Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Sperm Motility: Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Acrosome Reaction: Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.Sperm Tail: The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Sperm Agglutination: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Acrosin: A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.Spermatids: Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Chlorohydrins: Any of the compounds derived from a group of glycols or polyhydroxy alcohols by chlorine substitution for part of the hydroxyl groups. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).alpha-Chlorohydrin: A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Chlortetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.Sex Preselection: Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.Chromomycin A3: Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Sperm Retrieval: Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Vasectomy: Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)Y Chromosome: The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Seminal Vesicle Secretory Proteins: The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rete Testis: The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Vitelline Membrane: The plasma membrane of the egg.Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Acetylcarnitine: An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Ionophores: Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Micromanipulation: The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Peanut Agglutinin: Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.DNA Fragmentation: Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Cell SeparationSpecimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Copulation: Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.Prostatic Secretory Proteins: Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.Epithelial Attachment: A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.Contraceptive Agents, Male: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Sertoli Cells: Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Follicular Fluid: The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.Insemination, Artificial, Homologous: Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.Ornidazole: A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Tromethamine: An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Pentoxifylline: A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Diploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bisbenzimidazole: A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Reproductive Techniques, Assisted: Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Infertility: Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (1/9715)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion. (2/9715)

A variety of testicular insults can induce changes in the structure of spermatozoal chromatin, resulting in spermatozoal DNA that is more susceptible to acid-induced denaturation. The degree of change in the DNA can be measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The SCSA measures the relative amounts of single- and double-stranded DNA after staining with the metachromatic dye, acridine orange. Here we used a stallion model (n = 4) to study the effects of scrotal heat stress on spermatozoal DNA. This model was created by insulating stallion testes for 48 h and collecting sperm daily thereafter for 60 days. Changes in the SCSA were then correlated with protamine disulfide content and protamine types and levels. Results of the SCSA indicated that the susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation was dependent on the spermatogenic cell stage that the ejaculated sperm was in at the time of the heat stress. Spermatozoa with altered DNA had a decrease in the extent of disulfide bonding that was associated with an increase in the susceptibility of DNA to denaturation. However, there were no detectable changes in either the protamine type or level. Thus, in this model, decreased disulfide bonding is associated with an increased susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation in the absence of protamine changes.  (+info)

An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development. (3/9715)

We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix.  (+info)

A possible role for the pentose phosphate pathway of spermatozoa in gamete fusion in the mouse. (4/9715)

Glucose metabolism is essential for successful gamete fusion in the mouse. Although the metabolic activity of the oocyte does not appear to play a significant role in the fusion step, the metabolic role of the spermatozoon is not known. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the role of glucose metabolism in mouse spermatozoa. Initially, the high-affinity glucose transporter GLUT3 was identified in mouse sperm. In characterizing the glucose metabolism of mouse sperm, we have shown 1) that mouse epididymal spermatozoa have a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), implying that they produce NADPH, which is required for reducing reactions, and ribose 5-phosphate, which is required for nucleic acid synthesis; and 2) that sperm are able to fuse with the oocyte when NADPH is substituted for glucose, suggesting that sperm need to produce NADPH via the PPP in order to be able to achieve fertilization. The existence of an NADPH-regulated event that influences the ability of the sperm to fuse with the oocyte is envisaged.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (5/9715)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography. (6/9715)

The transport function of the uterus and oviducts and its modulation by oxytocin has been examined using hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, recording of intrauterine pressure, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography of the Fallopian tubes. After application to the posterior vaginal fornix, a rapid (within minutes) uptake of the labelled particles into the uterus was observed during the follicular and during the luteal phase of the cycle in all patients. Transport into the oviducts, however, could only be demonstrated during the follicular phase. Transport was directed predominantly into the tube ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle; the contralateral oviduct appeared to be functionally closed. The proportion of patients exhibiting ipsilateral transport did increase concomitant with the increase of the diameter of the dominant follicle. That ipsilateral transport has biological significance is suggested by the observation that the pregnancy rate following spontaneous intercourse or insemination was significantly higher in those women in whom ipsilateral transport could be demonstrated than in those who failed to exhibit lateralization. Oxytocin administration was followed by a dramatic increase in the amount of material transported to the ipsilateral tube, as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging and by Doppler sonography following instillation of ultrasound contrast medium. Continuous recording of intrauterine pressure before and after oxytocin administration did show an increase in basal tonus and amplitude of contractions and a reversal of the pressure gradient from a fundo-cervical to a cervico-fundal direction. These actions of oxytocin were accompanied by an increase in amplitude of potentials recorded by electrohysterography. These data support the view that uterus and Fallopian tubes represent a functional unit that is acting as a peristaltic pump and that the increasing activity of this pump during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is reflected by an increased transport into the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle. In addition, they strongly suggest a critical role of oxytocin in this process. Failure of this mechanism appears to be a cause of subfertility or infertility, as indicated by the low pregnancy rate following intrauterine insemination or normal intercourse in the presence of patent Fallopian tubes. It may be regarded as a new nosological entity for which we propose the term tubal transport disorder (TTD). Since pregnancy rate of such patients is normal when treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF), hysterosalpingoscintigraphy seems to be useful for the choice of treatment modalities in patients with patent Fallopian tubes suffering from infertility.  (+info)

Mechanical stimulation of starfish sperm flagella. (7/9715)

1. The responses of starfish sperm flagella to mechanical stimulation with a microneedle were analysed. Flagellar movement was recorded by high-speed microcinematography and by stroboscopic observation. 2. The amplitude of the bending wave of a flagellum was restricted over its entire length when the microneedle was brought near to the flagellum at its proximal region. Beyond the restricted part, the amplitude of the wave, and the bend angle, became smaller than those of a normally beating flagellum, while the curvature was practically unchanged. 3. When the tip of the microneedle was in contact with the flagellum, propagation of the bending wave beyond the microneedle was inhibited. The part of the flagellum between the base and the microneedle continued beating in some cases and stopped beating in other cases. The flagellum beyond the arrested part stopped beating and remained straight. When the microneedle was removed, the bending wave which existed in the part of the flagellum proximal to the microneedle, or the wave which was passively formed de novo at the time of the removal of the microneedle, propagated over the arrested part towards the tip. 4. A flagellum amputated by a microneedle in a medium containing ATP continued beating with a small amplitude, small curvature, small bend angle and low frequency. When the amputated flagellum was passively bent by a microneedle at the region near the point of amputation, this bend propagated towards the tip with a constant bend angle. 5. The beating frequency of the flagellum could be modulated by the application of a rhythmic external force generated by vibrating a microneedle near the flagellum. The beating was completely synchronized with vibration of the microneedle in the frequency range from 23 Hz to 43 Hz.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (8/9715)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized. The site of storage is variable among different animal taxa and ranges from structures that appear to function solely for sperm retention, such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract enriched with receptors to which sperm associate before fertilization, such as the caudal portion of the cow oviduct containing sperm-associating annexins. Female sperm storage is an integral stage in the reproductive process for many animals with internal fertilization. It has several documented biological functions including: Supporting the sperm by: a.) enabling sperm to undergo biochemical transitions, called capacitation and motility hyperactivation, in which they become ...
Induction of human sperm chemotaxis is an established phenomenon, though signaling systems physiologically involved have not been identified. Recently, it has been demonstrated that RANTES is present in the follicular fluid and that this molecule is a chemoactractant for human spermatozoa. However, the presence of beta-chemokine receptors on human spermatozoa has never been reported. By cytometric, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate the presence of CCR5 and CCR3 on ejaculated spermatozoa from healthy subjects. CCR5 was detected in the periacrosomal region of the sperm surface, whereas CCR3 was also present in the postacrosomal cap. Individual variability was observed on CCR5 and CCR3 positive sperm percentages. Presence of Delta32+/-) mutation was demonstrated in two subjects expressing CCR5 in half of the ejaculated spermatozoa. Our findings represent the missing information in favor of the possibility that beta-chemokines and their receptors are involved in sperm
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of stallion spermatozoa was assessed in fresh semen and in samples of the same ejaculates after freezing and thawing. Particular attention was paid to individual differences in the susceptibility to LPO and its possible relationship with freezability. Innate levels of LPO were very low in fresh spermatozoa but increased after thawing, a change that was largely stallion-dependent. The level of LPO in fresh spermatozoa was not correlated with that of the thawed spermatozoa. Negative correlations existed between LPO and intact membranes post-thaw (r= -0.789, Pless than0.001), and also between LPO and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) post-thaw (r= -0.689, Pless than0.001). LPO was also highly and significantly correlated with caspase activity. The correlation between caspase activity in ethidium positive cells and LPO was r=0.772, Pless than0.001. This LPO is unlikely to represent, per se, a sign of cryopreservation-induced injury, but it ...
Even relatively minor errors in chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis are associated with sperm DNA damage and infertility, yet little is known about the etiology. Mice with severe NPYq deletions are infertile due to severe sperm differentiation defects (Ward and Burgoyne, 2006; Yamauchi et al., 2009). We have recently observed that sperm from these mice presented abnormal chromatin packaging and DNA damage. Moreover, when these sperm were injected into the oocytes, a significant increase of oocyte arrest at pronuclei stage and of chromosome aberrations in the fertilized eggs were noted (Yamauchi et al., 2010). Here we provide evidence that the deficiency of NPYq encoded gene Sly is associated with sperm DNA damage and poor sperm chromatin condensation, and propose that SLY plays a role in spermatid-specific chromatin remodeling.. How can Sly/SLY be involved in sperm DNA damage phenotype? SLY protein has been shown to control the postmeiotic expression of ,100 genes, the majority of which ...
In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital tract to become functionally competent cells. As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes collectively referred to as capacitation. Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of the opposite gametes triggers a Ca|sup|2+|/sup|-dependent signal transduction cascade. The net result is the fusion of the sperm plasma membrane and the underlying outer acrosomal membrane at multiple sites that causes the release of acrosomal contents at the site of sperm-egg adhesion. The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, is important factor that directs the sperm to penetrate the egg coat and fertilize the egg.
Sperm-associated antigen 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPAG8 gene. The correlation of anti-sperm antibodies with cases of unexplained infertility implicates a role for these antibodies in blocking fertilization. Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. The protein encoded by this gene is recognized by sperm agglutinating antibodies from an infertile woman. This protein is localized in germ cells of the testis at all stages of spermatogenesis and is localized to the acrosomal region of mature spermatozoa. Alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described but the full-length sequences of only two have been determined. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137098 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000066196 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". ...
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In mammals, after coitus a small number of spermatozoa enter the uterine tube and following attachment to uterine tube epithelium are arrested in a non-capacitated state until peri-ovulatory signalling induces their detachment. Whilst awaiting release low numbers of spermatozoa continually detach from the epithelium and the uterine tube reservoir risks depletion. There is evidence of attachment of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium in several species which might form a potential pre-uterine tube reservoir. In this study we demonstrate that: (1) dog spermatozoa attach to uterine epithelium and maintain flagellar activity, (2) in non-capacitating conditions spermatozoa progressively detach with a variety of motility characteristics, (3) attachment is not influenced by epithelial changes occurring around ovulation, (4) attachment to uterine epithelium slows capacitation, (5) capacitated spermatozoa have reduced ability to attach to uterine epithelium, (6) under capacitating conditions increased ...
Improved fertility following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa would offer rabbit producers faster genetic improvement. Previous work investigating cryoprotectants for rabbit spermatozoa have reported inconsistent results. Semen was collected from three rabbit bucks by artificial vagina and frozen using a standard procedure with varied cryodiluent components. Post-thaw analysis encompassed motility, sperm kinematic parameters and acrosome and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 2 and 4 h after thawing. Experiment 1 compared diluents with 3.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 1.5% acetamide, 1.75% DMSO + 0.75% acetamide or 3.5% DMSO + 1.5% acetamide. The treatment that resulted in the highest post-thaw motility (P,0.001) and acrosome integrity (P,0.001) was DMSO alone. Experiment 2 compared 3.5, 7 and 10% DMSO in the cryodiluent. The best post-thaw sperm motility (P,0.001) and linearity (P=.002) was in 3.5% DMSO, while 10% DMSO afforded higher acrosome/membrane ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cause oxidative cell damage and inhibit sperm function. In most oviparous fishes that spawn in seawater (SW), spermatozoa may be exposed to harmful ROS loads associated with the hyperosmotic stress of axonemal activation and ATP synthesis from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is not known how marine spermatozoa can cope with the increased ROS levels to maintain flagellar motility. Here, we show that a marine teleost orthologue of human aquaporin-8, termed Aqp8b, is rapidly phosphorylated and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane of SW-activated spermatozoa, where it facilitates H2O2 efflux from this compartment. When Aqp8b intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial channel activity are immunologically blocked in activated spermatozoa, ROS levels accumulate in the mitochondria leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, the reduction of ATP production, and the progressive arrest of sperm ...
In order to reach fertilization in the context of IVF, the presence of high concentrations of spermatozoa is associated with a higher degree of sperm metabolism and a higher concentration of sperm degradation products, which may adversely affect not only sperm and oocyte viability and the fertilization rate. The effect of a high concentration of sperm used for oocyte insemination appears also to be negative on embryo development (Dumoulin et al 1992*). If that is true, lowering the sperm concentration for oocyte insemination might improve embryo quality and result in a higher implantation rate per embryo. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the percentage of 8 cell-embryos on day 3 after IVF is significantly higher (40%) after insemination with a low sperm concentration (150 000/ml spermatozoa) than after insemination with a higher sperm concentration (30%; group 600 000/ml spermatozoa ...
BACKGROUND: Previous results from our laboratory have led us to propose heparan sulfate (HS) as a putative protamine acceptor during human sperm decondensation in vivo. The aim of this paper was to investigate the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the mammalian oocyte in an effort to better support this contention. METHODS: Two experimental approaches are used: oocyte labeling to identify the presence of HS and analysis of sperm decondensing ability of fresh oocytes in the presence or absence of specific glycosidases. RESULTS: Staining of mouse zona-intact oocytes with the fluorescent cationic dye, Rubipy, at pH 1.5 allowed for the detection of sulfate residues in the ooplasm by confocal microscopy. HS was detected in the ooplasm by immunocytochemistry. A sperm decondensation microassay using heparin and glutathione was successfully developed. The same level of sperm decondensation could be attained when heparin was replaced by mouse zona-free oocytes. Addition of heparinase to the ...
The spermiogenesis process in Wardula capitellata begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum orthogonal to a median cytoplasmic process. Later these flagella rotate and become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, which already exhibits two electron-dense areas and spinelike bodies before its proximodistal fusion with the flagella. The final stage of the spermiogenesis is characterized by the constriction of the ring of arched membranes, giving rise to the young spermatozoon, which detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of W. capitellata presents most of the classical characters reported in digenean spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different lengths of the 9 + 1 trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as two ...
Our clinical catamnestic studies on cases of sterility with a proven sensitization against spermatozoa revealed a statistically significant decrease of pregnancies only in patients with positive spermantibody tests over a period longer than 3 years. A direct spermimunological etiology of sterility can not yet be derived. In the investigated 759 cases a sensitization against spermatozoa was detected in 93 cases. In 11 patients the spermantibodies proved to be positive longer than 3 years. Washed spermatozoa were used as antigen in the applied test methods. It may very well be possible, that the results point in a different direction once we are applying a particular fertility diminishing spermatozoa antigen.
1. Chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa has been shown for a variety of mammals, and in some cases this has been shown to be correlated with dimorphism in the head lengths of the spermatozoa.. 2. In the present paper this correlation has been extended to the spermatozoa of man, the mouse, and the rat, in which chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa had previously been shown, and in which head length dimorphism seems to exist.. 3. The interest of these results lies in the probability that the histological difference in the X- and Y-spermatozoa may account for the inequality of the sexes at conception in mammals.. ...
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This study evaluated the effects of cooling, freezing and thawing on the plasma membrane integrity, kinetics and expression of two sugar transporters glucose transporter-3 and -5 (GLUT-3 and GLUT-5) in spermatozoa from Iberian boars. Semen samples were collected twice weekly from eight young, fertile Iberian boars of the Entrepelado and Lampiño breeds. The samples were suspended in a commercial extender and refrigerated to 17 degrees C for transport to the laboratory (step A), where they were further extended with a lactose-egg yolk-based extender and chilled to 5 degrees C (step B) prior to freezing in the presence of glycerol (3%). Spermatozoa were assessed for plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility at each of the steps, including post-thaw (step C). Aliquots were also prepared for immunocytochemical localisation of the sugar transporters (fixed and thin smears for transmission and scanning electron microscopy levels respectively) and for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and subsequent western
The acrosome reaction of epididymal spermatozoa and fertilization in vitro of mouse eggs in chemically defined media without tissue fluid were investigated. About 8 to 10% of motile spermatozoa lost their acrosome but no eggs were penetrated when the spermatozoa and eggs were incubated in a basic medium (modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution containing glucose) for 5 to 7 hr. Addition of a single metabolic intermediate, such as sodium oxaloacetate or sodium pyruvate, to the basic medium increased the proportion of motile spermatozoa without an acrosome (19 to 34%) and the proportion of eggs penetrated (3·2 to 25·5%). Incubation of spermatozoa and eggs in the basic medium containing serum albumin of various species caused a further increase in the proportion of motile spermatozoa without an acrosome (50 to 65%) and in that of penetrated eggs (60·7 to 86%). The best medium for sperm capacitation and fertilization of mouse eggs in vitro, however, was the basic medium containing bovine serum ...
Membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer. When the temperature decreases, interactions between phospholipids appear and the membrane becomes more rigid and can be described as a "glass state". Some components, such as the cholesterol rate, could help the membrane to better stand the temperature drop.. Contrary to other mammalian spermatozoa, swine spermatozoa are characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of cholesterol. Due to this particular composition, the cold shock point is quite high, thus making boar spermatozoa more sensitive to temperature drops. During semen processing, the temperature goes down from 37°C just after collection to 17°C for the storage. ...
The SCSA®is one of the most widely utilized tests of sperm DNA damage. There are now a number of commercial kits available for testing of sperm DNA fragmentation in which great variations of...
View Notes - Chapter 9 from HEALTH SCI HLTHST101 at Boise State. Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Male Reproductive System Spermatozoon Spermatozoon Sperm cell Flagellum Flagellum Tail of the sperm
Purpose: Sperm nuclear proteins and DNA integrity have been implicated in infertility and treatment failures. High stallion to stallion variability is observed in sperm cryopreservation protocols. The cells are destroyed with harsh chemicals prior to using biochemical assays to test sperm DNA quality. The feasibility of using Raman spectrometry in combination with a laser trap for non-destructive micromanipulation and characterization of DNA damage in motile stallion and human sperm is experimentally investigated in this thesis. Methods: Live stallion sperms were subjected to controlled cellular damage: (a) four grades of chemically induced oxidative stress using Xanthine - Xanthine Oxidase (b) three grades of osmotic stress using PBS and (c) membrane damage using thermal shock. Live human sperm DNA disintegration with time and oxidative stress were explored on fresh, cryopreserved and swim-up categories. The specimens ranged from sub-fertile patients to fertile donors in a limited study. ...
A rabbit antibody to mouse 3T3 cell fibronectin was used in conjunction with a fluorescein-tagged second antibody to detect fibronectin-like activity on the surface of rabbit spermatozoa. Only ejaculated sperm displayed an intense and highly localized fluorescence over the acrosomal region. Cauda epididymal sperm of the rabbit as well as several other species did not exhibit any reaction. The fluorescent activity could be eliminated by trypsin treatment but was re-established by incubation in cell-free seminal fluid. Sperm recovered from females 10-12 h after mating showed a reduction or absence of antifibronectin fluorescence, suggesting that this components loss could be a factor in sperm capacitation. Because fibronectins show strong binding to collagen, mixtures of ejaculated sperm and collagen were examined in the light and electron microscope. Living sperm appear to have a strong affinity for collagen and quickly adhere to the filaments by their heads, while continuing vigorous ...
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The mature spermatozoa are released from the protective Sertoli cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule and a process called spermiation then takes place, which removes the remaining unnecessary cytoplasm and organelles. The resulting spermatozoa are now mature but lack motility, rendering them sterile. The non-motile spermatozoa are transported to the epididymis in testicular fluid secreted by the Sertoli cells with the aid of peristaltic contraction. Whilst in the epididymis they acquire motility and become capable of fertilisation. However, transport of the mature spermatozoa through the remainder of the male reproductive system is achieved via muscle contraction rather than the spermatozoons recently acquired motility. ...
spermatozoa tail - Following spermiogenesis, the third region of the spermatozoa that has a head, neck and tail). The tail is also divided into 3 structural regions a middle piece, a principal piece and an end piece. In humans: the middle piece (5 µm long) is formed by axonema and dense fibres surrounded by mitochondria; the principal piece (45 µm long) fibrous sheath interconnected by regularly spaced circumferential hoops; the final end piece (5 µm long) has an axonema surrounded by small amount of cytoplasm and plasma membrane ...
In a situation where technology allows for the simultaneous measurement of numerous parameters of a single sperm cell, it becomes crucial to choose those parameters which may be useful in estimating in vivo fertility. Sperm membrane destabilization is believed to occur during chilling of semen, although its effect on the post-thaw (PT) fertility of the spermatozoa has not yet been fully assessed. For this reason, we tested a new combination of fluorophores, Merocyanine 540 (M540)/Yo-Pro 1/Hoechst 33342 (H33342), to detect sperm plasma membrane destabilization in bull spermatozoa conventionally processed for artificial insemination (AI). The samples were tested by flow cytometry (FC), both immediately PT and following an in vitro swimup (SU) technique, and results were thereafter compared with conventional sperm quality Measurements (of concentration, motility, morphology, and membrane integrity), including in vivo fertility. Semen samples from six Estonian Holstein (EHF) AI bulls, frozen when ...
In addition to perinuclear theca anchored glutathione-s-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2), whose function is to participate in sperm nuclear decondensation during fertilization (Biol Reprod. 2019, 101:368–376), we herein provide evidence that GSTO2 is acquired on the sperm plasmalemma during epididymal maturation. This novel membrane localization was reinforced by the isolation and identification of biotin-conjugated surface proteins from ejaculated and capacitated boar and mouse spermatozoa, prompting us to hypothesize that GSTO2 has an oxidative/reductive role in regulating sperm function during capacitation. Utilizing an inhibitor specific to the active site of GSTO2 in spermatozoa, inhibition of this enzyme led to a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation late in the capacitation process, followed by an expected decrease in acrosome exocytosis and motility. These changes were accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and membrane lipid peroxidation and culminated in a
We now have the sperm proteome of a primate. In a paper just out in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, researchers describe the sperm proteome of the rhesus macaque, the first primate to have its sperm proteome analyzed.. Sperm proteomes from non-primate species, such as rat, mouse and fruit fly, already have been determined. "For comparative evolutionary and functional genomics studies, a primate sperm proteome was highly desirable to include in this growing list of sperm proteomes," explains Tim Karr at Arizona State University.. Rhesus monkeys bear many genetic and physiological similarities to humans, so they are used regularly as a nonhuman primate model system in biomedical research, including human reproduction research. "Knowing the rhesus sperm proteome will greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility," explains Karr. (I wrote about sperm and male infertility earlier this ...
This research line is funded by a project of the National R&D Plan (Ministry of Science and Innovation), led by Dr. Felipe Martínez-Pastor.. Sperm work has improved animal breeding and allowed semen banks to preserving species and breeds. However, many factors affect the integrity of the genetic material of the spermatozoon, reducing fertility, causing abortions and affecting offspring fitness. In this research line, we are studying ruminant spermatozoa, a group of great economical importance. Whereas artificial reproductive techniques are routine in cattle, they are still developing for most species. In either cases, it is crucial to maintain sperm DNA integrity during manipulation, storage or in vitro techniques. Sperm DNA assessment has been carried out for more than 30 years, but few studies have dealt on fine analysis of DNA damage. DNA in mammal sperm is associated to protamines (PDNA) and histones (HDNA), an organization with likely epigenetic effects. HDNA include important sequences ...
This chapter focuses specifically on how apoptosis affects sperm quality and function, and the implications of this process for both embryonic development and the health and well-being of the offspring. DNA damage in human spermatozoa has been correlated with poor fertilization and impaired embryonic development to the blastocyst stage as well as with the incidence of subsequent miscarriage. Human infertility is a complex multifactorial condition that is strongly impacted by genetic factors that assisted reproductive technology (ART) will ensure are passed onto the progeny. Spermiogenesis is a key event in the etiology of DNA damage in the male germ line. DNA damage in human spermatozoa appears to have its origins in the testes and is associated with oxidative stress. Spermatozoa possess several variants of the prolactin receptor and respond to the presence of this hormone with the stimulation of PI3 kinase/Akt phosphorylation and the prolongation of sperm survival ...
The association between semen quality and male infertility has been known for more than 40 years.. Having reviewed the literature, it seems clear that strict morphology has a clinical relevance, being an excellent biomarker of sperm fertilizing capacity, in vivo and in vitro, independent of motility and concentration (27).. Sperm morphology evaluation is considered to be a highly subjective procedure because, unlike the haematopoietic cells for example, the difficulty in classifying human sperm morphology is caused by the large variety of abnormal forms found in the semen of infertile and fertile men. Only certain types of abnormality can be quantitated objectively (11).. Normal sperm morphology needs to consider two points. The first one is the proportion of spermatozoa with normal morphology in semen and the second is the definition and the characterization of the normal spermatozoa.. According to WHO criteria, a normal ejaculate must have at least 30% normal sperm.(36). For the stricter ...
Our team in Birmingham has shown that sperm DNA damage more than doubles the risk of miscarriage.. This is a crucial finding; until now, miscarriage has generally been considered an exclusively female problem, with investigations and management targeting only women.. Yet the role of sperm DNA damage in miscarriage is not surprising. This is because while most cell types are able to repair damaged DNA, sperm lose this ability during development and have to rely on repair mechanisms in the egg. As the level of damage in the sperm DNA increases it also becomes increasingly likely that any repairs by the egg may create genetic mutations that could increase the risk of miscarriage.. Most existing tests for sperm DNA damage are insufficiently sensitive to be clinically useful; we are developing a more accurate combined assay system and therapies to achieve repair. One potential cause of sperm DNA damage is exposure to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) during production and transit. We are investigating ...
Detail záznamu - Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Breviscolex orientalis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Motility, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa stored in extender supplemented with GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Health,According to Researchers Men produce more mutant sperm as they get old...The deformed sperm increase the risk of disease in the mens offspri...Researchers were looking for two mutations that cause virtually all ...The researchers studied sperm from 148 men aged 21 to 80. Most of th...In men with Apert children the younger men were more likely to have...,Mutant,sperm,beat,out,healthy,brethren,in,study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Bennett, D and Dunn, L C., "Studies of effects of t-alleles in the house mouse on spermatozoa. I. Male sterility effects." (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 576 ...
There are several gonadal hormones involved in spermatogenesis or the formation of spermatozoa. The gonadal-releasing hormone or factor in the hypothalamus is responsible for stimulating the anterior pituitary to increase the secretion of androgens and Follicle Stimulating Hormone or FSH. The FSH, in return, will enhance the production of testosterone. During puberty, the testosterone blood levels of men increase. This true male gonadal hormone then stimulates spermatogenesis or the formation of spermatozoa or sperm cells in the testes.. ...
Normal sperm count, as defined by the World Health Organisation, is characterised by: the concentration of spermatozoa, which should be at least 20 million per ml; the total volume of semen should be at least 2ml; the total number of spermatozoa in the semen should be at least 40 million; at least 75 per cent of the spermatozoa should be alive; at least 30 per cent of the spermatozoa should be of normal shape and form; at least 25 per cent of the spermatozoa should be swimming with rapid forward movement; at least 50 per cent of the spermatozoa should be swimming forward, even if only sluggishly ...
Castagnoli, E. and Salo, J. and Toivonen, M. S. and Marik, Tamás and Mikkola, R. and Kredics, László (2018) An Evaluation of Boar Spermatozoa as a Biosensor for the Detection of Sublethal and Lethal Toxicity. TOXINS, 10 (11). ISSN 2072-6651 ...
MACS technique eliminates apoptotic sperms and may be indicated prior to ICSI, in order to guarantee that the injected spermatozoa are not damaged at a molecular level. Alternatively it could be combined with PICSI.. The externalization of the phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) to the sperm plasma membrane is a characteristic feature of the apoptotic phenomenon that occurs early during the process of sperm cell death. This basic knowledge has prompted investigators to develop a magnetic-based selection system for sperm cells that can separate early apoptotic from non-apoptotic germ cells (MACS).. Human sperm quality is defined by the classical parameters, concentration, motility and morphology, according to standard WHO diagnostic semen analysis. Nevertheless, hidden anomalies affecting spermatozoa membranes and causing apoptosis are present. Such features are not routinely detected in ejaculated spermatozoa but they have been proven to have a negative impact on ART outcome. Indeed, successful ...
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Illustration of a human sperm fertilising an egg. The picture shows the size difference between the egg, or ovum, & the spermatozoon. Human spermatozoa are extremely elongated single cells about 65 micrometres long, divided into 3 main regions: a head, neck, & tail. The head, which contains the male nucleus, is about 7 micrometres long. Here, the head appears buried in the follicular cells, which form the corona radia that surrounds the ovum. Beneath the corona radiata is a glycoprotein membrane, the zona pellucida, which the sperm must penetrate to reach the female nucleus. This version on black background. Version on white background is P648 010.. Thanks for installing the Bottom of every post plugin by Corey Salzano. Contact me if you need custom WordPress plugins or website design. ...
Sp17 is present in the head and tail of spermatozoa, in the tail it is in the fibrous sheath, which contains AKAP3 and AKAP4. Recombinant AKAP3 and AKAP4 RII binding domains were synthesized as glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins immobilized on glutathione-agarose resin and added to CHAPS extracts of human spermatozoa. Western blots of bound and eluted proteins probed with anti-Sp17 revealed that AKAP3 bound and precipitated a significant level of Sp17 while AKAP4 did not. AKAP4 binds AKAP3 and expression of AKAP3 is reduced in AKAP4 knockout sperm, therefore we tested AKAP4 knockout spermatozoa for Sp17 and found that there was a reduction in the amount of Sp17 expressed when compared to wild type spermatozoa. Co-localization of AKAP3 and Sp17 by immunofluorescence was demonstrated along the length of the principal piece of the flagella.. ...
2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc. The spermatozoa of many stallions do not tolerate being cooled, restricting the commercial viability of these animals and necessitating the development of a chemically defined room temperature (RT) storage medium. This study examined the impact of two major modulators of oxidative phosphorylation, pyruvate (Pyr) and L-carnitine (L-C), on the storage of stallion spermatozoa at RT. Optimal concentrations of Pyr (10 mM) and L-C (50 mM) were first identified and these concentrations were then used to investigate the effects of these compounds on sperm functionality and oxidative stress at RT. Mitochondrial and cytosolic reactive oxygen species, along with lipid peroxidation, were all significantly suppressed by the addition of L-C (48 h MitoSOX Red negative: 46.2% vs. 26.1%; 48 and 72 h dihydroethidium negative: 61.6% vs. 43.1% and 64.4% vs. 46.9%, respectively; 48 and 72 h 4-hydroxynonenal negative: 37.1% vs. 23.8% and 41.6% vs. 25.7%, ...
Spermatological characters of the liver fluke Mediogonimus jourdanei Mas-Coma et Rocamora, 1978 were studied by means of transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Spermiogenesis begins with the formation of the differentiation zone containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body. These two centrioles originate two free flagella that undergo a 90 degrees rotation before fusing with the median cytoplasmic process. Both nuclear and mitochondrial migrations toward the median cytoplasmic process occur before the proximodistal fusion of flagella. Finally, the constriction of the ring of arched membranes gives rise to the young spermatozoon. The mature sperm of M. jourdanei measures about 260 microm and presents two axonemes of different lengths with the typical pattern of the Trepaxonemata, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules, one mitochondrion, a nucleus and granules of glycogen. An analysis of all the microphalloidean species studied to date ...
The capacitation of mammalian spermatozoa involves the activation of a cAMP-mediated signal transduction pathway that drives tyrosine phosphorylation via mechanisms that are unique to this cell type. Controversy surrounds the impact of extracellular calcium on this process, with positive and negative effects being recorded in independent publications. We clearly demonstrate that the presence of calcium in the external medium decreases tyrosine phosphorylation in both human and mouse spermatozoa. Under these conditions, a rise in intracellular pH was recorded, however, this event was not responsible for the observed changes in phosphotyrosine expression. Rather, the impact of calcium on tyrosine phosphorylation in these cells was associated with an unexpected change in the intracellular availability of ATP. Thus, the ATP content of both human and mouse spermatozoa fell significantly when these cells were incubated in the presence of external calcium. Furthermore, the removal of glucose, or addition of 2
Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome ...
Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome ...
Azoospermic patients (no presence of spermatozoa in the ejaculate) have the option to undergo semen surgical collection procedure, a technique for collecting spermatozoa directly from the vas deferens, epididymis or testis. Sperm retrieval may be performed under local or general anesthetic.. The samples can then be prepared for use on the same day after egg collection, cryopreserved for future use, or do both. Once the spermatozoa have been collected and isolated, fertilization can be achieved through ICSI procedure. ...
Spermatozoa do not reach full motility until they reach the vagina, where the alkaline pH is neutralized by acidic vaginal ... The head (Latin: caput). The head of the epididymis receives spermatozoa via the efferent ducts of the mediastinium of the ... Spermatozoa formed in the testis enter the caput epididymis, progress to the corpus, and finally reach the cauda region, where ... Jones RC (April 1999). "To store or mature spermatozoa? The primary role of the epididymis". International Journal of Andrology ...
... spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single ... spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single ... Johnson, L. A.; Flook, J. P.; Look, M. V.; Pinkel, D. (1987). "Flow sorting of X and Y chromosome-bearing spermatozoa into two ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ...
Spermatozoa has been observed in preovulatory females.[11] Juvenile males have soft, small claspers and undeveloped testes with ...
Spermatozoa are protected from the male's immune system by the blood-testis barrier. However, spermatozoa are deposited into ... In this way antibodies generated by the male are deposited into the female along with spermatozoa. Because of this and the ... Baskin, MJ (1932). "Temporary sterilization by injection of human spermatozoa: a preliminary report". American Journal of ... extensive travel in the female reproductive tract, spermatozoa are susceptible to anti-sperm antibodies generated by the male ...
Xia Y, Cheng S, Bian Q, Xu L, Collins MD, Chang HC, Song L, Liu J, Wang S, Wang X (2005). "Genotoxic effects on spermatozoa of ... Xia Y, Bian Q, Xu L, Cheng S, Song L, Liu J, Wu W, Wang S, Wang X (2004). "Genotoxic effects on human spermatozoa among ... Templado C, Uroz L, Estop A (2013). "New insights on the origin and relevance of aneuploidy in human spermatozoa". Mol. Hum. ... environmental and/or occupational hazards may increase the risk of aneuploid spermatozoa.[4] In particular, risk of aneuploidy ...
"BoS , Biology of Spermatozoa meetings". www.bos.group.shef.ac.uk. Retrieved 2018-01-08. "Tim Birkhead on bird promiscuity, The ... Spallazani Medal, Biology of Spermatozoa community, 2015. Eisenmann Medal, the Linnaean Society of New York, 2016. Godman- ...
The Ultrastructure and Phylogeny of Insect Spermatozoa. Cambridge University Press.. *Pilato, G., M. G. Binda, O. Biondi, V. D ...
The migration of spermatozoa in the female of Rhodnius prolixus stal. 1958: 694-701. Nonidez JF. The internal phenomena of ... Muscle contraction as a means of moving spermatozoa through the reproductive system into and out of the storage structures has ... In some species, such as R. prolixus, the contractions that move spermatozoa into sperm storage are initiated by a male ... It causes changes in uterine shape allowing spermatozoa access to the sperm storage organs. The female insect nervous system ...
These develop to eventually become sperm cells (Spermatozoon). Typically the spermatogenic cells will make four to eight layers ...
Examples range from the propulsion of single cells such as the swimming of spermatozoa to the transport of fluid along a ... Austin, C. R. (1995). Evolution of human gametes: spermatozoa. In: Grudzinskas, J. G., Yovich, J. L. (eds). Gametes: the ... spermatozoon. Cambridge University Press, [2] Webster & Weber (2007). South, G.R. & Whittick, A. (1987). Introduction to ...
A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a spermatozoon, whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a ... The initial spermatozoon process takes around 70 days to complete. The spermatid stage is where the sperm develops the familiar ... The spermatozoa of animals are produced through spermatogenesis inside the male gonads (testicles) via meiotic division. ... The uniflagellated sperm cells (with one flagellum) of animals are referred to as spermatozoa, and are known to vary in size.[ ...
Fouquet JP, Kann ML (1995). "The cytoskeleton of mammalian spermatozoa". Biol. Cell. 81 (2): 89-93. doi:10.1016/S0248-4900(94) ... To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed ...
Ying, X. P.; Yang, W. X.; Jiang, N. C.; Zhang, Y. P. (2004). "Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Bullacta exarata (philippi) and ... Spermatozoa (Ying et al., 2004) Bullacta exarata feeds on diatoms. It is an important consumer in the tidal flat ecosystem. ...
Mann, T. (2012). Spermatophores: Development, Structure, Biochemical Attributes and Role in the Transfer of Spermatozoa. ...
Vutyavanich T; Piromlertamorn W; Nunta S (April 2010). "Rapid freezing versus slow programmable freezing of human spermatozoa ... Polge C (1957). "Low-Temperature Storage of Mammalian Spermatozoa". Royal Society of London. 147 (929): 498-508. Bibcode: ...
Correia JN, Conner SJ, Kirkman-Brown JC (May 2007). "Non-genomic steroid actions in human spermatozoa. "Persistent tickling ... Kirkman-Brown JC, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (March 2004). "Slow calcium oscillations in human spermatozoa". The Biochemical ... Harper CV, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (October 2004). "Stimulation of human spermatozoa with progesterone gradients to simulate ... Interestingly, progesterone has also been shown to demonstrate effects on octopus spermatozoa. Progesterone is sometimes called ...
... spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single ... "Isolation of spermatozoa with low levels of fragmented DNA with the use of flow cytometry and sorting". Fertility and Sterility ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ... "Sorting of spermatozoa with flow cytometry". Fertility and Sterility. 100 (3): e15. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2013.06.039. ...
1677 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed spermatozoa. 1683 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed bacteria. Leeuwenhoek's discoveries ...
Fertilization of two different oocytes by two different spermatozoa results in fraternal twins.[8] ...
This technique can be used to enable genetic fatherhood to some men who have no spermatozoa in the ejaculate (azoospermia) and ... 2] In the first place, as compared to spermatozoa, round spermatids do not possess easily perceptible morphological ... It can also be used in Azoospermia, "Valious spermatozoa" (from Fertility Preservation after cancer, or because of a ... and potentially fertilizing spermatozoa can be obtained by testicular sperm extraction (TESE) and used for ICSI. In cases of ...
"Pregnancies after intracytoplasmic injection of single spermatozoon into an oocyte". Lancet. 340 (8810): 17-18. ISSN 0140-6736 ... "A preclinical evaluation of pronuclear formation by microinjection of human spermatozoa into human oocytes". Fertility and ...
Kirkman-Brown JC, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (March 2004). "Slow calcium oscillations in human spermatozoa" (Free full text). ... Correia JN, Conner SJ, Kirkman-Brown JC (May 2007). "Non-genomic steroid actions in human spermatozoa. 'Persistent tickling ... Harper CV, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (October 2004). "Stimulation of human spermatozoa with progesterone gradients to simulate ... in individual human spermatozoa exposed to progesterone". Developmental Biology. 222 (2): 326-35. doi:10.1006/dbio.2000.9729. ...
Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals, Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals, Buffalo bull ... ISBN 978-81-224-1968-9. Sardul S. Guraya (6 December 2011). Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals. Springer ... ISBN 978-3-642-71639-3. Sardul S. Guraya (6 December 2012). Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals. Springer ... Sardul S. Guraya (6 December 2011). Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978 ...
Many products that come into direct contact with spermatozoa lack adequate testing for any adverse effect on semen quality. ... This increase in pregnancy rate occurs despite a lower value of total motile spermatozoa. Daily sexual activity increases sperm ... Lead, causing reduced spermatogenesis and abnormal spermatozoa. Mercury, being highly damaging to spermatogenesis. Many ... numerous products that are intended for exposure to spermatozoa have only a general assumption of safety based on the absence ...
Osmotic properties of spermatozoa from felids producing different proportions of pleiomorphisms: Influence of adding and ... Challenges in cryopreservation of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) spermatozoa. Theriogenology 66:1790-6. Spindler, R.E., Y ... Creatine phosphokinase domestic cat epididymal spermatozoa. Molecular, Reproduction and Development 61, 1-6. Pukazhenthi, B, R ...
Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility ... Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility ... Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, ... Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. Therefore, ...
ICSI using ejaculated spermatozoa was performed; 7 oocytes were retrieved, 6 of which were matured. Five oocytes were ...
5 This failure occurs when a substantial number of spermatozoa or any motile spermatozoa are identified at least 4 months after ...
Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female ... Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female ... as well as to the protocols to cryopreserve and to select spermatozoa in assisted reproduction techniques. The purpose of this ...
Hoeber, 1941 - Spermatozoa - 314 pages. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Spermatozoa_and_Sterility.html?id= ... factors fallopian tubes female fertility genital tract glands gonadotropic Gynec Huhner test human semen human spermatozoa ... injections investigators lactic acid method microscope Moench morphology motility necrospermia normal number of spermatozoa ... analysis seminal fluid seminal plasma seminal vesicles solution specific specimen sper spermatocyte spermatogenesis spermatozoa ...
Human spermatozoa migration in microchannels reveals boundary-following navigation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Indeed, the shear rate in the fluid surrounding spermatozoa changes from 1,000 s-1 in the vicinity of flagellum to 10 s-1 in ... Human spermatozoa migration in microchannels reveals boundary-following navigation. Petr Denissenko, Vasily Kantsler, David J. ... Spermatozoa in the "one way running track" microchannel geometry. The space outside the microchannel is shaded gray to indicate ...
A chemoattractant for ascidian spermatozoa is a sulfated steroid. Manabu Yoshida, Michio Murata, Kazuo Inaba, Masaaki Morisawa ... A chemoattractant for ascidian spermatozoa is a sulfated steroid. Manabu Yoshida, Michio Murata, Kazuo Inaba, Masaaki Morisawa ... Chemotaxis of spermatozoa toward eggs during fertilization is known in most animals and lower plants (1, 2). The chemical ... Spermatozoa of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis are either immotile or only slightly motile when suspended in seawater. However ...
Pistenma, D.A. BIOPHYSICAL STUDIES OF SPERMATOZOA., thesis or dissertation, January 1, 1970; [Berkeley, California]. (digital. ...
Human spermatozoa: fruits of creation, seeds of doubt. Reprod Fertil Dev 16:655-664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Ahmadi A, Ng SC (1999) Fertilizing ability of DNA-damaged spermatozoa. J Exp Zool 284:696-704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Aitken RJ, Sawyer D (2003) The human spermatozoon-not waving but drowning. Adv Exp Med Biol 518:85-98PubMedGoogle Scholar ... The human spermatozoon-a cell in crisis? J Reprod Fertil 115:1-7PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Spermatozoa depend on this scavenging system provided by the seminal plasma after normal ejaculation in vivo [20, 68, 69, 79-81 ... R. J. Aitken and D. Sawyer, "The human spermatozoon-not waving but drowning," Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ... W. C. L. Ford, "The role of oxygen free radicals in the pathology of human spermatozoa: implications of IVF," in Clinical IVF ... Most of the focus in the literature is on the detrimental effects of ROS on spermatozoa. A target of direct ROS action is the ...
A spermatozoon (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from Ancient Greek: σπέρμα ... The human spermatozoon contains over 6000 different proteins.[7]. DNA damage and repairEdit. DNA damages present in spermatozoa ... Spermatozoa production in mammalsEdit. Main article: Spermatogenesis. Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules of ... A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally ...
Analysis of CRP binding to AR spermatozoa. (A) Western blot of human spermatozoa. Ionophore-treated or untreated spermatozoa ... nonreacted spermatozoa to AR spermatozoa. A representative histogram of MCP expression by ionophore-treated spermatozoa is ... To better define the role of MCP on spermatozoa, we set out to evaluate MCP in situ as a complement regulator on spermatozoa. ... Spermatozoa samples. Spermatozoa samples were obtained with informed consent, and all studies were approved by the Washington ...
Failure to recognize the need for capacitation of spermatozoa and the... ... Bedford, J. M. (1965), Effect of environment on phagocytosis of rabbit spermatozoa, J Reprod. Fertil. 9:249.PubMedCrossRef ... Yanagimachi, R. (1972a), Penetration of guinea pig spermatozoa into hamster eggs in vitro,J. Reprod. Fertil. 28: 477.PubMed ... Barros, C, and Garavagno, R. (1970), Capacitation of hamster spermatozoa with blood sera,J. Reprod. Fertil. 22:381.CrossRef ...
THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-ACROSIN FROM BOAR SPERMATOZOA ... and as a protease to facilitate penetration of spermatozoa into ... Three dimensional structure of beta-acrosin from ram and boar spermatozoa. Tranter, R.. () Thesis --: -- ... THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-ACROSIN FROM BOAR SPERMATOZOA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1FIZ/pdb ... Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. During ...
Three Dimensional Structure of Acrosin from Ram and Boar Spermatozoa. Tranter, R.. () To be published --: -- ... THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-ACROSIN FROM RAM SPERMATOZOA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1FIW/pdb ... Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. During ... Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. During ...
The RNA profiles of spermatozoa from high-fertility and a low-fertility Holstein bulls were analysed using Affymetrix bovine ... A total of 415 transcripts out of approximately 24,000 were differentially detected in spermatozoa collected from ... Spermatozoa deliver more than the paternal genome into the oocyte; they also carry remnant messenger RNA from spermatogenesis. ... Spermatozoa deliver more than the paternal genome into the oocyte; they also carry remnant messenger RNA from spermatogenesis. ...
Home / Shop / Books / Medicine and Health / Spermatozoa: Biology, Motility and Function and Chromosomal Abnormalities. ... Spermatozoa: Biology, Motility and Function and Chromosomal Abnormalities. Brenda T. Erickson (Editor) ... In this book the authors present current research in the study of spermatozoa. This compilation focuses on the biology, ... Spermatozoa Motility and Morphology. (Lamia Said, Higher Institute of Biotechnology, Monastir, Tunisia) ...
Home , December 1963 - Volume 18 - Issue 6 , Infertility: CAPACITATION OF RABBIT SPERMATOZOA IN THE FALLO... ... Infertility: CAPACITATION OF RABBIT SPERMATOZOA IN THE FALLOPIAN TUBE AND IN THE UTERUS ...
Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of ... As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes ... The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, ... ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital ...
Download this Vector Icon Isolated On White Ovum And Spermatozoon vector illustration now. And search more of the webs best ... Vector icon isolated on white - Ovum and spermatozoon - Illustration. .... Human Egg, Beauty, Cell, Conjugation - Biological ...
... spermatozoa from P0: 113 and 117; spermatozoa from P1: 114 and 118; spermatozoa from P2: 115 and 119 and spermatozoa from P3: ... In contrast to "SRF-spermatozoa," those spermatozoa present in the post-SRF are mainly resuspended in secretions from the ... Spermadhesins can even impair boar sperm fertility if overexpressed in spermatozoa or when spermatozoa are exposed to them in ... The same proteins were underexpressed in spermatozoa from the post-SRF compared with cauda epididymis spermatozoa, which ...
A spermatozoon (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from Ancient Greek: σπέρμα ... The human spermatozoon contains over 6000 different proteins. DNA damages present in spermatozoa in the period after meiosis ... A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally ... Xia Y, Cheng S, Bian Q, Xu L, Collins MD, Chang HC, Song L, Liu J, Wang S, Wang X (2005). "Genotoxic effects on spermatozoa of ...
Guraya, S. S. is the author of Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals with ISBN 9780387171432 and ISBN ...
Two experiments were designed to determine if adding seminal plasma back to spermatozoa, prior to cryopreservation, would ... Seminal plasma is generally removed from equine spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation. ... In this experiment, spermatozoa were incubated with 5 or 20% seminal plasma for up to 6h at either 5 or 20 degrees C prior to ... Semen was washed through 15% Percoll to remove seminal plasma and spermatozoa resuspended to 350 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a clear ...
Spermatozoa from 2 dairy AI (artificial insemination) bulls (A and B), identified by their abnormal spermiogram with cells ... Macrocephaly in bull spermatozoa is associated with nuclear vacuoles, diploidy and alteration of chromatin condensation.. Revay ... The 7.5% XY-bearing cells and the presence of diploid spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry indicate a meiotic arrest in the ... In the second part of this study the previously unknown chromosomal constitution of large-headed spermatozoa of bull A was ...
  • Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. (frontiersin.org)
  • The literature reveals strong relationships between proteins and post-transcriptional modifications in spermatozoa which have a positive impact on fertility of men and mice, whereas, limited studies have been reported in buffalo bulls. (frontiersin.org)
  • Spermatozoa are highly regulated processes that consist of differentiated cells based on a head, mid-piece, and tail while the mammalian sperm head is composed of a nucleus and acrosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study aimed (i) to update the porcine sperm proteome and (ii) to identify proteins differentially expressed in mature spermatozoa from cauda epididymis and those delivered in separate ejaculate fractions. (mcponline.org)
  • Experiment 1 determined if different concentrations of seminal plasma affected post-thaw sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of frozen/thawed stallion spermatozoa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To better understand the changes induced in stallion spermatozoa during the sorting procedure, pooled sperm samples were sorted: sperm motility and kinematics were assessed using computer assisted sperm analysis, sperm membrane integrity was assessed using the YoPro-1 assay, while plasmalemmal stability and lipid architecture were assessed using Merocyanine 540/SYTOX green and Annexin-V, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. (frontiersin.org)
  • When Aqp8b intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial channel activity are immunologically blocked in activated spermatozoa, ROS levels accumulate in the mitochondria leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, the reduction of ATP production, and the progressive arrest of sperm motility. (uib.no)
  • To investigate the role of CATSPER channels in human sperm motility, we evaluated the effects of the specific inhibitor NNC55-0396 (10 and 20 μM) and the non specific inhibitor mibefradil (30 and 40 μM) on swim up selected spermatozoa ( n =13) by CASA system. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • This novel membrane localization was reinforced by the isolation and identification of biotin-conjugated surface proteins from ejaculated and capacitated boar and mouse spermatozoa, prompting us to hypothesize that GSTO2 has an oxidative/reductive role in regulating sperm function during capacitation. (mdpi.com)
  • Although it is known that the susceptibility of mouse spermatozoa to freezing-thawing varies greatly with genetic background, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. (go.jp)
  • Thus, our data provide important clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying cryodamage to mouse spermatozoa. (go.jp)
  • fertilizing ability of stored mouse spermatozoa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Endogenous redox activity in mouse spermatozoa and its role in regulat" by Heath W. Ecroyd, Russell C. Jones et al. (edu.au)
  • We investigated the role of endogenous redox activity in regulating the signal transduction pathway leading to tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse spermatozoa. (edu.au)
  • This study provides the first evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation in mouse spermatozoa is redox regulated by a flavinoid-containing enzyme involving mediation by hydrogen peroxide. (edu.au)
  • Bicarbonate regulated the redox activity of mouse spermatozoa, and this regulation may contribute to the impact of this anion on tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation of mouse spermatozoa. (edu.au)
  • Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female genital tracts. (springer.com)
  • Guraya, S. S. is the author of 'Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals' with ISBN 9780387171432 and ISBN 0387171436. (valorebooks.com)
  • This page introduces spermatogenesis the development of spermatozoa, the male haploid gamete cell. (edu.au)
  • In normal mice, Nectin-2 is expressed in the testes only during the later stages of spermatogenesis, during which the morphological transformations that produce spermatozoa from the round spermatid occur. (asm.org)
  • High quality spermatozoa rely on normal spermatogenesis. (scirp.org)
  • Higher levels of spermatozoa damage are due to spermatozoa susceptibility to damage during a number of stages of spermatogenesis. (scirp.org)
  • An autosomal recessive infertility disorder (OMIM:102530) characterised by spermatogenesis defects (especially of the acrosome, which can be completely absent in severe cases), variably accompanied by abnormal nuclear shape and abnormal arrangement of mitochondria of spermatozoa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The 7.5% XY-bearing cells and the presence of diploid spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry indicate a meiotic arrest in the first division in bull A, becoming the first proven case of association of macrocephaly and M1 diploidy. (nih.gov)
  • Higher levels of CATSPER were found by flow cytometry analysis in swim up selected spermatozoa respect to unselected (50.9±16.6 vs 23.4±10.7, n =6, P =0.01). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Semen has an alkaline nature and the spermatozoa do not reach full motility (hypermotility) until they reach the vagina , where the alkaline pH is neutralized by acidic vaginal fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Semen was washed through 15% Percoll to remove seminal plasma and spermatozoa resuspended to 350 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a clear Hepes buffered diluent containing either 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80% seminal plasma for 15 min, prior to being diluted to a final concentration of 50 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a Lactose-EDTA freezing diluent and cryopreserved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowing the morphological changes in spermatozoa during epididymal passage in the Mithun will help define semen quality in the species. (scielo.org.za)
  • Spermatozoa were prepared from semen collected by massage from a n adult male rhea. (docme.ru)
  • The effect of ejaculation frequency on spermatozoa survival in diluted Pleven Blackhead ram semen was investigated. (ebscohost.com)
  • Is Absence of Spontaneous Agglutinates of Spermatozoa in Semen a Reliable Indicator of Non-Autosensization against Human Sperm Antigens? (scirp.org)
  • Antisperm antibodies are immunoglobulins which diminish the mobility and progressive motility of spermatozoa by agglutinating or immobilizing it inside the semen and/or female genital system. (scirp.org)
  • Project: Investigation of genetic defects, cytokines in semen, the lipid composition and receptor expression of human spermatozoa and their functional quality. (ugent.be)
  • Our results suggest that the increase in the R123 fluorescence intensity in capacitated spermatozoa is due to changes in the mitochondrial membrane activity because the spermatozoa experienced changes in membrane fluidity and flagellar activation during capacitation. (scirp.org)
  • One key aspect of this particular study used fluorescent labelling to differentiate Koala spermatozoa cells between those with either low or high levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). (news-medical.net)
  • We determined that l -amino acid oxidase, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (MDH2), cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1B, lysozyme-like protein 4, and calmodulin (CALM) were significantly and abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In most oviparous fishes that spawn in seawater (SW), spermatozoa may be exposed to harmful ROS loads associated with the hyperosmotic stress of axonemal activation and ATP synthesis from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. (uib.no)
  • Here, we show that a marine teleost orthologue of human aquaporin-8, termed Aqp8b, is rapidly phosphorylated and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane of SW-activated spermatozoa, where it facilitates H2O2 efflux from this compartment. (uib.no)
  • These findings reveal a previously unknown detoxification mechanism in spermatozoa under hypertonic conditions, whereby mitochondrial Aqp8b-mediated H2O2 efflux permits fuel production and the maintenance of flagellar motility. (uib.no)
  • The heads of spermatozoa from nectin-2 −/− mice contain mitochondria, dense outer filaments, and misshapen nuclei, and the mitochondrial sheath of the middle piece is disorganized. (asm.org)
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. (cheetah.org)
  • This study's objective was use of microarray technology to differentiate the gene expressions of spermatozoa that achieved pregnancy in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)cycle in an oocyte donation programme with those that did not achieve pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that poor quality cryopreserved spermatozoa from cancer patients, irrespective of the length of storage, may provide successful results with the latest micromanipulative techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (ovid.com)
  • Lirias: Application of the Fertilase-laser system versus the conventional mechanical method to immobilize spermatozoa for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (kuleuven.be)
  • DNA fragmentation and increased in situ DNA susceptibility to denaturation, the features similar to these seen during apoptosis of somatic cells, characterize abnormal spermatozoa in cases of male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • An imbalance between ROS generation and the antioxidant capacity of spermatozoa leads to oxidative stress, and the exposure of spermatozoa to this condition appears to be related to male infertility [ 3 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Idiopathic infertility: susceptibility of spermatozoa to in-vitro capacitation, in the presence and the absence of palmitylethanolamide (a homologue of anandamide), is strongly correlated with membrane polarity studied by Laurdan fluorescence. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pig spermatozoa, emitted in well-defined ejaculate fractions, vary in their functionality, which could be related to different sperm protein composition. (mcponline.org)
  • Because the ejaculate contains a heterogeneous suspension of spermatozoa, sperm sub-populations of different quality and functionality are present ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The spermatozoa in a 2nd ejaculate showed higher survival rates and could be recommended for additional processing. (ebscohost.com)
  • In this work, we examined whether spermatozoa (spz) from normospermic fertile patients and selected by a swim-up (S-U) procedure had a particular membrane fluidity related to their maturity and their lipid content as compared with the sperm cells from the whole ejaculate (total sperm). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. (hindawi.com)
  • The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal glycohydrolases and proteinases, released at the sperm binding site, along with the enhanced thrust generated by the hyperactivated spermatozoon are important factors that regulates the penetration of the zona pellucida (ZP), the extracellular glycocalyx that surrounds the egg, and fertilize it [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Macrocephaly in bull spermatozoa is associated with nuclear vacuoles, diploidy and alteration of chromatin condensation. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure of spermatozoa to H2O2 induced a significant amount of sperm chromatin damage. (uzh.ch)
  • The latter granules coalesce during the transition to the advanced spermatid and spermatozoon giving rise to highly condensed chromatin in the sperm cell. (upc.edu)
  • In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. Chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa has been shown for a variety of mammals, and in some cases this has been shown to be correlated with dimorphism in the head lengths of the spermatozoa. (biologists.org)
  • 3. The interest of these results lies in the probability that the histological difference in the X- and Y-spermatozoa may account for the inequality of the sexes at conception in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • However, some 5% of the spermatozoa that the opossum ejaculates populate the oviduct about 12 h later when ovulation can be anticipated - a success rate in the female orders of magnitude greater than in eutherian mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This study demonstrates that in addition to providing half of the genomic material, spermatozoa also contribute transcripts to the oocyte. (rti.org)
  • These enzymes, which are stored and transported within an organelle termed the acrosome, make it possible for spermatozoa to collectively penetrate the layers of cells and glycoproteins that surround and protect an oocyte. (sun.ac.za)
  • The active mitochondria of the spermatozoa were fluorescently stained using three different fluorophores: rhodamine 123 (R123), 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolyl-carbocyan ine iodide (JC-1) or MitoTracker Green FM (MITO). (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1986). RESULTS Mature Spermatozoa A curved, tapering head characterizes the spermatozoa of R. americans albisceus. (docme.ru)
  • Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. (frontiersin.org)
  • PRDX2 occurred as a Triton soluble form in the spermatids and as an insoluble form in mature spermatozoa. (umsystem.edu)
  • suggesting that β-arrestin2 could regulate chemoreceptor responses in mature spermatozoa. (biologists.org)
  • In the second part of this study the previously unknown chromosomal constitution of large-headed spermatozoa of bull A was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using an X-Y painting probe set. (nih.gov)
  • Spermatozoa from 2 dairy AI (artificial insemination) bulls (A and B), identified by their abnormal spermiogram with cells depicting frequent macrocephaly, double tails and nuclear vacuoles, were case-investigated and compared to normal spermatozoa from a control AI sire (C). Head sizes were measured and morphological abnormalities scored using brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • SEM and TEM studies revealed severe morphological abnormalities in the spermatozoa, including deglutination of the acrosomal part, loss of head capsules, and fragmentation of tail fibrils. (begellhouse.com)
  • see e.g. 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) Exposure of males to certain lifestyle, environmental or occupational hazards may increase the risk of aneuploid spermatozoa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear fragmentation, i.e. the ratio of red to total (red + green) fluorescence, reached 7.1% and 31% in bulls A and B, compared to 2% in bull C. The proportion of immature spermatozoa, i.e. those with incomplete histone-protamine exchange and depicting higher green fluorescence compared to the main population of the control bull, reached 9.54% in A and 7.75% in B, compared to only 0.47% in the control. (nih.gov)
  • The activities of spermatozoa and erythrocyte G6PD were determined and the relation of sperm parameters with G6PD activity was evaluated. (sid.ir)
  • Finally, these results indicate that viral DNA is present in purified sperm from HIV-positive men and that HIV infection of spermatozoa could be associated with lower seminal parameters as demonstrated by the PCA method. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our results indicated that for a post-swim-up population of spermatozoa an increase in the average acrosome size was significantly related to a decrease in the kinematic parameters VAP, VCL and the VSL within the same population. (sun.ac.za)
  • Spermatozoa were collected from 10 healthy, sexually mature, and fertile boars, and cryopreserved using a standard 0.5 mL-straw protocol. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recently, it was also shown that normal dogs with cystic endometrial hyperplasia develop a more significant endometritis, show fewer mating-induced uterine contractions, a decreased ability of spermatozoa to bind to uterine explants in vitro and a slower uterine clearance after mating. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because we noted that the addition of reduced glutathione (GSH) to the IVF medium significantly increased the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa from prepubertal males, we used this IVF protocol for all experiments. (go.jp)