Sphenoid Bone: An irregular unpaired bone situated at the SKULL BASE and wedged between the frontal, temporal, and occipital bones (FRONTAL BONE; TEMPORAL BONE; OCCIPITAL BONE). Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. The body is hollowed out in its inferior to form two large cavities (SPHENOID SINUS).Sphenoid Sinusitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the SPHENOID SINUS. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is uncommon. It usually occurs in conjunction with other paranasal sinusitis.Sphenoid Sinus: One of the paired air spaces located in the body of the SPHENOID BONE behind the ETHMOID BONE in the middle of the skull. Sphenoid sinus communicates with the posterosuperior part of NASAL CAVITY on the same side.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Cranial Fossa, Middle: The compartment containing the anterior extremities and half the inferior surface of the temporal lobes (TEMPORAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. Lying posterior and inferior to the anterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, ANTERIOR), it is formed by part of the TEMPORAL BONE and SPHENOID BONE. It is separated from the posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) by crests formed by the superior borders of the petrous parts of the temporal bones.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Paranasal Sinus Diseases: Diseases affecting or involving the PARANASAL SINUSES and generally manifesting as inflammation, abscesses, cysts, or tumors.Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the nose. Common etiologies include trauma, neoplasms, and prior surgery, although the condition may occur spontaneously. (Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1997 Apr;116(4):442-9)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Bone Remodeling: The continuous turnover of BONE MATRIX and mineral that involves first an increase in BONE RESORPTION (osteoclastic activity) and later, reactive BONE FORMATION (osteoblastic activity). The process of bone remodeling takes place in the adult skeleton at discrete foci. The process ensures the mechanical integrity of the skeleton throughout life and plays an important role in calcium HOMEOSTASIS. An imbalance in the regulation of bone remodeling's two contrasting events, bone resorption and bone formation, results in many of the metabolic bone diseases, such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.WingPterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Sella Turcica: A bony prominence situated on the upper surface of the body of the sphenoid bone. It houses the PITUITARY GLAND.Ethmoid Bone: A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.Occipital Bone: Part of the back and base of the CRANIUM that encloses the FORAMEN MAGNUM.Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Palatal Muscles: The muscles of the palate are the glossopalatine, palatoglossus, levator palati(ni), musculus uvulae, palatopharyngeus, and tensor palati(ni).Vomer: An unpaired thin ploughshare-shaped facial bone. It is situated in the median plane of the SKULL. The vomer forms the posterior and inferior border of the NASAL SEPTUM.Eustachian Tube: A narrow passageway that connects the upper part of the throat to the TYMPANIC CAVITY.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Temporal Bone: Either of a pair of compound bones forming the lateral (left and right) surfaces and base of the skull which contains the organs of hearing. It is a large bone formed by the fusion of parts: the squamous (the flattened anterior-superior part), the tympanic (the curved anterior-inferior part), the mastoid (the irregular posterior portion), and the petrous (the part at the base of the skull).Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.SculptureOsteopathic Physicians: Licensed physicians trained in OSTEOPATHIC MEDICINE. An osteopathic physician, also known as D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy), is able to perform surgery and prescribe medications.Agonistic Behavior: Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.Giant Cell Tumors: Tumors of bone tissue or synovial or other soft tissue characterized by the presence of giant cells. The most common are giant cell tumor of tendon sheath and GIANT CELL TUMOR OF BONE.Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: A bone tumor composed of cellular spindle-cell stroma containing scattered multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts. The tumors range from benign to frankly malignant lesions. The tumor occurs most frequently in an end of a long tubular bone in young adults. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Curettage: A scraping, usually of the interior of a cavity or tract, for removal of new growth or other abnormal tissue, or to obtain material for tissue diagnosis. It is performed with a curet (curette), a spoon-shaped instrument designed for that purpose. (From Stedman, 25th ed & Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Ribs: A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.Pelvic Girdle Pain: Discomfort associated with the bones that make up the pelvic girdle. It occurs frequently during pregnancy.Bone Development: The growth and development of bones from fetus to adult. It includes two principal mechanisms of bone growth: growth in length of long bones at the epiphyseal cartilages and growth in thickness by depositing new bone (OSTEOGENESIS) with the actions of OSTEOBLASTS and OSTEOCLASTS.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Zygoma: Either of a pair of bones that form the prominent part of the CHEEK and contribute to the ORBIT on each side of the SKULL.Skull Base Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the base of the skull specifically, differentiated from neoplasms of unspecified sites or bones of the skull (SKULL NEOPLASMS).Pterygopalatine Fossa: A small space in the skull between the MAXILLA and the SPHENOID BONE, medial to the pterygomaxillary fissure, and connecting to the NASAL CAVITY via the sphenopalatine foramen.Cranial Fossa, Anterior: The compartment containing the inferior part and anterior extremities of the frontal lobes (FRONTAL LOBE) of the cerebral hemispheres. It is formed mainly by orbital parts of the FRONTAL BONE and the lesser wings of the SPHENOID BONE.Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Poetry as Topic: Literary and oral genre expressing meaning via symbolism and following formal or informal patterns.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Nobel PrizePoetryCreativity: The ability to generate new ideas or images.Sound: A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.

Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (1/182)

AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy.  (+info)

Mucocele involving the anterior clinoid process: MR and CT findings. (2/182)

We report two patients with surgically proved mucoceles involving the anterior clinoid process. One patient had a mucocele of an Onodi cell and the other had a mucocele isolated to the anterior clinoid process. The MR signal was increased on both T1- and T2-weighted images in the first patient but was isointense on both sequences in the second patient, a finding that resulted in misdiagnosis. The developmental and anatomic features, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls, are discussed.  (+info)

On the homology of the alisphenoid. (3/182)

The relationships of the elements of the cavum epiptericum in a hypothetical primitive mammalian precursor are reconstructed, and these are analysed in relation to the development of recent mammals, especially the fruit bat Nyctinomus johorensis. The alisphenoid in mammals is part cartilage bone, part membrane bone. The mammalian homologue of the primitive reptilian processus ascendens appears to be internal to the maxillary nerve. If so, then the 'lamina ascendens', that portion of the alisphenoid of mammals which lies between maxillary and mandibular nerves, cannot be a true processus ascendens but must be neomorphic. It is suggested that the mammalian lamina ascendens arose from an upgrowth of the root of the quadrate ramus of the epipterygoid in cynodonts, separating foramen rotundum from foramen ovale. In Ditremata the alisphenoid is completed by an element of membrane bone; this, it is suggested here, originated as the anterior lamina of the periotic in cynodonts, which is retained in monotremes. It is suggested that the alicochlear commissure of mammals originated as the later flange of the periotic in cynodonts.  (+info)

Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography. (4/182)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects.  (+info)

Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery associated with transsphenoidal encephalocele: a neural crest syndrome? (5/182)

We describe two original cases of internal carotid artery dysgenesis associated with a malformative spectrum, which includes transsphenoidal encephalocele, optic nerve coloboma, hypopituitarism, and hypertelorism. Cephalic neural crest cells migrate to various regions in the head and neck where they contribute to the development of structures as diverse as the anterior skull base, the walls of the craniofacial arteries, the forebrain, and the face. Data suggest that the link between these rare malformations is abnormal neural crest development.  (+info)

Evaluation of apical root resorption following extraction therapy in subjects with Class I and Class II malocclusions. (6/182)

The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of root resorption during orthodontic treatment, and to examine the relationship between tooth movement and apical root resorption. Twenty-seven Class I and 27 Class II patients treated with edgewise mechanics following first premolar extractions were selected. The following measurements were made on the pre- and post-treatment cephalograms: upper central incisor to palatal plane distance, the inclination of upper central incisor to the FH and AP planes, the perpendicular distances from the incisor tip to the AP and PTV planes, and incisor apex to PTV. The amount of apical root resorption of the maxillary central incisors was determined for each patient by subtracting the post-treatment tooth length from the pre-treatment tooth length measured directly on cephalograms. Intra-group differences were evaluated by the Student's t-test and inter-group differences by the Mann-Whitney U-test. For correlations the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results show that there was a mean of approximately 1 mm (P < 0.01) of apical root shortening in Class I patients, but in Class II division I subjects the mean root resorption was more than 2 mm (P < 0.001). The inter-group differences were statistically significant. No significant correlations were found between the amount of apical root resorption and tooth inclination, or the duration of active treatment.  (+info)

Age-related expansion and reduction in aeration of the sphenoid sinus: volume assessment by helical CT scanning. (7/182)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aeration of the sphenoid sinus expands with the development of the sphenoid bone, but scant detailed volumetric data regarding this process, as it evolves from childhood to old age, exist. Using helical CT scanning, we assessed age-related volumetric changes of the sphenoid sinus. METHODS: We used CT data obtained from 214 patients (age range, 1 to 80 years; 111 male and 103 female subjects) with middle or inner ear disease to assess the extent of sphenoid aeration. We also determined volumes of the sphenoid sinuses on 1.0- or 1.5-mm reformatted images by integrating the sinus air (< or = -900 HU) area. RESULTS: Sphenoid sinus aeration began as a doublet in the anterior boundary of the sphenoid bone by the age of 5 years, with patients more than 6 years old exhibiting varying degrees of aeration. The aeration on both sides continued to expand until the third decade of life. The maximum average volume was 8.2 +/- 0.5 cm3. Thereafter, the volume decreased gradually, with the average volume in the seventh decade of life being 71% of the maximum level. The aeration of the peripheral portions of the sphenoid bone, such as the pterygoid process, anterior clinoid process, and dorsum sella, occurred predominantly after closure of the spheno-occipital suture, and showed a tendency to recede during aging. CONCLUSION: Volumetric assessment of the sphenoid sinus by helical CT scanning revealed age-related expansion and reduction in aeration.  (+info)

Sphenoid wing meningioma--an unusual cause of duro-optic calcification. (8/182)

Sphenoid ridge is the third commonest site of intracranial meningiomas. Although sphenoid ridge meningiomas often involve the optic canal, calcification along the optic nerve has not been reported with these tumors. We describe CT features of a calcified optic nerve in a patient with a calcified sphenoid ridge meningioma.  (+info)

  • It shows: Jugum sphenoidale Sulcus chiasmaticus Tuberculum sellae Sella turcica Dorsum sellae Clivus Rostrum of sphenoid Sphenoidal conchae Vaginal processes of medial pterygoid plate Sphenoidal crest articulates with the perpendicular plate of ethmoid leading to formation of a part of the septum of nose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medial pterygoid plate (or medial pterygoid lamina ) of the sphenoid bone is a horse-shoe shaped process that arises from its underside. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just medial to this structure is a depression in the sphenoid bone. (medscape.com)
  • It is related to the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone and mandible. (ebscohost.com)
  • To do this accurately note that its point of attachment on the mandible is the coronoid process - the thin, triangular mountain of bone in front of the head of the mandible, and be aware of the difference in the position of this process when the jaw is open vs. when it is shut. (positivehealth.com)
  • The maxilla is the foundation of the nasal airway and is one of the most influential bones of the head. (drstevenlin.com)
  • The pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone projects downward behind the maxilla. (aclandanatomy.com)
  • Sculptor William Rush carved "gigantic size" anatomical sculptures of small parts of the body - the inner ear, sphenoid bone, temporal bone, the right maxilla - which anatomist Caspar Wistar used as models when lecturing in the medical school amphitheater. (thesmartset.com)
  • The plates are separated below by an angular cleft, the pterygoid notch , the margins of which are rough for articulation with the pyramidal process of the palatine bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • On the under surface of the vaginal process is a furrow, which is converted into a canal by the sphenoidal process of the palatine bone , for the transmission of the pharyngeal branch of the internal maxillary artery and the pharyngeal nerve from the sphenopalatine ganglion . (wikipedia.org)
  • Body (corpus sphenoidalis ) is the cuboid-shape center portion of the sphenoid bone. (getbodysmart.com)
  • Can you name the anatomical structures of the Sphenoid bone? (sporcle.com)
  • Its anatomical structure is extremely complex and difficult to understand, forcing the famed physician Sir Oliver Wendell Holmes to utter at the opening of an anatomy lecture at Harvard Medical School, "Gentlemen, damn the sphenoid bone. (blogspot.com)
  • Several developmental diseases have been linked to the sphenoid bone such as chordomas and trans-sphenoidal encephaloceles caused by persistence of the craniopharyngeal canal. (statpearls.com)
  • This case is reported in view of its rarity, novelty of presentation, and the difficulty in diagnosis due to its radiological resemblance to aneurysmal bone cyst or monostotic cystic fibrous dysplasia, further aggravated by the clinical scenario. (thejns.org)
  • Fibrous dysplasia (FD) generally manifest as round-glass appearance with well defined borders and cystic areas within involved bone were seen as hypointensity on CT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is primarily a developmental abnormality of the bone-forming mesenchyme in which fibrous tissue gradually expands and replaces the bone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other primary diseases that may be associated to aneurysmal bone cyst are polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and giant-cell tumors. (isciii.es)
  • Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated an expansile lesion of the sphenoid which caused the orbital contents to be compressed and deviated to the right. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In radiologic examination, osteoblastoma is typically observed as a radiolucent lesion surrounded by a thin margin of reactive bone that may have an expanded aneurysmal appearance. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The blood vessels pass through the foramina present in the wings of the sphenoid bone. (statpearls.com)
  • In the 3rd eye, or in the center of your brain, that is the area where the sphenoid bone is, and it is shaped as butterfly wings. (energeticsynthesis.com)
  • It refers to a structure resembling the wing of a bird especially the great and small wings of the sphenoid bone. (ebscohost.com)
  • On each side of the body below the dorsum sellae a small projection articulates with the apex of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and is termed the petrosal process. (prohealthsys.com)
  • Sphenoid Bone Massage The human body includes organs and wood systems-which interact to maintain both outer and interior conditions of your body. (tenderness.co)
  • The thigh bone (Femur) that extends from the pelvis to the knee is the largest, longest, strongest bone in the human body. (cultua.info)
  • Thanks for visiting my blog, article above Sphenoid Bone Imbalance If you like the Sphenoid Bone Imbalance what I would like you to do is to support and help us developing more experience by sharing this Human Body design reference or clicking some related posts below for more pictures gallery and further information. (cultua.info)
  • Sphenoid Bone Tmj The human body includes wood systems and organs which come together to keep both outer and central situations of the human body. (tenderness.co)
  • I suspect the energetic movement of our etheric body and etheric head and spine is many times more than the actual physical movement of head bones in resting human beings. (wordpress.com)
  • There are 206 separate bones in the human body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This cancer can start in any bone in the body and mostly long bones are affected that make up the legs and arms. (powershow.com)
  • Flat bones in the human body include the ribs, sternum (breastbone), scapula (shoulder blade), pelvic girdle and many of the 29 bones that make up the skul. (reference.com)
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan uses special x-ray equipment to make 3-D and cross-sectional images of organs, tissues, bones and blood vessels inside the body. (cancer.ca)
Sphenoid bone - Wikipedia
Sphenoid bone - Wikipedia (en.m.wikipedia.org)
Intraosseous Meningioma (of the Greater Wing of the Sphenoid Bone) | SpringerLink
Intraosseous Meningioma (of the Greater Wing of the Sphenoid Bone) | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
September 1991 - Volume 7 - Issue 3 : Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery
September 1991 - Volume 7 - Issue 3 : Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery (journals.lww.com)
Skull Bone Markings - Inferior View - Part 1
Skull Bone Markings - Inferior View - Part 1 (getbodysmart.com)
Basisphenoid bone | anatomy | Britannica.com
Basisphenoid bone | anatomy | Britannica.com (britannica.com)
Lecture 9: Axial Skeleton I
Lecture 9: Axial Skeleton I (rci.rutgers.edu/~uzwiak/)
Review Anatomy of Endocrine System | Endocrine System | Hormone
Review Anatomy of Endocrine System | Endocrine System | Hormone (scribd.com)
Shop by Profession - Surgeons - Page 1 - Anatomy Warehouse
Shop by Profession - Surgeons - Page 1 - Anatomy Warehouse (anatomywarehouse.com)
September 1994 - Volume 5 - Issue 4 : Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
September 1994 - Volume 5 - Issue 4 : Journal of Craniofacial Surgery (journals.lww.com)
Fascial space & infections
Fascial space & infections (slideshare.net)
Temporal bone - Wikipedia
Temporal bone - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Sinonasal Diseases in Children | SpringerLink
Sinonasal Diseases in Children | SpringerLink (link.springer.com)
Meningioma - American Academy of Ophthalmology
Meningioma - American Academy of Ophthalmology (aao.org)
Week 2- osteology, radiology and common disorders and branchial arches  Flashcards by  | Brainscape
Week 2- osteology, radiology and common disorders and branchial arches Flashcards by | Brainscape (brainscape.com)
Free Anatomy Flashcards about Ch.10/MED 127
Free Anatomy Flashcards about Ch.10/MED 127 (studystack.com)
Dental alveolus - Wikipedia
Dental alveolus - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy: Plate 30: Figure 1
Anatomy Atlases: Atlas of Human Anatomy: Plate 30: Figure 1 (anatomyatlases.org)
Expansion in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Ind… - English
Expansion in orthodontics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Ind… - English (slideshare.net)
Pterygoid processes of the sphenoid - Wikipedia
Pterygoid processes of the sphenoid - Wikipedia (en.m.wikipedia.org)
Orbital part of frontal bone - Wikipedia
Orbital part of frontal bone - Wikipedia (en.wikipedia.org)
Axis Scientific Radius Bone
Axis Scientific Radius Bone (anatomywarehouse.com)
A rare case of psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in the sphenoid bone reconstructed using autologous particulate exchange...
A rare case of psammomatoid ossifying fibroma in the sphenoid bone reconstructed using autologous particulate exchange... (thejns.org)