Cranial Fossa, Middle
Bone and Bones
Tomography, X-Ray Computed
Paranasal Sinus Diseases
Cerebrospinal Fluid Rhinorrhea
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma: an acceptable alternative to dopamine agonists? (1/182)AIMS: Reported cure rates following trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma are variable and recurrence rates in some series are high. We wished to examine the cure rate of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, and to assess the long-term complications and recurrence rate. DESIGN: A retrospective review of the outcome of trans-sphenoidal surgery for microprolactinoma, performed by a single neurosurgeon at a tertiary referral centre between 1976 and 1997. PATIENTS: All thirty-two patients operated on for microprolactinoma were female, with a mean age of 31 years (range 16-49). Indications for surgery were intolerance of dopamine agonists in ten (31%), resistance in six (19%) and resistance and intolerance in four (12.5%). Two patients were from countries where dopamine agonists were unavailable. RESULTS: The mean pre-operative prolactin level was 2933 mU/l (range 1125-6000). All but 1 had amenorrhoea or oligomenorrhoea, with galactorrhoea in 15 (46.9%). Twenty-five (78%) were cured by trans-sphenoidal surgery, as judged by a post-operative serum prolactin in the normal range. During a mean follow-up of 70 months (range 2 months to 16 years) there was one recurrence at 12 years. Post-operatively, one patient became LH deficient, two patients became cortisol deficient and two became TSH deficient. Out of 21 patients tested for post-operative growth hormone deficiency, 6 (28.6%) were deficient. Five patients developed post-operative diabetes insipidus which persisted for greater than 6 months. There were no other complications of surgery. The estimated cost of uncomplicated trans-sphenoidal surgery, and follow-up over 10 years, was similar to that of dopamine agonist therapy. CONCLUSION: In patients with hyperprolactinaemia due to a pituitary microprolactinoma, transsphenoidal surgery by an experienced pituitary surgeon should be considered as a potentially curative procedure. The cost of treatment over a 10 year period is similar in uncomplicated cases to long-term dopamine agonist therapy. (+info)
Mucocele involving the anterior clinoid process: MR and CT findings. (2/182)We report two patients with surgically proved mucoceles involving the anterior clinoid process. One patient had a mucocele of an Onodi cell and the other had a mucocele isolated to the anterior clinoid process. The MR signal was increased on both T1- and T2-weighted images in the first patient but was isointense on both sequences in the second patient, a finding that resulted in misdiagnosis. The developmental and anatomic features, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls, are discussed. (+info)
On the homology of the alisphenoid. (3/182)The relationships of the elements of the cavum epiptericum in a hypothetical primitive mammalian precursor are reconstructed, and these are analysed in relation to the development of recent mammals, especially the fruit bat Nyctinomus johorensis. The alisphenoid in mammals is part cartilage bone, part membrane bone. The mammalian homologue of the primitive reptilian processus ascendens appears to be internal to the maxillary nerve. If so, then the 'lamina ascendens', that portion of the alisphenoid of mammals which lies between maxillary and mandibular nerves, cannot be a true processus ascendens but must be neomorphic. It is suggested that the mammalian lamina ascendens arose from an upgrowth of the root of the quadrate ramus of the epipterygoid in cynodonts, separating foramen rotundum from foramen ovale. In Ditremata the alisphenoid is completed by an element of membrane bone; this, it is suggested here, originated as the anterior lamina of the periotic in cynodonts, which is retained in monotremes. It is suggested that the alicochlear commissure of mammals originated as the later flange of the periotic in cynodonts. (+info)
Evaluation of CSF leaks: high-resolution CT compared with contrast-enhanced CT and radionuclide cisternography. (4/182)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Radiologic evaluation of CSF leaks is a diagnostic challenge that often involves multiple imaging studies with the associated expense and patient discomfort. We evaluated the use of screening noncontrast high-resolution CT in identifying the presence and site of CSF rhinorrhea and otorrhea and compared it with contrast-enhanced CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the imaging studies and medical records of all patients who were evaluated for CSF leak during a 7-year period. Forty-two patients with rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea underwent high-resolution CT of the face or temporal bone and then had CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography via lumbar puncture. The results of the three studies were compared and correlated with the surgical findings in 21 patients. RESULTS: High-resolution CT showed bone defects in 30 of 42 patients (71%) with CSF leak. High-resolution, radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography did not show bone defects or CSF leak for 12 patients (29%) who had clinical evidence of CSF leak. Among the 30 patients with bone defects, 20 (66%) had positive results of their radionuclide cisternography and/or CT cisternography. For the 21 patients who underwent surgical exploration and repair, intraoperative findings correlated with the defects revealed by high-resolution CT in all cases. High-resolution CT identified significantly more patients with CSF leak than did radionuclide cisternography and CT cisternography, with a moderate degree of agreement. CONCLUSION: Noncontrast high-resolution CT showed a defect in 70% of the patients with CSF leak. No radionuclide cisternography or CT cisternography study produced positive results without previous visualization of a defect on high-resolution CT. CT cisternography and radionuclide cisternography may be reserved for patients in whom initial high-resolution CT does not identify a bone defect or for patients with multiple fractures or postoperative defects. (+info)
Dysgenesis of the internal carotid artery associated with transsphenoidal encephalocele: a neural crest syndrome? (5/182)We describe two original cases of internal carotid artery dysgenesis associated with a malformative spectrum, which includes transsphenoidal encephalocele, optic nerve coloboma, hypopituitarism, and hypertelorism. Cephalic neural crest cells migrate to various regions in the head and neck where they contribute to the development of structures as diverse as the anterior skull base, the walls of the craniofacial arteries, the forebrain, and the face. Data suggest that the link between these rare malformations is abnormal neural crest development. (+info)
Evaluation of apical root resorption following extraction therapy in subjects with Class I and Class II malocclusions. (6/182)The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of root resorption during orthodontic treatment, and to examine the relationship between tooth movement and apical root resorption. Twenty-seven Class I and 27 Class II patients treated with edgewise mechanics following first premolar extractions were selected. The following measurements were made on the pre- and post-treatment cephalograms: upper central incisor to palatal plane distance, the inclination of upper central incisor to the FH and AP planes, the perpendicular distances from the incisor tip to the AP and PTV planes, and incisor apex to PTV. The amount of apical root resorption of the maxillary central incisors was determined for each patient by subtracting the post-treatment tooth length from the pre-treatment tooth length measured directly on cephalograms. Intra-group differences were evaluated by the Student's t-test and inter-group differences by the Mann-Whitney U-test. For correlations the Pearson correlation coefficient was used. The results show that there was a mean of approximately 1 mm (P < 0.01) of apical root shortening in Class I patients, but in Class II division I subjects the mean root resorption was more than 2 mm (P < 0.001). The inter-group differences were statistically significant. No significant correlations were found between the amount of apical root resorption and tooth inclination, or the duration of active treatment. (+info)
Age-related expansion and reduction in aeration of the sphenoid sinus: volume assessment by helical CT scanning. (7/182)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aeration of the sphenoid sinus expands with the development of the sphenoid bone, but scant detailed volumetric data regarding this process, as it evolves from childhood to old age, exist. Using helical CT scanning, we assessed age-related volumetric changes of the sphenoid sinus. METHODS: We used CT data obtained from 214 patients (age range, 1 to 80 years; 111 male and 103 female subjects) with middle or inner ear disease to assess the extent of sphenoid aeration. We also determined volumes of the sphenoid sinuses on 1.0- or 1.5-mm reformatted images by integrating the sinus air (< or = -900 HU) area. RESULTS: Sphenoid sinus aeration began as a doublet in the anterior boundary of the sphenoid bone by the age of 5 years, with patients more than 6 years old exhibiting varying degrees of aeration. The aeration on both sides continued to expand until the third decade of life. The maximum average volume was 8.2 +/- 0.5 cm3. Thereafter, the volume decreased gradually, with the average volume in the seventh decade of life being 71% of the maximum level. The aeration of the peripheral portions of the sphenoid bone, such as the pterygoid process, anterior clinoid process, and dorsum sella, occurred predominantly after closure of the spheno-occipital suture, and showed a tendency to recede during aging. CONCLUSION: Volumetric assessment of the sphenoid sinus by helical CT scanning revealed age-related expansion and reduction in aeration. (+info)
Sphenoid wing meningioma--an unusual cause of duro-optic calcification. (8/182)Sphenoid ridge is the third commonest site of intracranial meningiomas. Although sphenoid ridge meningiomas often involve the optic canal, calcification along the optic nerve has not been reported with these tumors. We describe CT features of a calcified optic nerve in a patient with a calcified sphenoid ridge meningioma. (+info)
The symptoms of sphenoid sinusitis may include:
1. Pain or pressure in the forehead, temple, or cheekbone area.
2. Swelling of the eyelid or eye.
3. Redness of the white part of the eye.
5. Coughing up yellow or green mucus.
6. Headaches that worsen when bending forward.
7. Fatigue and fever.
8. Difficulty breathing through the nose.
9. Bad smell from the nose.
10. Pain in the upper teeth or jaw.
The causes of sphenoid sinusitis are similar to those of other types of sinusitis, including viral infections, allergies, and structural issues that obstruct the sinuses. However, sphenoid sinusitis is more likely to be caused by a bacterial infection than other types of sinusitis.
The diagnosis of sphenoid sinusitis is based on a combination of physical examination findings, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans. Treatment for sphenoid sinusitis usually involves antibiotics to clear the infection, nasal decongestants to reduce swelling, and pain relievers to manage headaches and facial pain. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to drain the abscess or remove any blockages.
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as untreated sphenoid sinusitis can lead to complications such as meningitis, brain abscesses, or osteomyelitis (bone infection). With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with sphenoid sinusitis can recover completely and resume their normal activities.
Examples of Skull Neoplasms include:
1. Meningioma: A benign tumor that arises from the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.
2. Acoustic neuroma: A benign tumor that grows on the nerve that connects the inner ear to the brain.
3. Pineal parenchymal tumors: Tumors that arise in the pineal gland, a small endocrine gland located in the brain.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Benign tumors that arise near the pituitary gland, which regulates hormone production.
5. Medulloblastoma: A malignant tumor that arises in the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls movement and coordination.
6. Germ cell tumors: Tumors that arise from immature cells that form in the embryo. These can be benign or malignant.
7. PNETs (primitive neuroectodermal tumors): Malignant tumors that arise from early forms of nerve cells.
8. Astrocytomas: Tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain called astrocytes. These can be benign or malignant.
9. Oligodendrogliomas: Tumors that arise from the supportive tissue of the brain called oligodendrocytes. These can be benign or malignant.
10. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumors: Rare, malignant tumors that contain pigmented cells.
The most common paranasal sinus diseases include:
1. Acute Sinusitis: This is an infection of the paranasal sinuses that can be caused by a virus or bacteria. Symptoms include fever, headache, and facial pain or pressure.
2. Chronic Sinusitis: This is a persistent infection of the paranasal sinuses that can last for more than 12 weeks. Symptoms are similar to acute sinusitis, but may be less severe.
3. Rhinosinusitis: This is an inflammation of the nasal passages and paranasal sinuses that can be caused by infection or allergies. Symptoms include nasal congestion, facial pain or pressure, and headache.
4. Nasal Polyps: These are growths that occur in the lining of the nasal passages or paranasal sinuses. They can cause blockage of the nasal passages and sinuses, leading to breathing difficulties and other symptoms.
5. Cerebral Abscess: This is a collection of pus in the brain that can be caused by an infection that spreads from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include fever, headache, and neurological problems such as confusion or seizures.
6. Meningitis: This is an infection of the protective membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It can be caused by bacteria or viruses and can lead to serious complications if left untreated.
7. Osteomyelitis: This is an infection of the bones of the face, which can be caused by spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include facial pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected area.
8. Orbital Cellulitis: This is an infection of the tissues surrounding the eye that can be caused by spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include protrusion of the eye, swelling of the eyelid, and difficulty moving the affected eye.
9. Endophthalmitis: This is an infection of the interior of the eye that can be caused by spread of infection from the paranasal sinuses. Symptoms include sudden severe pain, redness, and vision loss.
10. Cranial Nerve Palsy: This is a condition where one or more of the cranial nerves are affected by an infection, leading to symptoms such as double vision, drooping eyelid, or weakness of the facial muscles.
It's important to note that these complications can be serious and potentially life-threatening, so it's important to seek medical attention immediately if you experience any of these symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or reduce the risk of these complications.
Paranasal sinus neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that occur within the paranasal sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the skull that drain into the nasal passages. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant and can affect various structures in the head and neck, including the sinuses, nasal passages, eyes, and brain.
Types of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
There are several types of paranasal sinus neoplasms, including:
1. Nasal cavity squamous cell carcinoma: This is the most common type of paranasal sinus cancer and arises from the lining of the nasal cavity.
2. Maxillary sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma: This type of tumor is slow-growing and usually affects the maxillary sinus.
3. Esthesioneuroepithelioma: This rare type of tumor arises from the lining of the nasal cavity and is more common in women than men.
4. Sphenoid sinus mucocele: This type of tumor is usually benign and occurs in the sphenoid sinus.
5. Osteochondroma: This is a rare type of benign tumor that arises from the bone and cartilage of the paranasal sinuses.
Symptoms of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
The symptoms of paranasal sinus neoplasms can vary depending on the size, location, and type of tumor. Common symptoms include:
1. Nasal congestion or blockage
3. Pain or pressure in the face, especially in the cheeks, eyes, or forehead
4. Double vision or other vision problems
5. Numbness or weakness in the face
6. Discharge of fluid from the nose or eyes
7. Swelling of the eyelids or face
8. Coughing up blood
Diagnosis of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
The diagnosis of paranasal sinus neoplasms is based on a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. The following tests may be used to help diagnose a paranasal sinus tumor:
1. Computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): These imaging tests can provide detailed pictures of the paranasal sinuses and any tumors that may be present.
2. Endoscopy: A thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end can be inserted through the nostrils to examine the inside of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
3. Biopsy: A sample of tissue from the suspected tumor site can be removed and examined under a microscope to confirm the diagnosis.
4. Nasal endoscopy: A flexible tube with a camera on the end can be inserted through the nostrils to examine the inside of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses.
Treatment of Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms:
The treatment of paranasal sinus neoplasms depends on the type, location, size, and aggressiveness of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. The following are some of the treatment options for paranasal sinus neoplasms:
1. Surgery: Surgical removal of the tumor is often the first line of treatment for paranasal sinus neoplasms. The type of surgery used depends on the location and extent of the tumor.
2. Radiation therapy: Radiation therapy may be used alone or in combination with surgery to treat paranasal sinus neoplasms that are difficult to remove with surgery or have spread to other parts of the skull base.
3. Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy may be used in combination with radiation therapy to treat paranasal sinus neoplasms that are aggressive and have spread to other parts of the body.
4. Endoscopic surgery: This is a minimally invasive procedure that uses an endoscope (a thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) to remove the tumor through the nostrils or mouth.
5. Skull base surgery: This is a more invasive procedure that involves removing the tumor and any affected bone or tissue in the skull base.
6. Reconstruction: After removal of the tumor, reconstructive surgery may be necessary to restore the natural anatomy of the skull base and nasal cavity.
7. Observation: In some cases, small, benign tumors may not require immediate treatment and can be monitored with regular imaging studies to see if they grow or change over time.
It is important to note that the most appropriate treatment plan for a patient with a paranasal sinus neoplasm will depend on the specific characteristics of the tumor and the individual patient's needs and medical history. Patients should work closely with their healthcare team to determine the best course of treatment for their specific condition.
Causes of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea may include:
1. Skull fracture or depression: Trauma to the skull can cause a tear in the meninges, the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, leading to CSF leakage.
2. Spinal tap or lumbar puncture: This medical procedure can sometimes result in a small amount of CSF leaking into the nasopharynx.
3. Infection: Meningitis or encephalitis can cause CSF to leak into the nose and throat.
4. Brain tumors: Tumors in the brain can cause CSF to leak out of the sinuses or nose.
5. Cerebral aneurysm: A ruptured aneurysm in the brain can cause CSF to leak out of the nose or sinuses.
6. Vasculitic diseases: Conditions such as Wegener's granulomatosis or Takayasu arteritis can cause inflammation and damage to blood vessels, leading to CSF leakage.
7. Congenital conditions: Some individuals may have a congenital skull defect or abnormality that allows CSF to escape into the nasopharynx or sinuses.
Symptoms of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea may include:
1. Clear, colorless discharge from the nose or sinuses
2. Thick, sticky discharge or pus in the nose or sinuses
3. Headache, fever, or neck stiffness
4. Nausea, vomiting, or dizziness
5. Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs
6. Seizures or convulsions
7. Change in mental status or consciousness
Diagnosis of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, and laboratory tests to rule out other possible causes of nasal discharge. Treatment depends on the underlying cause of the condition and may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, or surgery to repair any defects or obstructions in the skull or sinuses.
Wing of sphenoid bone
Spine of sphenoid bone
Body of sphenoid bone
Greater wing of sphenoid bone
Lesser wing of sphenoid bone
Lateral pterygoid muscle
Sphenoid wing meningioma
Basilar skull fracture
Superior orbital fissure
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea
Inferior orbital fissure
Sphenoidal emissary foramen
Pterygoid processes of the sphenoid
Index of anatomy articles
Tensor veli palatini muscle
List of medical mnemonics
Internal carotid artery
Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia
Levator palpebrae superioris muscle
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- Sphenoid bone hypoplasia is a skeletal phenotype of cleidocranial dysplasia in a mouse model and patients. (bvsalud.org)
- Sphenoidal Dysplasia is the absence of complete or a part of sphenoid bone, most commonly the greater wing of sphenoid. (nih.gov)
- Our study is retrospective case series of 3 cases of Sphenoid wing dysplasia. (nih.gov)
- There was 1 case of isolated bone defect, 1 case of NF-1 and 1 case of operated Craniofacial Fibrous Dysplasia involving the sphenoid wing. (nih.gov)
- Sphenoid wing dysplasia is a complex deformity requiring multi speciality care and treatment planning. (nih.gov)
- The PROFIDYS study (Oral Bisphosphonate Effect on Osseous Symptoms in Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone), a double-blind study evaluating the long-term safety and results of treatment with an oral bisphosphonate (risedronate), was initiated in 2007 with the aim of evaluating bone pain and the evolution of osteolytic lesions in patients with fibrous dysplasia. (medscape.com)
- Majoor et al evaluated the biochemical (bone turnover markers [BTMs]) and clinical (pain reduction) outcome of bisphosphonate therapy in 11 patients with McCune-Albright syndrome and 30 patients with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia who were treated for a median of 6 years (range, 2-25 y). (medscape.com)
- If surgical treatment is required for fibrous dysplasia in long bones, intramedullary nailing is recommended. (medscape.com)
- 2 , 4 ] The cranial vault consists of frontal bones, parietal bones, the squamous parts of the temporal bone, and the interparietal part of occipital bone. (e-jbm.org)
- 21. Primary osteolytic intraosseous meningioma of the frontal bone. (nih.gov)
- In this proof-of-concept, bone neoformation beyond the skeletal envelope is explored by using a collagen pouch (n = 6) packed with calcium phosphate (CaP) granules placed over the frontal bone in sheep (n=3). (researchgate.net)
- Hueso irregular e impar situado en la BASE DEL CRÁNEO y encajado entre los huesos occipital, frontal y temporal. (bvsalud.org)
- Find the area between your nasal bone and the corner of the eyes. (healthline.com)
- Chondrosarcomas are most commonly found in the sphenoid bone-the bony ridge running along the back of the eyes. (abta.org)
- the pre-sphenoid and basisphenoid bones are joined by intersphenoid synchondrosis (ISS), and the spheno-occipital synchondrosis (SOS) joins the basisphenoid and occipital bones. (e-jbm.org)
- 129 Occipital bone. (theodora.com)
- The occipital bone (Figs. 129, 130), situated at the back and lower part of the cranium, is trapezoid in shape and curved on itself. (theodora.com)
- Journal of Bone Metabolism 2023;30(1):93-101. (e-jbm.org)
Formed by intramembranous2
- Affected individuals exhibit delayed maturation or hypoplasia in various bones , mainly including those formed by intramembranous ossification . (bvsalud.org)
- 1 ] The cranial base is formed via endochondral bone formation in a manner similar to long bones in the body, while facial bones and cranial vault bones are formed by intramembranous bone formation. (e-jbm.org)
- After birth , well-developed bone trabeculae occupied two-thirds of the cranial side of the medial pterygoid process, and cartilage appeared beneath these bones in Runx2+/+ mice , whereas thin trabecular bone appeared at the center of the cartilage of the medial pterygoid process in Runx2+/- mice . (bvsalud.org)
- CSv2 codes differentiate between involvement of cortical bone and trabecular bone. (facs.org)
- intramembranous bone formation and endochondral bone formation. (e-jbm.org)
- 40. Management of spheno-orbital en plaque meningiomas: clinical outcome in a consecutive series of 40 patients. (nih.gov)
- El cuerpo está hueco en su parte inferior, donde se forman dos grandes cavidades (SENO ESFENOIDAL). (bvsalud.org)
- Sphenoid bone consists of a median body and three pairs of processes resembling a bat with spread wings. (nih.gov)
- Abnormal development of the eye socket (sphenoid) or the tibia (one of the long bones of the shin). (nih.gov)
- Note 1: Periosteum is a fibrous membrane that wraps the outer surface of bones. (facs.org)
- Cortical bone is the dense compact outer layer of bone.Trabecular, cancellous, or spongy bone (spongiosa) is a porous network of tissue filling the interior of bone, decreasing weight and allowing room for blood vessels and marrow. (facs.org)
- Note 2: AJCC assigns the T category based on size when bone involvement is limited to the cortex. (facs.org)
- Moreover, medical-CT examination revealed that in CCD patients , the medial pterygoid process of sphenoid bone was significantly shorter relative to that in healthy young adults . (bvsalud.org)
- The sphenoid bone length and cranial vault angle significantly decreased in the skulls with early fusion of ISS compared to non-fusion skulls. (e-jbm.org)
- Additionally, in Runx2+/+ mice , Osterix-positive osteoblastic cells appeared at the upper region of the anlage of the medial pterygoid process, and bone trabeculae appeared to associate with subsequent secondary cartilage formation. (bvsalud.org)
- By contrast, few Osterix-positive osteoblastic cells appeared at the upper region of the anlage of the medial pterygoid process, and no bone trabeculae appeared thereafter in Runx2+/- mice . (bvsalud.org)
- Place your index and middle fingers on the area between the cheek bones and the upper jaw, on either side of the nose. (healthline.com)
- Internal fixation of long bones with intramedullary nails may be proposed. (medscape.com)
- Again, the reason "deprived" was chosen is because the left temporal bone usually is deprived of temporal internal rotation and the right one is deprived of temporal external rotation resulting in sidebending lesions of the cranium and rotational constraint through the temporomandibular joints. (posturalrestoration.com)
- Bones cartilage joints, Face, Nose. (stanford.edu)
- Bone;120: 176-186, 2019 03. (bvsalud.org)
- Axial CT scan showing oblique left temporal bone fracture  . (wikidoc.org)
- Oblique left temporal bone fracture line crossing the mastoid process, into Henle's spine and the external auditory canal (surgeon's view)  . (wikidoc.org)
- [ 30 ] The most common surgical indications are fracture of a weightbearing bone and progressive disease. (medscape.com)
- A simple fracture is a break in the bone without damage to the skin. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- A linear skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone resembling a thin line, without splintering, depression, or distortion of bone. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- A depressed skull fracture is a break in a cranial bone (or "crushed" portion of skull) with depression of the bone in toward the brain. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- A compound fracture involves a break in, or loss of skin and splintering of the bone. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- A skull fracture (a break in a bone of the head) increases the risk of brain damage, other complications and death. (pritzkerlaw.com)
- In this study, we performed geometric morphometric analysis of postnatal growth pattern in the mid-sagittal skulls of C57BL/6N mice from postnatal day (P) 28 to P98, and found 2 distinct geometric morphometric changes in the angle of the cranial vault and the length of sphenoid bone. (e-jbm.org)
- b. feel for hyoid bone in angle of neck and swallow - hyoid is at level of C 3 . (cuny.edu)
- Involvement through cortical bone is required for assignment of T4a. (facs.org)
- The cranial vault curvature and sphenoid base length showed a positive correlation that was confirmed by comparing the skulls with early fusion and non-fusion of ISS. (e-jbm.org)
- 37. Spinal extradural en plaque meningiomas: clinical features and long-term outcomes of 12 cases. (nih.gov)
- In adult mice , the body and medial pterygoid processes of the sphenoid bone comprised mature bones in both Runx2+/+ and Runx2+/- mice , although the axial length of the medial pterygoid processes was apparently lower in Runx2+/- mice as compared with that in Runx2+/+ mice based on histological and micro-computed tomography (CT) examinations. (bvsalud.org)
- The temporal bone supports that part of the face known as the temple . (wikidoc.org)
- These results demonstrated that the medial pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone specifically exhibited hypoplasia in CCD. (bvsalud.org)
- j. pubic bones on front of pelvis - level of S 4 - S 5 . (cuny.edu)
- It is suggested that the cranial vault flattening is sphenoid bone length-induced but cranial vault length-independent during postnatal mice skull development. (e-jbm.org)
- Sphenoid bone visible center right. (wikidoc.org)
- There was resolution of pulsatile exophthalmos in patient with sphenoid and temporal bone defect. (nih.gov)
- 32. Management of bone-invasive, hyperostotic sphenoid wing meningiomas. (nih.gov)