A class I viral fusion protein that forms the characteristic spikes, or peplomers, found on the viral surface that mediate virus attachment, fusion, and entry into the host cell. During virus maturation, it is cleaved into two subunits: S1, which binds to receptors in the host cell, and S2, which mediates membrane fusion.
A genus of the family CORONAVIRIDAE which causes respiratory or gastrointestinal disease in a variety of vertebrates.
Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Spherical RNA viruses, in the order NIDOVIRALES, infecting a wide range of animals including humans. Transmission is by fecal-oral and respiratory routes. Mechanical transmission is also common. There are two genera: CORONAVIRUS and TOROVIRUS.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It lacks hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting cats of all ages and commonly found in catteries and zoos. Cats are often found carrying the virus but only a small proportion develop disease. Feline coronavirus and Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) are virtually the same virus in genetic and antigenetic terms, and are morphologically indistinguishable. Since they only differ in their disease potential (with FIPV causing a more serious illness), they are considered biotypes of each other.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting neonatal calves, presenting as acute diarrhea, and frequently leading to death.
A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing the common cold and possibly nervous system infections in humans. It contains hemagglutinin-esterase.
A species of CORONAVIRUS infecting dogs. Onset of symptoms is usually sudden and includes vomiting, diarrhea, and dehydration.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
Virus diseases caused by CORONAVIRIDAE.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing a fatal disease to pigs under 3 weeks old.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing infections in chickens and possibly pheasants. Chicks up to four weeks old are the most severely affected.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
A species of ALPHAVIRUS isolated in central, eastern, and southern Africa.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
A species in the genus CORONAVIRUS causing upper and lower RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS. It shares the receptor used by the SARS VIRUS.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing pneumonia in newborn rats but a clinically inapparent infection in adults. It is separate but antigenically related to MURINE HEPATITIS VIRUS.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing enteritis in turkeys and pullets.
A mutant strain of TRANSMISSIBLE GASTROENTERITIS VIRUS causing mild or subclinical respiratory infections in young SWINE. It may also play a role in post-weaning porcine respiratory disease complex, especially when combined with other respiratory agents.
A 44-kDa highly glycosylated plasma protein that binds phospholipids including CARDIOLIPIN; APOLIPOPROTEIN E RECEPTOR; membrane phospholipids, and other anionic phospholipid-containing moieties. It plays a role in coagulation and apoptotic processes. Formerly known as apolipoprotein H, it is an autoantigen in patients with ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID ANTIBODIES.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
Common coronavirus infection of cats caused by the feline infectious peritonitis virus (CORONAVIRUS, FELINE). The disease is characterized by a long incubation period, fever, depression, loss of appetite, wasting, and progressive abdominal enlargement. Infection of cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage appears to be essential in FIP pathogenesis.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex essential for normal platelet adhesion and clot formation at sites of vascular injury. It is composed of three polypeptides, GPIb alpha, GPIb beta, and GPIX. Glycoprotein Ib functions as a receptor for von Willebrand factor and for thrombin. Congenital deficiency of the GPIb-IX complex results in Bernard-Soulier syndrome. The platelet glycoprotein GPV associates with GPIb-IX and is also absent in Bernard-Soulier syndrome.
A condition of chronic gastroenteritis in adult pigs and fatal gastroenteritis in piglets caused by a CORONAVIRUS.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The family of civets which are small and medium-sized Old World carnivores, often striped or spotted.
Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.
Proteins associated with the inner surface of the lipid bilayer of the viral envelope. These proteins have been implicated in control of viral transcription and may possibly serve as the "glue" that binds the nucleocapsid to the appropriate membrane site during viral budding from the host cell.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. They promote cell membrane fusion and thereby may function in the uptake of the virus by cells.
A protein-nucleic acid complex which forms part or all of a virion. It consists of a CAPSID plus enclosed nucleic acid. Depending on the virus, the nucleocapsid may correspond to a naked core or be surrounded by a membranous envelope.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An acute, highly contagious virus disease of turkeys characterized by chilling, anorexia, decreased water intake, diarrhea, dehydration and weight loss. The infectious agent is a CORONAVIRUS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The binding of virus particles to receptors on the host cell surface. For enveloped viruses, the virion ligand is usually a surface glycoprotein as is the cellular receptor. For non-enveloped viruses, the virus CAPSID serves as the ligand.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Specific hemagglutinin subtypes encoded by VIRUSES.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.
A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.
Acute inflammation of the intestine associated with infectious DIARRHEA of various etiologies, generally acquired by eating contaminated food containing TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL derived from BACTERIA or other microorganisms. Dysentery is characterized initially by watery FECES then by bloody mucoid stools. It is often associated with ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and DEHYDRATION.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
An order comprising three families of eukaryotic viruses possessing linear, nonsegmented, positive sense RNA genomes. The families are CORONAVIRIDAE; ARTERIVIRIDAE; and RONIVIRIDAE.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Protective immunity against murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induced by intranasal or subcutaneous administration of hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus that carries an MHV epitope. (1/422)

Hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were constructed with the use of fusion to the coat protein peptides of 10 or 15 amino acids, containing the 5B19 epitope from the spike protein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and giving rise to TMV-5B19 and TMV-5B19L, respectively. The TMV hybrids were propagated in tobacco plants, and the virus particles were purified. Immunogold labeling, with the use of the monoclonal MAb5B19 antibody, showed specific decoration of hybrid TMV particles, confirming the expression and display of the MHV epitope on the surface of the TMV. Mice were immunized with purified hybrid viruses after several regimens of immunization. Mice that received TMV-5B19L intranasally developed serum IgG and IgA specific for the 5B19 epitope and for the TMV coat protein. Hybrid TMV-5B19, administered by subcutaneous injections, elicited high titers of serum IgG that was specific for the 5B19 epitope and for coat protein, but IgA that was specific against 5B19 was not observed. Mice that were immunized with hybrid virus by subcutaneous or intranasal routes of administration survived challenge with a lethal dose (10 x LD50) of MHV strain JHM, whereas mice administered wild-type TMV died 10 d post challenge. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the dose of administered immunogen and protection against MHV infection. These studies show that TMV can be an effective vaccine delivery vehicle for parenteral and mucosal immunization and for protection from challenge with viral infection.  (+info)

Mapping of the coronavirus membrane protein domains involved in interaction with the spike protein. (2/422)

The coronavirus membrane (M) protein is the key player in virion assembly. One of its functions is to mediate the incorporation of the spikes into the viral envelope. Heterotypic interactions between M and the spike (S) protein can be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and by immunofluorescence colocalization, after coexpression of their genes in eukaryotic cells. Using these assays in a mutagenetic approach, we have mapped the domains in the M protein that are involved in complex formation between M and S. It appeared that the 25-residue luminally exposed amino-terminal domain of the M protein is not important for M-S interaction. A 15-residue deletion, the insertion of a His tag, and replacement of the ectodomain by that of another coronavirus M protein did not affect the ability of the M protein to associate with the S protein. However, complex formation was sensitive to changes in the transmembrane domains of this triple-spanning protein. Deletion of either the first two or the last two transmembrane domains, known not to affect the topology of the protein, led to a considerable decrease in complex formation, but association was not completely abrogated. Various effects of changes in the part of the M protein that is located at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane were observed. Deletions of the extreme carboxy-terminal tail appeared not to interfere with M-S complex formation. However, deletions in the amphipathic domain severely affected M-S interaction. Interestingly, changes in the amino-terminal and extreme carboxy-terminal domains of M, which did not disrupt the interaction with S, are known to be fatal to the ability of the protein to engage in virus particle formation (C. A. M. de Haan, L. Kuo, P. S. Masters, H. Vennema, and P. J. M. Rottier, J. Virol. 72:6838-6850, 1998). Apparently, the structural requirements of the M protein for virus particle assembly differ from the requirements for the formation of M-S complexes.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of chimeric MHV4/MHV-A59 recombinant viruses: the murine coronavirus spike protein is a major determinant of neurovirulence. (3/422)

The mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) spike glycoprotein, S, has been implicated as a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. In the absence of a full-length molecular clone, however, it has been difficult to address the role of individual viral genes in pathogenesis. By using targeted RNA recombination to introduce the S gene of MHV4, a highly neurovirulent strain, into the genome of MHV-A59, a mildly neurovirulent strain, we have been able to directly address the role of the S gene in neurovirulence. In cell culture, the recombinants containing the MHV4 S gene, S4R22 and S4R21, exhibited a small-plaque phenotype and replicated to low levels, similar to wild-type MHV4. Intracranial inoculation of C57BL/6 mice with S4R22 and S4R21 revealed a marked alteration in pathogenesis. Relative to wild-type control recombinant viruses (wtR13 and wtR9), containing the MHV-A59 S gene, the MHV4 S gene recombinants exhibited a dramatic increase in virulence and an increase in both viral antigen staining and inflammation in the central nervous system. There was not, however, an increase in the level of viral replication in the brain. These studies demonstrate that the MHV4 S gene alone is sufficient to confer a highly neurovirulent phenotype to a recombinant virus deriving the remainder of its genome from a mildly neurovirulent virus, MHV-A59. This definitively confirms previous findings, suggesting that the spike is a major determinant of pathogenesis.  (+info)

A 12-amino acid stretch in the hypervariable region of the spike protein S1 subunit is critical for cell fusion activity of mouse hepatitis virus. (4/422)

The spike (S) glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) plays a major role in the viral pathogenesis. It is often processed into the N-terminal S1 and the C-terminal S2 subunits that were evidently important for binding to cell receptor and inducing cell-cell fusion, respectively. As a consequence of cell-cell fusion, most of the naturally occurring infections of MHV are associated with syncytia formation. So far, only MHV-2 was identified to be fusion-negative. In this study, the S gene of MHV-2 was molecularly cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The MHV-2 S protein lacks a 12-amino acid stretch in the S1 hypervariable region from amino acid residue 446 to 457 when compared with the fusion-positive strain MHV-JHM. In addition, there are three amino acid substitutions in the S2 subunit, Tyr-1144 to Asp, Glu-1165 to Asp, and Arg-1209 to Lys. The cloned MHV-2 S protein exhibited the fusion-negative property in DBT cells as the intrinsic viral protein. Furthermore, similar to the fusion-positive MHV-JHM strain, proteolytic cleavage activity was detected both in DBT cells infected with the fusion-negative MHV-2 and in the transfected cells that expressed the cloned MHV-2 S protein. Domain swapping experiments demonstrated that the 12-amino acid stretch missing in the MHV-2 S1 subunit, but not the proteolytic cleavage site, was critical for the cell-fusion activity of MHV.  (+info)

Amino acid substitutions within the leucine zipper domain of the murine coronavirus spike protein cause defects in oligomerization and the ability to induce cell-to-cell fusion. (5/422)

The murine coronavirus spike (S) protein contains a leucine zipper domain which is highly conserved among coronaviruses. To assess the role of this leucine zipper domain in S-induced cell-to-cell fusion, the six heptadic leucine and isoleucine residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant S proteins were analyzed for cell-to-cell membrane fusion activity as well as for progress through the glycoprotein maturation process, including intracellular glycosylation, oligomerization, and cell surface expression. Single-alanine-substitution mutations had minimal, if any, effects on S-induced cell-to-cell fusion. Significant reduction in fusion activity was observed, however, when two of the four middle heptadic leucine or isoleucine residues were replaced with alanine. Double alanine substitutions that involved either of the two end heptadic leucine residues did not significantly affect fusion. All double-substitution mutant S proteins displayed levels of endoglycosidase H resistance and cell surface expression similar to those of the wild-type S. However, fusion-defective double-alanine-substitution mutants exhibited defects in S oligomerization. These results indicate that the leucine zipper domain plays a role in S-induced cell-to-cell fusion and that the ability of S to induce fusion may be dependent on the oligomeric structure of S.  (+info)

Selection of antigenic variants of the S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus and analysis of antigenic sites involved in neutralization. (6/422)

The type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) epitopes for neutralizing and enhancing antibodies are present on large spike glycoprotein (S) protein. In this study, we established monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses resistant to three different monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity in Felis catus whole fetus cells and enhancing activity in feline macrophages, recognizing distinct epitopes on type II FIPV S protein. By comparing the nucleotide sequences of these mutant viruses with that of wild-type virus, we attempted to identify the neutralizing epitopes. The mutations were localized in the region of amino acid residues from 480 to 649 from the N terminal of the S protein.  (+info)

Mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM infects a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. (7/422)

Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain JHM is a coronavirus that causes encephalitis and demyelination in susceptible rodents. The known receptors for MHV are all members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Although human forms of the MHV receptor can function as MHV receptors in some assays, no human cell line has been identified that can support wild-type MHV infection. Here we describe the infection of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HuH-7, with MHV. HuH-7 cells were susceptible to strains JHM-DL and JHM-DS, yielding virus titers nearly identical to those seen in mouse DBT cells. In contrast, HuH-7 cells were only marginally susceptible or completely resistant to infection by other MHV strains, including A59. JHM produced a strong cytopathic effect in HuH-7 cells with the formation of round plaques. Studies of various recombinant viruses between JHM and A59 strains suggested that the ability of JHM to infect HuH-7 cells was determined by multiple viral genetic elements. Blocking the viral spike (S) protein with a neutralizing antibody or a soluble form of the MHV receptor inhibited infection of HuH-7 cells, suggesting that infection is mediated through the S protein. Transfection with the prototype mouse receptor, biliary glycoprotein, rendered HuH-7 cells susceptible to infection by other MHV strains as well, suggesting that JHM uses a receptor distinct from the classical MHV receptor to infect HuH-7 cells. Possible implications for human disease are discussed.  (+info)

Selection of CTL escape mutants in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus: quantitative estimate of TCR diversity in the infected central nervous system. (8/422)

Variant viruses mutated in the immunodominant cytotoxic T cell epitope surface (S) glycoprotein S-510-518 are selected in mice chronically infected with mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM. We determined whether this selection occurred in the presence of an oligoclonal or polyclonal T cell response using soluble MHC/peptide tetramers in direct ex vivo analyses of CNS-derived lymphocytes. A total of 42% (range, 29-60%) of CD8 T cells in the CNS of mice with acute encephalitis recognized epitope S-510-518. A total of 34% (range, 18-62%) of cells from mice with hind limb paralysis (and chronic demyelination) were also epitope specific, even though only virus expressing mutated epitope is detected in these animals. Sequence analysis of the beta-chain CDR3 of 487 tetramer S-510-518-positive cDNA clones from nine mice showed that a majority of clonotypes were identified in more than one mouse. From these analyses, we estimated that 300-500 different CD8 T cell clonotypes responsive to epitope S-510-518 were present in each acutely infected brain, while 100-900 were present in the CNS of each mouse with chronic disease. In conclusion, a polyclonal CD8 T cell response to an epitope does not preclude the selection of T cell escape mutants, and epitope-specific T cells are still present at high levels even after RNA-encoding wild-type sequence is no longer detectable.  (+info)

The S1 and S2 subunits of the spike glycoprotein of the coronavirus which is responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) have been modelled, even though the corresponding amino acid sequences were not suitable for tertiary structure predictions with conventional homology and/or threading procedures. An indirect search for a protein structure to be used as a template for 3D modelling has been performed on the basis of the genomic organisation similarity generally exhibited by coronaviruses. The crystal structure of Clostridium botulinum neurotoxi n B appeared to be structurally adaptable to human and canine coronavirus spike protein sequences and it was successfully used to model the two subunits of SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein. The overall shape and the surface hydrophobicity of the two subunits in the obtained models suggest the localisation of the most relevant regions for their activity. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.. ...
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Recombinant SARS Coronavirus spike Protein (Met1-Arg667) S1 Subunit His Tag 40150-V08B1 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in Baculovirus-Insect Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this SARS Coronavirus spike protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Recombinant SARS Coronavirus spike Protein (Arg306-Phe527) RBD His Tag 40150-V08B2 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in Baculovirus-Insect Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this SARS Coronavirus spike protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
2019 Novel Coronavirus; Coronavirus; CoV; COVID-19 virus; HCoV-2; Human Coronavirus 2019; SARS2; SARS-CoV-2; Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; Spike glycoprotein RBD; Spike Protein ...
Recombinant 2019-nCoV Coronavirus spike Protein (Arg319-Phe541(E471Q)) 40592-V08H56 with a fusion His Tag, is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this 2019-nCoV Coronavirus spike protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Recombinant 2019-nCoV Coronavirus spike Protein (Arg319-Phe541) is expressed in HEK293 Cells. With high purity, high biological activity, high stability, and other superior features, you can use this 2019-nCoV Coronavirus spike protein for relevant bioassay and related research.
Mutations were introduced in the transmembrane region of the spike protein of the murine coronavirus A59. The maturation of these mutant S proteins was not affected, they were all expressed at the...
In this article, we investigate the binding processes of a fragment of the coronavirus spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD), the hexapeptide YKYRYL on the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and its inhibitory effect on the binding and activation of the coronavirus-2 spike protein CoV-2 RBD at ACE2. In agreement with an experimental study, we find a high affinity of the hexapeptide to the binding interface between CoV-2 RBD and ACE2, which we investigate using 20 independent equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over a total of 1 μs and a 200-ns enhanced correlation guided MD simulation. We then evaluate the effect of the hexapeptide on the assembly process of the CoV-2 RBD to ACE2 in long-time enhanced correlation guided MD simulations. In that set of simulations, we find that CoV-2 RBD does not bind to ACE2 with the binding motif shown in experiments, but it rotates because of an electrostatic repulsion and forms a hydrophobic interface with ACE2. Surprisingly, ...
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GeneMedi offers pre-made gene ORF plasmids of 2019 nCoV (SARS2 coronavirus) Spike(S1+S2) pET-28a(+) vector.The pre-made gene ORF vector of 2019 nCoV (SARS2 coronavirus) Spike(S1+S2) pET-28a(+) vector can be used for E.coli expression dependent on the CMV promoter or T7 protomer.GeneMedi also provides pre-made the lentivirus, adenovirus and AAV vector for the gene ORF plasmids of 2019 nCoV (SARS2 coronavirus).
In the original coronavirus, the spike proteins would bind to the ACE2 receptor and then dramatically change shape, folding in on themselves.. This enabled the virus to fuse its membrane with our own cells membranes and get inside. However, as Chen and colleagues reported in July 2020, the spikes would sometimes prematurely change shape and fall apart before the virus could bind to cells.. While this slowed the virus down, the shape change also made it harder for our immune system to contain the virus.. Because the original spike protein would dissociate, it was not good enough to induce a strong neutralizing antibody response, says Chen.. When Chen and colleagues imaged the mutant spike protein, they found that the D614G mutation stabilizes the spike by blocking the premature shape change.. Interestingly, the mutation also makes the spikes bind more weakly to the ACE receptor, but the fact that the spikes are less apt to fall apart prematurely renders the virus overall more ...
iStock). The spike protein is the focus of so much research at the minute, said co-lead author Donald Benton, a postdoctoral research fellow at the Francis Crick Institute's Structural Biology of Disease Processes Laboratory in the United Kingdom. Understanding how it functions is very important because it's the target of most of the vaccination attempts and a lot of diagnostic work as well.. To understand the process of infection, Benton and his team mixed human ACE2 proteins with spike proteins in the lab. They then used a very cold liquid ethane to rapidly freeze the proteins such that they became suspended in a special form of ice, Benton told Live Science. They then put these samples under a cryo-electron microscope and obtained tens of thousands of high-resolution images of the spike proteins frozen at different stages of binding to the ACE2 receptors.. CORONAVIRUS WAS EVEN MORE CONTAGIOUS AT BEGINNING OF PANDEMIC THAN EXPERTS THOUGHT, STUDY FINDS. They found that the spike ...
div,,div class=glossaryTooltipMoreLinkWrapper,,a class=glossaryTooltipMoreLink href=https://thebumblingbiochemist.com/glossary/cytoplasm/ target=_blank,Term details,/a,,/div, target=_blank>cytoplasm)). You can see the differences between the RBD up position (ready to bind!) and down position (not yet!) in the first structure of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to be solved. Back in February, Jason McLellans lab at University of Texas at Austin used cryoEM to solve the structure of the ectodomain (the non-membrane-embedded part). Their speediness was in part because theyd already solved the structure of a couple of other coronavirus spike proteins, including the one for the MERS virus. So they knew what they were doing and they knew a trick for getting the protein to better cooperate for picture-taking. They introduced a couple of mutations into the protein that they were expressing recombinantly (i.e. they put the gene for it into cells in a dish/flask and had the cells make the proteins ...
div,,div class=glossaryTooltipMoreLinkWrapper,,a class=glossaryTooltipMoreLink href=https://thebumblingbiochemist.com/glossary/cytoplasm/ target=_blank,Term details,/a,,/div, target=_blank>cytoplasm)). You can see the differences between the RBD up position (ready to bind!) and down position (not yet!) in the first structure of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein to be solved. Back in February, Jason McLellans lab at University of Texas at Austin used cryoEM to solve the structure of the ectodomain (the non-membrane-embedded part). Their speediness was in part because theyd already solved the structure of a couple of other coronavirus spike proteins, including the one for the MERS virus. So they knew what they were doing and they knew a trick for getting the protein to better cooperate for picture-taking. They introduced a couple of mutations into the protein that they were expressing recombinantly (i.e. they put the gene for it into cells in a dish/flask and had the cells make the proteins ...
Everyone has to weigh the evidence and decide for themselves. Im almost 66 and definitely not getting any COVID-19 vaccines. If you were to catch SARS-CoV-2, there are therapeutics that easily treat, cure, and prevent the disease. And they are totally tried and tested for half a century with the least side-effects of any drug on the market. Death is not one of their side-effects but over 4,000 people have died in the last 4 months getting a COVID-19 vaccine. Thats more deaths in 4 months from one vaccine than the total number of deaths from ALL vaccines for the last 20 years! No one is dying from catching the virus anymore so it seems clear which approach is the most risky. The vaccine does not make you immune to the virus; it only lessens symptoms when you do get it. Not much of a benefit especially considering the number of problems being reported on the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS). Also, if you check out our latest Wellness Support Group Webinar on our website ...
The three-dimensional hybrid structures of coronavirus spike proteins including the C-terminal sequence and receptor binding motif (RBM) was remodeled and energy minimized. Further, protein-protein docking show that Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV 2 Lys^(457)-Pro^(490) bind on the surface of ACE2 receptor near N-terminal helices to form host-pathogen attachment. In this binding interface, SARS-CoV 2 shows a tight network of hydrogen bonds than other spike proteins from BtRsRaTG13-CoV ...
As the SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV S2 subunits share 88% sequence identity, they are structurally conserved and can be superimposed with 1.2A root-mean-square (rmsd) over 417 aligned Cα positions. Only the most N-terminal part of the fusion peptide is resolved in the map, as was the case for previously determined SARS-CoV S structures.
This recombinant SARS-CoV-2/ 2019-nCoV Spike glycoprotein (S1 G476S mutation) is for COVID-19 research. Purity 90%+. C-terminal 10xHis-tagged. Protein Length: Partial. Find more...
multidose vials containing 0.45 mL suspension for dilution. In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared that the COVID‑19 outbreak was a pandemic. Since then, there have been over 111 million confirmed cases worldwide and over 2.4 million deaths resulting from SARS‑CoV‑2 viral infection (WHO COVID‑19 dashboard).1 In response, hundreds of vaccines are being rapidly developed in an effort to prevent further disease.2. The BNT162b2 COVID‑19 vaccine was the first to be given provisional approval in Australia and is indicated for those aged 16 years and over. It is made up of single‑stranded messenger RNA (mRNA) which encodes the viral spike protein of the SARS‑CoV‑2 virus. The RNA is encapsulated in lipid nanoparticles which allows uptake by antigen‑presenting cells (e.g. dendritic cells). Once inside, the mRNA is translated into the spike protein by host‑cell machinery and presented on the cell surface. These antigen‑presenting cells then show the spike protein to ...
The investigation suggested that coronaviruses use conformational masking and glycan shielding to limit recognition by the immune response of infected hosts. Similarly to SARS-CoV S and MERS-CoV, the investigation found that the SARS-CoV-2 S trimer exists in multiple, distinct conformational states resulting from SB opening at the trimer apex. These structural changes are necessary…
Collaborative project for curation biological processes involved in the COVID-19 disease after SARS-Cov-2 infection. It focuses on experimental evidence and plays with improved annotation of complexes and with the Evidence and Conclusion Ontology. The complexes link to EBIs Complex Portal, resulting from a collaboration with that database at the recent online ELIXIR biohackathon. Editing this pathway is (at this moment) coordinated via the wikipathways.slack.com #sarscov2 channel. The large viral Spike protein (S or surface glycoprotein) forms trimers. It interacts with the hosts ACE2 receptor to establish binding (Hoffmann et al 2020). There are suggestions for more than one cell entry mechanism, with the evidence for ACE2/TMPRSS2 entry being most clear now. Lack of expression of TMPRSS2 may explain age differences in COVID19 severity. In this mechanism, to enter the virus needs to be primed by the host protease TMPRSS2 that splits the Spike protein into 2 peptides S1 and S2. S1 contains the ...
NVX-CoV2373 is a vaccine candidate engineered from the genetic sequence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease. NVX-CoV2373 was created using Novavax recombinant nanoparticle technology to generate antigen derived from the coronavirus spike (S) protein and contains Novavax patented saponin-based Matrix-M™ adjuvant to enhance the immune response and stimulate high levels of neutralizing antibodies. NVX-CoV2373 contains purified protein antigens and cannot replicate, nor can it cause COVID-19. In preclinical trials, NVX-CoV2373 demonstrated indication of antibodies that block binding of spike protein to receptors targeted by the virus, a critical aspect for effective vaccine protection. In its the Phase 1 portion of its Phase 1/2 clinical trial, NVX-CoV2373 was generally well-tolerated and elicited robust antibody responses numerically superior to that seen in human convalescent sera. NVX-CoV2373 is also being evaluated in a Phase 3 trial in the UK and two ongoing Phase 2 ...
The Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS) is mobilized to fight the SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus responsible for the Covid-19 disease. Several research groups tackle a number of projects related to : The S glycoprotein Since the beginning of April, a concerted action involving several groups of the IBS has started, with the aim of producing the Spike glycoprotein located on the membrane of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. This collective action aims at hindering the virus attachment to cellular receptors (...)
Collaborative project for curation biological processes involved in the COVID-19 disease after SARS-Cov-2 infection. It focuses on experimental evidence and plays with improved annotation of complexes and with the Evidence and Conclusion Ontology. The complexes link to EBIs Complex Portal, resulting from a collaboration with that database at the recent online ELIXIR biohackathon.. Editing this pathway is (at this moment) coordinated via the wikipathways.slack.com #sarscov2 channel. Additionally, please feel free to add suggestions to the discussion page (see the tab at the top of this page).. The large viral Spike protein (S or surface glycoprotein) forms trimers. It interacts with the hosts ACE2 receptor to establish binding (Hoffmann et al 2020). There are suggestions for more than one cell entry mechanism, with the evidence for ACE2/TMPRSS2 entry being most clear now. Lack of expression of TMPRSS2 may explain age differences in COVID19 severity. In this mechanism, to enter the virus needs ...
The above studies evaluate CP through quantitative analysis of IgG responses to the SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein. A comprehensive accounting of human antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 would include all potential virally encoded proteins. SARS-CoV-2 encodes numerous proteins capable of stimulating antibody responses (12). The best known of these SARS-CoV-2 proteins is the trimeric spike (S) glycoprotein that adorns the extracellular surface of the virion, which has two subunits (S1+S2) and a receptor binding domain (RBD). The RBD interacts with the human ACE2 receptor to effect viral entry into host cells (13). SARS-CoV-2 also encodes a number of other proteins, including ORF6 to ORF10, with unclear functions. Some of these ORFs may facilitate host immune evasion. The multidomain structure of larger proteins, such as the spike protein, presents numerous epitopes to which antibody responses may develop. The accessibility of these different antigens to antibodies varies substantially in intact, ...
An animation of human cell membrane receptor ACE2 (golden) being recognised by SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (red). The Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the Spike protein transitions from a retracted state to an erect state in order to determine the suitability of a potential target cell for infection.. Mutations that destabilise the retracted conformation of the RBD may render new viral strains more infectious. ...
A Nature study shows that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein can adopt at least 10 sequential structural conformations when in contact with the ACE2 receptor.
ENV is trimer consisting of three glycoproteins with a molecular weight of 160K. This trimer is split into a 120K surface component and a 41K membrane component. Together they constitute a moiety that facilitates the entry of the virus into the host cell called the viral spike. Although the components of the viral spike have long been considered candidates for a vaccine, it has been elusive. In addition, the viral genes for these components have been discovered and used in vaccine production; this approach has also been shown to be unsatisfactory. The reason for this failure seems to reside in the fact that many of the regions of the molecular structure of the ENV subunits that are candidates for eliciting a significant immune response lie buried in areas that are effectively hidden from immune-surveillance ...
The Texas State Historical Association Quarterly Report includes Papers read at the meetings of the Association, and such other contributions as may be accepted by the Committee (volume 1, number 1). These include historical sketches, biographical material, personal accounts, and other research. Index is located at the end of the volume starting on page 555.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Two palmitylated cysteine residues of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike (S) protein are critical for S incorporation into virus-like particles, but not for M-S co-localization. AU - Ujike, Makoto. AU - Huang, Cheng. AU - Shirato, Kazuya. AU - Matsuyama, Shutoku. AU - Makino, Shinji. AU - Taguchi, Fumihiro. PY - 2012/4. Y1 - 2012/4. N2 - The endodomain of several coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) proteins contains palmitylated cysteine residues and enables co-localization and interaction with the CoV membrane (M) protein. Depalmitylation of mouse hepatitis virus S proteins abolished this interaction, resulting in the failure of S incorporation into virions. In contrast, an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) showed that depalmitylated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SCoV) S proteins still co-localized with the M protein in the budding site. Here, we determined the ability of depalmitylated SCoV S mutants to incorporate S into virus-like particles (VLPs). ...
Selecting from regions of the S protein of SARS CoV that are predicted to potentially present antigenic determinants, a small region (S-II) comprising residues 485 to 625 was expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli. After proper refolding, the solubilized S-II fragment was shown to specifically bind the surface of Vero cells by FACS analysis. This suggests that antibodies against this region could give rise to neutralizing activities. A panel of MAbs was raised with the recombinant S-II protein. A series of tests showed that the MAbs could recognize the native S protein, block the attachment of S-II to Vero cells, and neutralize SARS CoV infection in cell culture.. Virus entry involves attachment of the S1 region to the host receptor and exposure of the fusion peptide that results from the conformational change induced by the interaction of the S1 region with the receptor. However, studies with HCoV 229E, MHV, and TGEV further defined polypeptide regions that can bind the host receptor. A ...
The fusogenic potential of Class I viral envelope glycoproteins is activated by proteloytic cleavage of the precursor glycoprotein to generate the mature receptor-binding and transmembrane fusion subunits. Although the coronavirus (CoV) S glycoproteins share membership in this class of envelope glycoproteins, cleavage to generate the respective S1 and S2 subunits appears absent in a subset of CoV species, including that responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). To determine whether proteolytic cleavage of the S glycoprotein might be important for the newly emerged SARS-CoV, we introduced a furin recognition site at single basic residues within the putative S1-S2 junctional region. We show that furin cleavage at the modified R667 position generates discrete S1 and S2 subunits and potentiates membrane fusion activity. This effect on the cell-cell fusion activity by the S glycoprotein is not, however, reflected in the infectivity of pseudotyped lentiviruses bearing the cleaved ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 27667334. Protein Sci. 2017 01;26(1):113-121. The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the last 15 years by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor-binding and membrane fusion functions. Despite their biomedical importance, coronavirus S glycoproteins have proven difficult targets for structural characterization, precluding high-resolution studies of the biologically relevant trimer. Recent technological developments in single particle cryo-electron microscopy allowed us to determine the first structure of a coronavirus S glycoprotein trimer which provided a framework to understand the mechanisms of viral entry and suggested potential inhibition strategies for this family of viruses. Here, we describe the key factors that enabled this breakthrough.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27667334 ...
Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. To deliver their nucleocapsid into the host cell, they rely on the fusion of their envelope with the host cell membrane. The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. It is classified as a class I fusion protein, and is responsible for binding to the receptor on the host cell as well as mediating the fusion of host and viral membranes-A process driven by major conformational changes of the S protein. This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics
For detecting the Coronavirus as well as for developing vaccines against it the virus specific proteins are promising targets for scientists. Here we will describe some of the most important Coronavirus proteins:. SARS-CoV Spike Protein. The coronavirus spike contains three segments: a large ectodomain, a single-pass transmembrane anchor and a short intracellular tail. The ectodomain consists of a receptor-binding subunit S1 and a membrane-fusion subunit S2. During virus entry, S1 binds to a receptor on the host cell surface for viral attachment, and S2 fuses the host and viral membranes, allowing viral genomes to enter host cells.. SARS-CoV Nucleocapsid Protein. Of all the coronaviral structural proteins, the N protein is the most abundant throughout infection, both in mRNA and protein levels. Compared to the mRNA levels of other structural genes, the mRNA of the N protein is expressed three to ten times higher at 12-hour post-infection.. SARS-CoV Envelope Protein. The Envelope (E) protein is ...
3SCK: Crystal structure of spike protein receptor-binding domain from a predicted SARS coronavirus civet strain complexed with human-civet chimeric receptor ACE2
Description: Design a binder against coronavirus! Were challenging players to design an antiviral protein that could bind to the 2019 coronavirus spike protein and disrupt viral infection. The starting structure is a solution designed by spvincent in our previous Round 2 puzzle. This solution makes an excellent interface with the target, but were concerned that the binder may not fold properly. Our predictions suggest that the two sheets in this solution will not fold up as designed. Were asking Foldit players to try and improve this design so that it folds up correctly and can bind to the target! Players also have freedom to redesign an entirely new solution from scratch.. In late 2019, a new highly-infections virus emerged out of Wuhan, China. This virus belongs to the coronavirus family, and is similar to the virus that caused the SARS epidemic in 2002. Coronaviruses display a spike protein on their surface, which binds tightly to a receptor protein found on the surface of human cells. ...
21.2A: Steps of Virus Infections-Biology LibreTexts. (s. f.). En Boundless General Biology. LibreTexts. Recuperado el 26 de octubre de 2020 en https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/21%3A_Viruses/21.2%3A_Virus_Infections_and_Hosts/21.2A%3A_Steps_of_Virus_Infections. 3M. (s. f.). Reusable Respirators. Recuperado el 13 de abril de 2020 en https://www.3m.com/3M/en_US/company-us/all-3m-products/~/All-3M-Products/Safety/Personal-Safety/Personal-Protective-Equipment/Reusable-Respirators/?N=5002385+8709322+8711017+8711405+8720539+8720550+3294857497&rt=r3. Abbott RealTime SARS-CoV-2 Assay. (s. f.). Abbott. Recuperado el 7 de junio de 2020 en https://www.molecular.abbott/us/en/products/infectious-disease/RealTime-SARS-CoV-2-Assay. Abraham, S., Kienzle, T. E., Lapps, W. y Brian, D. A. (1990). Deduced sequence of the bovine coronavirus spike protein and identification of the internal proteolytic cleavage site. Virology, 176(1), 296-301. ...
This tutorial explains the structure of the spike protein, accompanied by interactive animations of structures determined by cryo-electron microscopy. The furin cleavage site and receptor binding sites are marked. Animations ready for Powerpoint slides are provided. The coronavirus pandemic of 2020 is caused by a virus called SARS-CoV-2. In the electron microscope, it looks like a crown because it has protein spikes sticking out. The virus enters and infects cells after its spike protein binds to the ACE2 receptor on cells in the lung or elsewhere. The first step in this binding is priming, when a protein-cutting enzyme such as furin clips the spike protein. This causes it to stick out its receptor-binding domain, making binding to ACE2 more efficient. Relevant research journal publications are cited. ...
The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic is the reason of the current global health crisis. The development of effective antiviral compounds and vaccines requires detailed descriptive studies of SARS-CoV-2 proteins. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein mediates virion binding to human cells through its interaction with the cell surface receptor ACE2 and is one of the major immunization targets. The functional virion consists of three S1 and three S2 subunits formed by the furin cleavage of the spike protein at R682, a polybasic cleavage site that differs from the animal version of the protein as well as from the SARS-CoV spike protein 2002. We analyzed the glycoprotein using our newly developed methodology based on low-energy fragmentation and cyclic ion mobility. Our analysis confirms the O-glycosylation of the spike protein on a threonine (T678) located near the furin cleavage site. This site is occupied by core-1 and core-2 structures. Two other predicted O-glycosites are unoccupied. We identified ...
Infectious Bronchitis Virus Classification - Schema of a phylogenetic comparing the relatedness of spike glycoprotein sequence tree relatedness of spike glycoprotein sequence.
Pierre Little. What leads you to believe that the spike protein will remain in the cell vs. expressed into the surrounding tissue by which not only antibody response will be built up (a good thing) but also attack by NK cells (another aspect of the immune system) and thus pro-thrombotic, pro-inflammatory aftereffects?. From what I understand, its not entirely clear where vaccine-induced spike proteins will show up because that would require tissue biopsies that were not done in human subjects. But there are clues provided by COVID-19 infection itself - and the implications are disturbing apart from the usual antivaxxer suspects. See: https://www.regulations.gov/document/FDA-2020-N-1898-0246. The mRNA vaccination process hijacks the cell to encode these proteins so were not talking a limited number taken up by the vaccine itself after which no more are produced by the body. See: https://www.jpost.com/health-science/could-an-mrna-vaccine-be-dangerous-in-the-long-term-649253. If these spike ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
The present study focuses on the role of human miRNAs in SARS-CoV-2 infection. An extensive analysis of human miRNA binding sites on the viral genome led to the identification of miR-1207-5p as potential regulator of the viral Spike protein. It is known that exogenous RNA can compete for miRNA targets of endogenous mRNAs leading to their overexpression. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 virus can act as an exogenous competing RNA, facilitating the over-expression of its endogenous targets. Transcriptomic analysis of human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells confirmed that the CSF1 gene, a known target of miR-1207-5p, is over-expressed following SARS-CoV-2 infection. CSF1 enhances macrophage recruitment and activation and its overexpression may contribute to the acute inflammatory response observed in severe COVID-19. In summary, our results indicate that dysregulation of miR-1207-5p-target genes during SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute to uncontrolled inflammation in most severe COVID-19 cases.
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Almost everybody must have heard that the name is derived from the characteristic form of the spike proteins. Coronaviruses, first discovered in 1966 by June Almeida, are an extensive virus family. They are characterized by having their genetic information stored as RNA, which is very large in comparison. It is also very stable, because corona virus have an included mechanism against mutations. Apart from the club-shaped spike protein, a lipid bi-layer membrane is very typical for this group. This detail also makes them especially susceptible for fat-dissolving agents, like soap when washing hands.. The Coronaviruses differ in their composition, especially the spike protein responsible for docking onto cells. Virologists however classify them by their genetic code, which reveals relationships. Within the actual corona viruses (Orthocoronavirinae), there are 4 genera (and maybe soon 5, as research is accelerated). One of them is the Alphacoronaviruses, with 13 subgenera, one of which contains the ...
Researchers from Northwestern University have identified a new vulnerability in the SARS-CoV-2s spike protein, illuminating a relatively simple, potential treatment pathway. The spike protein contains the virus binding site which adheres to host cells and enables the virus to enter and infect the body. The researchers discovered a site on SARS-CoV-2 that affects binding to human host cells.. Using nanometer-level simulations, the researchers discovered a positively charged site, known as the polybasic cleavage site, located 10 nanometers from the actual binding site on the spike protein. The positively charged site allows strong bonding between the virus protein and the negatively charged human-cell receptors. The researchers then designed a negatively charged molecule to bind to the positively charged cleavage site. Blocking this site inhibits the virus from bonding to the host cell.. Made up of amino acids, the novel coronaviruss polybasic cleavage sites have remained elusive since the ...
Mers Cov S Glycoprotein, supplied by Sino Biological, used in various techniques. Bioz Stars score: 93/100, based on 1 PubMed citations. ZERO BIAS - scores, article reviews, protocol conditions and more
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"Cryo-electron microscopy structure of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimer". Nature. 531 (7592): 114-117. Bibcode:2016Natur. ... This class of fusogens contains some of the proteins utilized by influenza, HIV, coronaviruses, and Ebola during infection. ...
The Distinct Spike Glycoproteins of Feline Coronaviruses". Viruses. 12 (1): 83. doi:10.3390/v12010083. PMC 7019228. PMID ... Duvinacovirus Human coronavirus 229E Luchacovirus Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus Minacovirus Mink coronavirus 1 Ferret coronavirus ... coronavirus 512 Rhinacovirus Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 Setracovirus Human coronavirus NL63 NL63-related bat coronavirus ... coronavirus T14 Sunacovirus Suncus murinus coronavirus X74 Tegacovirus Alphacoronavirus 1 Canine coronavirus Feline coronavirus ...
Coronaviruses enter the host by first attaching to the host cell using the spike glycoprotein. The S protein interacts with the ... Other coronaviruses that belong to the species Alphacoronavirus 1 are Feline coronavirus, Canine coronavirus and Feline ... The same cell receptor is also a point of contact for Human Coronaviruses. A domain in the S spike protein is recognized by ... Transmissible gastroenteritis virus or Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) is a coronavirus which infects pigs. It ...
"Identification of sialic acid-binding function for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein". ... for the coronavirus causing Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), the sixth coronavirus to be described. The term Lewis in ... For sialyl-Lewisx to bind to P-selectin, an O-linked glycan near the N-terminus of P-Selectin Glycoprotein Ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is ... the translucent matrix covering the human egg composed of four glycoproteins ZP1, 2, 3, and 4, and transit through the matrix ...
"Retargeting of Coronavirus by Substitution of the Spike Glycoprotein Ectodomain: Crossing the Host Cell Species Barrier" ... "Retargeting of coronavirus by substitution of the spike glycoprotein ectodomain: Crossing the host cell species barrier". ... replacing the ectodomain of the spike glycoprotein (S) with the highly divergent ectodomain of the S protein of feline ... and it is improbable that research on hard-to obtain coronaviruses could occur under the radar. The Wuhan Institute of Virology ...
2020). "A tale of two viruses: the distinct spike glycoproteins of feline coronaviruses". Viruses. 12 (1): 83. doi:10.3390/ ... It is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E, feline coronavirus serotype II (FCoV-II), TGEV, PEDV and canine coronavirus ... Look AT, Ashmun RA, Shapiro LH, Peiper SC (April 1989). "Human myeloid plasma membrane glycoprotein CD13 (gp150) is identical ... Kolb AF, Maile J, Heister A, Siddell SG (October 1996). "Characterization of functional domains in the human coronavirus HCV ...
The goal is to genetically express the spike glycoprotein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A ...
"The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". ... Hoffmann, Markus (2020). "A Multibasic Cleavage Site in the Spike Protein of SARS-CoV-2 Is Essential for Infection of Human ... and the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, must be cleaved by furin or furin-like proteases to become fully functional. Anthrax toxin ... "Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160". Nature. 360 (6402): 358-61. doi:10.1038/360358a0 ...
For instance, it was shown that griffithsin binds to the SARS-CoV spike glycoprotein to inhibit entry of the SARS virus and ... Griffithsin shows a broad spectrum ability to bind to the glycoproteins of other viruses, such as the coronavirus. ... Griffithsin's three identical carbohydrate domains bind to specific oligosaccharides on the envelope of viral glycoproteins. ...
... of Coronavirus Entry In Vitro and Ex Vivo by a Lipid-Conjugated Peptide Derived from the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein HRC ... Vaccinations are based on the mediation of spike (S) glycoprotein mediating the fusion of the virus and its host cell membranes ... infection by a highly potent pan-coronavirus fusion inhibitor targeting its spike protein that harbors a high capacity to ... Inhibition of COVID-19 infection targets the spike proteins that harbor the capacity for membrane mediated fusion. ...
2004). "pH-Dependent Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Is Mediated by the Spike Glycoprotein and Enhanced ...
The virus uses a special surface glycoprotein called a "spike" (peplomer) to connect to ACE2 and enter the host cell. The ... Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), also known as the coronavirus or COVID, is a contagious disease caused by severe acute ... Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. It was ... Coronaviruses die very quickly when exposed to the UV light in sunlight. Like other enveloped viruses, SARS-CoV-2 survives ...
Dye, C.; Temperton, N.; Siddell, S. G. (2007). "Type I feline coronavirus spike glycoprotein fails to recognize aminopeptidase ... The Distinct Spike Glycoproteins of Feline Coronaviruses". Viruses. 12 (1): 83. doi:10.3390/v12010083. PMC 7019228. PMID ... Dr ADDIE website focused research about FIP Coronavirus Site général Coronavirus site général Coronavirus Pictures. ... Coronaviruses are covered with several types of "S proteins" (or E2) forming a crown of protein spikes on the surface of the ...
"Tectonic conformational changes of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein promote membrane fusion". Proceedings of the National ... Murine coronavirus (M-CoV) is a species of coronavirus which infects mice. It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded ... The Murine coronavirus is a coronavirus that causes an epidemic murine illness with high mortality, especially among colonies ... Species Murine hepatitis virus; Puffinosis coronavirus; Rat coronavirus (these are to be united in a new species Murine ...
In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronavirus HCoV-NL63 and the ... The other six are: Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) Human coronavirus HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1) ... Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a species of coronavirus, specifically a Setracovirus from among the Alphacoronavirus ... "About Coronavirus". Center for Disease Control. Retrieved July 22, 2015. Leung, Daniel. "Coronaviruses (including SARS)". ...
"Cryo-electron microscopy structure of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimer". Nature. 531 (7592): 114-117. Bibcode:2016Natur. ... 1 Bovine coronavirus Human coronavirus OC43 China Rattus coronavirus HKU24 Human coronavirus HKU1 Murine coronavirus Mouse ... Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 Eidolon bat coronavirus C704 Rousettus bat coronavirus ... Bat SARS-like coronavirus WIV1 (Bat SL-CoV-WIV1) Bat coronavirus RaTG13 Hedgehog coronavirus 1 Middle East respiratory syndrome ...
"The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". ... function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein". Cell. 181 (2): 281-292.e6. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.058. PMC ... Other coronaviruses are capable of causing illnesses ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East ... "OSTP Coronavirus Request to NASEM" (PDF). www.nationalacademies.org. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 January 2021. ...
All three concerning mutations are on the spike protein, the operative part of the coronavirus that binds to receptor cells of ... an emergent Asp614→Gly (D614G) substitution in the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 strains that is now the most prevalent form ... "Coronavirus Variants and Mutations". The New York Times. Corum J, Zimmer C (18 January 2021). "Inside the B.1.1.7 Coronavirus ... "Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (formerly known as Wuhan coronavirus and 2019-nCoV) - what we can find out on a structural ...
"The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". ... Like other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 has four structural proteins, known as the S (spike), E (envelope), M (membrane), and N ( ... "coronavirus" or "Wuhan coronavirus". In January 2020, the World Health Organisation recommended "2019 novel coronavirus" (2019- ... March 2020). "Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of ...
"The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". ... and the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2,[13][14] must be cleaved by furin or furin-like proteases to become fully functional. ... "Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160". Nature. 360 (6402): 358-61. doi:10.1038/360358a0 ... "Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160". Nature. 360 (6402): 358-61. doi:10.1038/360358a0 ...
In order to infect cells, SARS-CoV uses the spike surface glycoprotein to recognise and bind to host ACE-2, which it uses as a ... Recent examples include the SARS-related coronaviruses, which have caused the 2002-2004 outbreak of SARS (SARS-CoV-1) and the ... MERS-CoV gains cellular entry by using a spike surface protein to bind to the host DPP4 surface receptor; the core subdomain of ... First reported in 2012, MERS-CoV (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) marks the second known introduction of a highly ...
"Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross-species transmission ... "Here's What It's Like in Wuhan, the City at the Center of Coronavirus". Time (dalam bahasa Inggeris). Dicapai pada 23 Januari ... "The West Blames the Wuhan Coronavirus on China's Love of Eating Wild Animals. The Truth Is More Complex". Time. 24 January 2020 ... "Why wild animals are a key ingredient in China's coronavirus outbreak". bangkokpost.com. 23 Januari 2020. Dicapai pada 24 ...
The protein of interest is the spike protein, an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through ... January 2021). "Native-like SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein expressed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccine". bioRxiv: 2021.01. ... October 2020). "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art ... "Coronavirus Vaccine : Summary of Yellow Card reporting" (PDF). It is known from the clinical trials that the more common side ...
"The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade". ... "Coronavirus (Covid-19)". The New England Journal of Medicine.. *. "Covid-19: Novel Coronavirus Content Free to Access". Wiley. ... "Structure, function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein". Cell. 9 March 2020. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.058 ... "About Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 11 February 2020. ...
Inside the coronavirus there is a spike protein that can penetrate human cells. Addo looks to combine the spike protein with ... After making contact with the ebola glycoprotein, the vaccination produce antibodies, T cells and neurotransmitters. It was ... triggering an immune response and a spike in T cells that ultimately work against the coronavirus protein. The proposed vaccine ... "MERS-Coronavirus: Erster Impfstoff wird klinisch geprüft - DLR Gesundheitsforschung". Deutsche Zentrum für Luft und Raumfahrt e ...
... coronavirus HKU21 Coronavirus HKU15 Munia coronavirus HKU13 White-eye coronavirus HKU16 Herdecovirus Night heron coronavirus ... glyco)protein species, S and M. Glycoprotein S comprises the large surface projections, while M is a triple-spanning ... "spikes"), which in electron micrographs of spherical particles create an image reminiscent of the solar corona. The 5' and 3' ... bat coronavirus HKU4 Nobecovirus Eidolon bat coronavirus C704 Rousettus bat coronavirus GCCDC1 Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 ...
Walls, Alexandra «Structure, function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein». Falta indicar la publicació. ... Xintian, Xu; Chen, Ping «Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein ... Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xing-Lou «A Pneumonia Outbreak Associated With a New Coronavirus of Probable Bat Origin». Nature, 03-02-2020 ... S'ha demostrat que els receptors ECA2 són el punt d'entrada a les cèl·lules humanes d'alguns coronavirus, inclòs el virus SARS. ...
The protein of interest is the spike protein, an external protein that enables the SARS-type coronavirus to enter cells through ... "Native-like SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein expressed by ChAdOx1 nCoV-19/AZD1222 vaccine". bioRxiv: 2021.01.15.426463. doi: ... "Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 spike (S) protein based vaccine candidates: State of the art and future ... "AstraZeneca coronavirus vaccine approved for use in Australia by TGA". ABC News. 16 February 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2021. ...
Coronaviruses. Nature 220:650. Kottier SA, Cavanagh D, Britton P. Experimental evidence of recombination in coronavirus ... The virions are enveloped and characterized by large surface projections (spikes or S) partially embedded in the double lipid ... sialic acid of cell-surface glycoprotein), may evade neutralization by antibodies, although still capable of adsorption to cell ... The coronaviruses contain the largest known viral RNA genome in number of nucleotides, of approximately 30,000 bases. ...
... function and antigenicity of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein". bioRxiv: 2020.02.19.956581. doi:10.1101/2020.02.19.956581.. ... "Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human ... "Q&A on coronaviruses. World Health Organization. Arquivado dende o orixinal o 5 March 2020. Consultado o 22 February 2020.. ... Moitos α-coronavirus utilizan a aminopeptidase N (APN) como o seu receptor, o SARS-CoV e o HCoV-NL63 usan o enzima conversor da ...
Gumagamit ang birus ng natatanging surface glycoprotein na tinatawag na "spike" (peplomer) upang kumonekta sa ACE2 at pumasok ... Ang COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019)[5] o sakit sa koronabirus 2019 na dating kilala bilang 2019-nCoV acute respiratory ... "Prevention of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)" (PDF). Centre for Health Protection. Tinago (PDF) mula sa orihinal noong 21 ... "Q&A on coronaviruses". World Health Organization (WHO). Tinago mula sa orihinal noong 20 January 2020. Nakuha noong 27 January ...
... glycoprotein) မကော်ဂး "ဇလ spike" သွက်ဂွံဆက်ကဵု ACE2 တုဲ ဂွံလုပ်စိုပ် ပ္ဍဲကဵု ကလာပ်ရုပ်ရ။[၃၇]ဝဳရုသ် လုပ်စိုပ် ပ္ဍဲကလာပ်ရုပ်တုဲ ... Coronavirus* Corona* COVID* 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease* Novel coronavirus pneumonia[၁][၂]* Severe pneumonia with novel ... Novel Coronavirus Information Center: Expert guidance and commentary (27 January 2020). *↑ Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)- ... "The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health-The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in ...
Recurrent deletions in the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein drive antibody escape». Science, 03-02-2021. DOI: 10.1126/science. ... Global Report Investigating Novel Coronavirus Haplotypes». Pango team. *↑ 8,0 8,1 8,2 «Living Evidence - SARS-CoV-2 variants». ... Cluster 5, ΔFVI-spike. [22] Y453F, 69-70deltaHV. [22] - - Disminució moderada de la sensibilitat als anticossos neutralitzants ... 34,0 34,1 Roberts, Michelle «Another new coronavirus variant seen in the UK». BBC NEWS, 16-02-2021. ...
Carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome Carbon baby syndrome Carbonic anhydrase II deficiency Carcinoid syndrome Carcinoma ... photocontact Continuous muscle fiber activity hereditary Continuous spike-wave during slow sleep syndrome Contractural ... Coronaro-cardiac fistula Coronary arteries congenital malformation Coronary artery aneurysm Coronary heart disease Coronavirus ... Calderon-Gonzalez-Cantu syndrome Calloso genital dysplasia Callus disease Calpainopathy Calvarial hyperostosis Coronavirus ...
"Nigeria is already dealing with a deadlier viral outbreak than the coronavirus epidemic". Quartz Africa. Retrieved 13 March ... Beaubien, Jason (19 March 2018). "Nigeria Faces Mystifying Spike in Deadly Lassa Fever". NPR. "Lassa Fever - Nigeria". World ... vaccine against Lassa virus based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing the Lassa virus glycoprotein. ...
See Table 1. Li, Fang (2016-09-29). "Structure, Function, and Evolution of Coronavirus Spike Proteins". Annual Review of ... In all members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, a haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene, which encodes a glycoprotein with ... It has, like other coronaviruses from genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Embecovirus, an additional shorter spike protein called ... RNA virus Human coronavirus HKU1 1889-1890 pandemic Lee, Paul. Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 in Hong Kong ( ...
meros = part] (also called a spike) is one of the knoblike structures (spikes), generally composed of glycoproteins (spike ... 1987) 218: S. 509-515, PMID 2449047 H. G. Niesters et al.: The peplomer protein sequence of the M41 strain of coronavirus IBV ... Both terms, peplomer and spikes, however, only describe a morphologically visible structure and are not identical to the ... it is mostly replaced by the less precise expression spikes. However, this suggests a pointed structure, which is not the case ...
Family 1.G.17 The Bovine Leukemia Virus Envelop Glycoprotein (BLV-Env) Family 1.G.18 The SARS-CoV Fusion Peptide in the Spike ... Family 1.A.57 The Human SARS Coronavirus Viroporin (SARS-VP) 1.A.58 The Type B Influenza Virus Matrix Protein 2 (BM2-C) Family ... Glycoprotein gO (gO) Family 1.H.1 The Claudin Tight Junction (Claudin1) Family 1.H.2 The Invertebrate PMP22-Claudin (Claudin2) ... Family 1.G.20 The Hantavirus Gc Envelope Fusion Glycoprotein (Gc-EFG) Family 1.G.21 The Epstein Barr Virus (Human Herpes Virus ...
Unlike other coronaviruses, viruses in this subgenus also have an additional shorter spike-like structural protein called ... In all members of Betacoronavirus subgroup A, a haemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene, which encodes a glycoprotein with ... The viruses of this subgenus, like other coronaviruses, have a lipid bilayer envelope in which the membrane (M), envelope (E) ... The viruses in this subgenus, unlike other coronaviruses, have a hemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene. The viruses in the subgenus ...
... and serine protease TMPRSS2 is implicated in cleaving the spike glycoprotein to allow fusion. Given the lack of ACE2 and ... The current coronavirus pandemic has had some impacts around the world, and it has changed or even worsened the way we ... Coronavirus disease 2019 affects men and women differently both in terms of the outcome of infection and the effect of the ... "Por el coronavirus, el Gobierno analiza dilatar el envío al Congreso de dos proyectos clave: aborto legal y reforma judicial". ...
Recombinant Human coronavirus SARS spike glycoprotein (Tagged) is an Escherichia coli Protein fragment, , 95% purity and ... Recombinant Human coronavirus SARS spike glycoprotein (Tagged). See all SARS spike glycoprotein proteins and peptides. ... A novel coronavirus has been identified as the causative agent of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). Coronaviruses are a ... Contains a mosaic of the immunodominant regions of the N-terminal of the Spike protein. Not full-length spike protein. Contains ...
Binding to the receptor probably induces conformational changes in the S glycoprotein unmasking the fusion peptide of S2 region ... sp,P15423,SPIKE_CVH22 Spike glycoprotein OS=Human coronavirus 229E OX=11137 GN=S PE=1 SV=1 ... "Identification of a receptor-binding domain of the spike glycoprotein of human coronavirus HCoV-229E.". Bonavia A., Zelus B.D. ... "Identification of a receptor-binding domain of the spike glycoprotein of human coronavirus HCoV-229E.". Bonavia A., Zelus B.D. ...
Simmons G., Rennekamp A.J., Bates P. (2006) Proteolysis of Sars-Associated Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein. In: Perlman S., ... LSECtin interacts with filovirus glycoproteins and the spike protein of SARS coronavirus, Virology 340, 224-236 (2005).CrossRef ... C. De Haan, K. Stadler, G. Godeke, B. Bosch, and P. Rottier, Cleavage inhibition of the murine coronavirus spike protein by a ... M. Frana, J. Behnke, L. Sturman, and K. Holmes, Proteolytic cleavage of the E2 glycoprotein of murine coronavirus: host- ...
The CHO derived recombinant protein contains the Coronavirus 2019 Spike full length, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1-1211 ... RSCU analysis proposes that the 2019-nCoV is a recombinant within the viral spike glycoprotein between the bat coronavirus and ... The CHO derived recombinant protein contains the Coronavirus 2019-Spike Full-Length protein, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1- ... A human infecting coronavirus (viral pneumonia) called 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV was found in the fish market at the ...
Spike Glycoprotein S1, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1-674 fused to His-tag at C-terminal. ... RSCU analysis proposes that the 2019-nCoV is a recombinant within the viral spike glycoprotein between the bat coronavirus and ... The Sf9 derived recombinant protein contains the Coronavirus 2019 CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein S1, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1 ... A human infecting coronavirus (viral pneumonia) called 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV was found in the fish market at the ...
The spike (S) glycoprotein of the coronavirus, responsible for host cell attachment and mediating host cell membrane and viral ... Our results provide new insights for understanding the mechanisms involved in coronavirus S glycoprotein-mediated virus entry. ... In this study, we report the structures of different conformational states of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein during virus entry. ... Specifically, we found that the S glycoprotein retains the prefusion trimer structure after trypsin cleavage and low-pH ...
Title: Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion entry ... Journal Article: Furin cleavage of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein enhances cell-cell fusion but does not affect virion ... Although the coronavirus (CoV) S glycoproteins share membership in this class of envelope glycoproteins, cleavage to generate ... the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the murine coronavirus and highlights an additional level of complexity in coronavirus ...
... called 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV was found in the fish market at the city of Wuhan, Hubei province of China on December ... RSCU analysis proposes that the 2019-nCoV is a recombinant within the viral spike glycoprotein between the bat coronavirus and ... The HEK293 derived recombinant protein contains the Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Spike Glycoprotein S1, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino ... A human infecting coronavirus (viral pneumonia) called 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV was found in the fish market at the ...
SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein LS-G145844 is a Recombinant Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein produced in Mammalian ... SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein LS-G145844 is a Recombinant Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein produced in Mammalian ... SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein LS-G145844 is a Recombinant Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein produced in Mammalian ... Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Asn331-Val524) - LS-G145844 ...
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Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ... Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ... Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ... Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing the Spike Glycoprotein of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ...
Identification of sialic acid-binding function for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein. ... Identification of sialic acid-binding function for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike glycoprotein. ... Attachment, MERS-CoV, Receptor, Sialic acid, Spike Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1712592114, hdl.handle.net/1765/ ... Virion attachment to host cells is mediated by 20-nm-long homotrimers of spike envelope protein S. The N-terminal subunit of ...
Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross-species transmission ... Taken together, our results suggest that homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein may contribute to cross-species ... The recombination occurred within the viral spike glycoprotein, which recognizes cell surface receptor. Additionally, our ... The current outbreak of viral pneumonia in the city of Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus designated 2019-nCoV by ...
Need Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Arg319-Pro589) for research? Find and ... Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Arg319-Pro589) from LIFESPAN BIOSCIENCES ... Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Arg319-Pro589) from LIFESPAN BIOSCIENCES ... Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Arg319-Pro589). ...
Recombinant SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mosaic (S1) protein can be used for research. ... Purified Recombinant SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mosaic (S1) protein from Creative Biomart. ... Recombinant SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mosaic (S1) protein Recombinant SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mosaic (S1 ... Spike-001SCL. Recombinant SARS Spike cell lysate. +Inquiry. Spike-1741HCL. Recombinant Human coronavirus Spike cell lysate. + ...
A 75 kDa fragment of transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV) spike glycoprotein S was used as the model coronavirus ... Intragastric administration of Lactobacillus casei expressing transmissible gastroentritis coronavirus spike glycoprotein ... Intragastric administration of Lactobacillus casei expressing transmissible gastroentritis coronavirus spike glycoprotein ... The S glycoprotein was cloned into a Lactobacillus/E. coli shuttle vector (pLP500) where expression and secretion of the ...
Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor ... Crucial steps in the structure determination of a coronavirus spike glycoprotein using cryo-electron microscopy. ... Despite their biomedical importance, coronavirus S glycoproteins have proven difficult targets for structural characterization ... in single particle cryo-electron microscopy allowed us to determine the first structure of a coronavirus S glycoprotein trimer ...
... demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. Because SARS is ... The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the ... Protection from SARS coronavirus conferred by live measles vaccine expressing the spike glycoprotein Virology. 2014 Mar;452-453 ... Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus / administration & dosage * Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus / genetics * Spike Glycoprotein, ...
Interest in the coronaviruses has never been greater. Their economic impact is considerable as they infect humans, livestock, ... Protection of Mice from Lethal Coronavirus MHV-A59 Infection by Monoclonal Affinity-Purified Spike Glycoprotein ... Biosynthesis and Function of the Coronavirus Spike Protein H. Vennema, P. J. M. Rottier, L. Heijnen, G. J. Godeke, M. C. ... The large spike glycoprotein(s), responsible for membrane fusion and bearing important antigenic sites, varies amazingly in ...
The SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein is flexible, and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) fluctuates between up or down ... Mutations engineered into the spike ectodomain either lock the RBD in the down state or make it adopt the up conformation more ... spike (S) protein, involved in viral-host cell fusion, is the primary immunogenic target for virus neutralization and the ... Song, W., Gui, M., Wang, X. & Xiang, Y. Cryo-EM structure of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein in complex with its host ...
The coronavirus spike glycoprotein contains three (S1, S2, and S2) cleavage sites that are processed by human host proteases. ... Potential Therapeutic Targeting of Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Priming Elisa Barile 1 , Carlo Baggio 1 , Luca Gambini 1 , ... Potential Therapeutic Targeting of Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Priming Elisa Barile et al. Molecules. 2020. . ... The coronavirus spike glycoprotein contains three (S1, S2, and S2) cleavage sites that are processed by human host proteases. ...
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  • Contains a mosaic of the immunodominant regions of the N-terminal of the Spike protein. (abcam.com)
  • Not full-length spike protein. (abcam.com)
  • SARS infection can be mediated by the binding of the viral spike protein, a glycosylated 139 kDa protein and the major surface antigen of the virus, to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) on target cells. (abcam.com)
  • B. Tripet, M. W. Howard, M. Jobling, R. K. Holmes, K. V. Holmes, and R. S. Hodges, Structural characterization of the SARS-coronavirus spike S fusion protein core, J. Biol. (springer.com)
  • C. De Haan, K. Stadler, G. Godeke, B. Bosch, and P. Rottier, Cleavage inhibition of the murine coronavirus spike protein by a furin-like enzyme affects cell-cell but not virus-cell fusion, J. Virol. (springer.com)
  • The CHO derived recombinant protein contains the Coronavirus 2019-Spike Full-Length protein, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1-1211 having a Mw of 134 kDa fused to His tag at C-terminal. (prospecbio.com)
  • CoV-2 spike full length protein solution is supplied in DPBS. (prospecbio.com)
  • CoV-2 Spike Protein is shipped on ice packs. (prospecbio.com)
  • The Sf9 derived recombinant protein contains the Coronavirus 2019 CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein S1, Wuhan-Hu-1 strain, amino acids 1-674 fused to His tag at C-terminal. (prospecbio.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike Glycoprotein-S1, Recombinant protein Cat. (prosci-inc.com)
  • Virion attachment to host cells is mediated by 20-nm-long homotrimers of spike envelope protein S. The N-terminal subunit of each S protomer, called S1, folds into four distinct domains designated S1A through S1D. (eur.nl)
  • Recombinant SARS Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Mosaic (S1) protein was expressed in E.coli. (creativebiomart.net)
  • It contains the N-terminal section of the Spike protein 12-53, 90-115, 171-203 amino acids immunodominant regions. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Spike protein S1: Attaches the virion to the cell membrane by interacting with host receptor, initiating the infection (By similarity). (creativebiomart.net)
  • To this aim, we generated live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine (MV) candidates expressing either the membrane-anchored SARS-CoV spike (S) protein or its secreted soluble ectodomain (Ssol). (nih.gov)
  • Hence, our studies should encourage further efforts in developing either pan-serine protease inhibitors or inhibitor cocktails to target SARS-CoV2 and potentially ward off future pandemics that could develop because of additional mutations in the S-protein priming sequence in coronaviruses. (cdc.gov)
  • The coronavirus (CoV) spike (S) protein, involved in viral-host cell fusion, is the primary immunogenic target for virus neutralization and the current focus of many vaccine design efforts. (nature.com)
  • The viral spike (S)-protein is a prime target for such therapies because of its critical role in the virus life cycle. (nature.com)
  • The transmembrane CoV S-protein spike trimer is composed of interwoven protomers that include an N-terminal receptor-binding S1 subunit and a C-terminal S2 subunit that contains the fusion elements (Fig. 1a,b ) 1 . (nature.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein RBD his/sumostar tag (CSB-YP3324GMY1) captured on COOH chip can bind Human ACE2 protein Fc tag (CSB-MP866317HU) with an affinity constant of 100 nM as detected by LSPR Assay. (cusabio.cn)
  • The HEK293 derived recombinant protein contains the Novel Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Spike. (genaxxon.com)
  • The coronavirus S-protein mediates receptor binding and fusion of the viral and host cell membranes. (rcsb.org)
  • Much of this research focus has centered on the ectodomain of the spike protein. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here we report a distant sequence similarity between the cysteine-rich cytoplasmic tail of the coronavirus spike protein and the hepcidin protein that is found in humans and other vertebrates. (beds.ac.uk)
  • An implication of this preliminary observation is to suggest a potential route of investigation in the coronavirus research field making use of an already-established literature on the interplay of local and systemic iron regulation, cytokine-mediated inflammatory processes, respiratory infections and the hepcidin protein. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The question of possible homology and an evolutionary connection between the viral spike protein and hepcidin is not assessed in this report, but some scenarios for its study are discussed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus family possesses the structural proteins spike (S), membrane (M) and envelope (E) proteins, along with the nucleocapsid (N) protein. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Briefly, in terms of the putative primary function of the spike protein, Li comments that "because coronaviruses must enter cells for replication, membrane fusion is the central function of coronavirus spikes" [ 75 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This review discusses coronavirus entry mechanisms focusing on the different triggers used by coronaviruses to initiate the conformational change of the S protein: receptor binding, low pH exposure and proteolytic activation. (nih.gov)
  • Different host cell proteases activate the SARS-coronavirus spike-protein for cell-cell and virus-cell fusion. (nih.gov)
  • Gold nanoparticle-adjuvanted S protein induces a strong antigen-specific IgG response against severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus infection, but fails to induce protective antibodies and limit eosinophilic infiltration in lungs. (nih.gov)
  • Human IgG antibody Laboratories manufactures the spike s-protein reagents distributed by Genprice. (emorroidiestipsi.com)
  • The Spike S-Protein reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (emorroidiestipsi.com)
  • It is worth noting that they identified two unexpected O-glycosylation modifications on the receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein subunit S1. (news-medical.net)
  • Even though O-glycosylation has been expected on the spike protein of SARS-Cov-2, this is the first report of the site of O-glycosylation and identity of the O-glycans attached on the subunit S1. (news-medical.net)
  • There are currently no images for SARS-CoV-2 Spike Recombinant Protein (NBP2-90974). (novusbio.com)
  • The spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 (1,273 aa) is a viral surface glycoprotein. (novusbio.com)
  • Research on SARS-host protein interactions with SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 viruses have shown that the viral spike (S) protein binds human ACE-2 located on the surface of mucosal cells, resulting in fusion of viral and cell membranes for viral entry. (novusbio.com)
  • The Coronavirus Spike precursor protein is processed into 2 distinct subunits with S1 (654 aa) housing the receptor binding domain (RBD) and S2 (588 aa or 458 a) facilitating membrane fusion. (novusbio.com)
  • Coronaviruses are commonly comprised of four structural proteins: Spike protein (S), Envelope protein (E), Membrane protein (M) and Nucleocapsid protein (N) (1). (rndsystems.com)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 S protein is a glycoprotein that mediates membrane fusion and viral entry. (rndsystems.com)
  • In SARS-CoV-2, as with most coronaviruses, proteolytic cleavage of the S protein into S1 and S2 subunits is required for activation. (rndsystems.com)
  • It binds the amino acids 318-510 in the S1 domain of the SARS-CoV Spike protein as well as SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Spike protein. (novusbio.com)
  • The antibody also binds to P462L-substituted S318-510 fragments of the SARS spike protein. (novusbio.com)
  • The binding epitope is only accessible in the "open" confromation of the spike protein (Joyce et al. (novusbio.com)
  • 2 μg/lane of Recombinant SARS-CoV Spike (GCN4-IZ) His-tag Protein (Catalog # 10581-CV) was resolved with SDS-PAGE under reducing (R) and non-reducing (NR) conditions and visualized by Coomassie® Blue staining, showing bands at 155-177 kDa. (rndsystems.com)
  • In this study, we analyzed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein secreted from BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, by trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. (preprints.org)
  • Other surface-exposed domains included those located on Central Helix, between amino acids 967 and 1016 of SARS-CoV-1, and 985 to 1034 of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. (preprints.org)
  • It is well known that, the SARS-CoV-2 starts an infection by binding its Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of spike protein to human Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, and strenuous efforts had been made to prevent the infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our results suggested that Vancomycin and Teicoplanin, as natural and accepted antibiotics, could block the interaction between RBD of spike protein and human ACE2 receptor, which might be developed to potential drugs against the SARS-CoV-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • S protein is involved in receptor binding and membranes fusion that are indispensable steps in the coronavirus infectious cycle, so S protein has been considered to be the primary drug target for recent pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • There's an important structural protein found in all coronaviruses, including IBV. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Cleavage of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus strain A59 spike protein was blocked in a concentration-dependent manner by a peptide furin inhibitor, indicating that furin or a furin-like enzyme is responsible for this process. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While cell-cell fusion was clearly affected by preventing spike protein cleavage, virus-cell fusion was not, indicating that these events have different requirements. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The mouse hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) spike (S) protein is responsible for attachment to the viral receptor, for virus-cell fusion during viral entry, and for cell-cell fusion during infection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is a class I fusion protein ( 5 ) that is cotranslationally glycosylated to a 150-kDa glycoprotein, which is processed to a 180-kDa form during transport from the endoplasmic reticulum through the Golgi complex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The combined results directly correlated the extent of cleavage of the spike protein with its ability to induce fusion of cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The surface of the envelope (not a cell wall) has spike glycoprotein, E-protein, and membrane protein. (icr.org)
  • They found that 12 of the genomes had two specific point mutations (I529T and D510G mutations) in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the viral spike protein. (eurekalert.org)
  • SARS-CoV spike (S) protein-encoding plasmid induced activations of IL-8 promoter and AP-1, but not NF-κB in these cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • In coronaviruses, these proteins are known as spike glycoproteins, or simply S protein. (naturalnews.com)
  • But like many proteins built from the materials a virus steals from its host, the spike isn't simply a protein but a 'glycoprotein' covered in carbohydrate sugars. (forbes.com)
  • This research identified the location of 22 'glycosylation sites' where glycans are attached to the spike (66 in total as the protein consists of three identical parts) and the types of sugar at each site. (forbes.com)
  • The details of the glycans were then mapped onto the structure of the spike protein. (forbes.com)
  • In viruses such as HIV, influenza and coronaviruses, each virus particle is enclosed within a protective envelope and the spike protein also facilitates the fusion of the viral envelope with the cell's outer membrane. (forbes.com)
  • Although many viruses may not need glycans for their proteins to work properly, glycoproteins are so common in their hosts that sugars are often added to form a 'glycan shield' around a viral protein to help hide it from the body's defences. (forbes.com)
  • Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (S1) protein (1-674aa) was fused to C-terminally tagged with a predominantly monomeric sheep Fc-tag and expressed in HEK293 cells and purified from culture supernatant by Protein G chromatography. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that contain at least four structural proteins: the membrane (M), envelope (E), spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) protein. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Mannose-binding lectins interfere with the coronavirus entry process by binding to the high-mannose type N-glycans of SARS-CoV via the S protein, preventing viral attachment to the host cell [2, 3]. (vectorlabs.com)
  • N-glycans on the coronavirus S protein may result in activation of a downstream antiviral innate immune response. (vectorlabs.com)
  • The main strength of coronavirus is a spike protein named as spike glycoprotein that looks like spikes on the surface of the virus. (prlog.org)
  • The coronaviruses utilize another machinery component called 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL pro ), which cleaves 11 sites in different proteins of the virus. (jmssjournal.net)
  • We also highlight commonalities between coronavirus S proteins and other class I viral fusion proteins, as well as distinctive features that confer distinct tropism, pathogenicity and host interspecies transmission characteristics to coronaviruses. (nih.gov)
  • Our results reveal the evolutionary basis for the genetic stability of ExoN-inactivating mutations, illuminate complex functional and evolutionary relationships between coronavirus replicase proteins, and identify potential mechanisms for stabilization of ExoN-AA coronavirus mutants. (asm.org)
  • Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted viral proteins indicates that the virus does not closely resemble any of the three previously known groups of coronaviruses. (sciencemag.org)
  • Home » SARS-CoV-2 Spike » SARS-CoV-2 Spike Proteins » Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike (800-1000 a.a. (novusbio.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 has 4 major structural proteins including spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N), which share significant sequence homology with SARS-CoV. (novusbio.com)
  • We further analyzed the surface accessibility of Spike proteins according to Cryo-EM and homolog-modeled structures, and available antibodies that bind to SARS-CoV-1. (preprints.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 immunogenic regions are mainly distributed, as well as for other coronaviruses, across structural areas such as spike, envelope, membrane or nucleocapsid proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • It's well established that IBVs with completely different spike proteins do not cross protect and that homologous (similar) attenuated, live vaccines provide the best protection. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • One is the similarity of conserved regions in the spike proteins between different IBV types and the ability of antibodies binding to those conserved regions to neutralize the virus. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The S proteins of murine coronaviruses are cleaved to different extents, depending on the strain and the cell line used ( 10 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The coronavirus looks like a ball studded with proteins. (icr.org)
  • Coronaviruses are round and surrounded by a halo of spiky proteins, giving them a resemblance to a crown or the sun's wispy corona. (sciencenews.org)
  • The S proteins of CoV are major targets for neutralizing Abs and form the characteristic corona of large and distinctive spikes on the viral envelopes ( 1 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This is particularly true for the S proteins of SARS-CoV-1, the coronavirus behind the 2003 SARS outbreak , and MERS-CoV, the virus that caused the 2015 and 2018 MERS outbreaks. (naturalnews.com)
  • To make her produce antibodies against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV, the researchers injected her with pseudotyped viruses, which are stabilized forms of the two coronaviruses that can't cause sickness but still produces S proteins. (naturalnews.com)
  • This class of fusogens contains some of the proteins utilized by influenza, HIV, coronaviruses, and Ebola during infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The race to develop vaccines and drugs against SARS-CoV-2 is centred on the spike proteins that the coronavirus uses to invade human cells. (forbes.com)
  • Coronaviruses take their name from the crown-like spike proteins that line their surfaces. (news-medical.net)
  • A recent study by scientists at the University of Texas Austin determined the three-dimensional structure of the spike proteins, which allowed the LJI team to take the protein's spatial architecture into account when predicting epitopes. (jcvi.org)
  • Post-translational modifications of coronavirus proteins: roles and function. (vectorlabs.com)
  • It's already been 5 months since covid-19 has attacked and after all the studies, all the concepts of the virus such as recombinant proteins, covid-19 antigens, spike proteins has been identified, and vaccines are developed accordingly. (prlog.org)
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) targets the epithelial cells of the respiratory tract both in humans and in its natural host, the dromedary camel. (eur.nl)
  • Plasma IgGs differed in their degree of focus on RBD epitopes, recognition of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and mild coronaviruses, and how avidity effects contributed to increased binding/neutralization of IgGs over Fabs. (pdbj.org)
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe respiratory disease in humans. (scicombinator.com)
  • We tested a recombinant MVA vaccine expressing full-length MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein (S) by immunizing BALB/c mice using either intramuscular or subcutaneous regimens. (scicombinator.com)
  • The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-1) of 2002, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) of 2012, and now the SARS-CoV-2 of 2019 (causing the 'COVID-19' disease that was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020) are the remaining three known coronaviruses (all of the beta subgroup) causing severe human disease [ 6 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • SARS-CoV-2, which causes the global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), belongs to a family of viruses known as coronaviruses that also include MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-1. (rndsystems.com)
  • The majority of human coronavirus infections are mild although already in 2003 and in 2012, the epidemics of SARS-CoV and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, were characterized by a high mortality rate. (frontiersin.org)
  • Graphic representation of the interaction between the MERS-CoV spike glycoprotein (blue-purple) and its receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). (nih.gov)
  • Washington, DC - March 1, 2016 - A new study suggests that the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) develops mutations that make the virus less virulent during an outbreak rather than more virulent. (eurekalert.org)
  • Similar to other coronaviruses, MERS-CoV utilizes a large surface spike glycoprotein to enter human CD26 cells and cause infection. (eurekalert.org)
  • But every few years, a new coronavirus emerges that causes severe disease as was the case with SARS-CoV in 2003 and MERS-CoV in 2008, and now SARS-CoV-2. (jcvi.org)
  • Several lectins, particularly plant lectins with affinity toward mannose and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) sugar moieties, have been identified as potential therapeutic agents in the prevention of viral transmission in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and coronaviruses (SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV) [1]. (vectorlabs.com)
  • Based on prior studies on coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, mannose-specific plant lectins can be used to investigate antiviral properties of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (vectorlabs.com)
  • N95 Masks 3M , AdultFace Mask Black White Stripes Cotton Amazon, Dates And Coronavirus Masks for Sale 2020 , Welcome to Buy Dates And Coronavirus Online . (eskininsaat.com)
  • As of the beginning of October 2020, 189 countries and regions are tackling the challenge of the pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, with more than 35 million confirmed cases of infection worldwide [ 23 , 33 ]. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Publishing in the March 16, 2020, online issue of Host, Cell and Microbe , a team of researchers at La Jolla Institute for Immunology, in collaboration with researchers at the J. Craig Venter Institute, provides the first analysis of potential targets for effective immune responses against the novel coronavirus. (jcvi.org)
  • In January 2020, the World Health Organisation recommended "2019 novel coronavirus" (2019-nCov) as the provisional name for the virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 11 February 2020, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses adopted the official name "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2" (SARS‑CoV‑2). (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutralizing antibody responses to coronaviruses focus on the trimeric spike, with most against the receptor-binding domain (RBD). (pdbj.org)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein antibody LS-C829129 is an unconjugated human recombinant monoclonal antibody to coronavirus sars-cov-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (aa16-685). (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • The antibody has shown broad cross-reactivity with human beta coronaviruses. (news-medical.net)
  • The CC40.8 is the first human coronavirus S2-stem directed neutralizing antibody isolated from natural infection. (news-medical.net)
  • It can also facilitate antibody-based interventions against human coronaviruses, including future ones with pandemic potential. (news-medical.net)
  • Binding to the receptor probably induces conformational changes in the S glycoprotein unmasking the fusion peptide of S2 region and activating membranes fusion. (uniprot.org)
  • Human aminopeptidase N is a receptor for human coronavirus 229E. (uniprot.org)
  • The fusogenic potential of Class I viral envelope glycoproteins is activated by proteloytic cleavage of the precursor glycoprotein to generate the mature receptor-binding and transmembrane fusion subunits. (osti.gov)
  • The recombination occurred within the viral spike glycoprotein, which recognizes cell surface receptor. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Entry of coronaviruses into cells is mediated by the transmembrane spike glycoprotein S, which forms a trimer carrying receptor-binding and membrane fusion functions. (pasteur.fr)
  • Is the 110K Glycoprotein the Only Receptor for MHV and Does Its Expression Determine Species Specificity? (springer.com)
  • Bat-RaTG13, the bat homologue of SARS-CoV2) identified possible mutations in the receptor binding domain and in the S1 and S2' cleavage sites of their spike glycoprotein. (cdc.gov)
  • Binding to the host receptor via the RBD in S1 is followed by proteolytic cleavage of the spike by host proteases 2 . (nature.com)
  • Indeed, cryo-EM structures of the SARS-CoV-2 spike reveal considerable flexibility and dynamics in the S1 subunit 1 , 2 , especially around the RBD, which exhibits two discrete conformational states-a 'down' state that is shielded from receptor binding and an 'up' state that is receptor-accessible. (nature.com)
  • Spike glycoprotein comprises two functional subunits responsible for binding to the host cell receptor (S1 subunit) and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes (S2 subunit). (cusabio.com)
  • SARS-CoV mediates receptor binding and entry by its spike (S) glycoprotein, and infection is sensitive to lysosomotropic agents that perturb endosomal pH. (pnas.org)
  • SARS-CoV entry into target cells is initiated by engagement of its cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by spike (S) glycoprotein ( 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Our results are consistent with a model in which SARS-CoV employs a unique three-step method for membrane fusion, involving receptor-binding and induced conformational changes in S glycoprotein followed by cathepsin L (CTSL) proteolysis and activation of membrane fusion within endosomes. (pnas.org)
  • The virus uses the 3-chymotrypsin-like protease for inducing the activity of the viral polyproteins and the spike (S) glycoprotein for human cell entry through the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. (jmssjournal.net)
  • Electron densities of glycans cover most of the Spike receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, except YQAGSTPCNGVEGFNCYFPLQSYGFQPTNGVGYQ, similar to a region FSPDGKPCTPPALNCYWPLNDYGFYTTTGIGYQ in SARS-CoV-1. (preprints.org)
  • The SARS-CoV-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike - made up of the S1 and S2 subunits - to bind with the human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2) on host cells for entry and invasion. (news-medical.net)
  • This interaction can also negatively affect receptor binding of the coronavirus [4]. (vectorlabs.com)
  • This is said to bind the receptor domain in the body which is the primary determinant of the coronavirus' ability to enter and infect a body. (prlog.org)
  • A human infecting coronavirus (viral pneumonia) called 2019 novel coronavirus, 2019-nCoV was found in the fish market at the city of Wuhan, Hubei province of China on December 2019. (prospecbio.com)
  • Editorial Perspectives: 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2): what is its fate in urban water cycle and how can the water research community respond? (rsc.org)
  • A new coronavirus called 2019 novel coronavirus, or 2019-nCoV, (seen here in a transmission electron micrograph) is spreading in China. (sciencenews.org)
  • Much still remains unknown about the new coronavirus ( SN: 1/10/20 ), which for now is being called 2019 novel coronavirus, or 2019-nCoV. (sciencenews.org)
  • Also colloquially known simply as the coronavirus, it was previously referred to by its provisional name, 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), and has also been called human coronavirus 2019 (HCoV-19 or hCoV-19). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the coronavirus (CoV) S glycoproteins share membership in this class of envelope glycoproteins, cleavage to generate the respective S1 and S2 subunits appears absent in a subset of CoV species, including that responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). (osti.gov)
  • For many coronavirus (CoVs), S is cleaved at the boundary between the S1 and S2 subunits, which remain non-covalently bound in the prefusion conformation. (cusabio.com)
  • In this article, we consider a role for bacteria in shaping coronavirus infection. (asm.org)
  • In addition to the focus of therapeutic and vaccine design, this S glycoprotein is the key target of neutralizing antibodies upon infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Seven coronaviruses had been found to cause human infection including SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV resulting in a potentially fatal atypical pneumonia, named COVID-19. (novusbio.com)
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The accessibility of the highly conserved fusion peptide at the periphery of the trimer indicates potential vaccinology strategies to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies against coronaviruses. (nanotempertech.com)
  • Structures of human antibodies bound to SARS-CoV-2 spike reveal common epitopes and recurrent features of antibodies. (pdbj.org)
  • Antibodies with heavy chains that derive from the VH1-2 gene constitute some of the most potent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-neutralizing antibodies yet identified. (pdbj.org)
  • To provide insight into whether these genetic similarities inform common modes of recognition, we determine the structures of the SARS-CoV-2 spike in complex with three VH1-2-derived antibodies: 2-15, 2-43, and H4. (pdbj.org)
  • Coronavirus spike (S) glycoproteins promote entry into cells and are the main target of antibodies. (yahoo.com)
  • Currently, most vaccine trials for MERS prevention are using the spike antigen to generate effective neutralizing antibodies against it. (eurekalert.org)
  • Possible coronavirus treatment may come from antibodies produced by… llamas? (naturalnews.com)
  • In a breakthrough study soon to be published in the journal Cell , researchers from the U.S., Belgium and Germany described how two special antibodies produced by an immunized llama can effectively stop the coronavirus from infecting healthy cells. (naturalnews.com)
  • The usual target of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) is the viral spike glycoprotein. (news-medical.net)
  • Recent technological developments in single particle cryo-electron microscopy allowed us to determine the first structure of a coronavirus S glycoprotein trimer which provided a framework to understand the mechanisms of viral entry and suggested potential inhibition strategies for this family of viruses. (pasteur.fr)
  • Modeling suggested that IgGs targeting these sites have different potentials for inter-spike crosslinking on viruses and would not be greatly affected by identified SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations. (pdbj.org)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm. (nih.gov)
  • The coronaviruses are members of a family of enveloped viruses that replicate in the cytoplasm of animal host cells ( 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Coronaviruses are positive-stranded RNA viruses, featuring the largest viral RNA genomes known to date (27-31 kb). (novusbio.com)
  • Corona viruses hijack human enzymes to assembly sugar coat on Spike glycoproteins. (preprints.org)
  • Coronaviruses are enveloped RNA viruses belonging to the family of Coronaviridae, which are able to infect birds, humans and other mammals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The surface glycoproteins of many enveloped viruses are initially synthesized as inactive precursors, proteolytic cleavage of which is often required for maturation and full functional activity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Coronaviruses, one of a variety of viruses that cause colds, have been making people cough and sneeze seemingly forever. (sciencenews.org)
  • Coronaviruses are positive-sense ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses that have been shown to invade the respiratory system, gastrointestinal (GI) system, and the central nervous system (CNS). (medscape.com)
  • Coronaviruses (CoV) 4 are a family of enveloped viruses with positive-stranded, capped, and polyadenylated RNA genomes ranging in size from 28 to 32 kb ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The coronavirus family consists of a number of enveloped viruses that contain genetic material known as RNA. (naturalnews.com)
  • We were very interested to see how SARS-CoV-2 compares to other viruses in terms of its overall density of glycans," says Crispin, whose lab focuses on HIV but has worked with coronaviruses. (forbes.com)
  • Pokrovsky, A. 2014-10-01 00:00:00 Pseudotyped viruses bearing the glycoprotein(s) of a donor virus over the nucleocapsid core of a surrogate virus are widely used as safe substitutes for infectious virus in virology studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein LS-G145844 is a Recombinant Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein produced in Mammalian Asn331-Val524 with mFc, C-terminus tag(s). (lsbio.com)
  • Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Arg319-Pro589) from LIFESPAN BIOSCIENCES INC. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • Search, find, compare suppliers for Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein (Recombinant mFc, C-terminus) (Arg319-Pro589) products. (linscottsdirectory.com)
  • EMDB-22128: Structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in complex with th. (pdbj.org)
  • This study aimed to demonstrate the D614G mutation in SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein from Indonesia. (medicopublication.com)
  • SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein S1 HEK293 by BioVendor, Cat. (lucerna-chem.ch)
  • PDB-7l56: Cryo-EM structure of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein bound to F. (pdbj.org)
  • Binding to human ACE2 and CLEC4M/DC-SIGNR receptors and internalization of the virus into the endosomes of the host cell induces conformational changes in the S glycoprotein. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, has attracted attention for its vaccine potential and binding capacity to host cell surface receptors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • while S1 enables coronaviruses to bind to cell surface receptors, S2 makes virus-cell fusion possible. (naturalnews.com)
  • Viral spikes recognize and bind receptors on host cells. (forbes.com)
  • All human coronaviruses possess a surface envelope spike glycoprotein that mediates interaction with host cell receptors, allowing virus fusion. (news-medical.net)
  • The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses contains protrusions that will only bind to certain receptors on the host cell: they are essential for both host specificity and viral infectivity. (creativebiomart.net)
  • The full-length SARS-CoV envelope Spike (S) glycoprotein gene was introduced into the deletion III region of the MVA genome. (asm.org)
  • These spikes or peplomers can be seen projecting through the envelope on electron micrographs, giving the virus its characteristic corona. (ufl.edu)
  • Bonatti, S. 2006-10-01 00:00:00 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is believed to assemble by budding into membranes of the early secretory pathway, consistent with the membrane location where the viral envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2 accumulate when expressed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we generated coronavirus-like particles carrying in their envelope chimeric HCV glycoproteins composed of the ectodomains of E1 and E2, each fused to the transmembrane plus endodomain of the mouse hepatitis coronavirus spike glycoprotein. (deepdyve.com)
  • Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross-species transmission from snake to human. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • To determine the possible virus reservoir, we have carried out comprehensive sequence analysis and comparison in conjunction with relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) bias among different animal species based on existing sequences of the newly identified coronavirus 2019-nCoV. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Taken together, our results suggest that homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein may contribute to cross-species transmission from snake to humans. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Finally, comparison with crystal structures of human coronavirus S domains allows rationalization of the molecular basis for species specificity based on the use of spatially contiguous but distinct domains. (nanotempertech.com)
  • The results provide insight into immune evasion and the cross-species transmission of 229E and related coronaviruses. (rcsb.org)
  • In general, each coronavirus causes disease in only one animal species. (jci.org)
  • Sugars cover those spikes to varying degrees in different species. (forbes.com)
  • Taxonomically, SARS‑CoV‑2 is a virus of the species severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (SARSr-CoV). (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunization with a killed or inactivated viral vaccine provides significant protection in animals against challenge with certain corresponding pathogenic coronaviruses (CoVs). (asm.org)
  • Virginia Tech) A candidate vaccine that could provide protection against the COVID-19 virus and other coronaviruses has shown promising results in early animal testing. (medworm.com)
  • It can also facilitate the development of a pan-coronavirus vaccine, which can protect against all types of coronaviruses. (news-medical.net)
  • The development of effective pan-coronavirus vaccine strategies that can mitigate future outbreaks from new emerging coronaviruses is important," the team noted. (news-medical.net)
  • The discovery and identification of the new coronavirus spike conserved epitope may help develop bnAb epitope-based vaccine strategies. (news-medical.net)
  • Despite their biomedical importance, coronavirus S glycoproteins have proven difficult targets for structural characterization, precluding high-resolution studies of the biologically relevant trimer. (pasteur.fr)
  • Here we present the structure of a mouse coronavirus S trimer ectodomain determined at 4.0 Å resolution by single particle cryo-electron microscopy. (nanotempertech.com)
  • [15] The latest authors provided crystallographic structures of the S glycoprotein (closed and open-ectodomain-trimer states). (jmssjournal.net)
  • M. Frana, J. Behnke, L. Sturman, and K. Holmes, Proteolytic cleavage of the E2 glycoprotein of murine coronavirus: host-dependent differences in proteolytic cleavage and cell fusion, J. Virol. (springer.com)
  • Surface shadowed diagrams of the ACE2-bound conformation 1, the ACE2-bound conformation 2, the ACE2-bound conformation 3, unbound-up and unbound-down conformations of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein after trypsin cleavage and low pH treatment. (plos.org)
  • To determine whether proteolytic cleavage of the S glycoprotein might be important for the newly emerged SARS-CoV, we introduced a furin recognition site at single basic residues within the putative S1-S2 junctional region. (osti.gov)
  • The lack of effect of furin cleavage on virion infectivity mirrors that observed in the normally cleaved S glycoprotein of the murine coronavirus and highlights an additional level of complexity in coronavirus entry. (osti.gov)
  • The coronavirus spike glycoprotein contains three (S1, S2, and S2') cleavage sites that are processed by human host proteases. (cdc.gov)
  • The genome sequence reveals that this coronavirus is only moderately related to other known coronaviruses, including two human coronaviruses, HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-229E. (sciencemag.org)
  • The researchers used existing data from known coronaviruses to predict which parts of SARS-CoV-2 are capable of activating the human immune system. (jcvi.org)
  • A novel coronavirus has been identified as the causative agent of SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome). (abcam.com)
  • First evident in Guangdong province of China around November 2002, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) emerged as a human infectious disease caused by a novel variant of coronavirus (SARS-associated coronavirus, SARS-CoV) ( 12 , 13 , 20 , 21 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is caused by an emergent coronavirus (SARS-CoV), for which there is currently no effective treatment. (pnas.org)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an acute respiratory illness caused by a newly described coronavirus (SARS-CoV) ( 1 ), the result of a zoonosis of a highly related animal coronavirus ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • The usefulness of this method was illustrated by analyzing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus RNA. (springer.com)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a quickly spreading virus that poses a major burden on global human health. (medicopublication.com)
  • The severe acute respiratory syndrome-like disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disastrous global pandemic with 16,288,490 infected cases and 649,884 deaths. (jmssjournal.net)
  • The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) global pandemic continues to generate high numbers of infected cases and deaths around the globe, which currently passed 16,288,490 infections and 649,884 deaths. (jmssjournal.net)
  • We sequenced the 29,751-base genome of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus known as the Tor2 isolate. (sciencemag.org)
  • It is caused by a newly identified viral pathogen, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), which can cause severe pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. (frontiersin.org)
  • The recent global outbreak of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) serves as a stark reminder of the imminent threat of unexpected pathogens. (sartorius.com)
  • No severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ) infections was detected in 455 contacts by nucleic acid test. (yahoo.com)
  • The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). (yahoo.com)
  • Lessons learned from previous coronavirus outbreaks, including severe acute respiratory syndrome, or SARS, and Middle East respiratory syndrome, or MERS, may help health officials head off some of the more serious consequences from this virus outbreak. (sciencenews.org)
  • The search terms used were coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) clinical manifestation, COVID-19 epidemiology, neurologic findings in COVID-19, headache in COVID-19, neurologic manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and headache in SARS-CoV-2. (medscape.com)
  • At the end of 2019, scientists identified a novel coronavirus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the city of Wuhan, China. (medscape.com)
  • The inflammatory response and the intracellular signaling pathway induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-coronavirus (CoV) were studied in lung epithelial cells and fibroblasts. (jimmunol.org)
  • While coronaviruses only cause common cold-like symptoms, some may cause severe or critical illness. (news-medical.net)
  • The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes COVID-19, is a novel virus that belongs to the coronaviridae family, of which previously six members have crossed into humans and established widespread infections. (news-medical.net)
  • These also include four endemic human coronaviruses, such as HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HCoV-OC43, and HCoV-NL63, which are responsible for non-severe seasonal infections. (news-medical.net)
  • Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) is the virus that causes COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. (wikipedia.org)
  • The severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) spike (S) glycoprotein alone can mediate the membrane fusion required for virus entry and cell fusion. (creativebiomart.net)
  • 1] The disease is caused by the pathogen severe rather a descriptive review in an ever-changing field of some of the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2),[2] and has key pathogenetic mechanisms to have emerged in a disease whose since been termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (who.int)
  • Identification of N-linked carbohydrates from severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) spike glycoprotein. (vectorlabs.com)
  • The spike glycoprotein (S) mediates virus entry and is a primary determinant of cell tropism and pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Proteolytic Processing Of Middle East Respiratory Ncbi Nih , How Long Does The Coronavirus Last Health Hazards Manual For Artists Page 134 Google Books Boruca Masks For Sale Result. (mxsupplierchain.com)
  • The recent identification of a novel human coronavirus responsible of a SARS-like illness in the Middle-East a decade after the SARS pandemic, demonstrates that reemergence of a SARS-like coronavirus from an animal reservoir remains a credible threat. (nih.gov)
  • Endemic human coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1 attach via their S domain A to 5-N-acetyl-9-O-acetyl-sialosides found on glycoproteins and glycolipids at the host cell surface to enable entry into susceptible cells. (cusabio.com)
  • Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 E484K Spike RBD His-tag (Catalog # 10747-CV) binds Recombinant Human ACE-2 His-tag ( 933-ZN ) in a functional ELISA. (rndsystems.com)
  • Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD E484K His-tag was immobilized on a Biacore Sensor Chip CM5, and binding to recombinant human ACE-2 ( 933-ZN ) was measured at a concentration range between 0.092 nM and 47.2 nM. (rndsystems.com)
  • Coronavirus colds are more frequent in winter, and the two known human coronaviruses vary in prevalence from year to year. (jci.org)
  • This spike is like the wolf in sheep's clothing because the carbohydrates that cover it are human-derived. (forbes.com)
  • Dubbed as CC40.8 bnAb, it exhibited broad reactivity with human beta coronaviruses . (news-medical.net)
  • While scientists currently know very little about how the human immune system responds to SARS-CoV-2, the immune response to other coronaviruses has been studied and a significant amount of epitope data is available. (jcvi.org)
  • Four other coronaviruses are currently circulating in the human population. (jcvi.org)
  • Conserved High Free Energy Sites in Human Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Backbones. (helsinki.fi)
  • The first two strains are in the 'alpha' coronavirus subgroup, whereas the latter two are 'beta' coronaviruses. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Only alpha and beta coronaviruses are known to infect people. (sciencenews.org)
  • The current outbreak of viral pneumonia in the city of Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel coronavirus designated 2019-nCoV by the World Health Organization, as determined by sequencing the viral RNA genome. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Natural News ) A possible treatment for COVID-19, the disease caused by the Wuhan coronavirus, may be at hand. (naturalnews.com)
  • Natural News) Indian scientists have discovered a "double mutant strain" of the Wuhan coronavirus (COVID-19) in their country. (medworm.com)
  • The tremendous pandemic potential of coronaviruses was demonstrated twice in the last 15 years by two global outbreaks of deadly pneumonia. (pasteur.fr)
  • Vincenzo Naddeo and Haizhou Liu present an 'Editorial Perspective' on coronavirus in wastewater and discuss the water research needs to combat viral outbreaks. (rsc.org)
  • Coronaviruses are a major cause of upper respiratory diseases in humans. (abcam.com)
  • Most coronaviruses of animals infect epithelial cells in the respiratory and/or enteric tracts, causing epizootics of respiratory diseases and/or gastroenteritis with short incubation periods (2-7 days), such as those found in SARS. (jci.org)
  • In 2012, another novel coronavirus emerged in Saudi Arabia, called the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). (news-medical.net)
  • The coronavirus designation is less about the genetics and more about the way it appears under a microscope," says Brent C. Satterfield, cofounder and chief scientific officer of Co-Diagnostics, a company based in Salt Lake City and Gujarat, India, that is developing molecular tests for diagnosing coronavirus infections. (sciencenews.org)
  • SARS-CoV and several SARS-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) interact directly with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) via SB to enter target cells. (cusabio.com)
  • The National Microbiology Laboratory in Canada obtained the Tor2 isolate from a patient in Toronto and succeeded in growing a coronavirus-like agent in African green monkey kidney (Vero E6) cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Vaccines for MERS need to target the more stable and conserved region of the spike. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is the controversial Chinese lab where coronavirus gain-of-function research was being conducted in order to develop new vaccines. (medworm.com)
  • Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute, USA, have described a potential target for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines. (news-medical.net)
  • Density maps of the ACE2-bound and ACE2-free SARS-CoV spikes. (plos.org)
  • This coronavirus was named publicly by the World Health Organization and member laboratories as the "SARS virus" (WHO press release, 16 April 2003) after tests of causation according to Koch's postulates, including monkey inoculation ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Feline coronavirus (FCoV) is one of the most significant coronaviruses, because this virus induces feline infectious peritonitis (FIP), which is a lethal disease in cats. (asm.org)
  • A Chicago woman in her 60s is the second U.S. case of the new coronavirus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed January 24 in a news conference. (sciencenews.org)
  • RSCU analysis proposes that the 2019-nCoV is a recombinant within the viral spike glycoprotein between the bat coronavirus and an unknown coronavirus. (prospecbio.com)
  • Results obtained from our analyses suggest that the 2019-nCoV appears to be a recombinant virus between the bat coronavirus and an origin-unknown coronavirus. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • LA JOLLA, CA-Within two months, SARS-CoV-2, a previously unknown coronavirus, has raced around globe, infecting over a 100,000 people with numbers continuing to rise quickly. (jcvi.org)
  • Coronavirus is a single-stranded RNA virus which consists of RNA as the genetic material. (prlog.org)
  • Coronavirus entry into the host cell is mediated through the transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein which forms homotrimers protruding from the viral surface. (news-medical.net)
  • The S glycoprotein forms club-shaped projections on the surface of virus particles (Figure 1). (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Those club-shaped projections on the surface of the particles are the S glycoproteins. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • A vesicular stomatitis pseudovirus expressing the surface glycoproteins of influenza A virus Cheresiz, S. (deepdyve.com)
  • This is undoubtedly facilitated by hydrophilic subunit interfaces that we show are conserved among coronaviruses. (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular screening of antimalarial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and HIV protease inhibitors against spike glycoprotein of coronavirus. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • It is 79.6% percent related to SARS-CoV, but is more closely related to the bat coronavirus RaTG13 with a 96.2% match of genome sequence identity. (medium.com)
  • We were able to map back 10 B cell epitopes to the new coronavirus and because of the overall high sequence similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, there is a high likelihood that the same regions that are immunodominant in SARS-CoV are also dominant in SARS-CoV-2 is," says Grifoni. (jcvi.org)
  • Computer model showing the coiled coil symmetric trimeric structure of the heptad repeat 2 domain of the virus spike glycoprotein. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Development of an influenza virus pseudo typed with Ebolavirus glycoprotein to aid therapeutic screening. (sartorius.com)
  • What makes a virus a coronavirus is only loosely enshrined in its DNA. (sciencenews.org)
  • The spikes on the outer edge of the virus particles give coronaviruses their name, crown-like. (jcvi.org)
  • It is believed to have zoonotic origins and has close genetic similarity to bat coronaviruses, suggesting it emerged from a bat-borne virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retroviral particles pseudotyped with influenza A virus glycoproteins have been used recently for the study of influenza hemagglutinin and neuraminidase-dependent processes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we report the development of vesicular-stomatitis-virus-based pseudotypes bearing the glycoproteins of influenza A virus. (deepdyve.com)
  • As we all know, coronavirus is stronger than any other virus and has caused a lot of pandemic. (prlog.org)