Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
Murine hepatitis virus
Viral Envelope Proteins
Coronavirus 229E, Human
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
Coronavirus OC43, Human
Molecular Sequence Data
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus
Amino Acid Sequence
Infectious bronchitis virus
Coronavirus NL63, Human
Porcine Respiratory Coronavirus
beta 2-Glycoprotein I
Amino Acid Substitution
Feline Infectious Peritonitis
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIb-IX Complex
Gastroenteritis, Transmissible, of Swine
Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins
Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex
Viral Matrix Proteins
Viral Fusion Proteins
Open Reading Frames
Viral Nonstructural Proteins
Respiratory Tract Infections
Enteritis, Transmissible, of Turkeys
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit
Viral Structural Proteins
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Communicable Diseases, Emerging
HIV Envelope Protein gp120
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Viral Plaque Assay
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases
Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral
Gene Expression Regulation, Viral
Protective immunity against murine hepatitis virus (MHV) induced by intranasal or subcutaneous administration of hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus that carries an MHV epitope. (1/422)Hybrids of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) were constructed with the use of fusion to the coat protein peptides of 10 or 15 amino acids, containing the 5B19 epitope from the spike protein of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) and giving rise to TMV-5B19 and TMV-5B19L, respectively. The TMV hybrids were propagated in tobacco plants, and the virus particles were purified. Immunogold labeling, with the use of the monoclonal MAb5B19 antibody, showed specific decoration of hybrid TMV particles, confirming the expression and display of the MHV epitope on the surface of the TMV. Mice were immunized with purified hybrid viruses after several regimens of immunization. Mice that received TMV-5B19L intranasally developed serum IgG and IgA specific for the 5B19 epitope and for the TMV coat protein. Hybrid TMV-5B19, administered by subcutaneous injections, elicited high titers of serum IgG that was specific for the 5B19 epitope and for coat protein, but IgA that was specific against 5B19 was not observed. Mice that were immunized with hybrid virus by subcutaneous or intranasal routes of administration survived challenge with a lethal dose (10 x LD50) of MHV strain JHM, whereas mice administered wild-type TMV died 10 d post challenge. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the dose of administered immunogen and protection against MHV infection. These studies show that TMV can be an effective vaccine delivery vehicle for parenteral and mucosal immunization and for protection from challenge with viral infection. (+info)
Mapping of the coronavirus membrane protein domains involved in interaction with the spike protein. (2/422)The coronavirus membrane (M) protein is the key player in virion assembly. One of its functions is to mediate the incorporation of the spikes into the viral envelope. Heterotypic interactions between M and the spike (S) protein can be demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation and by immunofluorescence colocalization, after coexpression of their genes in eukaryotic cells. Using these assays in a mutagenetic approach, we have mapped the domains in the M protein that are involved in complex formation between M and S. It appeared that the 25-residue luminally exposed amino-terminal domain of the M protein is not important for M-S interaction. A 15-residue deletion, the insertion of a His tag, and replacement of the ectodomain by that of another coronavirus M protein did not affect the ability of the M protein to associate with the S protein. However, complex formation was sensitive to changes in the transmembrane domains of this triple-spanning protein. Deletion of either the first two or the last two transmembrane domains, known not to affect the topology of the protein, led to a considerable decrease in complex formation, but association was not completely abrogated. Various effects of changes in the part of the M protein that is located at the cytoplasmic face of the membrane were observed. Deletions of the extreme carboxy-terminal tail appeared not to interfere with M-S complex formation. However, deletions in the amphipathic domain severely affected M-S interaction. Interestingly, changes in the amino-terminal and extreme carboxy-terminal domains of M, which did not disrupt the interaction with S, are known to be fatal to the ability of the protein to engage in virus particle formation (C. A. M. de Haan, L. Kuo, P. S. Masters, H. Vennema, and P. J. M. Rottier, J. Virol. 72:6838-6850, 1998). Apparently, the structural requirements of the M protein for virus particle assembly differ from the requirements for the formation of M-S complexes. (+info)
Pathogenesis of chimeric MHV4/MHV-A59 recombinant viruses: the murine coronavirus spike protein is a major determinant of neurovirulence. (3/422)The mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) spike glycoprotein, S, has been implicated as a major determinant of viral pathogenesis. In the absence of a full-length molecular clone, however, it has been difficult to address the role of individual viral genes in pathogenesis. By using targeted RNA recombination to introduce the S gene of MHV4, a highly neurovirulent strain, into the genome of MHV-A59, a mildly neurovirulent strain, we have been able to directly address the role of the S gene in neurovirulence. In cell culture, the recombinants containing the MHV4 S gene, S4R22 and S4R21, exhibited a small-plaque phenotype and replicated to low levels, similar to wild-type MHV4. Intracranial inoculation of C57BL/6 mice with S4R22 and S4R21 revealed a marked alteration in pathogenesis. Relative to wild-type control recombinant viruses (wtR13 and wtR9), containing the MHV-A59 S gene, the MHV4 S gene recombinants exhibited a dramatic increase in virulence and an increase in both viral antigen staining and inflammation in the central nervous system. There was not, however, an increase in the level of viral replication in the brain. These studies demonstrate that the MHV4 S gene alone is sufficient to confer a highly neurovirulent phenotype to a recombinant virus deriving the remainder of its genome from a mildly neurovirulent virus, MHV-A59. This definitively confirms previous findings, suggesting that the spike is a major determinant of pathogenesis. (+info)
A 12-amino acid stretch in the hypervariable region of the spike protein S1 subunit is critical for cell fusion activity of mouse hepatitis virus. (4/422)The spike (S) glycoprotein of mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) plays a major role in the viral pathogenesis. It is often processed into the N-terminal S1 and the C-terminal S2 subunits that were evidently important for binding to cell receptor and inducing cell-cell fusion, respectively. As a consequence of cell-cell fusion, most of the naturally occurring infections of MHV are associated with syncytia formation. So far, only MHV-2 was identified to be fusion-negative. In this study, the S gene of MHV-2 was molecularly cloned, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. The MHV-2 S protein lacks a 12-amino acid stretch in the S1 hypervariable region from amino acid residue 446 to 457 when compared with the fusion-positive strain MHV-JHM. In addition, there are three amino acid substitutions in the S2 subunit, Tyr-1144 to Asp, Glu-1165 to Asp, and Arg-1209 to Lys. The cloned MHV-2 S protein exhibited the fusion-negative property in DBT cells as the intrinsic viral protein. Furthermore, similar to the fusion-positive MHV-JHM strain, proteolytic cleavage activity was detected both in DBT cells infected with the fusion-negative MHV-2 and in the transfected cells that expressed the cloned MHV-2 S protein. Domain swapping experiments demonstrated that the 12-amino acid stretch missing in the MHV-2 S1 subunit, but not the proteolytic cleavage site, was critical for the cell-fusion activity of MHV. (+info)
Amino acid substitutions within the leucine zipper domain of the murine coronavirus spike protein cause defects in oligomerization and the ability to induce cell-to-cell fusion. (5/422)The murine coronavirus spike (S) protein contains a leucine zipper domain which is highly conserved among coronaviruses. To assess the role of this leucine zipper domain in S-induced cell-to-cell fusion, the six heptadic leucine and isoleucine residues were replaced with alanine by site-directed mutagenesis. The mutant S proteins were analyzed for cell-to-cell membrane fusion activity as well as for progress through the glycoprotein maturation process, including intracellular glycosylation, oligomerization, and cell surface expression. Single-alanine-substitution mutations had minimal, if any, effects on S-induced cell-to-cell fusion. Significant reduction in fusion activity was observed, however, when two of the four middle heptadic leucine or isoleucine residues were replaced with alanine. Double alanine substitutions that involved either of the two end heptadic leucine residues did not significantly affect fusion. All double-substitution mutant S proteins displayed levels of endoglycosidase H resistance and cell surface expression similar to those of the wild-type S. However, fusion-defective double-alanine-substitution mutants exhibited defects in S oligomerization. These results indicate that the leucine zipper domain plays a role in S-induced cell-to-cell fusion and that the ability of S to induce fusion may be dependent on the oligomeric structure of S. (+info)
Selection of antigenic variants of the S glycoprotein of feline infectious peritonitis virus and analysis of antigenic sites involved in neutralization. (6/422)The type II feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) epitopes for neutralizing and enhancing antibodies are present on large spike glycoprotein (S) protein. In this study, we established monoclonal antibody-resistant mutant viruses resistant to three different monoclonal antibodies with neutralizing activity in Felis catus whole fetus cells and enhancing activity in feline macrophages, recognizing distinct epitopes on type II FIPV S protein. By comparing the nucleotide sequences of these mutant viruses with that of wild-type virus, we attempted to identify the neutralizing epitopes. The mutations were localized in the region of amino acid residues from 480 to 649 from the N terminal of the S protein. (+info)
Mouse hepatitis virus strain JHM infects a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. (7/422)Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strain JHM is a coronavirus that causes encephalitis and demyelination in susceptible rodents. The known receptors for MHV are all members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Although human forms of the MHV receptor can function as MHV receptors in some assays, no human cell line has been identified that can support wild-type MHV infection. Here we describe the infection of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, HuH-7, with MHV. HuH-7 cells were susceptible to strains JHM-DL and JHM-DS, yielding virus titers nearly identical to those seen in mouse DBT cells. In contrast, HuH-7 cells were only marginally susceptible or completely resistant to infection by other MHV strains, including A59. JHM produced a strong cytopathic effect in HuH-7 cells with the formation of round plaques. Studies of various recombinant viruses between JHM and A59 strains suggested that the ability of JHM to infect HuH-7 cells was determined by multiple viral genetic elements. Blocking the viral spike (S) protein with a neutralizing antibody or a soluble form of the MHV receptor inhibited infection of HuH-7 cells, suggesting that infection is mediated through the S protein. Transfection with the prototype mouse receptor, biliary glycoprotein, rendered HuH-7 cells susceptible to infection by other MHV strains as well, suggesting that JHM uses a receptor distinct from the classical MHV receptor to infect HuH-7 cells. Possible implications for human disease are discussed. (+info)
Selection of CTL escape mutants in mice infected with a neurotropic coronavirus: quantitative estimate of TCR diversity in the infected central nervous system. (8/422)Variant viruses mutated in the immunodominant cytotoxic T cell epitope surface (S) glycoprotein S-510-518 are selected in mice chronically infected with mouse hepatitis virus, strain JHM. We determined whether this selection occurred in the presence of an oligoclonal or polyclonal T cell response using soluble MHC/peptide tetramers in direct ex vivo analyses of CNS-derived lymphocytes. A total of 42% (range, 29-60%) of CD8 T cells in the CNS of mice with acute encephalitis recognized epitope S-510-518. A total of 34% (range, 18-62%) of cells from mice with hind limb paralysis (and chronic demyelination) were also epitope specific, even though only virus expressing mutated epitope is detected in these animals. Sequence analysis of the beta-chain CDR3 of 487 tetramer S-510-518-positive cDNA clones from nine mice showed that a majority of clonotypes were identified in more than one mouse. From these analyses, we estimated that 300-500 different CD8 T cell clonotypes responsive to epitope S-510-518 were present in each acutely infected brain, while 100-900 were present in the CNS of each mouse with chronic disease. In conclusion, a polyclonal CD8 T cell response to an epitope does not preclude the selection of T cell escape mutants, and epitope-specific T cells are still present at high levels even after RNA-encoding wild-type sequence is no longer detectable. (+info)
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that can cause a range of respiratory illnesses, from the common cold to severe diseases such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). Coronavirus infections are caused by one of the four subtypes of coronaviruses: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta.
The symptoms of coronavirus infections can range from mild to severe and may include:
* Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
* Chest tightness or discomfort
* Sore throat
* Runny nose or stuffy nose
* Body aches or muscle pains
* Nausea or vomiting
In severe cases, coronavirus infections can lead to pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and even death. The virus is primarily spread through close contact with an infected person, such as touching, shaking hands, or kissing. It can also be spread by touching contaminated surfaces and objects, such as door handles, light switches, and countertops.
There are several ways to diagnose coronavirus infections, including:
* Physical examination and medical history
* Chest X-ray or CT scan
* Blood tests
* Nucleic acid test (NAT)
Treatment for coronavirus infections is primarily focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. This may include:
* Antiviral medications
* Oxygen therapy
* Pain relief medication
* Rest and hydration
Prevention is key to avoiding coronavirus infections, and this includes:
* Washing hands frequently with soap and water
* Using alcohol-based hand sanitizers
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
* Staying home when sick
There are also several vaccines currently being developed to protect against coronavirus infections, but these are not yet widely available. It is important to follow the guidance of public health authorities and take precautions to prevent the spread of the virus.
The symptoms of SARS typically begin within 2-10 days after exposure and can include:
* Fever (>38°C)
* Body aches
* Dry cough
* Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
In severe cases, SARS can progress to respiratory failure, which can lead to death. The virus is highly contagious and can be spread through close contact with an infected person, as well as through contact with contaminated surfaces and objects.
SARS was first identified in 2003 in China, and it quickly spread to other countries around the world, causing a global outbreak. The World Health Organization (WHO) declared SARS a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in March 2003, and it was eventually contained through a combination of measures such as isolation of infected individuals, contact tracing, and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE).
There is no specific treatment for SARS, but supportive care such as oxygen therapy and mechanical ventilation may be provided to help manage symptoms. Antiviral medications have been developed to treat SARS, but their effectiveness is still being studied. Prevention of SARS primarily relies on good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing, avoidance of close contact with people who are sick, and wearing PPE when caring for infected individuals.
Overall, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) is a serious and potentially life-threatening respiratory illness that can be spread through close contact with an infected person. While it has been largely contained through public health measures, it remains important to continue practicing good hygiene and be aware of the risks of SARS in order to prevent its spread.
There are several types of coronaviridae infections, including:
1. Common cold: This is the most common type of coronavirus infection, and it is estimated that the common cold affects millions of people worldwide each year.
2. Seasonal flu: Some coronaviruses can cause seasonal flu, which is a more severe illness than the common cold.
3. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome): This is a serious and potentially life-threatening infection that was first identified in 2003.
4. MERS-CoV (Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus): This is another serious and potentially life-threatening infection that was first identified in 2012.
5. COVID-19: This is a viral respiratory disease that was first identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. It has since spread to become a global pandemic.
The symptoms of coronaviridae infections can vary depending on the type of virus and the individual infected. Common symptoms include:
* Sore throat
* Runny nose
* Diarrhea (in some cases)
In severe cases, coronaviridae infections can lead to complications such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and sinus and ear infections. In rare cases, they can also lead to more serious conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure.
There is no specific treatment for coronaviridae infections, but antiviral medications may be prescribed in some cases. Treatment is generally focused on relieving symptoms and supporting the body's immune system. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices such as washing hands frequently, avoiding close contact with people who are sick, and wearing masks in public places. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent COVID-19 and other coronaviridae infections.
Coronaviridae infections can be diagnosed through a variety of tests, including:
* Rapid antigen tests: These tests can detect the presence of the virus in a person's nose and throat.
* PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests: These tests can detect the genetic material of the virus in a person's respiratory tract.
* Serology tests: These tests can detect antibodies against the virus in a person's blood.
Overall, coronaviridae infections can be serious and potentially life-threatening, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people are able to recover from them. Prevention measures such as good hygiene practices and vaccination can also help prevent the spread of these infections.
Symptoms of FIP include loss of appetite, weight loss, fever, lethargy, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. There is no cure for FIP, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and supporting the cat's quality of life.
Prognosis for cats with FIP is generally poor, and the disease can be fatal within weeks to months after diagnosis. However, some cats may survive for longer periods of time if they receive appropriate supportive care. Prevention is key, and vaccination against feline coronavirus (FCoV) can help reduce the risk of developing FIP.
It's important to note that while FIP is a serious disease, it is relatively rare in cats under 6 months of age, as their immature immune system does not allow the virus to progress to its final stages.
Symptoms of TGS in pigs include diarrhea, vomiting, and severe dehydration, as well as fever and lethargy. The disease can be highly fatal, especially in young piglets. In humans, the disease can cause mild to moderate gastrointestinal symptoms, such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps, but it is usually self-limiting and not life-threatening.
TGS is primarily spread through close contact with infected pigs or contaminated objects, such as feeders or pens. The virus can also be transmitted through the air, such as when an infected pig coughs or sneezes. Prevention and control measures include strict biosecurity practices, such as proper cleaning and disinfection of facilities, wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), and avoiding contact with infected animals. Vaccination is also available for pigs, but it is not 100% effective and may not completely prevent the spread of the disease.
Early detection and control of TGS outbreaks are critical to minimize the impact on animal health and productivity, as well as to reduce the risk of transmission to humans. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs, laboratory testing (such as PCR or ELISA), and serology. Laboratory confirmation is essential for proper diagnosis and control of the disease.
TGS has significant economic impacts on the swine industry, as it can lead to high morbidity and mortality rates in infected herds, resulting in reduced productivity and increased costs for disease management and control. In addition, TGS can have public health implications, as it can pose a risk of transmission to humans, particularly in areas where human-animal contact is more frequent or where biosecurity practices are not strictly followed. Therefore, prevention and control measures should be implemented promptly and consistently to minimize the spread of the disease and protect animal and human health.
The common types of RTIs include:
1. Common cold: A viral infection that affects the upper respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as runny nose, sneezing, coughing, and mild fever.
2. Influenza (flu): A viral infection that can affect both the upper and lower respiratory tract, causing symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches.
3. Bronchitis: An inflammation of the bronchial tubes, which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.
4. Pneumonia: An infection of the lungs that can be caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, coughing, and difficulty breathing.
5. Tonsillitis: An inflammation of the tonsils, which can be caused by bacteria or viruses, resulting in symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and bad breath.
6. Sinusitis: An inflammation of the sinuses, which can be caused by viruses, bacteria, or fungi, leading to symptoms such as headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
7. Laryngitis: An inflammation of the larynx (voice box), which can be caused by viruses or bacteria, resulting in symptoms such as hoarseness, loss of voice, and difficulty speaking.
RTIs can be diagnosed through physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as chest X-rays, blood tests, and nasal swab cultures. Treatment for RTIs depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, and supportive care to manage symptoms.
It's important to note that RTIs can be contagious and can spread through contact with an infected person or by touching contaminated surfaces. Therefore, it's essential to practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, and avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
There are several transmission routes for TE, including:
1. Vertical transmission from mother to egg: The virus can be passed from an infected hen to her eggs before they are laid. This means that chicks hatched from infected eggs may already have the virus inside them and will become sick soon after hatching.
2. Horizontal transmission between birds: Infected birds can transmit the virus to other birds through their feces, which can contaminate feed, water, or the environment. This is why it's important to keep poultry farms clean and hygienic to prevent the spread of disease.
3. Contact with infected birds: People who handle infected birds or their droppings can also become infected and transmit the virus to other birds.
4. Contaminated feed: Feed that is contaminated with the virus can also transmit it to birds. This is why it's important to use clean, virus-free feed and to store it properly.
There are several signs and symptoms of TE in turkeys, including:
1. Diarrhea: Affected birds may have loose, watery droppings that can be streaked with blood or mucus.
2. Vomiting: Birds may vomit their feed, which can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
3. Dehydration: Affected birds may appear lethargic and have sunken eyes, dry mouths, and puffy wings.
4. Lack of appetite: Birds may stop eating and drinking, which can lead to weight loss and worsening of the disease.
5. Ulcers: In severe cases, the virus can cause ulcers in the intestines, which can be painful and can lead to bleeding.
6. Weight loss: Affected birds may lose weight due to a lack of appetite and dehydration.
7. Poor egg production: In laying hens, the virus can cause poor egg production or no eggs at all.
8. Mortality: The disease can be fatal in some cases, especially if left untreated or if the birds are not provided with proper care and management.
If you suspect that your flock has been exposed to TE, it's important to seek veterinary care immediately. Your veterinarian can perform diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of the virus and provide appropriate treatment. Treatment may include antibiotics to prevent secondary bacterial infections, fluid therapy to restore hydration, and supportive care to manage symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide intensive care and monitoring.
Prevention is key when it comes to TE in turkeys. Here are some steps you can take to reduce the risk of transmission:
1. Use clean, virus-free feed and water: Make sure that all feed and water are free from contamination and are provided in clean, sanitized containers.
2. Implement good biosecurity practices: Keep the flock in a clean, well-ventilated area with minimal contact with other birds or animals. Provide separate facilities for feeding, drinking, and manure disposal to reduce the risk of transmission.
3. Vaccinate your flock: Vaccination is an effective way to prevent TE in turkeys. Work with your veterinarian to develop a vaccination program that's tailored to your flock's needs.
4. Monitor for signs of disease: Regularly check your birds for signs of illness, such as loss of appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. If you suspect that your flock has been exposed to TE, seek veterinary care immediately.
5. Keep your flock healthy: Proper nutrition, good living conditions, and regular health check-ups can help keep your flock healthy and reduce the risk of disease transmission.
By being aware of the signs and symptoms of Turkey Enteritis and taking preventative measures to reduce the risk of transmission, you can help protect your flock and ensure the health and well-being of your birds.
A viral infection that affects the liver and is transmitted to animals through contact with infected feces, urine, or saliva. The condition can be caused by several different viruses, including hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Symptoms of animal hepatitis may include loss of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy, fever, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). In severe cases, the infection can cause liver failure and death.
* Avoid contact with infected animals
* Practice good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently
* Keep pets up to date on vaccinations and preventatives
* Avoid drinking water or eating food that may be contaminated with feces or urine from infected animals
* Use protective clothing and equipment when handling animals that may be infected
* Supportive care, such as fluids and electrolytes to prevent dehydration and maintain blood pressure
* Antiviral medications in severe cases
* Hospitalization for severe cases or those that do not respond to treatment
* Depends on the severity of the infection and the underlying health status of the animal. In general, the prognosis is good for animals that receive prompt and appropriate treatment.
* Liver failure
* Sepsis (blood infection)
* Kidney failure
* Widespread in animals, especially in those that are kept in close quarters or have poor living conditions.
Examples of emerging communicable diseases include SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), West Nile virus, and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and treat, and they can spread rapidly due to increased travel and trade, as well as the high level of interconnectedness in today's world.
Emerging communicable diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as environmental changes, genetic mutations, or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans. These diseases can also be spread through various routes, including airborne transmission, contact with infected bodily fluids, and vector-borne transmission (such as through mosquitoes or ticks).
To prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, it is important to have strong surveillance systems in place to detect and monitor outbreaks, as well as effective public health measures such as vaccination programs, quarantine, and contact tracing. Additionally, research into the causes and transmission mechanisms of these diseases is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies.
Overall, emerging communicable diseases pose a significant threat to global health security, and it is important for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public to be aware of these diseases and take steps to prevent their spread.
Some common examples of CNSVD include:
1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis: This is an inflammation of the brain caused by the herpes simplex virus. It can cause fever, headache, confusion, and seizures.
2. West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by the West Nile virus, which is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle weakness, and confusion.
3. Japanese encephalitis (JE): This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected mosquito. Symptoms can include fever, headache, seizures, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
4. Rabies: This is a viral infection that affects the brain and is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal, usually a dog, bat, or raccoon. Symptoms can include fever, headache, agitation, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
5. Enteroviral encephalitis: This is an infection of the brain caused by enteroviruses, which are common viruses that affect the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms can include fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and changes in behavior or cognitive function.
The diagnosis of CNSVD typically involves a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests (such as blood tests or lumbar puncture), and imaging studies (such as CT or MRI scans). Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antiviral medications, supportive care, and rehabilitation.
Prevention of CNSVD includes avoiding exposure to mosquitoes and other vectors that can transmit disease, maintaining good hygiene practices (such as washing hands frequently), and getting vaccinated against diseases such as rabies and measles. In addition, taking steps to prevent head trauma and using protective equipment when engaging in activities that involve risk of head injury can help reduce the risk of CNSVD.
Overall, while central nervous system viral diseases can be serious and potentially life-threatening, early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and prevent long-term complications. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
1. Bacterial dysentery: This type of dysentery is caused by bacteria such as Shigella or Salmonella and is typically spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and blood in the stool.
2. Amebic dysentery: This type of dysentery is caused by a parasite called Entamoeba histolytica and is typically spread through contaminated food or water. Symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal pain, and blood in the stool.
Dysentery can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as stool samples or blood tests. Treatment typically involves antibiotics for bacterial dysentery and antiparasitic medication for amebic dysentery. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications such as dehydration and electrolyte imbalances.
Prevention measures for dysentery include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Avoiding contaminated food and water
* Properly storing and preparing food to prevent bacterial growth
* Avoiding risky behaviors such as anal sex, which can increase the risk of contracting amebic dysentery.
The prognosis for dysentery is generally good if treated promptly and effectively. However, if left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and potentially life-threatening infections.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
Coronavirus membrane protein
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus
Coronavirus spike protein
Investigations into the origin of COVID-19
Coronavirus nucleocapsid protein
Human coronavirus NL63
Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine
Timeline of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant
Avian infectious bronchitis
List of diseases (C)
Human coronavirus OC43
Endothelial cell tropism
SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant
William Paul Duprex
Transporter Classification Database
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SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein-S1 (16-685, glycosylated, HEK, His-Tag) recombinant Protein from Active Bioscience
- Novel Coronavirus 2019 Glycoprotein-S1 amino acids 16-685, recombinant. (active-bioscience.de)
- In early December 2019, an acute respiratory disease of unknown etiology emerged in Wuhan, China, which was subsequently found to be caused by a novel coronavirus. (biomedcentral.com)
- These landscape documents have been prepared by the World Health Organization (WHO) for information purposes only concerning the 2019-2020 pandemic of the novel coronavirus. (bvsalud.org)
- This cell line is being widely used to propagate the novel coronavirus. (bvsalud.org)
- This study aimed to design a potential multi-epitopes vaccine against infectious bronchitis virus spike protein (S). Protein characterization was also performed for IBV spike protein. (biomedcentral.com)
- The present study used various tools in Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) to predict conserved B and T cell epitopes against IBV spike (S) protein that may perform a significant role in provoking the resistance response to IBV infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The membrane 'M' glycoprotein is partially exposed at the surface of the virion and also the nucleocapsid 'N' protein that located internally. (biomedcentral.com)
- Cell entry of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is mediated by the viral spike (S) protein. (proteomecommons.org)
- The spike protein is a large type I transmembrane protein containing two subunits, S1 and S2. (proteomecommons.org)
- Gentaur Protein Type: SARSr-CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related coronavirus 2)Envelope small membrane protein Design Principles: 16 polypeptides, each peptide. (proteomecommons.org)
- It is caused by a Coronavirus, and an important characteristic of this virus is one of the structural proteins, the Spike protein (S), the variation in serotypes of the IBV being related to the variation of the S protein (Cavanagh, 1998). (thepoultrysite.com)
- Several vaccine technology platforms targeting the MERS-CoV spike protein were discussed. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, the encoded protein is a functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of the human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63. (gbiosciences.com)
- While mutations have been reported throughout the SARS-CoV-2 genome, many of the variants that have emerged in 2020-2021 share defining amino acid (a.a.) mutations in the Spike (S) protein. (invivogen.com)
- SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein is assembled at the virus membrane as a clove-shaped trimer. (invivogen.com)
- and viral sequences such as the 'spike' protein gene of the pig coronavirus, in the same family as the SARS virus linked tothe current epidemic. (biosafety-info.net)
- As reported in Angewandte Chemie , researchers conducted an experiment on nonhuman primates using a mixture of RNA of the cricket paralysis virus, an RNA stabilizer containing zinc complex, and the spike protein of the MERS-CoV. (bio-itworld.com)
- Cryo-electron microscopy analysis revealed an RBD-ACE2 binding interface involving protein-glycan interactions, distinct from those of other known ACE2-using coronaviruses. (bvsalud.org)
- Recombinant Spike Glycoprotein S1 amino acids 16-685, derived from HEK293 cells is a glycosylated protein, fused to a His-tag at the C-terminal. (active-bioscience.de)
- To explore this question further we made two recombinant viruses, firstly a control virus (WT) based on the genome sequence of the original Wuhan isolate and with the inclusion of the early D614G mutation in the Spike protein. (bvsalud.org)
- It carries a deletion mutation at positions 69 and 70 in the spike protein that increases binding affinity to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor (8). (who.int)
- The spike glycoprotein is an envelope protein that binds with high affinity to mammalian ACE2 (10). (who.int)
- In the mid-1980s, the fusion glycoprotein (F) , which we'll call F protein, was isolated. (medscape.com)
- It's a type of protein on enveloped viruses like parainfluenza, HIV , Ebola , and viruses like that, including coronaviruses. (medscape.com)
- S glycoprotein is the most important protein of the virus while it is the best target for entry inhibitors, neutralizing antibody, and vaccine development. (who.int)
- Once the virus has entered the host it binds to cellular receptors using spike proteins, similar to those found in HIV-1. (iowaodes.com)
- Proteins, usually glycoproteins, found in the viral envelopes of a variety of viruses. (bvsalud.org)
- Here, using a pseudotype virus entry assay, we found that NeoCoV and its close relative, PDF-2180, can efficiently bind to and use specific bat angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) orthologues and, less favourably, human ACE2 as entry receptors through their receptor-binding domains (RBDs) on the spike (S) proteins. (bvsalud.org)
- Using a broad screening approach, we isolated seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind to all human-infecting coronavirus spike proteins from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immune donors. (bvsalud.org)
- Nanocage assembly also increases severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pseudovirus neutralization by α-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies and Fc-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) fusion proteins. (bvsalud.org)
- Allied to this transcriptome analysis, tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify over 500 viral peptides and 44 phosphopeptides, covering almost all of the proteins predicted to be encoded by the SARS-CoV-2 genome, including peptides unique to the deleted variant of the S glycoprotein. (bvsalud.org)
- Detection of an apparently viable deletion in the furin cleavage site of the S glycoprotein reinforces the point that this and other regions of SARS-CoV-2 proteins may readily mutate. (bvsalud.org)
- There's three surface proteins: the small hydrophobic (SH), G, and the F glycoprotein. (medscape.com)
- RSCU analysis proposes that the SARS-CoV-2 is a recombinant within the viral spike glycoprotein between the bat coronavirus and an unknown coronavirus. (active-bioscience.de)
- Additionally, between the Coronaviruses, HCoV-229E is the most frequently co-detected with other respiratory viruses, mainly with HRSV (Human respiratory syncytial virus). (iowaodes.com)
- Coronavirus NL63 appears mainly in young children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory illness. (iowaodes.com)
- Coronavirus NL63 is able to endure for up to7 days in respiratory secretions and remains infective at room temperature. (iowaodes.com)
- Some of them have caused worldwide panic as emerging human pathogens in recent years, e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). (nature.com)
- In the past 12 years, two emerging infectious diseases-severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-attacked humans and animals worldwide and caused approximately 774 human deaths and 315 human deaths, respectively ( http://www.who.int/csr/sars/country/table2004_04_21/en/ , http://www.who.int/csr/don/2014_07_23_mers/en/ ). (nature.com)
- 1] The disease is caused by the pathogen severe rather a descriptive review in an ever-changing field of some of the acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and has key pathogenetic mechanisms to have emerged in a disease whose since been termed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). (who.int)
- Pulmonary fibrosis in a dog as a sequela of infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2? (biomedcentral.com)
- Considering the clinical findings, the dog was included in a serological survey for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in companion animals, showing positive results. (biomedcentral.com)
- SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2), the causative agent of COVID-19 , was first reported in Wuhan (China) and has rapidly disseminated around the globe . (invivogen.com)
- Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and several bat coronaviruses use dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) as an entry receptor1-4. (bvsalud.org)
- The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe and often lethal respiratory illness in humans, and no vaccines or specific treatments are available. (bvsalud.org)
- The SARS-CoV-2 shares an 87% identity to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome 2018 (SARS-like) coronaviruses found in Zhoushan of eastern China. (active-bioscience.de)
- An accurate diagnostic test for early severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is the key weapon to control the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China, and constituted a global public health emergency (1,2). (who.int)
- The highly pathogenic severe acute respiratory late detection (SGTL) can constitute a useful surrogate syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in to track the spread of B.1.1.7 ( 11 ). (who.int)
- The spike glycoprotein of IBV induces virus neutralizing (VN) and HI antibodies and has been considered as the most likely inducer of protection [ 2 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Description: For the qualitative determination of IgG class antibodies against SARS Coronavirus in Human serum or plasma. (iowaodes.com)
- The serological test detecting anti-orf8 IgG antibody can be used for the early and accurate diagnosis of COVID-19.IMPORTANCE Current commercially available serological tests for COVID-19 patients are detecting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein and spike glycoprotein. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains a novel and ongoing evolving pandemic that poses unprecedented enormous threat and challenge to the economic, social, and health of humanity all over the regions of the world, although with approved vaccines currently available but specific definitive therapy still remain elusive (Zheng, 2020). (who.int)
- In order to study the specificity of cellular immune responses against SARS CoV-2 and potential immunity caused by other human Corona Viruses, Abcepta provides Spike peptide individually, as pools and in plate. (abgent.com)
- Individual peptides for SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein. (abgent.com)
- Description: Human coronavirus NL63 also known as HCoV-NL63 is a type of coronavirus that was identified in 2004. (iowaodes.com)
- In case of human coronaviruses SARS and HCoV-NL63 infections, serve as functional receptor for the spike glycoprotein of both coronaviruses. (gbiosciences.com)
- Interacts with SARS-CoV and HCoV-NL63 spike glycoprotein. (gbiosciences.com)
- We demonstrate that significant levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody to receptor binding domain (RBD), nucleocapsid, and spike S1 subunit of SARS-CoV-2 develop over the first 10 to 20 days of infection. (nih.gov)
- It is intended for diagnosing and monitoring of patients related to infection by SARS Coronavirus. (iowaodes.com)
- The comparison of these lesions with those reported in humans affected by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) supports the hypothesis that these findings may be attributable to the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a dog with breed predisposition to Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (CIPF), although direct evidence of SARS-CoV-2 by molecular or antigenic approaches remained unsolved. (biomedcentral.com)
- SARS-CoV-2 Spike glycoprotein, Californian Variant B.1.429. (biovendor.com)
- The study concludes: We report that chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-Coronavirus infection of primate cells. (waccobb.net)
- Cryo-EM structure of the SARS coronavirus spike glycoprotein in complex with its host cell receptor ACE2. (reboundhealth.net)
- The trimeric SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) surface spike (S) glycoprotein consisting of three S1-S2 heterodimers binds the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and mediates fusion of the viral and cellular membranes through a pre- to postfusion conformation transition. (reboundhealth.net)
- Here, we report the structure of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein in complex with its host cell receptor ACE2 revealed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). (reboundhealth.net)
- In addition, we studied the structures of the SARS-CoV S glycoprotein and its complexes with ACE2 in different in vitro conditions, which may mimic different conformational states of the S glycoprotein during virus entry. (reboundhealth.net)
- To buy SARS-CoV-2 Spike Glycoprotein-S1 (16-685, glycosylated, HEK, His-Tag) please click on the Shopping List Symbol right from the indicated price. (active-bioscience.de)
- We previously reported that the SARS-CoV-2 genome contains a unique orf8 accessory gene absent from other human-pathogenic coronaviruses. (unboundmedicine.com)
- The B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant results in spike gene target failure (SGTF) in reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays. (who.int)
- The novel 2019 Corona viruses are enveloped RNA genome virus, with a 79% genome similarity to the previous 2003 SARS Coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1). (who.int)
- The glycoprotein spike exclusively on the SARS-CoVs-2 species binds to the host cell receptor through a region called receptor-binding domain (RBD) and mediates viral entry. (who.int)
- The mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the stabilized prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (bvsalud.org)
- The emergence of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a global pandemic with substantial societal and economic impacts on individual persons and communities. (bvsalud.org)
- The complex structure shows that only one receptor-binding domain of the trimeric S glycoprotein binds ACE2 and adopts a protruding "up" conformation. (reboundhealth.net)
- Disassociation of the S1-ACE2 complex from some of the prefusion spikes was observed and characterized. (reboundhealth.net)
- However, binding to the receptor opens up the receptor-binding domain of S1, which could promote the release of the S1-ACE2 complex and S1 monomers from the prefusion spike and trigger the pre- to postfusion conformational transition. (reboundhealth.net)
- Structural and functional analyses showed that the fusion peptide-specific mAbs bound with different modalities to a cryptic epitope hidden in prefusion stabilized spike, which became exposed upon binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) or ACE2-mimicking mAbs. (bvsalud.org)
- With the goal of accelerating the development of countermeasures against MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), funding agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and researchers across the world assembled in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, on November 14-15, 2015, to discuss vaccine development challenges. (cdc.gov)
- A vaccine (or vaccines) targeting the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), which causes the disease, will be a critical component of future public health prevention measures ( 8 - 10 ). (cdc.gov)
- A Korean research team has announced that it has developed a new vaccine platform using RNA-based adjuvants (immunostimulatory agents) for the MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV). (bio-itworld.com)
- Infections are initiated via binding of the MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein to sialosides and dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (the attachment and entry receptors, respectively). (bvsalud.org)
- Evidence supports the likelihood that immunizing against the virus spike protein's receptor binding domain represents a realistic and viable vaccination strategy. (bio-itworld.com)
- The glycoprotein gene gp120 of the AIDS virus HIV-1, incorporated into GM maize as a 'cheap, edible oral vaccine', serves as yet another biological time-bomb, as it can interfere with the immune system and recombine with viruses and bacteria to generatenew and unpredictable pathogens.7. (biosafety-info.net)
- This conclusion implies that chloroquine functions both as a preventative vaccine and as a cure for strains of coronavirus. (waccobb.net)
- This is of clear significance given the interest in the S glycoprotein as a potential vaccine target and the observation that the furin cleavage site likely contributes strongly to the pathogenesis and zoonosis of this virus. (bvsalud.org)
- The spike (S) glycoprotein of coronaviruses is known to be essential in the binding of the virus to the host cell at the advent of the infection process. (proteomecommons.org)
- In order to assess their threat to humans, we explored to infer the potential hosts of coronaviruses using a dual-model approach based on nineteen parameters computed from spike genes of coronaviruses. (nature.com)
- These include the 5′ frameshifted polyprotein (ORF1a/ORF1ab), nucleocapsid (N), envelope (E), spike (S) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) genes (5). (who.int)
- The main role of the spike (S) glycoproteins is to mediate binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and promote membrane fusion and virus entry [ 14 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Coronavirus NL63 is able to use Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as an entry receptor to target cells. (iowaodes.com)
- The coronavirus spike glycoprotein attaches to host receptors and mediates viral fusion. (bvsalud.org)
- This feature was identified in over half of the mapped transcripts and was predicted to remove a proposed furin cleavage site from the S glycoprotein. (bvsalud.org)
- This motif directs cleavage of the S glycoprotein into functional subunits during virus entry or exit. (bvsalud.org)
- Cleavage of the S glycoprotein can be a barrier to zoonotic coronavirus transmission and affect viral pathogenicity. (bvsalud.org)
- Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a single Positive stranded RNA that belonging to coronavirus of the chicken ( Gallus gallus ). (biomedcentral.com)
- Despite targeting a conserved motif, only some mAbs show broad neutralizing activity in vitro against alpha- and betacoronaviruses, including animal coronaviruses WIV-1 and PDF-2180. (bvsalud.org)
- Description: Human coronavirus 229E is a single-stranded, positive-sense, RNA virus species in the Alphacoronavirus genus of the subfamily Coronavirinae, in the family Coronaviridae, of the order Nidovirales. (iowaodes.com)
- Predictions on 47 additional coronaviruses precisely conformed to conclusions or speculations by other researchers. (nature.com)
- The Coronavirus In Dogs reagent is RUO (Research Use Only) to test human serum or cell culture lab samples. (iowaodes.com)
- There are four globally distributed known human coronaviruses - HCoV-229E, HCoV-HKU1, HC0V-NL63 and HCoV-OC43, which are found in different locations around the world at different times of the year. (iowaodes.com)
- Coronavirus 229E and Human coronavirus OC43 are known to be the cause for the common cold. (iowaodes.com)
- Coronavirus NL63 is not an emerging virus, but rather one that continually circulates the human population. (iowaodes.com)
- A 24 nt in-frame deletion was detected in subgenomic mRNAs encoding the spike (S) glycoprotein. (bvsalud.org)
- Potential Therapeutic Targeting of Coronavirus Spike Glycoprotein Priming. (cdc.gov)
- The spike 'S' glycoprotein which located at the surface of the virion. (biomedcentral.com)