome, it was revealed that cell death ... Forger, Nancy G.; Breedlove, S. Marc (1986), "Sexual dimorphism in human and canine spinal cord: role of early androgen", Proc ...
Blunt cervical spine trauma as a cause of spinal cord injury and delayed cortical blindness. Spinal Cord. Retrieved from http ... Blood work might be utilized in addition to radiographic imaging in order to identify spinal cord diseases. Basic imaging ... encasing and shielding the spinal cord. This fragment of the spine starts from the region above the shoulder blades and ends by ... The young Patients younger than eight years old with cervical spinal cord casualties have an increased chance of dying while ...
"Identity of the putative delta1-opioid receptor as a delta-kappa heteromer in the mouse spinal cord". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 467 (1 ... in the spinal cord, on peripheral neurons, and digestive tract. ...
Wyndaele, JJ (2002). "Complications of intermittent catheterization: their prevention and treatment". Spinal Cord. 40 (10): 536 ... and spinal cord injuries as well as disorders of the peripheral nervous system such as diabetes mellitus, vitamin B12 ...
Spinal cord injury. *Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Brown-Séquard syndrome. *Cauda equina syndrome ...
Anatomy photo:02:08-0104 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center - "Vertebral Canal and Spinal Cord: Regions of the Spinal Cord" ... The most inferior of the spinal nerves, the coccygeal nerve leaves the spinal cord at the level of the conus medullaris via ... It gives longitudinal support to the spinal cord and consists of two parts: *The upper part, or filum terminale internum, is ... the central canal of the spinal cord extends 5 to 6 cm beyond the conus medullaris, downward into the filum terminale. ...
Spinal cord injury. During spinal shock, the bladder is flaccid and unresponsive. It becomes overfilled, and urine dribbles ... by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar spinal cord and parasympathetic fibers from the sacral spinal cord.[4] ... Bladder afferent signals ascend the spinal cord to the periaqueductal gray, where they project both to the pontine micturition ... and peptidergic innervation of Onuf's nucleus of normal and transected spinal cords of baboons (Papio papio)". J. Comp. Neurol. ...
If eggs migrate to the brain or spinal cord, seizures, paralysis, or spinal-cord inflammation are possible.[15] ... "Spinal Cord Schistosomiasis". In El Ridi, R. (ed.). Parasitic Diseases - Schistosomiasis. InTech. doi:10.5772/55787. ISBN 978- ... haematobium eggs in the spinal cord can lead to transverse myelitis with flaccid paraplegia.[25] Eggs are thought to travel to ... Sokolow, Susanne H.; Jones, Isabel J.; La, Diana; Cords, Olivia; Knight, Anika; Lund, Andrea; Wood, Chelsea L.; Lafferty, Kevin ...
Spinal cord lesions. *Mechanical outlet obstruction *Internal intussusception. *Enterocele. *Dissipation of force vector * ...
... in the anterior portion of the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord.[2][7] Fibers run down the total length of the spinal cord ... spinal cord: Vestibulospinal tract (Medial vestibulospinal tract, Lateral vestibulospinal tract). *thalamus: Ventral ... The spinal cord induces extensor effects in the muscle on the side of the neck to which the head is bent, and flexor effects in ... Bono, Christopher (2010). Spinal Cord Medicine. Demos Medical Publishing. ISBN 978-1-933864-19-8. .. ...
Administration Hospital to analyze the effects of CTE and other neurodegenerative diseases on the brain and spinal cord of ...
Spinal cord injury. *Multiple sclerosis. *Use of SSRI antidepressants or having used SSRI antidepressants in the past.[19] ...
Spinal cord injury. *Brachial plexus injury. *Peripheral nerve injury. *Sciatic nerve injury ...
My HealtheVet Spinal Cord Injury and Disorders Outcomes (SCIDO). *National Utilization Management Integration (NUMI) ...
Lin VW; Cardenas DD (2003). Spinal Cord Medicine. Demos Medical Publishing, LLC. p. 251. ISBN 1-888799-61-7. .. .mw-parser- ...
Brain and spinal cord. *Encephalomyelitis *Acute disseminated. *Meningitis. *Meningoencephalitis. Brain/. encephalopathy. ...
... because the demyelinating inflammation can affect the optic nerve or spinal cord. Many are idiopathic. Both myelinoclastic and ...
Brain and spinal cord. *Encephalomyelitis *Acute disseminated. *Meningitis. *Meningoencephalitis. Brain/. encephalopathy. ...
The extent of spinal paralysis depends on the region of the cord affected, which may be cervical, thoracic, or lumbar.[42] The ... One mechanism involved in recovery is nerve terminal sprouting, in which remaining brainstem and spinal cord motor neurons ... A blockage of the lumbar anterior spinal cord artery due to polio (PV3) ... referring to the grey matter of the spinal cord, and the suffix -itis, which denotes inflammation,[12] i.e., inflammation of ...
Mikael Häggström is a Doctor of Medicine, and the creator of WikiJournal of Medicine, as well as Radlines. He was born in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is a grandchild of Estonian historian Karin Aasma. He grew up in Uddevalla on the Swedish west coast. He decided to become a doctor while backpacking for half a year in 2005, taking the Trans-Siberian train to China and crossing the Himalayas from Tibet to Nepal. He graduated from Uppsala University, Faculty of Medicine in 2013. He did his internship in Sundsvall, and has worked 1.5 years as a physician in obstetrics and gynecology and 3 years in radiology. He is currently doing specialist training in pathology at the NU Hospital Group, Sweden. He has contributed to Wikipedia since 2006, including a multitude of medical images. He is the creator and current editor-in-chief of WikiJournal of Medicine, a new Wikipedia-integrated, peer-reviewed, open-access academic journal.[1] He is also the creator of Radlines and Patholines, containing open access ...
Template:Spinal cord. *Spinocervical pathway. *Spinotectal tract. *Superior longitudinal fasciculus. T. *Trigeminal lemniscus ...
Subsection: Regulation by the Spinal Cord[13][edit]. There are multiple pathways within the spinal cord which play a role in ... There are numerous centers, both in the brain and in the spinal cord, that have been proposed to regulate gait. There are three ... Stretch and Flexion reflexes - as one footstrike occurs, the spinal cord sends inhibitory signals to the other side so that one ... Efferent signals from these regions go to the spinal cord where motor neurons are activated to regulate gait. ...
"International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS)). Retrieved 22 August 2012.. *^ Bailey, Steve (2008). Athlete First: A history of the ... Guttmann became the first editor of the journal, Paraplegia (now named Spinal Cord).[18] He suffered a heart attack in October ... Spinal Cord Injuries: Comprehensive Management and Research. Blackwell Science. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style: ... now the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS)). Later life[edit]. ...
C fibers synapse to second-order projection neurons in the spinal cord at the upper laminae of the dorsal horn in the ... C fibers cause central sensitization of the dorsal horn in the spinal cord in response to their hyperactivity.[5] The mechanism ... quadrant of the contralateral half of the spinal cord, forming the spinothalamic tract.[1] The spinothalamic tract is the main ... which immediately crosses the spinal cord laterally.[1] This crossover feature is clinically important because it allows for ...
Spinal cord. *Brain *Hindbrain *Medulla. *Pons. *Cerebellum. *Midbrain. *Forebrain *Diencephalon *Retina. *Optic nerve ...
... which can partially obstruct the flow of cerebro-spinal fluid from the neurocranium to the spinal cord.[6] The Chiari ... A compensatory mechanism involves the movement of cerebrospinal fluid from the cranial vault towards the spinal cord.[21] The ...
The nerve cells responsible for reflexes are not always in the brain, but often in the spinal cord. This way, reflexes are ...
In "central sensitization," nociceptive neurons in the dorsal horns of the spinal cord become sensitized by peripheral tissue ...
Studies have also shown that hypoxic air treatment may increase the recovery speed and endurance of spinal cord injuries. There ... Smith, Schevlin (Dec 29, 2013). "Hypoxia May Help Walking Endurance in Spinal Cord Injury Victims". Retrieved 4 November 2014. ...
"Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... "Functional Recovery of Spinal Cord Injury Following Application of Intralesional Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Embedded in ... "Human cord blood stem cell-modulated regulatory T lymphocytes reverse the autoimmune-caused type 1 diabetes in nonobese ... "Identification of stem cells from human umbilical cord blood with embryonic and hematopoietic characteristics". Exp Cell Res ...
A main focus of neuroscience is the biology and physiology of the human brain and spinal cord. Some related clinical ... Neurological (consciousness, awareness, brain, vision, cranial nerves, spinal cord and peripheral nerves) ...
Spinal cord injury. Nuclear Medicine. Paediatrics. Maternity. History. Founded. May 2015. Links. ... "The Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Injuries Unit". bascis.org.uk.. *^ "Institute of Neurosciences". nhsggc.org.uk. NHS Greater ... Attached to the institute is The Queen Elizabeth National Spinal Unit for Scotland which provides a spinal injuries service to ...
... early neuroborreliosis may involve inflammation of the brain or spinal cord, with symptoms such as confusion, abnormal gait, ... It may also cause intermittent double vision.[30][33] Lyme radiculopathy is an inflammation of spinal nerve roots that often ...
However, the sensitivity of the DRE for injuries of the spinal cord, pelvis, and bowel is poor, and false positive and negative ... including traumatic spinal cord injuries;. *traditionally, the digital rectal examination (DRE) was considered an essential ...
In the central nervous system, the three outer membranes (the meninges) that envelop the brain and spinal cord are composed of ...
The spinal cord is made up of bundles of these axons. Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord ... Spinal cord and other tissuesEdit. The pons in the brainstem is a specific region that consists of myelinated axons much like ... The medulla oblongata is at the start of the spinal cord and is composed mainly of neuron tissue enveloped in oligodendrocytes ... "What are the key statistics about brain and spinal cord tumors?". American Cancer Society. 1 May 2012. Archived from the ...
... the diagnosis is radiculopathy if the lesion is at the nerve root and myelopathy if at the spinal cord itself. ... at its connection to the spinal column.[1] A common form of radiculitis is sciatica - radicular pain that radiates along the ... and foot as often secondary to nerve root irritation from a spinal disc herniation or from osteophytes in the lumbar region of ... the spine.[2] Radiculitis indicates inflammation of the spinal nerve root, which may lead to pain in that nerve's distribution ...
The use of reclining wheelchairs is particularly common among people with spinal cord injuries such as quadriplegia.[10] ...
A receptors in the periaqueductal gray are pro-nociceptive at supraspinal sites while GABAA that are found in the spinal cord ... Spinal α2 and α3 containing GABAA receptors are responsible for the anti-hyperalgesic action of intrathecal diazepam. This was ... Additionally, studies in α5 mice showed that the spinal α5-containing GABAA receptor has a minor role in inflammatory pain. An ...
Clemens, S.; Rye, D; Hochman, S (2006). "Restless legs syndrome: Revisiting the dopamine hypothesis from the spinal cord ...
Spinal cord injury. During spinal shock, the bladder is flaccid and unresponsive. It becomes overfilled, and urine dribbles ... by sympathetic nervous system fibers from the lumbar spinal cord and parasympathetic fibers from the sacral spinal cord.[4] ... Bladder afferent signals ascend the spinal cord to the periaqueductal gray, where they project both to the pontine micturition ... and peptidergic innervation of Onuf's nucleus of normal and transected spinal cords of baboons (Papio papio)". J. Comp. Neurol. ...
"Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord injury". ... In 2009, Brilliant Blue G was used in scientific experiments to treat spinal injuries in laboratory rats.[23] It acts by ... Two groups of injured rats were tested, with one group given the dye as a treatment for the spinal injuries and the other group ... "Blue M&Ms 'mend spinal injuries'". Telegraph. 2009-07-28. Retrieved 2010-01-19.. ...
Spinal cord injury. Demographic. *Geriatric trauma. *Pediatric trauma. Complications. *Posttraumatic stress disorder ...
They are at the very top of the spinal cord, near the neck. [6] ...
Met-enkephalin and leu-enkephalin are in the brain stem and spinal cord; they are the pain killers of the spinal cord.[3] Both ...
For example, strychnine acts as an allosteric inhibitor of the glycine receptor in the mammalian spinal cord and brain stem. ...
After stroke or spinal cord injury in humans, spastic hypertonia (spastic paralysis) often develops, whereby the stretch reflex ... Mammalian muscle spindle showing typical position in a muscle (left), neuronal connections in spinal cord (middle) and expanded ... and transmit this signal to the spinal cord. The Ia afferent signals are transmitted monosynaptically to many alpha motor ... of the muscle spindle respond to both changes in muscle length and velocity and transmit this activity to the spinal cord in ...
Spinal cord compression. هر دو مورد. Degenerative. SA. *آتاکسی فردریش. *Ataxia telangiectasia ...
TIA is now defined as a transient episode of neurologic dysfunction caused by focal brain, spinal cord, or retinal ischemia, ... Problems during labor and delivery can include umbilical cord occlusion, torsion or prolapse, rupture of the placenta or uterus ...
The impulses travel along the sensory axon to the spinal cord where they form several kinds of synapses: *Some of the branches ... Some of the branches of the I-a axons synapse with inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord. These, in turn, synapse with ...
vocal cords. Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Vocal fold nodule. Vocal fold paresis. Vocal cord dysfunction. epiglottis. ... The goal of spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is to improve thoracic mobility in an effort to reduce the work on the lungs ... "The Use of Spinal Manipulative Therapy in the Management of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Systematic Review" ...
"Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal Cord Injury Patients of Different Age Groups: A ... "A 37-year-old spinal cord-injured female patient, transplanted of multipotent stem cells from human UC blood, with improved ...
Spinal cord injury. *Brachial plexus injury. *Peripheral nerve injury. *Sciatic nerve injury ...
Learn more about what happens after your spinal cord has been damaged. ... A spinal cord injury - damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal (cauda equina) - often ... Spinal cord injuries may result from damage to the vertebrae, ligaments or disks of the spinal column or to the spinal cord ... Common causes of spinal cord injuries. The most common causes of spinal cord injuries in the United States are:. *Motor vehicle ...
... information from Spinal Injuries Associaton about the different types of SCI, medical terminology and possible outcomes. ... What is spinal cord injury (SCI)?. The spinal cord is an extension of the brain and is made up of a thick bundle of nerves. The ... How will spinal cord injury affect my body?. The higher up you damage the spinal cord, the more movement and sensation will be ... SIA/LEARN/Understanding spinal cord injury. Understanding spinal cord injury. We know that the amount of information available ...
It provides complete coverage of all aspects of spinal injury and disease. ... Spinal Cord is the official journal of the International Spinal Cord Society. ... Welcome to Spinal Cord The official journal of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS), publishing research on spinal ... Best of Spinal Cord 2017 & 2018 Collection We are delighted to share with you a collection of the most cited, viewed and shared ...
It provides complete coverage of all aspects of spinal injury and disease. ... Spinal Cord is the official journal of the International Spinal Cord Society. ... Welcome to Spinal Cord The official journal of the International Spinal Cord Society (ISCoS), publishing research on spinal ... Read Spinal Cords latest web collection on Assessments and Outcome Measures. All papers are free to read for 6 weeks. ...
... the spinal cord.[22][23] In September 2018, Mayo Clinic and UCLA reported that spinal cord stimulation supported with physical ... A Spinal Cord Stimulator (SCS) or Dorsal Column Stimulator (DCS) is a type of implantable neuromodulation device (sometimes ... "Spinal cord stimulation, physical therapy help paralyzed man stand, walk with assistance". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2018-09-25. ... Spinal Cord Stimulators are placed in two different stages: a trial stage followed by a final implantation stage. First, the ...
Does pain relief obtained from spinal cord stimulators during the trial period continue after the permanent placement of the ... Neuromodulation of the spine with spinal cord stimulators (SCS) has evolved into a viable technique to address this and other ... Spinal Cord Stimulators. A Comparison of the Trial Period Versus Permanent Outcomes. ... Demonstrates age, gender, incidence of previous lumbar spine surgery, and spinal cord level interspace that permanent ...
Infectious Mononucleosis, Influenza, Insomnia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Juvenile Arthritis, Kaposis Sarcoma, Laryngitis, Lead Poisoning, Learning Disorders, Leukemia, etc…
The spinal cord [2] is protected by the vertebral column [3], and together with the brain it comprises the central nervous ... Spinal Cord The spinal cord [1] is a bundle of nerve fibers, no thicker than the human thumb, that links the brain with the ... Spinal Cord Biology COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. Spinal Cord. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerve fibers, no thicker ... Anywhere above the second lumbar vertebra, it is the spinal cord that is damaged; below this, it is spinal nerves. Spinal cord ...
Spinal cord injuries disrupt signals between your brain and body. This can cause problems like weakness and paralysis. Read ... Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete spinal cord injury, the cord cant send signals below the ... Overview of Spinal Cord Disorders (Merck & Co., Inc.) Also in Spanish * Spinal Cord Injury (National Institute of Neurological ... Spinal Cord Injuries (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation) * Spinal Cord Injury (Department of Health and Human Services, Office ...
Read about diseases of the spinal cord, the bundle of nerves running down the middle of your back. It carries signals between ... this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include ... Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults (American Cancer Society) * Brown-Sequard Syndrome (National Institute of Neurological ... Tethered Spinal Cord Syndrome (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) * Transverse Myelitis (National ...
Spinal Cord Injury , 1990 Case Definition (https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/conditions/spinal-cord-injury/case-definition/1990/) ...
Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but ... Spinal Cord Injury Mean Arterial Blood Pressure American Spinal Injury Association Acute Spinal Cord Injury Cervical Spinal ... Prusmack C, Rochman AS, Levi AD: The effect of age on survival following traumatic spinal cord injury. J Spinal Cord Med 2006, ... International standards for neurological and functional classification of spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord 1997, 35:266-274. ...
The spinal cord is shorter than the length of the bony spinal column; the spinal cord extends down only to the last of the ... A pair of spinal nerves leaves each segment of the spinal cord. Magnetic Resonance Image (MRI) of the Spinal Cord. ... The Spinal Cord. Skull and. Vertebrae. The spinal cord is the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral ... The human spinal cord is protected by the bony spinal column shown to the left. The spinal column is made up of bones called ...
... it is useful to understand the structure of the spinal cord and to understand the difference between the spinal cord and the ... Source for information on Spinal Cord Compression: Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer dictionary. ... Spinal cord compression Description In order to understand spinal cord compression, ... Spinal cord compression. Description. In order to understand spinal cord compression, it is useful to understand the structure ...
"spinal cord"[MeSH Terms] OR ("spinal"[All Fields] AND "cord"[All Fields]) OR "spinal cord"[All Fields]) AND ("growth and ... Introduction to the special section: Spinal Cord a model to understand CNS development and regeneration. Dale K et al. Dev Biol ... i,Xenopus laevis,/i, as a Model Organism for the Study of Spinal Cord Formation, Development, Function and Regeneration. ... Molecular mechanisms underlying monosynaptic sensory-motor circuit development in the spinal cord. Imai F et al. Dev Dyn. (2018 ...
Diagram of the principal fasciculi of the spinal cord. (In subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, the "combined" refers ... Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, also known as Lichtheims disease,[1][2] refers to degeneration of the posterior ... MRI- T2 images may reveal increased signal within the white matter of the spinal cord predominately in the posterior columns ... and lateral columns of the spinal cord as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency (most common), vitamin E deficiency,[3] and copper ...
Scientific American is the essential guide to the most awe-inspiring advances in science and technology, explaining how they change our understanding of the world and shape our lives.
Brain and spinal cord; a manual for the study of the morphology and fibre-tracts of the central nervous system (1912) ( ... Spinal cord and roots and dural tube which covers them. Wellcome L0002010.jpg 1,026 × 1,810; 518 KB. ... Tibetan, showing spinal cord vertebrae of one figure. Wellcome M0004286.jpg 3,693 × 2,863; 3.59 MB. ... P270b The captain of the Omul eating the raw spinal cord of the sturgeon.jpg 1,251 × 1,573; 688 KB. ...
I have had very good results with my spinal cord stimulator. ... ... Spinal cord stimulator.... Spinal cord stimulator questions?. ... I got a cd from doc all about spinal cord stimulater and the only side effect is paralyzed cause they place the electric wires ... But Im waiting to do the trial for the spinal cord stimulator and Im getting anxious and impatient. Id love various answers ... I have had very good results with my spinal cord stimulator. 1)I have a Boston Scientific Precision system with one lead ( ...
Shop Spinal Cord Blankets from CafePress. Find great designs on our soft & warm fleece blankets. ✓Free Returns ✓100% ... Our high quality 100% polyester soft & warm fleece Spinal Cord Blankets is the perfect companion for cold nights at home, or at ...
... accessible science work station designed for use by individuals with lower extremity and mobility disabilities or spinal cord ... or lower extremity disabilities or spinal cord injury. ... use by individuals with mobility disabilities or spinal cord ... Holster is a fishing rod holder designed for use by individuals with upper extremity or grasping disabilities or spinal cord ... Expanda-Bed is a motorized bed designed for use by individuals with obesity and severe physical disabilities or spinal cord ...
Childrens brain and spinal cord tumors can affect learning, speech, vision, and more. Learn more from WebMD about what causes ... Benign brain and spinal cord tumors can affect the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. They rarely spread to other parts of the ... Childrens brain and spinal cord tumors can be located in the spinal cord or in any of the brains three main parts: the ... "What are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children?" "Can Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children Be Found ...
A spinal cord injury is when the spinal cord gets cut, bruised, stretched, or poked. It can change the way the body moves, ... What Is a Spinal Cord Injury?. A spinal cord injury is when the spinal cord gets cut, bruised, stretched, or poked. It can ... What Is the Spinal Cord?. The spinal cord is a cable that goes from the brain down to the lower back. It is made up of nerves. ... What Is Spinal Shock?. Spinal shock is swelling of the spinal cord after an injury. It can last for weeks to months. It can be ...
... some restoration of the injured spinal cord is beginning to seem feasible ... Repairing the Damaged Spinal Cord. Once little more than a futile hope, some restoration of the injured spinal cord is ...
The goal is to make better recommendations to people with spinal cord injury, but the research will also translate into greater ... Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System are looking at how people with spinal cord injury burn calories and how ... About spinal cord injury. *About 250,000 Americans are living with a spinal cord injury - roughly two times the capacity of the ... director of Spinal Cord Injury Medicine at UMHS and director of the Spinal Cord Injury Research Center at the VA Ann Arbor ...
... spinal stroke) are diagnostic challenges. As is the case for the more common cerebrovascular accident affecting cerebral ... Spinal Cord Infarction) and Spinal Cord Infarction What to Read Next on Medscape. Related Conditions and Diseases. * Spinal ... Joseph G, Santosh C, Marimuthu R. Spinal cord infarction due to a self-inflicted needle stick injury. Spinal Cord. 2004 Nov. 42 ... The top priority is to exclude spinal cord compression by a mass lesion. The pathologies associated with spinal cord infarction ...
Spinal Cord MRS in and Beyond the Cervical Spine. Anke Henning1, Michael Sch r1, 2, Spyridon Kollias3, Dieter Meier1, Peter ... Quantitative Measurement of Spinal Cord Blood Volume (SCBV) in Humans Using Vascular-Space-Occupancy (VASO) MRI ... Spinal Cord MT Imaging Correlates with Somatosensory Evoked Potentials in Adrenomyeloneuropathy. Asif Mahmood1, 2, Seth A. ... Differentiation of Spinal Cord Arteries and Veins Based on Temporal Separation with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR ...
A complete spinal cord injury means that the spinal cord has absolutely no motor or sensory function below the affected area. ... Models of spinal cord injury, mechanisms of secondary injury, treatment of the acute phase of spinal cord injury, as well as ... The spinal column contains and protects the spinal cord and exiting nerve roots. Some injuries affect only the spinal column ... How are spinal cord injuries treated?. Determining the prognosis for a spinal cord injured patient on admission remains ...
Has anyone had a spinal cord stimulator implanted for nerve pain in the head (specifically occipital neuralgia)? If so, what ... Personally I would be wary of anything that was in direct contact with the spinal cord!!!! But then maybe I still have some ... I havent had one implanted on the spinal cord itself but I did try having stimulators placed directly on the occipital nerve ... Has anyone had a spinal cord stimulator implanted for nerve pain in the head (specifically occipital neuralgia)? If so, what ...
A spinal cord tumor may be either a cancerous or noncancerous lesion in the spinal cord that grows between the membranes ... The spinal cord contains bundles of nerves that carry messages between the brain and the body. Because the spinal cord is ... covering the spinal cord or in the spinal canal. A tumor here can compress the spinal cord or its nerve roots,so even a ... Surgery to remove thebone around the spinal cord can ease pressure on the spinal nerves and nervepathways, which will usually ...
  • Many scientists are optimistic that advances in research will someday make the repair of spinal cord injuries possible. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In the meantime, treatments and rehabilitation allow many people with spinal cord injuries to lead productive, independent lives. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures (breaks) or dislocates your vertebrae, the bone disks that make up your spine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most injuries don't cut through your spinal cord. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite the advent of novel medical therapies for the treatment of these injuries, many patients with spinal cord injury remain severely incapacitated and dependent on their families and/or specialized nursing care. (springer.com)
  • AANS Guidelines for the Management of Acute Cervical Spine and Spinal Cord Injuries. (springer.com)
  • In addition to the more overt effects of traumatic spinal cord injuries, the researchers say they have secondary effects, including loss of bowel control, which can cause disruption to the gut microbiome. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Popovich explains that one or both of these functions "could explain how post-injury disruption of the gut microbiome contributes to the pathology of spinal cord injuries and how probiotics block or reverse these effects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Spinal cord injuries can happen from things like car accidents, diving accidents, gunshot wounds, tumors, or spinal surgery. (kidshealth.org)
  • How Are Spinal Cord Injuries Diagnosed? (kidshealth.org)
  • How Are Spinal Cord Injuries Treated? (kidshealth.org)
  • Men account for 82 percent of spinal cord injuries. (news-medical.net)
  • About 60 percent of people with spinal cord injuries are overweight or obese. (news-medical.net)
  • Some injuries affect only the spinal column without disturbing the nerve elements - while other, more severe injuries to the spine can result in temporary or permanent damage to the spinal cord and/or exiting nerve roots. (spine.org)
  • Spinal cord injuries (SCI) remains a devastating condition for both patients and their families. (spine.org)
  • There are approximately 10,000 new injuries in the United States each year with more than 200,000 people suffering from either paralysis of the arms or legs or both secondary to spinal cord injury. (spine.org)
  • Males account for roughly 75% of patients treated with spinal cord injuries. (spine.org)
  • Spinal cord injury due to violence is on a dramatic rise as manifested by the proportion of individuals injured by assault including penetrating injuries such as gun and knife wounds. (spine.org)
  • Preventive programs, which encourage children and young adults to modify risky behaviors, have the greatest prospect of reducing the incidence of spinal cord injuries. (spine.org)
  • Create healthcare diagrams like this example called Spinal Cord Injuries in minutes with SmartDraw. (smartdraw.com)
  • Researchers at Purdue University have discovered a new approach for repairing damaged nerve fibers in spinal cord injuries using nano-spheres that could be injected into the blood shortly after an accident. (redorbit.com)
  • Ongoing research at Purdue has shown the benefits of polyethylene glycol, or PEG, to treat animals with spinal cord injuries. (redorbit.com)
  • Image Caption: This image represents "copolymer micelles," tiny drug-delivery spheres that could be used in a new approach for repairing damaged nerve fibers in spinal cord injuries. (redorbit.com)
  • Scientists at Lineage Cell Therapeutics hope to treat spinal cord injuries with an allogeneic therapy created from oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. (genengnews.com)
  • Culley's team is running clinical trials of its technology in cancer, dry age-related macular degeneration, and spinal-cord injuries. (genengnews.com)
  • Mayo Clinic's spinal cord injury rehabilitation team treats people with all causes of traumatic or nontrauma spinal cord injuries, including spinal cord tumors , spinal cord or vertebral infections, transverse myelitis , Guillain-Barre syndrome , multiple sclerosis , myelopathies, spinal cord infarctions and aneurysms . (mayoclinic.org)
  • http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries_poisoning/spinal_trauma/spinal_trauma.html?qt=spinal trauma&alt=sh. (mayoclinic.org)
  • In this printable worksheet, children read a passage about the human spinal cord, research spinal cord injuries, and write a proposal to raise funds for and awareness of spinal cord injuries. (teachervision.com)
  • It's very important to caution that this applies only to those with spinal injuries far enough down on the spine that there are remnants of nerves that are still functional above the injury that can be tapped into," stated Dr. J. Marc Simard , a professor of neurosurgery, pathology and physiology at the University of Maryland School of Medicine in Baltimore in a article by U.S. News . (redorbit.com)
  • ANN ARBOR--An injection of nanoparticles can prevent the body's immune system from overreacting to trauma, potentially preventing some spinal cord injuries from resulting in paralysis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with SCIWORA because of its superior ability to identify soft tissue lesions such as cord edema, hematomas and transections, and discoligamentous injuries that may not be visualized in plain radiographs and CT. (hindawi.com)
  • The incidences have been reported between 13 to 19% and 10 to 12% of spinal injuries in children and adults, respectively [ 6 - 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Spinal cord injuries in the cervical region are often accompanied by blood pressure instability and heart arrhythmias. (rxlist.com)
  • People with spinal cord injuries are at triple the usual risk for blood clots. (rxlist.com)
  • How do spinal cord injuries usually occur? (healthline.com)
  • How can I prevent spinal cord injuries? (healthline.com)
  • Because spinal cord injuries are often due to unpredictable events, the best you can do is reduce your risk. (healthline.com)
  • A listing of Spinal Cord Injuries medical research trials actively recruiting patient volunteers. (centerwatch.com)
  • The purpose of the study is to better understand the use of nerve transfer surgery on patients with spinal cord injuries. (centerwatch.com)
  • The mission of Spinal Cord Injury Saskatchewan is to assist persons with spinal cord injuries and other physical disabilities to achieve independence, self-reliance, and full community participation. (canadahelps.org)
  • Spinal Cord Injury Saskatchewan relies on the support and generosity from organizations and numerous volunteers who share an interest in supporting those with spinal cord injuries and other physical disabilities which limit mobility. (canadahelps.org)
  • All donations are receipted for tax purposes and will support Spinal Cord Injury Saskatchewan's drive to expand its support to 100% of Canadians with spinal cord injuries. (canadahelps.org)
  • Injuries to the spinal cord have been discussed in writing as far back as the Edwin Smith Papyrus several thousand years ago and such famous cases of injury have included Lord Nelson , General George Patton, politician George Wallace , and U.S. President James Garfield , as well as actor Christopher Reeve, who was left a quadriplegic after being thrown by a horse. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Much current research is focused on finding solutions to spinal cord injuries, including stimulating regrowth of axons , replacing damaged nerve or glial cells, and retraining the circuits. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Diagnosis Spinal cord injuries are intense. (authorstream.com)
  • The mission of ThinkFirst is to prevent brain, spinal cord and other traumatic injuries through education, research and advocacy. (thinkfirst.org)
  • Help us teach kids of all ages how to prevent traumatic brain and spinal cord injuries! (thinkfirst.org)
  • Decker in Chorley and Bachur (2014) Overview of Cervical Spinal Cord Injuries. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Invoking the names of Jack Jablonski and Gabe Rodreick, young Minnesotans who suffered spinal cord injuries, two state legislators are proposing an $8 million grant program for spinal cord and brain injury research. (startribune.com)
  • Ischemic and Traumatic Brain and Spinal Cord Injuries: Mechanisms and Potential Therapies presents readers with comprehensive and cutting-edge information on molecular mechanisms, including the signal transduction processes associated with neurodegeneration and neuroprotection in ischemic, spinal cord, severe and mild brain injuries. (elsevier.com)
  • Some patients with spinal cord injuries later experience a substantial recovery of movement, and a new study in monkeys may explain why this is. (livescience.com)
  • However, the researchers said the findings might still have implications for those with more serious spinal injuries. (livescience.com)
  • If we can understand how this growth is naturally occurring, how this compensatory sprouting is naturally occurring, then we can potentially develop new treatments to elicit the same growth, or enhance the same growth in humans" with severe spinal cord injuries, said study researcher Ephron Rosenzweig of the Department of Neurosciences at the University of California, San Diego. (livescience.com)
  • Carmel said rats have also shown robust growth of nerve fibers after spinal injuries, but it's difficult to compare the two models because of their anatomical differences. (livescience.com)
  • In addition, the Commission will establish and maintain, in conjunction with the New Jersey Department of Health, a central registry of all persons who sustain spinal cord injuries. (nj.us)
  • The scientists say the research, which is to be published this week in the Journal of Neuroscience , is a major step towards mending spinal cord injuries in humans. (abc.net.au)
  • In many cases, spinal cord injuries require long-term physical and occupational therapy, especially if it interferes with activities of daily living. (wikipedia.org)
  • Paraplegia occurs when the legs are affected by the spinal cord damage (in thoracic, lumbar, or sacral injuries), and tetraplegia occurs when all four limbs are affected (cervical damage). (wikipedia.org)
  • A spinal cord injury - damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal (cauda equina) - often causes permanent changes in strength, sensation and other body functions below the site of the injury. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The spinal cord is an extension of the brain and is made up of a thick bundle of nerves. (spinal.co.uk)
  • If you have injured the spinal cord in your neck, you will have injured one of your cervical nerves (1-8). (spinal.co.uk)
  • If you have injured the spinal cord in your back, you will have injured either thoracic nerves (1-12) or lumber nerves (1-5). (spinal.co.uk)
  • The nerves that enter and exit the spinal cord form the peripheral nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some nerves enter the spinal cord on its dorsal surface (which is closest to the back). (encyclopedia.com)
  • These nerves carry sensory information to the spinal cord and are called afferent nerves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In contrast, the nerves that exit the ventral surface (closest to the stomach) of the spinal cord carry information from the spinal cord to the rest of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The term for nerves that conduct commands from the spinal cord to muscles and organs is efferent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The afferent and efferent nerves are associated with an H-shaped area of gray matter in the center of the spinal cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fibres exiting the spinal cord from the dorsal and ventral horns join in paired tracts to form the spinal nerves . (britannica.com)
  • A pair of spinal nerves leaves each segment of the spinal cord. (washington.edu)
  • Nerves that extend from the spinal cord from the lumbar and sacral levels must run in the vertebral canal for a distance before they leave the vertebral column. (washington.edu)
  • Receptors in the skin send information to the spinal cord through the spinal nerves. (washington.edu)
  • The spinal cord, however, is the series of nerves that runs down the hollow part of the vertebrae. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Spinal cord compression occurs when something presses down with sufficient force on the nerves within the spinal cord so that they lose their ability to function properly. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The spinal cord is a series of nerves bundled together that are responsible for most functions of the body, including, but not limited to, the "fight or flight" response, the movement of arms and legs, and feeling below the neck. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Not only do the different nerve clusters of the spinal cord have different functions, but each has nerves branching off from the spinal cord at many levels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, nerves branching off the spinal cord in the low back control movement of the legs, and nerves branching off the spinal cord at the level of the neck are responsible for most of the movements of the arm. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The closer the compression is to the head, the more symptoms the patient is likely to have, since compression of the spinal cord affects all the levels of nerves below the area of compression that are part of the same nerve branch. (encyclopedia.com)
  • I got a cd from doc all about spinal cord stimulater and the only side effect is paralyzed cause they place the electric wires on your nerves and the doctor I talk to said for just the stimulater is like buying a new truck and alot of insurance will not pay. (drugs.com)
  • The spinal cord connects the brain with nerves throughout the body. (webmd.com)
  • Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) means there is damage to the nerves that run through the backbone (spine). (aapmr.org)
  • The spinal cord contains bundles of nerves that carry messages between the brain and the body. (faqs.org)
  • Because the spinal cord is encased in bone, any tumor thatgrows on or near it can press on the nerves, interfering with this brain-to-body communication. (faqs.org)
  • Just as there are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that attach to the brainstem, attached to thespinal cord there are four sets of peripheral nerves: 8 pairs of cervical nerves, 12 pairs ofthoracic nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar nerves, and 5 pairs of sacral nerves (see Figure 20.9).These are easy to remember if you think about the divisions of the spine. (infoplease.com)
  • A typical college level text will explore the various functions of the spinal nerves as well as the plexuses , which are braids of nerves that control various functions. (infoplease.com)
  • In general, the moremuscles controlled by nerves, the wider the spinal cord in that region. (infoplease.com)
  • Since the arms arecontrolled by cervical nerves, and the legs are controlled by the lumbar and sacral nerves,the thoracic nerves have little to do, hence the narrowness of the thoracic spinal cord. (infoplease.com)
  • The spinal cord is one long, thin bundle of nerves that spans the length of the back carrying nervous impulses to and from various parts of the body to the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • Fortunately, tumors affecting the spinal cord and nerves are rare and are often non-cancerous, benign lesions. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The injury may cut off or greatly reduce the blood supply to the spinal cord and nerves. (spineuniverse.com)
  • 31 pairs of spinal nerves arise, each by an anterior and a posterior root, from each side of the cord. (which.net)
  • The spinal cord relays impulses also to the muscles, blood vessels, and glands by means of outgoing nerves, either in response to incoming stimuli or to signals from higher levels. (which.net)
  • The spinal cord is the control center for the nerves, which run like spaghetti all the way out to the tips of the fingers and the tips of the toes," noted Mackinnon, the director of the School of Medicine's Center for Nerve Injury and Paralysis, in a statement. (redorbit.com)
  • Even nerves below the injury remain healthy because they are still connected to the spinal cord. (redorbit.com)
  • The problem is that these nerves no longer 'talk' to the brain because the spinal cord injury blocks the signals. (redorbit.com)
  • Your spinal cord has nerves that send signals or messages back and forth between your brain and the rest of your body. (healthline.com)
  • Any injury to the spinal cord at or above the C3, C4, and C5 segments, which supply the phrenic nerves leading to the diaphragm, can stop breathing. (rxlist.com)
  • The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves and other tissue that the vertebrae of the spine contains and protects. (healthline.com)
  • The report mentions an intervertebral disc prolapse indenting the covering of the spinal cord and the spaces that carry the spinal nerves. (medhelp.org)
  • The nerves that pass through the spinal cord, and nerves from the PNS, provide sensory input to the brain, which processes the information and initiates responses. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The spinal cord is the cord of nerves that decends from the midbran through the spinal column, branching to nerves that convey motor and sensory impulses between the body and brain. (thinkfirst.org)
  • The thick, whitish cord of nerve tissue that extends from the medulla oblongata down through the spinal column and from which the spinal nerves branch off to various parts of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Looking at the spinal nerves growing back across a cut portion of the spinal cord. (abc.net.au)
  • Mice with a spinal cord injury are walking again after a treatment that allowed their damaged spinal nerves to grow back, Australian researchers say. (abc.net.au)
  • University of Melbourne's Professor Mary Galea and team found that removing the molecule known as EphA4 resulted in significant regrowth of the spinal nerves. (abc.net.au)
  • These star-shaped cells are in turn responsible for scarring in the damaged spinal cord, which prevents the damaged nerves from growing back. (abc.net.au)
  • Mice without EphA4 have little scarring in their spinal cord, allowing the nerves to grow once more, the researchers said. (abc.net.au)
  • The nerve roots then merge into bilaterally symmetrical pairs of spinal nerves. (wikipedia.org)
  • The peripheral nervous system is made up of these spinal roots, nerves, and ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
  • At each level of the spinal column, spinal nerves branch off from either side of the spinal cord and exit between a pair of vertebrae, to innervate a specific part of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The part of the spinal cord that was damaged corresponds to the spinal nerves at that level and below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuromodulation of the spine with spinal cord stimulators (SCS) has evolved into a viable technique to address this and other challenging diagnoses. (medscape.com)
  • If you have an accident that damages the vertebrae or other parts of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, if the cord compression is in the lower part of the spine, then parts of the legs may be affected with numbness, tingling and loss of power and movement. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A tethered spinal cord is a condition where there is restricted movement of the spinal cord, which lies within the spine, surrounded by the vertebrae. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • A tethered spinal cord can be caused during fetal development, or it can be from scar tissue in children who have had spine surgery. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Your child's neurosurgeon will remove a small amount of bone from the spine to reach the spinal cord. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • They will then free the tissue that is preventing the spinal cord from moving within the spine. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Right after the injury, doctors will do tests to look at the spinal cord, the spine (the bones that make up the backbone and protect the spinal cord), and the surrounding bones and tissues. (kidshealth.org)
  • Weber P, Vogel T, Bitterling H, Utzschneider S, von Schulze Pellengahr C, Birkenmaier C. Spinal cord infarction after operative stabilisation of the thoracic spine in a patient with tuberculous spondylodiscitis and sickle cell trait. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal fractures occur when an injury is sustained to the spine resulting in a break or disruption of the spinal vertebrae or the attached ligaments. (spine.org)
  • Treatment for patients with spinal cord injury often involves stabilizing the injured spine. (spine.org)
  • As part of the surgical treatment the spine may be re-aligned or bone may be removed from the spinal canal to decompress the spinal cord. (spine.org)
  • Secondary abscesses arise from another infection site, either distant from or contiguous to the spinal cord, most commonly from the lung, spine, heart valves, and genitourinary system. (medscape.com)
  • Whether cancerous or non-cancerous, tumors in the spine can cause serious health problems as they grow and place pressure on the spinal cord. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Compression can develop anywhere along the spinal cord from the neck to the lower spine. (healthline.com)
  • Doctors can diagnose spinal cord compression by performing a medical history and an exam, along with an X-ray of the spine and a CT scan or MRI test. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality" (SCIWORA) is a term that denotes objective clinical signs of posttraumatic spinal cord injury without evidence of fracture or malalignment on plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the spine. (hindawi.com)
  • SCIWORA is most commonly seen in children with a predilection for the cervical spinal cord due to the increased mobility of the cervical spine, the inherent ligamentous laxity, and the large head-to-body ratio during childhood. (hindawi.com)
  • The acronym SCIWORA (Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality) was first defined in 1982 by Pang and Wilberger Jr. in a series of 24 children who suffered traumatic myelopathy with no radiographic evidence of fractures, dislocations, or malalignment of the spine [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Pang and Pollack described SCIWORA as a syndrome in which there are clinical signs of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) without overt traumatic vertebral column disruption as displayed by spine X-rays, computed tomographic (CT) scans, myelograms, and dynamic flexion/extension X-rays [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A spinal Cord Injury is an amazingly genuine kind of injury when spine that breaks or separates vertebrae. (authorstream.com)
  • Causes include spinal cord tumors, spinal traumas, ischemia, and inflammatory processes affecting the spine. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Spinal cord metastases most often occur in the bones of the spine (vertebrae) and are called bone metastases. (cancer.ca)
  • human spinal cord Lower cervical segment of the human spinal cord. (britannica.com)
  • The human spinal cord is protected by the bony spinal column shown to the left. (washington.edu)
  • The human spinal column is made up of 33 bones: 7 vertebrae in the cervical region, 12 in the thoracic region, 5 in the lumbar region, 5 in the sacral region and 4 in the coccygeal region. (washington.edu)
  • The human spinal cord is elastic, and well protected by bone, cerebrospinal fluid, and meninges. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Much shorter than its protecting spinal column, the human spinal cord originates in the brainstem, passes through the foramen magnum, and continues through to the conus medullaris near the second lumbar vertebra before terminating in a fibrous extension known as the filum terminale. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal cord is a bundle of nerve fibers, no thicker than the human thumb, that links the brain with the rest of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The nerve fibers enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root. (washington.edu)
  • We found a central role for so-called proprioceptive afferents, nerve fibers which signal proprioceptive information back to the spinal cord," says Takeoka. (eurekalert.org)
  • That leads to the rapid death of neurons, damage to the insulating sheaths around nerve fibers that allow them to send signals, and the formation of a scar that blocks the regeneration of the spinal cord's nerve cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers found certain nerve fibers that were not damaged when the spinal cord was injured spontaneously grew, or sprouted, and compensated for the severed connections, allowing the monkeys to gain back much sensation and movement. (livescience.com)
  • The corticospinal tract is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the brain's cortex with the spinal cord. (livescience.com)
  • [10] Studies differ greatly in reporting the percentage of people who have lead migration but the majority of studies report in the range of 10-25% of lead migration for spinal cord stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The neurophysiological mechanisms of action of spinal cord stimulation are not completely understood but may involve masking pain sensation with tingling by altering the pain processing of the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. (springer.com)
  • Kemler, M.A., de Vet, H.C., Barendse, G.A., van den Wildenberg, F.A., van, K.M.: Effect of spinal cord stimulation for chronic complex regional pain syndrome Type I: five-year final follow-up of patients in a randomized controlled trial. (springer.com)
  • Viswanathan, A., Phan, P.C., Burton, A.W.: Use of spinal cord stimulation in the treatment of phantom limb pain: case series and review of the literature. (springer.com)
  • Spinal stimulation combined with assisted walking therapy generates new neural circuits and restores voluntary leg movement. (technologyreview.com)
  • A spinal cord stimulation (SCS) system includes implantable components (10), external components (20) and surgical tools and aids (30). (google.ca)
  • In the present book, twelve typical literatures about spinal cord injury published on international authoritative journals were selected to introduce the worldwide newest progress, which contains reviews or original researches on spinal cord stimulation, incomplete spinal cord injury, central cord syndrome, prehospital treatment, spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality and rehabilitation, etc. (scirp.org)
  • When surgery or other treatments have been unsuccessful or are not an option, spinal cord stimulation or peripheral nerve field stimulation therapy may offer relief and improved daily functioning. (spine-health.com)
  • The medical literature has shown that spinal cord stimulation is potentially effective for a number of chronic pain conditions, such as back pain, neck pain, and complex regional pain syndrome, that have not been helped by other treatments. (spine-health.com)
  • Unlike most surgical procedures, spinal cord stimulation therapy is reversible. (spine-health.com)
  • The pain relief experienced with spinal cord stimulation and peripheral nerve stimulation may allow people to take fewer pain medications. (spine-health.com)
  • Instead of taking a medication that affects the whole body and causes sleepiness, constipation, or other problems unrelated to the pain, spinal cord stimulation delivers pain relief only where it is needed. (spine-health.com)
  • Researchers have found that the costs associated with spinal cord stimulation compare favorably with alternatives, including non-surgical treatments . (spine-health.com)
  • The pain relief from spinal cord stimulation can continue for years, without a need for new pills or frequent office visits. (spine-health.com)
  • Spinal cord stimulation does not eliminate all pain, but has the potential to significantly reduce the pain. (spine-health.com)
  • 1. Verrills P, Sinclair C, Barnard A. A review of spinal cord stimulation systems for chronic pain. (spine-health.com)
  • Novel 10-kHz High-frequency Therapy (HF10 Therapy) Is Superior to Traditional Low-frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for the Treatment of Chronic Back and Leg Pain: The SENZA-RCT Randomized Controlled Trial. (spine-health.com)
  • Effectiveness of Spinal Cord Stimulation in Chronic Spinal Pain: A Systematic Review. (spine-health.com)
  • Scientists from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) and Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) use targeted spinal cord stimulation via an implant to restore limited locomotion to paralysed patients who had chronic spinal cord injury. (reuters.com)
  • New research from the Mayo Clinic has allowed a paralyzed man to move his legs, stand and take step-like motions through the use of a spinal cord stimulation device. (upi.com)
  • April 3 (UPI) -- Researchers at the Mayo Clinic used electrical stimulation of the spinal cord to help a paralyzed man intentionally move his legs, stand and make step-like motions for the first time in three years. (upi.com)
  • The patient underwent 22 weeks of physical therapy to prepare his muscles for movement during spinal cord stimulation. (upi.com)
  • Research into potential treatments includes stem cell implantation, engineered materials for tissue support, epidural spinal stimulation, and wearable robotic exoskeletons. (wikipedia.org)
  • In accordance with its internal focus on scientific rigor, Asubio recently discussed its endpoint development activities at a peer-attended symposium at the American Spinal Injury Association ( ASIA ) annual meeting. (prnewswire.com)
  • American Spinal Injury Association. (medscape.com)
  • She has presented research at national conferences of the American Spinal Injury Association, the American Association of Spinal Cord Injury Psychologists and Social Workers (now the Academy of SCI Professionals), the American Public Health Association, and the American Psychological Association. (bu.edu)
  • SATURN is a prospective cohort study of patients with moderately-severe to severe spinal cord injury, defined as American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale A and B, who are treated with open-label NeuroAiD for 6 months in addition to standard care and followed for 24 months. (centerwatch.com)
  • The International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury (ISNCSCI), published by the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA), is widely used to document sensory and motor impairments following SCI. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the spinal cord is damaged, the communication between our brain and the rest of our body is disrupted, resulting in a loss of movement and sensation from below the level of injury. (spinal.co.uk)
  • The spinal cord is protected by the vertebral column , and together with the brain it comprises the central nervous system . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Many tracts start in the dorsal horn and carry sensory information from the cord to the brain (for example, the message that the hand is touching silk instead of sandpaper). (encyclopedia.com)
  • As the name implies, these tracts begin in the brain and travel down the spinal cord to make connections with neurons in the ventral horn. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In short, the spinal cord carries all of the information that enters and exits the brain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Spinal cord , major nerve tract of vertebrates, extending from the base of the brain through the canal of the spinal column . (britannica.com)
  • Like the brain, the spinal cord is covered by three connective-tissue envelopes called the meninges . (britannica.com)
  • What Are the Key Statistics about Brain and Spinal Cord Cancers? (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Are the Risk Factors for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Children? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The spinal cord is the main pathway for information connecting the brain and peripheral nervous system. (washington.edu)
  • This pattern is caused by the many axons going up to the brain from all levels of the spinal cord AND there are many axons traveling from the brain down to different segments of the spinal cord. (washington.edu)
  • In lower segments of the spinal cord, there is less white matter because there are fewer axons traveling to and from the brain. (washington.edu)
  • What Causes Children's Brain & Spinal Cord Tumors? (webmd.com)
  • The brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system . (webmd.com)
  • Brain and spinal cord tumors in children are the result of cells growing out of control. (webmd.com)
  • Children's brain and spinal cord tumors can be located in the spinal cord or in any of the brain 's three main parts: the cerebrum, cerebellum, or brain stem. (webmd.com)
  • The brain stem is connected to the spinal cord. (webmd.com)
  • Benign brain and spinal cord tumors can affect the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord. (webmd.com)
  • In rare cases, children have inherited genes that increase the risk of a brain or spinal cord tumor. (webmd.com)
  • Unless they've got a higher genetic risk, children aren't routinely tested for brain or spinal cord tumors. (webmd.com)
  • That means there's no standard age for children to be diagnosed with a brain or spinal cord tumor. (webmd.com)
  • If her doctor suspects a tumor, your child may undergo imaging tests like a CT scan or MRI to get a picture of her brain or spinal cord. (webmd.com)
  • Most children with brain or spinal cord tumors can be treated successfully. (webmd.com)
  • The spinal cord is a cable that goes from the brain down to the lower back. (kidshealth.org)
  • What's New in Adult Brain and Spinal Cord Tumor Research? (cancer.org)
  • Research is always being done in the area of brain and spinal cord tumors. (cancer.org)
  • For more on how these tests are used, see Tests for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults . (cancer.org)
  • In this approach, specially processed information from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, described in Tests for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults ) is used to make a map of important chemicals involved in tumor metabolism. (cancer.org)
  • The work has been funded by a Showalter Trust grant from Purdue and a grant from the Indiana Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Fund, and is partially supported by the state of Indiana and an R01 grant from National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering. (redorbit.com)
  • This type of imaging test (described in Tests for Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors in Adults ) can be done before surgery to locate a particular function of the brain. (cancer.org)
  • A typology of alcohol use patterns among persons with recent traumatic brain injury or spinal cord injury: implications for treatment matching. (medscape.com)
  • The participant has a very severe spinal cord injury that could have blocked this signal traveling from the hand to the brain. (reuters.com)
  • Dr. Andrew Jackson, professor of neural interfaces at Newcastle University, in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, U.K., told Reuters Health by email, "The study rests on a surprising finding: touch stimuli that are imperceptible to a spinal cord-injured participant can nevertheless be 'decoded' from brain activity in the motor cortex. (reuters.com)
  • The spinal cord functions by transmitting ascending impulses to the brain and descending impulses from the brain to the body. (which.net)
  • Spinal cord injury disconnects communication between the brain and the spinal cord, disrupting control over part of the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • Craig Hospital in Denver, Colorado is a world-renowned rehabilitation hospital that specializes in the neuro-rehabilitation and research of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI). (bu.edu)
  • The approach was demonstrated in mice at the University of Michigan, with the nanoparticles enhancing healing by reprogramming the aggressive immune cells--call it an "EpiPen" for trauma to the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal cord. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many of our reflex movements are controlled by the spinal cord but regulated by the brain. (rxlist.com)
  • When the spinal cord is damaged, information from the brain can no longer regulate reflex activity. (rxlist.com)
  • The spinal cord is responsible for sending messages from the brain to all parts of the body. (healthline.com)
  • Below C6 have lost communication with the spinal cord and brain. (upmc.com)
  • together, the brain and the spinal cord comprise the central nervous system of vertebrates. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Both the brain and the spinal cord develop from the embryonic feature known as the dorsal nerve cord . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of neural signals between the brain and the rest of the body (motor and sensory information, traveling in opposite directions down the spinal cord). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, the spinal cord also contains neural circuits that can independently coordinate numerous reflexes, which are automatic responses to various stimuli (such as pulling hand back from a hot object before the brain has processed the information). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The central nervous system is that portion of the vertebrate nervous system that is composed of the brain and spinal cord . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The CNS is contained within the dorsal cavity, with the brain in the cranial subcavity (the skull), and the spinal cord in the spinal cavity (within the vertebral column). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The spinal cord serves as the main route for the movement of sensory information to and from the brain. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Information flows to the CNS from the PNS, which senses the internal and external environment, and the response of the brain flows to the various organs and tissues by means of the spinal cord nerve network (Chamberlin and Narins 2005). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A major part of the map of spinal cords of mice is released by researchers from Allen Institute for Brain Science in Fremont. (emaxhealth.com)
  • The Central nervous system consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and the body's nerve network. (medindia.net)
  • Chapters are organized by molecular aspects and neuroprotective strategies by disease, including ischemic injury, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. (elsevier.com)
  • The long, cord-like part of the central nervous system that is enclosed within the vertebral column (the backbone) and descends from the base of the brain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Brain and spinal cord metastases occur when a cancer spreads to the brain or spinal cord from another part of the body. (cancer.ca)
  • Leptomeningeal metastases (also called meningeal carcinomatosis) are tumours that develop when cancer spreads from another part of the body to the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (meninges). (cancer.ca)
  • The spinal cord is located in the vertebral foramen and is made up of 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 1 coccygeal. (washington.edu)
  • the spinal cord extends down only to the last of the thoracic vertebrae. (washington.edu)
  • Vertebral metastases account for 85% of cases of spinal cord compression, and 70% of those metastases occur in the thoracic vertebrae. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The most common location for an intramedullary abscess is the posterior thoracic spinal cord. (medscape.com)
  • As may be expected, solitary lesions are more common and most likely appear in the thoracic cord. (medscape.com)
  • In 1899, Hoche demonstrated that abscesses may occur in areas of infarction, thus explaining the common incidence of septic spread to the lower half of the thoracic cord. (medscape.com)
  • Could a spinal cord injury cause a thoracic syrinx? (medhelp.org)
  • Also, the spinal cord has a varying width, ranging from 1/2 inch thick in the cervical and lumbar regions to 1/4 inch thick in the thoracic area. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The 26-year-old patient was paralyzed three years ago when he injured his spinal cord at the sixth thoracic vertebrae and lost all feeling and movement below the middle of his torso. (upi.com)
  • The diameter of the spinal cord ranges from 13 mm (1⁄2 in) in the cervical and lumbar regions to 6.4 mm (1⁄4 in) in the thoracic area. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to your spinal cord in your back will result in paraplegia. (spinal.co.uk)
  • Patients suffer paralysis and loss of sensation in their legs (paraplegia) if the lower part of the cord is damaged, or in their arms and legs (quadriplegia) if the injury is in the upper regions of the cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Paraplegia due to Spinal Cord Infarction After Lifting Heavy Objects. (medscape.com)
  • With a complete spinal cord injury, the cord can't send signals below the level of the injury. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients will be selected based on their baseline cervical motor level of sensori motor complete spinal cord injury ( ASIA Impairment Scale A, with a C4 to C7 level of cord injury) and will be stratified according to the baseline cervical motor level. (prnewswire.com)
  • A complete spinal cord injury means that the spinal cord has absolutely no motor or sensory function below the affected area. (spine.org)
  • Definition of complete spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
  • Instead, they cause damage when pieces of vertebrae tear into cord tissue or press down on the nerve parts that carry signals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the spinal column is somewhat flexible, some of the vertebrae in the lower parts of the spinal column become fused. (washington.edu)
  • Thus, the bony vertebrae and shock-absorbing disks protect the spinal cord from physical damage and compression. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Tibetan, showing spinal cord vertebrae of one figure. (wikimedia.org)
  • In humans, the spinal cord begins at the occipital bone, passing through the foramen magnum and entering the spinal canal at the beginning of the cervical vertebrae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spinal cord extends down to between the first and second lumbar vertebrae, where it ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the spinal cord can be caused by a trauma like an accident, or as a result of infection or disease. (spinal.co.uk)
  • Damage to the spinal cord in your neck will result in tetraplegia. (spinal.co.uk)
  • However, there are also risks of not having surgery for a tethered spinal cord, including further progression of the symptoms with permanent damage to the spinal cord. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • The researchers say these immune cells - called regulatory T cells - could prevent extra damage to the spinal cord after injury. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Damage to the spinal cord can be seen on an MRI immediately following trauma. (spineuniverse.com)
  • A spinal cord injury is damage to the spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function. (scirp.org)
  • In order to understand spinal cord compression, it is useful to understand the structure of the spinal cord and to understand the difference between the spinal cord and the vertebral column . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The vertebral column includes the bony structure surrounding the spinal cord and the spinal cord itself. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Spinal Cord, that part of the central nervous system contained within the vertebral or neural canal. (which.net)
  • The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enclosing bony vertebral column protects the relatively shorter spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • A spinal cord tumor may be either a cancerous or noncancerous lesion in the spinal cord that grows between the membranes covering the spinal cord or in the spinal canal. (faqs.org)
  • The Batson plexus (the confluence of epidural veins in the spinal canal) may contribute to the origin of an abscess by allowing organisms to lodge and thus develop in the spinal cord and its surrounding parenchyma. (medscape.com)
  • Trauma can cause impact of bone, disc, and/or ligament against the tissues by narrowing the spinal canal or even dramatically changing its alignment. (spineuniverse.com)
  • question does it mean there is pressure on my spinal canal? (medhelp.org)
  • MRI on 2/7/20 impression: Multifactorial moderate spinal canal narrowing at L4-5, including disc bulging, dorsal epidural lipomatosis, an. (medhelp.org)
  • Bone spurs can narrow the spinal canal, causing compression of the spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal cord levels of injury are named according to the corresponding vertebra and spinal nerve exiting from the spinal canal in that area. (upmc.com)
  • It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord, which contains cerebrospinal fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Spinal Cord Stimulator (SCS) or Dorsal Column Stimulator (DCS) is a type of implantable neuromodulation device (sometimes called a "pain pacemaker") that is used to send electrical signals to select areas of the spinal cord (dorsal columns) for the treatment of certain pain conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • After a short stimulator trial (typically less than 7 days), patients who report at least a 50% relief are set up for permanent spinal cord stimulator (SCS) placement. (medscape.com)
  • Placement of trial stimulator (median = 4) decreased pain scores significantly more than permanent spinal cord stimulator did (median = 2) ( P = 0.00). (medscape.com)
  • Finally, a significantly higher decrease in pain medication usage was seen after trial initiation (median = 0) versus after permanent spinal cord stimulator placement (median = 0) ( P = 0.028). (medscape.com)
  • But I'm waiting to do the trial for the spinal cord stimulator and I'm getting anxious and impatient. (drugs.com)
  • I have had very good results with my spinal cord stimulator. (drugs.com)
  • Has anyone had a spinal cord stimulator implanted for nerve pain in the head (specifically occipital neuralgia)? (healingwell.com)
  • After a spinal cord injury, you'll need spinal cord injury rehabilitation to optimize recovery and perhaps adapt to a new way of life. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Understanding this process in more detail can help us design rehabilitation strategies with maximal benefit for spinal cord injury patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • She is Principal Investigator for the current SCI Model Systems module project, "Utilization of Complementary and Integrative Healthcare to Treat Pain in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury" and a Craig H Neilsen Foundation-funded project, "A Bridge from Rehabilitation to Real-World: Reinventing Yourself after SCI. (bu.edu)
  • Ana Lucas-Osma, a research associate at the University of Alberta's Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, suffered a T7 spinal cord injury in Spain when she was 18. (edmontonjournal.com)
  • You also may expect to undergo intense rehabilitation treatment for your spinal cord injury. (healthline.com)
  • A Paradigm Shift in the Rehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injured Patients. (prweb.com)
  • Coupled with home study instruction, this PT Continuing Education Course course combines evaluative and rehabilitative teaching with hands-on practice on how to best combine the compensatory and recovery models in spinal cord injury rehabilitation. (prweb.com)
  • 28-73422 ) to learn more about our spinal cord injury rehabilitation program or to refer a patient. (upmc.com)
  • Information is available to you throughout the UPMC Rehabilitation Institute's spinal cord injury webpages, as well as in documents from both inpatient and outpatient health care professionals. (upmc.com)
  • The pathologies associated with spinal cord infarction are numerous and include neoplasm, spinal epidural or subdural abscess, granuloma, spinal epidural or subdural hematoma, extramedullary spinal tumor (including meningioma, neurofibroma, extradural lymphoma, metastasis), and herniated intervertebral disk. (medscape.com)
  • Lyders EM, Morris PP. A Case of Spinal Cord Infarction Following Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection: MR Imaging and Angiographic Findings. (medscape.com)
  • Epidural steroid injections into the spinal area may help treat the symptoms of spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • The patient then had surgery to implant an electrode in the epidural space near the spinal cord below the injury. (upi.com)
  • Although trauma, degenerative back disease, and genetic disorders can cause pressure on the spinal cord, the term spinal cord compression is usually reserved for cases in which the presence of a tumor results in pressure on the spinal cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Spinal-Cord-Injury-Information-Page. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Disorders of the spinal cord and roots. (nih.gov)
  • Bleeding disorders coupled with chiropractic manipulation can result in large clots compressing the spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • Anyone who experiences significant trauma to his or her head or neck needs immediate medical evaluation for the possibility of a spinal injury. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Trauma centers must first sign on to participate in the study, and then attending trauma physicians and nurses will identify eligible patients when they arrive at a facility with a spinal cord injury. (prnewswire.com)
  • With industrialization, motor vehicle accidents (MVA) have become the leading cause of spinal trauma. (spine.org)
  • Spinal trauma. (mayoclinic.org)
  • While complete transection, or severing of the cord, is rare, the spinal cord can be badly damaged with even the slightest trauma delivered directly to it. (spineuniverse.com)
  • There is a surge of chemicals released by the body in response to trauma that causes inflammation, decreased spinal cord blood flow, and cell death. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The answer would probably be "Yes," since MRI is never the first-line imaging modality in the setting of acute spinal trauma. (hindawi.com)
  • Join the ' Spinal Cord Trauma ' group to help and get support from people like you. (drugs.com)
  • Our support group for Spinal Cord Trauma has 4 questions and 46 members. (drugs.com)
  • If all feeling (sensory) and all ability to control movement (motor function) are lost below the spinal cord injury, your injury is called complete. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Molecular mechanisms underlying monosynaptic sensory-motor circuit development in the spinal cord . (nih.gov)
  • While a partial or incomplete spinal cord injury means that the spinal cord transmits some information to move the limbs or provides some sensory information from the skin. (spine.org)
  • A look at the spinal cord, our bridge to the PNS, shows that the sensory and motor tracts occupy areas of the cord. (infoplease.com)
  • There are three pathways for sensory information, from the ventral ramus and dorsal ramus (ramus = branch, plural = rami ) of the spinal nerve, or from the sympathetic nerve. (infoplease.com)
  • Sensory nerve cell bodies go in the dorsal root ganglia , and motor nerve cell bodies go in the sympathetic ganglia , which sit anterior to the ventral root, but branch off of the spinal nerve itself. (infoplease.com)
  • A careful evaluation of the injury and testing of sensory reflexes may be sufficient for a physician to rule out a spinal cord injury, but if the patient seems weak, confused or complains of neck pain, for example, the following emergency tests may be arranged. (news-medical.net)
  • While the patient was unable to perceive mechanical sensory stimuli below spinal level C6, sensory stimuli to the hand robustly modulated neural activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). (reuters.com)
  • The spinal line is the significant piece of the focal sensory system of body or primary pathway for data that associates the mind and fringe sensory system. (authorstream.com)
  • Tethered spinal cord syndrome may go undiagnosed until adulthood, when sensory and motor problems and loss of bowel and bladder control emerge. (smartdraw.com)
  • The spinal cord functions primarily in the transmission of nerve signals from the motor cortex to the body, and from the afferent fibers of the sensory neurons to the sensory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cross-section, the peripheral region of the cord contains neuronal white matter tracts containing sensory and motor axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • An "incomplete" spinal cord injury involves preservation of motor or sensory function below the level of injury in the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lowest normal part of your spinal cord is referred to as the neurological level of your injury. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The 3G Arrow Rear Wheel Drive Power Wheelchair with TrueTrack is a powered wheelchair designed for use by individuals with mobility, neurological, or lower extremity disabilities or spinal cord injury. (abledata.com)
  • The 3rd Hand Small Electronics Mount is an extension arm for wheelchair accessories designed for use by individuals with mobility or neurological disabilities or spinal cord injury. (abledata.com)
  • PARAMUS, N.J. , April 23, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- Today, Asubio announced the initiation of a landmark Phase 2 clinical trial of SUN13837, an investigational medication being developed to improve neurological function in patients with newly diagnosed acute spinal cord injury. (prnewswire.com)
  • This randomized, placebo-controlled study will determine whether subjects receiving SUN13837 are more likely to improve by two or more motor levels from baseline on either their right or left side as determined using the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury Scale. (prnewswire.com)
  • The clinician uses the patient's neurological exam, age, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the spinal cord, and other clinical data to guide the patient and his family on the expected outcome for a specific injury. (spine.org)
  • Ditunno JF Jr, Young W, Donovan WH, Creasey G. The international standards booklet for neurological and functional classification of spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
  • Tethered spinal cord syndrome is a neurological disorder caused by tissue attachments that limit the movement of the spinal cord within the spinal column. (smartdraw.com)
  • It is our opinion that early recognition of spinal cord injury and careful management in an intensive care setting can prevent many of the medical complications that are the major source of morbidity and mortality in these patients. (springer.com)
  • Importantly, the first symptom patients usually display prior to actual spinal cord compression is pain, especially pain that is not relieved by lying down, and which has lasted one month or more. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While Gater and his patients hope this research will lead to advances in spinal cord injury care, there's also potential for it to help with the overall obesity problem. (news-medical.net)
  • Salvador de la Barrera S, Barca-Buyo A, Montoto-Marques A. Spinal cord infarction: prognosis and recovery in a series of 36 patients. (medscape.com)
  • 1.] The potential outcome of this trial may support greater independence for patients with spinal cord injury, and help reduce demands on healthcare resources,' added Dr. Levinson. (prnewswire.com)
  • Improvements in the treatment of the chronic stages of the disease include the surgical management of syringomyelia, late post-traumatic deformity, and pain control has also been achieved.Increased survival for patients with spinal cord injury has focused the health care industry to develop strategies to enhance the quality of life via improvements, which range from lighter wheel chairs to development of fertility programs for the spinal cord injured patient. (spine.org)
  • These new basic research findings implicate the importance of continued use of affected body parts for rehabilitative success in spinal cord injury patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • That spectrum includes everything from paralysis to a loss of sensation for many of the 12,000 new spinal injury patients each year in the United States. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hopefully, this technology could lead to new therapeutic strategies not only for patients with spinal cord injury but for those with various inflammatory diseases," said Jonghyuck Park, a U-M research fellow working with Shea. (eurekalert.org)
  • Many are set to use the publication as a way of delivering support to new patients and NHS spinal injury units have already purchased the book. (lboro.ac.uk)
  • Although the role of operative treatment in SCIWORA can be controversial, surgical alternatives such as decompression and fusion should be considered in selected patients with clinical and MRI evidence of persistent spinal cord compression and instability. (hindawi.com)
  • Spinal cord injury patients who are intubated have to be carefully monitored for VAP and treated with antibiotics if symptoms appear. (rxlist.com)
  • It is recommended that all patients be seen on a regular basis by both their primary care physician and their spinal cord injury physician. (upmc.com)
  • Research by University of Iowa professor, Richard Shields, Ph.D. can provide a ray of hope for a cure for patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). (medindia.net)
  • The findings may lead to better ways to treat patients with spinal cord injures. (livescience.com)
  • Numbness or paralysis may occur immediately or come on gradually as bleeding or swelling occurs in or around the spinal cord. (mayoclinic.org)
  • 7. Muscle paralysis:  LMN paralysis : LMN in the spinal cord at the level of the lesion (C3,4,5,6. (slideshare.net)
  • C3-4 innervate diaphragm  breathing difficulty  C5-6 innervate biceps  flaccid paralysis, reflex (-)  UMN paralysis : affected the corticospinal tract (UMN axons) that will end in the spinal cord segment bellow the lesion  spastic paralysis. (slideshare.net)
  • Suspected spinal cord compression because of a tumor is a medical emergency.Prompt intervention may prevent paralysis. (faqs.org)
  • One of the most common features of spinal cord injury is paralysis. (news-medical.net)
  • We at Spinal Research want to see the day when spinal cord injury does not mean a lifetime of paralysis. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • A spinal cord injury closer to the neck will typically cause paralysis throughout a larger part of the body than one in the lower back area. (healthline.com)
  • Severe damage can result in paralysis and poliomyelitis results from a viral inflammation of the spinal cord's gray matter. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This type of repair likely occurs only in cases of mild spinal cord injury - severe cases result in more permanent paralysis. (livescience.com)
  • The space between the outer and middle envelopes is filled with cerebrospinal fluid , a clear, colourless fluid that cushions the spinal cord. (britannica.com)
  • The subarachnoid space contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), which can be sampled with a lumbar puncture, or "spinal tap" procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment also may include pain relievers and drugs to lessen swelling around the tumor, and relieve pressure on the spinal cord. (faqs.org)
  • The regions of the spinal cord that are largely or entirely composed of myelinated nerve cell axons and contain few or no neural cell bodies or dendrites. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - A sensorimotor neural interface successfully restored touch sensation in a patient with quadriplegia resulting from spinal cord injury (SCI), researchers report. (reuters.com)
  • The BSCB provides a specialized protective 'microenvironment' for neural cells in the spinal cord. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A spinal cord injury breaks that barrier, letting in overzealous immune cells that create too much inflammation for the delicate neural tissues. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tethered spinal cord syndrome appears to be the result of improper growth of the neural tube during fetal development, and is closely linked to spina bifida. (smartdraw.com)
  • It is also the location of groups of spinal interneurons that make up the neural circuits known as central pattern generators. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furlan JC, Fehlings MG. Cardiovascular complications after acute spinal cord injury: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. (medscape.com)
  • The spinal cord is continuous with the caudal portion of the medulla, running from the base of the skull to the body of the first lumbar vertebra. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the cord compression becomes more severe, it can affect lower muscle functions such as bowel and bladder. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The psychological and psychiatric care for the children after severe spinal cord injury in the framework of the combined early rehabilitative treatment]. (nih.gov)
  • Severe sepsis or pneumonia frequently follows treatment with high-dose methylprednisolone that is frequently used in spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal cord injury can lead to serious disability and have severe impacts on a person's quality of life. (news-medical.net)
  • They depend on how severe the compression is and on what area of the spinal cord is compressed. (healthline.com)
  • However, there are severe potential effects of a spinal cord injury. (healthline.com)
  • The tumor may originate in a number of areas and either directly or indirectly put pressure on the cord. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A tumor here can compress the spinal cord or its nerve roots,so even a noncancerous growth may be disabling unless it's properly treated. (faqs.org)
  • An illustration shows an example of spinal cord compression caused by a tumor.Photo Source:123RF.com. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The first step in diagnosing a spinal cord tumor includes a discussion of the child's health history and a thorough physical examination. (spineuniverse.com)
  • If a spinal cord tumor is suspected, the child will need to undergo some diagnostic tests to rule out other possible health problems. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The microscopic appearance of the tumor after it is biopsied or excised (histopathology), is essential for determining the appropriate treatment of a spinal cord tumor. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Surgery is performed to remove or reduce the size of the tumor and alleviate the pressure ont he spinal column caused by the tumor. (spineuniverse.com)
  • The tumor can put pressure on the cord if this occurs, causing compression. (healthline.com)
  • Your doctor may prescribe other treatments, such as radiation therapy or chemotherapy, to shrink a tumor that's causing cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • Thus, compression of the spinal cord at different levels can result in very different symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Compression of the spinal cord in this region would be known as compression at C7. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This kind of pain should be sufficient to suspect imminent spinal cord compression due to cancerous causes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The top priority is to exclude spinal cord compression by a mass lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Malignant spinal cord compression: a hospice emergency. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal cord compression occurs when a mass places pressure on the cord. (healthline.com)
  • What are the symptoms of spinal cord compression? (healthline.com)
  • The symptoms of spinal cord compression can vary. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal cord compression affects fine motor skills and coordination. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal cord compression has many possible causes. (healthline.com)
  • Certain degenerative diseases, such as arthritis, can lead to spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • A ruptured disk may lead to spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • Injury to the spinal cord or the area around the cord can lead to swelling, which can cause compression. (healthline.com)
  • Who is at risk for spinal cord compression? (healthline.com)
  • Anyone can have an injury or develop a condition that leads to spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • Use of poor lifting techniques may increase your risk of a neck or back injury, which can cause spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • People who have osteoarthritis may also be at an increased risk for developing spinal cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • How is spinal cord compression diagnosed? (healthline.com)
  • How is spinal cord compression treated? (healthline.com)
  • Treatment for a spinal compression depends on the causes and the severity of the compression. (healthline.com)
  • Some people with spinal cord compression may benefit from physical therapy. (healthline.com)
  • What is the outlook for people with spinal cord compression? (healthline.com)
  • How is spinal cord compression prevented? (healthline.com)
  • It may not be possible to prevent spinal cord compression in all cases because there are so many possible causes. (healthline.com)
  • Maintaining a healthy weight and getting regular exercise can help reduce added pressure on the back and symptoms of a cord compression. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal cord compression occurs when a mass places pressure anywhere on the spinal cord down to the lower back. (healthline.com)
  • Spinal Cord wants to encourage researchers that are still working to consider conducting Systematic Reviews or Narrative Reviews. (nature.com)
  • With all of their background knowledge on the effects of the gut microbiome, the researchers hypothesized that changes in the gut microbiome could affect spinal cord injury recovery. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers at the University of Michigan Health System are looking at how people with spinal cord injury burn calories and how that is affected by their muscle mass and body weight. (news-medical.net)
  • Purdue researchers have now shown that the micelles themselves repair damaged axons, fibers that transmit electrical impulses in the spinal cord. (redorbit.com)
  • The researchers used the chamber to study how well micelles repaired damaged nerve cells by measuring the "compound action potential," or the ability of a spinal cord to transmit signals. (redorbit.com)
  • A team of researchers at the University of South Florida investigating the short and long-term effects of ischemic stroke in a rodent model has found that stroke can cause long-term damage to the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB), creating a "toxic environment" in the spinal cord that might leave stroke survivors susceptible to motor dysfunction and disease pathology. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers, who evaluated the BSCB in test animals at seven and 30 days after stroke modeling, found that ischemic stroke damaged the gray and white matter in the cervical spinal cord on both sides of the spinal column, based on analysis of electron microscope images. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These stroke-related alterations in the cervical spinal cord indicate pervasive and long-lasting BSCB damage that would severely affect spinal cord function, wrote the researchers, adding that the widespread microvascular impairment in the gray and white matter of the cervical spinal cord aggravated motor neuron deterioration and had the potential to cause motor dysfunction. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But now, U-M researchers have designed nanoparticles that intercept immune cells on their way to the spinal cord, redirecting them away from the injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • We hope this book can demonstrate advances in spinal cord injury as well as give references to the researchers, students and other related people. (scirp.org)
  • Researchers were working several months in creating a map, which is to describe spinal cord of mice. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Allen Institute researchers expect to completely finish spinal cord map early next year, and the map will cost about $2.3 million. (emaxhealth.com)
  • This growth was able to restore 60 percent of the original spinal cord connections, the researchers said. (livescience.com)
  • Spinal cord stimulating device created by researchers at the Mayo Clinic. (upi.com)
  • Another of the researchers Dr Ann Turnley said most people with spinal cord damage often suffered devastating effects and there was usually little chance they would ever regain much movement. (abc.net.au)
  • The surgery reported in the Journal of Neurosurgery was the first one she had done that applied the peripheral nerve technique and gave the limb function following a spinal cord injury. (redorbit.com)
  • Different parts of the spinal cord control different body parts. (kidshealth.org)
  • According to the dermatom area, the patient got loss of sensation up to segment C3 of dermatom (Base of the neck is C2-3) .Thus, the probale site of the lesion is on C3 or bellow C3 segment of the spinal cord. (slideshare.net)
  • A disorder caused by a spinal injury leading to an incomplete spinal lesion. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Ideally the tethered cord is treated soon after diagnosis because long-standing symptoms may not improve after the spinal cord is untethered. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • Luo CB, Chang FC, Teng MM. Magnetic resonance imaging as a guide in the diagnosis and follow-up of spinal cord infarction. (medscape.com)
  • With this particular surgery, the risks include excessive bleeding, infection, injury to the spinal cord, persistent leaking of spinal fluid and anesthesia complications. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • People who survive a spinal cord injury will most likely have medical complications such as chronic pain and bladder and bowel dysfunction, along with an increased susceptibility to respiratory and heart problems. (rxlist.com)
  • Respiratory complications, primarily as a result of pneumonia , are a leading cause of death in people with spinal cord injury. (rxlist.com)
  • Spinal Cord Stimulators are placed in two different stages: a trial stage followed by a final implantation stage. (wikipedia.org)
  • I haven't had one implanted on the spinal cord itself but I did try having stimulators placed directly on the occipital nerve as well as the super-orbital area. (healingwell.com)
  • Many cell bodies in the ventral horn of the spinal cord send axons through the ventral root to muscles to control movement. (washington.edu)
  • I had a recent MRI that show C5-6 broad-based right posterior central disc protusion extending 3 mm beyond the endplate margins with right ventral cord flattening and mild attenuation of the thecal sac on the right, 8 mm AP. (medhelp.org)
  • 2013). The spinal cord runs along the dorsal side of the vertebrate body, above the gut, unlike the ventral nerve cord of invertebrates , which is usually positioned on the ventral side, below the gut, and likewise is solid, not hollow and fluid-filled. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Ventral roots consist of efferent fibers that arise from motor neurons whose cell bodies are found in the ventral (or anterior) gray horns of the spinal cord. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cord is stabilized within the dura mater by the connecting denticulate ligaments, which extend from the enveloping pia mater laterally between the dorsal and ventral roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • These symptoms can occur around the spinal cord, and also in other areas such as your arms and legs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Since abscesses may occur anywhere along the spinal axis, anatomy varies with location involved. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal cord abscesses occur more frequently in males than females with a peak incidence in the first and third decades of life. (medscape.com)
  • Injury can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be complete injury, with a total loss of sensation and muscle function, or incomplete, meaning some nervous signals are able to travel past the injured area of the cord. (scirp.org)
  • SCIWORA (spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality) in infants and children. (medscape.com)
  • Pang D. Spinal cord injury without radiographic abnormality in children, 2 decades later. (medscape.com)
  • For people suffering from a spinal cord injury, it is much more than just not being able to walk. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Other treatments are being studied to see how they can help people with a spinal cord injury. (kidshealth.org)
  • Valid clinical trial programs, such as the acute spinal cord injury study being supported by Asubio provide an objective path to understanding and improving life after spinal cord injury,' said John Steeves , PhD, Peter Wall Distinguished Scholar in Residence, Professor and Founding Director of ICORD (International Collaboration On Repair Discoveries). (prnewswire.com)
  • In subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, the "combined" refers to the fact that the dorsal columns and lateral corticospinal tracts are both affected, in contrast to tabes dorsalis which is selective for the dorsal columns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, depending on which angle the spinal cord is compressed from, a person could experience numbness versus a loss of the ability to control muscles (often seen as an odd limp), depending on which area is compressed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Treatment for a spinal cord injury depends on what muscles, sensations, and functions are involved. (kidshealth.org)
  • The area of skin innervated by a specific spinal nerve is called a dermatome, and the group of muscles innervated by a single spinal nerve is called a myotome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal cord infarction in disease and surgery of the aorta. (medscape.com)
  • Surgery is usually performed by a neurosurgeon or orthopedic surgeon who has a special interest in spinal surgery. (spine.org)
  • Surgery is usually the first step in treating cancerous and noncancerous tumors outside the spinalcord. (faqs.org)
  • Tumors inside the spinal cord may not be able to be completely removedwith surgery. (faqs.org)
  • Health issues Web site America's Health Network on Tuesday will host a Webcast of spinal cord surgery on a 55-year-old chronic back pain sufferer. (zdnet.com)
  • This procedure is unusual for treating quadriplegia because we do not attempt to go back into the spinal cord where the injury is," remarked surgeon Dr. Ida K. Fox , an assistant professor of plastic and reconstructive surgery at Washington University, in a prepared statement. (redorbit.com)
  • According to the report, the patient completed the surgery two years after his spinal injury. (redorbit.com)
  • During the surgery, Mackinnon operated in the upper arms to work around the patient´s C7 spinal cord injury. (redorbit.com)
  • Spinal Cord Injury Treatment There is an assortment of treatment and surgery alternatives for spinal cord injury, contingent upon the influenced region. (authorstream.com)
  • Since spinal cord tumors usually are caused by spread of cancer that has first appeared elsewhere in the body, early detection of cancer in other organs may prevent spinal cord tumors. (faqs.org)
  • Combarros O, Vadillo A, Gutierrez-Perez R. Cervical spinal cord infarction simulating myocardial infarction. (medscape.com)
  • A Washington University research study seeks participants with cervical spinal cord injury. (centerwatch.com)
  • In the United States, about 12,000 people a year survive a spinal cord injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The causes of spinal cord injury are varied. (spine.org)
  • If your child has the symptoms described and has been diagnosed with spina bifida , diastematomyelia, dermal sinus, syringomyelia or imperforate anus, they have an increased risk for a tethered spinal cord. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • If your child has any of the symptoms of a tethered spinal cord, it is important to have them examined by your primary care provider, who will refer you to a neurosurgeon if needed. (cincinnatichildrens.org)
  • If there are several tumors in different areas of the spinal cord at the same time, it may cause symptoms in a variety of spots on the body. (faqs.org)
  • Symptoms of spinal tumors generally develop slowly and worsen over time. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Symptoms may include loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in the parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the injury. (scirp.org)
  • This delayed presentation of symptoms is related to the degree of strain placed on the spinal cord over time. (smartdraw.com)
  • Spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling mediates chronic itch in mice through the astrocytic JAK2-STAT3 cascade. (nih.gov)
  • whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more controversial. (springer.com)
  • Association between mobility mode and C-reactive protein levels in men with chronic spinal cord injury. (medscape.com)
  • Spinal cord abscesses arise in spinal cord parenchyma and can be solitary or multiple, contiguous or isolated, and chronic or acute, depending upon the organism and individual patient. (medscape.com)
  • A multicenter, prospective trial to assess the safety and performance of the spinal modulation dorsal root ganglion neurostimulator system in the treatment of chronic pain. (spine-health.com)
  • about 10,000 Americans develop spinal cord growths each year, and about 40% of them are cancerous. (faqs.org)
  • Cancerous and noncancerous tumors can grow in the space near the spinal cord. (healthline.com)
  • A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The bottom graphs show data indicating damaged spinal cord tissue recovered its "action potential," or ability to transmit signals, after treatment with the micelles. (redorbit.com)
  • Following spinal cord injury, disrupted neuronal pathways can no longer provide sufficiently strong signals to the spinal networks below the injury, often leading to permanent and devastating motor impairment," explains prof. Aya Takeoka from NERF (NeuroElectronics Research Flanders), an interdisciplinary research center empowered by VIB, KU Leuven and imec. (eurekalert.org)
  • Spinal tumors, also called neoplasms, are abnormal growths of tissue found inside the spinal column. (spineuniverse.com)
  • Tethering may also develop after spinal cord injury and scar tissue can block the flow of fluids around the spinal cord. (smartdraw.com)