Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Any of the compounds derived from a group of glycols or polyhydroxy alcohols by chlorine substitution for part of the hydroxyl groups. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
A TETRACYCLINE with a 7-chloro substitution.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
Glycosidic antibiotic from Streptomyces griseus used as a fluorescent stain of DNA and as an antineoplastic agent.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The network of channels formed at the termination of the straight SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES in the mediastinum testis. Rete testis channels drain into the efferent ductules that pass into the caput EPIDIDYMIS.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
The plasma membrane of the egg.
The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An acetic acid ester of CARNITINE that facilitates movement of ACETYL COA into the matrices of mammalian MITOCHONDRIA during the oxidation of FATTY ACIDS.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.
Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
A wedge-shaped collar of epithelial cells which form the attachment of the gingiva to the tooth surface at the base of the gingival crevice.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Liquid components of living organisms.
The mechanical process of cooling.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
A nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent used in ameba and trichomonas infections. It is partially plasma-bound and also has radiation-sensitizing action.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
An organic amine proton acceptor. It is used in the synthesis of surface-active agents and pharmaceuticals; as an emulsifying agent for cosmetic creams and lotions, mineral oil and paraffin wax emulsions, as a biological buffer, and used as an alkalizer. (From Merck, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1424)
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented twice. Symbol: 2N or 2X.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A benzimidazole antifilarial agent; it is fluorescent when it binds to certain nucleotides in DNA, thus providing a tool for the study of DNA replication; it also interferes with mitosis.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (1/9715)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Scrotal heat stress induces altered sperm chromatin structure associated with a decrease in protamine disulfide bonding in the stallion. (2/9715)

A variety of testicular insults can induce changes in the structure of spermatozoal chromatin, resulting in spermatozoal DNA that is more susceptible to acid-induced denaturation. The degree of change in the DNA can be measured using the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). The SCSA measures the relative amounts of single- and double-stranded DNA after staining with the metachromatic dye, acridine orange. Here we used a stallion model (n = 4) to study the effects of scrotal heat stress on spermatozoal DNA. This model was created by insulating stallion testes for 48 h and collecting sperm daily thereafter for 60 days. Changes in the SCSA were then correlated with protamine disulfide content and protamine types and levels. Results of the SCSA indicated that the susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation was dependent on the spermatogenic cell stage that the ejaculated sperm was in at the time of the heat stress. Spermatozoa with altered DNA had a decrease in the extent of disulfide bonding that was associated with an increase in the susceptibility of DNA to denaturation. However, there were no detectable changes in either the protamine type or level. Thus, in this model, decreased disulfide bonding is associated with an increased susceptibility of spermatozoal DNA to denaturation in the absence of protamine changes.  (+info)

An intact sperm nuclear matrix may be necessary for the mouse paternal genome to participate in embryonic development. (3/9715)

We have been interested in determining the minimally required elements in the sperm head that are necessary in order for the paternal genome to participate in embryogenesis. We used an ionic detergent, mixed alkyltrimethylammonium bromide (ATAB), plus dithiothreitol (DTT) to remove the acrosome and almost all of the perinuclear theca, leaving only the sperm nucleus morphologically intact. We also tested the stability of the sperm nuclear matrix by the ability to form nuclear halos. Sperm nuclei washed in freshly prepared 0.5% ATAB + 2 mM DTT completely decondensed when extracted with salt, but nuclei washed in the same buffer that was 1 wk old, and then extracted with salt, produced nuclear halos, indicating stable nuclear matrices. When we treated sperm heads with freshly prepared ATAB+DTT and injected them into oocytes, none of the oocytes developed into live offspring. In contrast, sperm heads treated in the same way but with 1-wk-old ATAB+DTT solution could support development of about 30% of the oocytes to live offspring. Electron microscopy demonstrated that most of the perinuclear theca had been removed in both cases. These data suggest that at least in the mouse, the only component of the spermatozoa that is crucial for participation in embryologic development is the sperm nucleus with a stable nuclear matrix.  (+info)

A possible role for the pentose phosphate pathway of spermatozoa in gamete fusion in the mouse. (4/9715)

Glucose metabolism is essential for successful gamete fusion in the mouse. Although the metabolic activity of the oocyte does not appear to play a significant role in the fusion step, the metabolic role of the spermatozoon is not known. The aim of this study was therefore to characterize the role of glucose metabolism in mouse spermatozoa. Initially, the high-affinity glucose transporter GLUT3 was identified in mouse sperm. In characterizing the glucose metabolism of mouse sperm, we have shown 1) that mouse epididymal spermatozoa have a functional pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), implying that they produce NADPH, which is required for reducing reactions, and ribose 5-phosphate, which is required for nucleic acid synthesis; and 2) that sperm are able to fuse with the oocyte when NADPH is substituted for glucose, suggesting that sperm need to produce NADPH via the PPP in order to be able to achieve fertilization. The existence of an NADPH-regulated event that influences the ability of the sperm to fuse with the oocyte is envisaged.  (+info)

A novel trans-complementation assay suggests full mammalian oocyte activation is coordinately initiated by multiple, submembrane sperm components. (5/9715)

To initiate normal embryonic development, an egg must receive a signal to become activated at fertilization. We here report that the ability of demembranated sperm heads to activate is abolished after incubation over the range 20-44 degreesC and is sensitive to reducing agents. On the basis of this observation, we have developed a microinjection-based, trans-complementation assay in order to dissect the heat-inactivated sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor(s) (SOAF). We demonstrate that the failure of heat-inactivated sperm heads to activate an egg is rescued by coinjection with dithiothreitol-solubilized SOAF from demembranated sperm heads. The solubilized SOAF (SOAFs) is trypsin sensitive and is liberated from demembranated heads in a temperature-dependent manner that inversely correlates with the ability of sperm heads to activate. This argues that SOAFs is a proteinaceous molecular species required to initiate activation. Injection of oocytes with mouse or hamster sperm cytosolic factors, but not SOAFs alone, induced resumption of meiosis, further suggesting that these cytosolic factors and SOAF are distinct. Collectively, these data strongly suggest that full mammalian oocyte activation is initiated by the coordinated action of one or more heat-sensitive protein constituents of the perinuclear matrix and at least one heat-stable submembrane component.  (+info)

Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography. (6/9715)

The transport function of the uterus and oviducts and its modulation by oxytocin has been examined using hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, recording of intrauterine pressure, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography of the Fallopian tubes. After application to the posterior vaginal fornix, a rapid (within minutes) uptake of the labelled particles into the uterus was observed during the follicular and during the luteal phase of the cycle in all patients. Transport into the oviducts, however, could only be demonstrated during the follicular phase. Transport was directed predominantly into the tube ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle; the contralateral oviduct appeared to be functionally closed. The proportion of patients exhibiting ipsilateral transport did increase concomitant with the increase of the diameter of the dominant follicle. That ipsilateral transport has biological significance is suggested by the observation that the pregnancy rate following spontaneous intercourse or insemination was significantly higher in those women in whom ipsilateral transport could be demonstrated than in those who failed to exhibit lateralization. Oxytocin administration was followed by a dramatic increase in the amount of material transported to the ipsilateral tube, as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging and by Doppler sonography following instillation of ultrasound contrast medium. Continuous recording of intrauterine pressure before and after oxytocin administration did show an increase in basal tonus and amplitude of contractions and a reversal of the pressure gradient from a fundo-cervical to a cervico-fundal direction. These actions of oxytocin were accompanied by an increase in amplitude of potentials recorded by electrohysterography. These data support the view that uterus and Fallopian tubes represent a functional unit that is acting as a peristaltic pump and that the increasing activity of this pump during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is reflected by an increased transport into the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle. In addition, they strongly suggest a critical role of oxytocin in this process. Failure of this mechanism appears to be a cause of subfertility or infertility, as indicated by the low pregnancy rate following intrauterine insemination or normal intercourse in the presence of patent Fallopian tubes. It may be regarded as a new nosological entity for which we propose the term tubal transport disorder (TTD). Since pregnancy rate of such patients is normal when treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF), hysterosalpingoscintigraphy seems to be useful for the choice of treatment modalities in patients with patent Fallopian tubes suffering from infertility.  (+info)

Mechanical stimulation of starfish sperm flagella. (7/9715)

1. The responses of starfish sperm flagella to mechanical stimulation with a microneedle were analysed. Flagellar movement was recorded by high-speed microcinematography and by stroboscopic observation. 2. The amplitude of the bending wave of a flagellum was restricted over its entire length when the microneedle was brought near to the flagellum at its proximal region. Beyond the restricted part, the amplitude of the wave, and the bend angle, became smaller than those of a normally beating flagellum, while the curvature was practically unchanged. 3. When the tip of the microneedle was in contact with the flagellum, propagation of the bending wave beyond the microneedle was inhibited. The part of the flagellum between the base and the microneedle continued beating in some cases and stopped beating in other cases. The flagellum beyond the arrested part stopped beating and remained straight. When the microneedle was removed, the bending wave which existed in the part of the flagellum proximal to the microneedle, or the wave which was passively formed de novo at the time of the removal of the microneedle, propagated over the arrested part towards the tip. 4. A flagellum amputated by a microneedle in a medium containing ATP continued beating with a small amplitude, small curvature, small bend angle and low frequency. When the amputated flagellum was passively bent by a microneedle at the region near the point of amputation, this bend propagated towards the tip with a constant bend angle. 5. The beating frequency of the flagellum could be modulated by the application of a rhythmic external force generated by vibrating a microneedle near the flagellum. The beating was completely synchronized with vibration of the microneedle in the frequency range from 23 Hz to 43 Hz.  (+info)

Incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to undergo cortical granule exocytosis following induced calcium oscillations. (8/9715)

Immature oocytes of many species are incompetent to undergo cortical granule (CG) exocytosis upon fertilization. In mouse eggs, CG exocytosis is dependent primarily on an inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated elevation of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i). While deficiencies upstream of [Ca2+]i release are known, this study examined whether downstream deficiencies also contribute to the incompetence of preovulatory mouse oocytes to release CGs. The experimental strategy was to bypass upstream deficiencies by inducing normal, fertilization-like [Ca2+]i oscillations in fully grown, germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and determine if the extent of CG exocytosis was restored to levels observed in mature, metaphase II (MII)-stage eggs. Because IP3 does not stimulate a normal Ca2+ response in GV-stage oocytes, three alternate methods were used to induce oscillations: thimerosal treatment, electroporation, and sperm factor injection. Long-lasting oscillations from thimerosal treatment resulted in 64 and 10% mean CG release at the MII and GV stages, respectively (P < 0.001). Three electrical pulses induced mean [Ca2+]i elevations of approximately 730 and 650 nM in MII- and GV-stage oocytes, respectively, and 31% CG release in MII-stage eggs and 9% in GV-stage oocytes (P < 0.001). Sperm factor microinjection resulted in 86% CG release in MII-stage eggs, while similarly treated GV-stage oocytes exhibited < 1% CG release (P < 0.001). Taken together, these results demonstrate a deficiency downstream of [Ca2+]i release which is developmentally regulated in the 12 h prior to ovulation.  (+info)

Female sperm storage is a biological process and often a type of sexual selection in which sperm cells transferred to a female during mating are temporarily retained within a specific part of the reproductive tract before the oocyte, or egg, is fertilized. The site of storage is variable among different animal taxa and ranges from structures that appear to function solely for sperm retention, such as insect spermatheca and bird sperm storage tubules (bird anatomy), to more general regions of the reproductive tract enriched with receptors to which sperm associate before fertilization, such as the caudal portion of the cow oviduct containing sperm-associating annexins. Female sperm storage is an integral stage in the reproductive process for many animals with internal fertilization. It has several documented biological functions including: Supporting the sperm by: a.) enabling sperm to undergo biochemical transitions, called capacitation and motility hyperactivation, in which they become ...
Induction of human sperm chemotaxis is an established phenomenon, though signaling systems physiologically involved have not been identified. Recently, it has been demonstrated that RANTES is present in the follicular fluid and that this molecule is a chemoactractant for human spermatozoa. However, the presence of beta-chemokine receptors on human spermatozoa has never been reported. By cytometric, Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis, we demonstrate the presence of CCR5 and CCR3 on ejaculated spermatozoa from healthy subjects. CCR5 was detected in the periacrosomal region of the sperm surface, whereas CCR3 was also present in the postacrosomal cap. Individual variability was observed on CCR5 and CCR3 positive sperm percentages. Presence of Delta32+/-) mutation was demonstrated in two subjects expressing CCR5 in half of the ejaculated spermatozoa. Our findings represent the missing information in favor of the possibility that beta-chemokines and their receptors are involved in sperm
Lipid peroxidation (LPO) of stallion spermatozoa was assessed in fresh semen and in samples of the same ejaculates after freezing and thawing. Particular attention was paid to individual differences in the susceptibility to LPO and its possible relationship with freezability. Innate levels of LPO were very low in fresh spermatozoa but increased after thawing, a change that was largely stallion-dependent. The level of LPO in fresh spermatozoa was not correlated with that of the thawed spermatozoa. Negative correlations existed between LPO and intact membranes post-thaw (r= -0.789, Pless than0.001), and also between LPO and spermatozoa with high mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m) post-thaw (r= -0.689, Pless than0.001). LPO was also highly and significantly correlated with caspase activity. The correlation between caspase activity in ethidium positive cells and LPO was r=0.772, Pless than0.001. This LPO is unlikely to represent, per se, a sign of cryopreservation-induced injury, but it ...
Human spermatozoa are compromised by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and detection of ROS in spermatozoa is important for the diagnosis of male infertility. The probes 2,7-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH), dihydroethidium (DHE), and MitoSOX red (MSR) are commonly used for detecting ROS by flow cytometry; however, these probes lack sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is particularly damaging to mammalian sperm cells. This study reports the synthesis and use of three aryl boronate probes, peroxyfluor-1 (PF1), carboxyperoxyfluor-1, and a novel probe, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxyperoxyfluor-1 (EEPF1), in human spermatozoa. PF1 and EEPF1 were effective at detecting H₂O₂ and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) produced by spermatozoa when stimulated with menadione or 4-hydroxynonenal. EEPF1 was more effective at detection of ROS in spermatozoa than DCFH, DHE, or MSR; furthermore it distinguished poorly motile sperm as shown by greater ROS production. EEPF1 should therefore have a ...
Human spermatozoa are compromised by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and detection of ROS in spermatozoa is important for the diagnosis of male infertility. The probes 2,7-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH), dihydroethidium (DHE), and MitoSOX red (MSR) are commonly used for detecting ROS by flow cytometry; however, these probes lack sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is particularly damaging to mammalian sperm cells. This study reports the synthesis and use of three aryl boronate probes, peroxyfluor-1 (PF1), carboxyperoxyfluor-1, and a novel probe, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethoxyperoxyfluor-1 (EEPF1), in human spermatozoa. PF1 and EEPF1 were effective at detecting H₂O₂ and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) produced by spermatozoa when stimulated with menadione or 4-hydroxynonenal. EEPF1 was more effective at detection of ROS in spermatozoa than DCFH, DHE, or MSR; furthermore it distinguished poorly motile sperm as shown by greater ROS production. EEPF1 should therefore have a ...
P-266. Study question: What is the impact of selecting spermatozoa with the highest chromatin integrity on ICSI outcomes? Summary answer: We selected spermatozoa with the highest progressive motility and chromatin integrity by microfluidic sperm selection (MFSS) and achieved superior implantation and delivery rates. What is known already: Sperm preparation methods aim at providing specimens for insemination with the highest progressive motility independent of phenotypic and genomic integrity. It has recently been recognized that a microfluidics device yielded spermatozoa with the highest progressive motility as well as superior chromatin integrity. Here we compared two sperm selection methods: density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and MFSS. Study design, size, duration: From October 2016 to January 2020, ejaculates that were processed by DGC and MFSS for ICSI treatment from 8 consenting men were screening for DNA fragmentation by TUNEL. In addition, ejaculates from 22 men were processed solely ...
Even relatively minor errors in chromatin remodeling during spermiogenesis are associated with sperm DNA damage and infertility, yet little is known about the etiology. Mice with severe NPYq deletions are infertile due to severe sperm differentiation defects (Ward and Burgoyne, 2006; Yamauchi et al., 2009). We have recently observed that sperm from these mice presented abnormal chromatin packaging and DNA damage. Moreover, when these sperm were injected into the oocytes, a significant increase of oocyte arrest at pronuclei stage and of chromosome aberrations in the fertilized eggs were noted (Yamauchi et al., 2010). Here we provide evidence that the deficiency of NPYq encoded gene Sly is associated with sperm DNA damage and poor sperm chromatin condensation, and propose that SLY plays a role in spermatid-specific chromatin remodeling.. How can Sly/SLY be involved in sperm DNA damage phenotype? SLY protein has been shown to control the postmeiotic expression of ,100 genes, the majority of which ...
In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital tract to become functionally competent cells. As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes collectively referred to as capacitation. Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of the opposite gametes triggers a Ca|sup|2+|/sup|-dependent signal transduction cascade. The net result is the fusion of the sperm plasma membrane and the underlying outer acrosomal membrane at multiple sites that causes the release of acrosomal contents at the site of sperm-egg adhesion. The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, is important factor that directs the sperm to penetrate the egg coat and fertilize the egg.
Sperm-associated antigen 8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPAG8 gene. The correlation of anti-sperm antibodies with cases of unexplained infertility implicates a role for these antibodies in blocking fertilization. Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility, as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception, are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. The protein encoded by this gene is recognized by sperm agglutinating antibodies from an infertile woman. This protein is localized in germ cells of the testis at all stages of spermatogenesis and is localized to the acrosomal region of mature spermatozoa. Alternatively spliced variants that encode different protein isoforms have been described but the full-length sequences of only two have been determined. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000137098 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000066196 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. ...
Header}}[[Image:Frazer002 bw600.jpg,right,300px]] ==Introduction== [[File:Human-spermatozoa.jpg,thumb,Human spermatozoa (light microscope)]] [[File:Human-spermatozoa EM01.jpg,thumb,Human spermatozoa (electron microscope)]] [[File:Single_human_spermatozoa.jpg,thumb,Single human spermatozoa{{#pmid:20529256,PMID20529256}}]] This page introduces spermatogenesis the development of spermatozoa, the male haploid gamete cell. In humans at puberty, spermatozoa are produced by {{spermatogonia}} meiosis in the seminiferous tubules of the testis (male gonad). A second process of {{spermiogenesis}} leads to change in cellular organisation and shape before release into the central lumen of the seminiferous tubule. This overall process has been variously divided into specific identifiable stages in different species: 6 in human, 12 in mouse, and 14 in rat. Structurally, the seminiferous tubule epithelium is divided into a basal and an apical (adluminal) compartment by the blood-testis barrier (BTB). (More? ...
Shop Sperm-associated antigen ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Sperm-associated antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
In mammals, after coitus a small number of spermatozoa enter the uterine tube and following attachment to uterine tube epithelium are arrested in a non-capacitated state until peri-ovulatory signalling induces their detachment. Whilst awaiting release low numbers of spermatozoa continually detach from the epithelium and the uterine tube reservoir risks depletion. There is evidence of attachment of spermatozoa to uterine epithelium in several species which might form a potential pre-uterine tube reservoir. In this study we demonstrate that: (1) dog spermatozoa attach to uterine epithelium and maintain flagellar activity, (2) in non-capacitating conditions spermatozoa progressively detach with a variety of motility characteristics, (3) attachment is not influenced by epithelial changes occurring around ovulation, (4) attachment to uterine epithelium slows capacitation, (5) capacitated spermatozoa have reduced ability to attach to uterine epithelium, (6) under capacitating conditions increased ...
Improved fertility following artificial insemination with frozen-thawed spermatozoa would offer rabbit producers faster genetic improvement. Previous work investigating cryoprotectants for rabbit spermatozoa have reported inconsistent results. Semen was collected from three rabbit bucks by artificial vagina and frozen using a standard procedure with varied cryodiluent components. Post-thaw analysis encompassed motility, sperm kinematic parameters and acrosome and membrane integrity. Spermatozoa were evaluated at 0, 2 and 4 h after thawing. Experiment 1 compared diluents with 3.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 1.5% acetamide, 1.75% DMSO + 0.75% acetamide or 3.5% DMSO + 1.5% acetamide. The treatment that resulted in the highest post-thaw motility (P,0.001) and acrosome integrity (P,0.001) was DMSO alone. Experiment 2 compared 3.5, 7 and 10% DMSO in the cryodiluent. The best post-thaw sperm motility (P,0.001) and linearity (P=.002) was in 3.5% DMSO, while 10% DMSO afforded higher acrosome/membrane ...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cause oxidative cell damage and inhibit sperm function. In most oviparous fishes that spawn in seawater (SW), spermatozoa may be exposed to harmful ROS loads associated with the hyperosmotic stress of axonemal activation and ATP synthesis from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. However, it is not known how marine spermatozoa can cope with the increased ROS levels to maintain flagellar motility. Here, we show that a marine teleost orthologue of human aquaporin-8, termed Aqp8b, is rapidly phosphorylated and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane of SW-activated spermatozoa, where it facilitates H2O2 efflux from this compartment. When Aqp8b intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial channel activity are immunologically blocked in activated spermatozoa, ROS levels accumulate in the mitochondria leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, the reduction of ATP production, and the progressive arrest of sperm ...
In order to reach fertilization in the context of IVF, the presence of high concentrations of spermatozoa is associated with a higher degree of sperm metabolism and a higher concentration of sperm degradation products, which may adversely affect not only sperm and oocyte viability and the fertilization rate. The effect of a high concentration of sperm used for oocyte insemination appears also to be negative on embryo development (Dumoulin et al 1992*). If that is true, lowering the sperm concentration for oocyte insemination might improve embryo quality and result in a higher implantation rate per embryo. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the percentage of 8 cell-embryos on day 3 after IVF is significantly higher (40%) after insemination with a low sperm concentration (150 000/ml spermatozoa) than after insemination with a higher sperm concentration (30%; group 600 000/ml spermatozoa ...
BACKGROUND: Previous results from our laboratory have led us to propose heparan sulfate (HS) as a putative protamine acceptor during human sperm decondensation in vivo. The aim of this paper was to investigate the presence of glycosaminoglycans in the mammalian oocyte in an effort to better support this contention. METHODS: Two experimental approaches are used: oocyte labeling to identify the presence of HS and analysis of sperm decondensing ability of fresh oocytes in the presence or absence of specific glycosidases. RESULTS: Staining of mouse zona-intact oocytes with the fluorescent cationic dye, Rubipy, at pH 1.5 allowed for the detection of sulfate residues in the ooplasm by confocal microscopy. HS was detected in the ooplasm by immunocytochemistry. A sperm decondensation microassay using heparin and glutathione was successfully developed. The same level of sperm decondensation could be attained when heparin was replaced by mouse zona-free oocytes. Addition of heparinase to the ...
The spermiogenesis process in Wardula capitellata begins with the formation of a differentiation zone containing two centrioles associated with striated rootlets and an intercentriolar body. Each centriole develops into a free flagellum orthogonal to a median cytoplasmic process. Later these flagella rotate and become parallel to the median cytoplasmic process, which already exhibits two electron-dense areas and spinelike bodies before its proximodistal fusion with the flagella. The final stage of the spermiogenesis is characterized by the constriction of the ring of arched membranes, giving rise to the young spermatozoon, which detaches from the residual cytoplasm. The mature spermatozoon of W. capitellata presents most of the classical characters reported in digenean spermatozoa such as two axonemes of different lengths of the 9 + 1 trepaxonematan pattern, nucleus, mitochondrion, two bundles of parallel cortical microtubules and granules of glycogen. However, some peculiarities such as two ...
Our clinical catamnestic studies on cases of sterility with a proven sensitization against spermatozoa revealed a statistically significant decrease of pregnancies only in patients with positive spermantibody tests over a period longer than 3 years. A direct spermimunological etiology of sterility can not yet be derived. In the investigated 759 cases a sensitization against spermatozoa was detected in 93 cases. In 11 patients the spermantibodies proved to be positive longer than 3 years. Washed spermatozoa were used as antigen in the applied test methods. It may very well be possible, that the results point in a different direction once we are applying a particular fertility diminishing spermatozoa antigen.
1. Chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa has been shown for a variety of mammals, and in some cases this has been shown to be correlated with dimorphism in the head lengths of the spermatozoa.. 2. In the present paper this correlation has been extended to the spermatozoa of man, the mouse, and the rat, in which chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa had previously been shown, and in which head length dimorphism seems to exist.. 3. The interest of these results lies in the probability that the histological difference in the X- and Y-spermatozoa may account for the inequality of the sexes at conception in mammals.. ...
Creative Peptides offers Sperm-associated antigen 11 variant E for your research. We also provide custom peptide synthesis, process development, GMP manufacturing.
This study evaluated the effects of cooling, freezing and thawing on the plasma membrane integrity, kinetics and expression of two sugar transporters glucose transporter-3 and -5 (GLUT-3 and GLUT-5) in spermatozoa from Iberian boars. Semen samples were collected twice weekly from eight young, fertile Iberian boars of the Entrepelado and Lampiño breeds. The samples were suspended in a commercial extender and refrigerated to 17 degrees C for transport to the laboratory (step A), where they were further extended with a lactose-egg yolk-based extender and chilled to 5 degrees C (step B) prior to freezing in the presence of glycerol (3%). Spermatozoa were assessed for plasma membrane integrity and sperm motility at each of the steps, including post-thaw (step C). Aliquots were also prepared for immunocytochemical localisation of the sugar transporters (fixed and thin smears for transmission and scanning electron microscopy levels respectively) and for SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and subsequent western
The acrosome reaction of epididymal spermatozoa and fertilization in vitro of mouse eggs in chemically defined media without tissue fluid were investigated. About 8 to 10% of motile spermatozoa lost their acrosome but no eggs were penetrated when the spermatozoa and eggs were incubated in a basic medium (modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution containing glucose) for 5 to 7 hr. Addition of a single metabolic intermediate, such as sodium oxaloacetate or sodium pyruvate, to the basic medium increased the proportion of motile spermatozoa without an acrosome (19 to 34%) and the proportion of eggs penetrated (3·2 to 25·5%). Incubation of spermatozoa and eggs in the basic medium containing serum albumin of various species caused a further increase in the proportion of motile spermatozoa without an acrosome (50 to 65%) and in that of penetrated eggs (60·7 to 86%). The best medium for sperm capacitation and fertilization of mouse eggs in vitro, however, was the basic medium containing bovine serum ...
Membrane fluidity refers to the viscosity of the lipid bilayer. When the temperature decreases, interactions between phospholipids appear and the membrane becomes more rigid and can be described as a glass state. Some components, such as the cholesterol rate, could help the membrane to better stand the temperature drop.. Contrary to other mammalian spermatozoa, swine spermatozoa are characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of cholesterol. Due to this particular composition, the cold shock point is quite high, thus making boar spermatozoa more sensitive to temperature drops. During semen processing, the temperature goes down from 37°C just after collection to 17°C for the storage. ...
The SCSA®is one of the most widely utilized tests of sperm DNA damage. There are now a number of commercial kits available for testing of sperm DNA fragmentation in which great variations of...
View Notes - Chapter 9 from HEALTH SCI HLTHST101 at Boise State. Medical Terminology Chapter 9 Male Reproductive System Spermatozoon Spermatozoon Sperm cell Flagellum Flagellum Tail of the sperm
Purpose: Sperm nuclear proteins and DNA integrity have been implicated in infertility and treatment failures. High stallion to stallion variability is observed in sperm cryopreservation protocols. The cells are destroyed with harsh chemicals prior to using biochemical assays to test sperm DNA quality. The feasibility of using Raman spectrometry in combination with a laser trap for non-destructive micromanipulation and characterization of DNA damage in motile stallion and human sperm is experimentally investigated in this thesis. Methods: Live stallion sperms were subjected to controlled cellular damage: (a) four grades of chemically induced oxidative stress using Xanthine - Xanthine Oxidase (b) three grades of osmotic stress using PBS and (c) membrane damage using thermal shock. Live human sperm DNA disintegration with time and oxidative stress were explored on fresh, cryopreserved and swim-up categories. The specimens ranged from sub-fertile patients to fertile donors in a limited study. ...
Although semen cryopreservation is widely and commonly used in the bovine breeding industry, half the spermatozoa do not survive and most of those that do survive undergo numerous physiological changes that affect their fertilising ability. The aim of the present study was to determine how cryopreservation affects the intracellular events involved in sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. Immediately after thawing and washing, almost 50% of spermatozoa were capacitated and more than 20% had lost their acrosome. The sperm cAMP concentration was lower than that in freshly ejaculated spermatozoa, but the cytosolic pH (pHcyt) was in the expected range. The free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) was higher than in fresh spermatozoa and cryopreserved spermatozoa had internally stored Ca2+. Phenylarsine oxide increased pHcyt and both cytosolic and stored Ca2+ concentrations, whereas orthovanadate enhanced acrosome loss and protein tyrosine phosphorylation (P-Tyr). Heparin increased the ...
A rabbit antibody to mouse 3T3 cell fibronectin was used in conjunction with a fluorescein-tagged second antibody to detect fibronectin-like activity on the surface of rabbit spermatozoa. Only ejaculated sperm displayed an intense and highly localized fluorescence over the acrosomal region. Cauda epididymal sperm of the rabbit as well as several other species did not exhibit any reaction. The fluorescent activity could be eliminated by trypsin treatment but was re-established by incubation in cell-free seminal fluid. Sperm recovered from females 10-12 h after mating showed a reduction or absence of antifibronectin fluorescence, suggesting that this components loss could be a factor in sperm capacitation. Because fibronectins show strong binding to collagen, mixtures of ejaculated sperm and collagen were examined in the light and electron microscope. Living sperm appear to have a strong affinity for collagen and quickly adhere to the filaments by their heads, while continuing vigorous ...
The assessment of sperm morphology, determined by the cells shape and size, is an important part of male fertility testing. Previous research has suggested that only sperm with good sperm morphology are able to make their way to the egg in the womans body and fertilise it. Our knowledge of factors that influence sperm size and shape is very limited
Get highly specialized Sperm treatment in Delhi at Dr. P.K. Guptas clinic. He provides effective & safe Low sperm treatment as well as Nil sperm treatments
Conventional semen parameters such as sperm concentration, motility and morphology are generally used to assess male fertility [1-3]. However, a significant percentage of males with normal semen parameters, according to WHO guidelines [4], fails to conceive [5]. In these cases, the presence of ultrastructural defects could be hypothesized [6-11]. Several morphological studies have been carried out to define the normal form of sperm (see reference [9] for review) and the last WHO semen manual provides objective criteria to assess the sperm morphology [4]. However, there are many factors that may influence the results of the morphology assessment, including the technicians concept of the definition of normality [12,13] and the staining procedures [14,15]. The most common technique to assess sperm morphology is conventional optical microscopy (OM), usually performed on fixed and stained specimens. In this case, sample preparation is rather easy but the resolution is limited to micron resolution ...
The mature spermatozoa are released from the protective Sertoli cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule and a process called spermiation then takes place, which removes the remaining unnecessary cytoplasm and organelles. The resulting spermatozoa are now mature but lack motility, rendering them sterile. The non-motile spermatozoa are transported to the epididymis in testicular fluid secreted by the Sertoli cells with the aid of peristaltic contraction. Whilst in the epididymis they acquire motility and become capable of fertilisation. However, transport of the mature spermatozoa through the remainder of the male reproductive system is achieved via muscle contraction rather than the spermatozoons recently acquired motility. ...
spermatozoa tail - Following spermiogenesis, the third region of the spermatozoa that has a head, neck and tail). The tail is also divided into 3 structural regions a middle piece, a principal piece and an end piece. In humans: the middle piece (5 µm long) is formed by axonema and dense fibres surrounded by mitochondria; the principal piece (45 µm long) fibrous sheath interconnected by regularly spaced circumferential hoops; the final end piece (5 µm long) has an axonema surrounded by small amount of cytoplasm and plasma membrane ...
In a situation where technology allows for the simultaneous measurement of numerous parameters of a single sperm cell, it becomes crucial to choose those parameters which may be useful in estimating in vivo fertility. Sperm membrane destabilization is believed to occur during chilling of semen, although its effect on the post-thaw (PT) fertility of the spermatozoa has not yet been fully assessed. For this reason, we tested a new combination of fluorophores, Merocyanine 540 (M540)/Yo-Pro 1/Hoechst 33342 (H33342), to detect sperm plasma membrane destabilization in bull spermatozoa conventionally processed for artificial insemination (AI). The samples were tested by flow cytometry (FC), both immediately PT and following an in vitro swimup (SU) technique, and results were thereafter compared with conventional sperm quality Measurements (of concentration, motility, morphology, and membrane integrity), including in vivo fertility. Semen samples from six Estonian Holstein (EHF) AI bulls, frozen when ...
In addition to perinuclear theca anchored glutathione-s-transferase omega 2 (GSTO2), whose function is to participate in sperm nuclear decondensation during fertilization (Biol Reprod. 2019, 101:368–376), we herein provide evidence that GSTO2 is acquired on the sperm plasmalemma during epididymal maturation. This novel membrane localization was reinforced by the isolation and identification of biotin-conjugated surface proteins from ejaculated and capacitated boar and mouse spermatozoa, prompting us to hypothesize that GSTO2 has an oxidative/reductive role in regulating sperm function during capacitation. Utilizing an inhibitor specific to the active site of GSTO2 in spermatozoa, inhibition of this enzyme led to a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation late in the capacitation process, followed by an expected decrease in acrosome exocytosis and motility. These changes were accompanied by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and membrane lipid peroxidation and culminated in a
We now have the sperm proteome of a primate. In a paper just out in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, researchers describe the sperm proteome of the rhesus macaque, the first primate to have its sperm proteome analyzed.. Sperm proteomes from non-primate species, such as rat, mouse and fruit fly, already have been determined. For comparative evolutionary and functional genomics studies, a primate sperm proteome was highly desirable to include in this growing list of sperm proteomes, explains Tim Karr at Arizona State University.. Rhesus monkeys bear many genetic and physiological similarities to humans, so they are used regularly as a nonhuman primate model system in biomedical research, including human reproduction research. Knowing the rhesus sperm proteome will greatly expand the possibility for targeted molecular studies of spermatogenesis and fertilization in a commonly used model species for human infertility, explains Karr. (I wrote about sperm and male infertility earlier this ...
The globozoospermic condition has provided a unique opportunity to determine how the abnormal mitochondrial organization and acrosomal loss associated with this syndrome, influence sperm function. Despite the abnormal midpiece architecture, the movement characteristics of the spermatozoa, in terms o …
This research line is funded by a project of the National R&D Plan (Ministry of Science and Innovation), led by Dr. Felipe Martínez-Pastor.. Sperm work has improved animal breeding and allowed semen banks to preserving species and breeds. However, many factors affect the integrity of the genetic material of the spermatozoon, reducing fertility, causing abortions and affecting offspring fitness. In this research line, we are studying ruminant spermatozoa, a group of great economical importance. Whereas artificial reproductive techniques are routine in cattle, they are still developing for most species. In either cases, it is crucial to maintain sperm DNA integrity during manipulation, storage or in vitro techniques. Sperm DNA assessment has been carried out for more than 30 years, but few studies have dealt on fine analysis of DNA damage. DNA in mammal sperm is associated to protamines (PDNA) and histones (HDNA), an organization with likely epigenetic effects. HDNA include important sequences ...
This chapter focuses specifically on how apoptosis affects sperm quality and function, and the implications of this process for both embryonic development and the health and well-being of the offspring. DNA damage in human spermatozoa has been correlated with poor fertilization and impaired embryonic development to the blastocyst stage as well as with the incidence of subsequent miscarriage. Human infertility is a complex multifactorial condition that is strongly impacted by genetic factors that assisted reproductive technology (ART) will ensure are passed onto the progeny. Spermiogenesis is a key event in the etiology of DNA damage in the male germ line. DNA damage in human spermatozoa appears to have its origins in the testes and is associated with oxidative stress. Spermatozoa possess several variants of the prolactin receptor and respond to the presence of this hormone with the stimulation of PI3 kinase/Akt phosphorylation and the prolongation of sperm survival ...
The association between semen quality and male infertility has been known for more than 40 years.. Having reviewed the literature, it seems clear that strict morphology has a clinical relevance, being an excellent biomarker of sperm fertilizing capacity, in vivo and in vitro, independent of motility and concentration (27).. Sperm morphology evaluation is considered to be a highly subjective procedure because, unlike the haematopoietic cells for example, the difficulty in classifying human sperm morphology is caused by the large variety of abnormal forms found in the semen of infertile and fertile men. Only certain types of abnormality can be quantitated objectively (11).. Normal sperm morphology needs to consider two points. The first one is the proportion of spermatozoa with normal morphology in semen and the second is the definition and the characterization of the normal spermatozoa.. According to WHO criteria, a normal ejaculate must have at least 30% normal sperm.(36). For the stricter ...
Our team in Birmingham has shown that sperm DNA damage more than doubles the risk of miscarriage.. This is a crucial finding; until now, miscarriage has generally been considered an exclusively female problem, with investigations and management targeting only women.. Yet the role of sperm DNA damage in miscarriage is not surprising. This is because while most cell types are able to repair damaged DNA, sperm lose this ability during development and have to rely on repair mechanisms in the egg. As the level of damage in the sperm DNA increases it also becomes increasingly likely that any repairs by the egg may create genetic mutations that could increase the risk of miscarriage.. Most existing tests for sperm DNA damage are insufficiently sensitive to be clinically useful; we are developing a more accurate combined assay system and therapies to achieve repair. One potential cause of sperm DNA damage is exposure to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) during production and transit. We are investigating ...
Detail záznamu - Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis and mature spermatozoon of Breviscolex orientalis (Cestoda: Caryophyllidea) - Detail záznamu - Knihovna Akademie věd České republiky
PAN Czytelnia Czasopism, Motility, mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP content of rabbit spermatozoa stored in extender supplemented with GnRH analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide - Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Health,According to Researchers Men produce more mutant sperm as they get old...The deformed sperm increase the risk of disease in the mens offspri...Researchers were looking for two mutations that cause virtually all ...The researchers studied sperm from 148 men aged 21 to 80. Most of th...In men with Apert children the younger men were more likely to have...,Mutant,sperm,beat,out,healthy,brethren,in,study,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Bennett, D and Dunn, L C., Studies of effects of t-alleles in the house mouse on spermatozoa. I. Male sterility effects. (1967). Subject Strain Bibliography 1967. 576 ...
There are several gonadal hormones involved in spermatogenesis or the formation of spermatozoa. The gonadal-releasing hormone or factor in the hypothalamus is responsible for stimulating the anterior pituitary to increase the secretion of androgens and Follicle Stimulating Hormone or FSH. The FSH, in return, will enhance the production of testosterone. During puberty, the testosterone blood levels of men increase. This true male gonadal hormone then stimulates spermatogenesis or the formation of spermatozoa or sperm cells in the testes.. ...
Normal sperm count, as defined by the World Health Organisation, is characterised by: the concentration of spermatozoa, which should be at least 20 million per ml; the total volume of semen should be at least 2ml; the total number of spermatozoa in the semen should be at least 40 million; at least 75 per cent of the spermatozoa should be alive; at least 30 per cent of the spermatozoa should be of normal shape and form; at least 25 per cent of the spermatozoa should be swimming with rapid forward movement; at least 50 per cent of the spermatozoa should be swimming forward, even if only sluggishly ...
Castagnoli, E. and Salo, J. and Toivonen, M. S. and Marik, Tamás and Mikkola, R. and Kredics, László (2018) An Evaluation of Boar Spermatozoa as a Biosensor for the Detection of Sublethal and Lethal Toxicity. TOXINS, 10 (11). ISSN 2072-6651 ...
Looking for online definition of Sperm-specific protein in the Medical Dictionary? Sperm-specific protein explanation free. What is Sperm-specific protein? Meaning of Sperm-specific protein medical term. What does Sperm-specific protein mean?
article{7cc3097b-22b4-448a-9bce-4c18189ec61f, abstract = {BACKGROUND: The sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) provides an objective assessment of sperm chromatin integrity, which is essential for normal sperm function. SCSA is valuable as a fertility marker in epidemiological studies and in the clinical situation. Little is known about the impact of testicular and post-testicular function on SCSA parameters. METHODS: Ejaculates from 278 military conscripts of median age 18.1 (range 18-21) years were included. Levels of reproductive hormones, the length of the CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene, sperm concentration, abstinence period and biochemical parameters of epididymal and accessory sex gland secretions were correlated to the SCSA parameters, DNA fragmentation index (DFI) and highly DNA stainable (HDS) cells. RESULTS: Negative correlations were found between sperm concentration and DFI (r = -0.119, P = 0.049) and HDS (r = -0.513, P < 0.0001). DFI was negatively correlated with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serum testosterone level and semen indices in sulfur mustard exposed men. T2 - Comment on sperm chromatin structure assay analysis of iranian mustard gas casualties: A long-term outlook. AU - Ghabili, Kamyar. AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali. AU - Golzari, Samad E J. AU - Ansarin, Khalil. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84867222501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84867222501&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1159/000343522. DO - 10.1159/000343522. M3 - Letter. AN - SCOPUS:84867222501. VL - 6. JO - Current Urology. JF - Current Urology. SN - 1661-7649. IS - 2. ER - ...
Looking for online definition of acrosome malformation of spermatozoa in the Medical Dictionary? acrosome malformation of spermatozoa explanation free. What is acrosome malformation of spermatozoa? Meaning of acrosome malformation of spermatozoa medical term. What does acrosome malformation of spermatozoa mean?
A randomized controlled trial was set up to test the hypothesis that the fertilization rate of oocytes after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is higher after immobilization of the spermatozoa with the Fertilase-laser system technology than after immobilization of the spermatozoa with the conventional mechanical method. Metaphase II oocytes were injected with spermatozoa that were immobilized with the conventional mechanical method (group A, n=177) or with spermatozoa that were immobilized with the Fertilase-laser system technology (group B, n=179). The fertilization rate per successfully injected oocyte was comparable in group A (62.6%; 92/147) and in group B (56.3%; 89/158)(p=0.3). No difference could be observed in fertilization rates of oocytes injected with spermatozoa that were immobilized with the Fertilase-laser system technology compared to spermatozoa immobilized with the conventional mechanical method ...
CATSPER is a family of sperm-specific calcium channels activated by P in human spermatozoa (Lishko et al. 2011, Strunker et al. 2011). KO mice for CATSPER are infertile due to severe defects in sperm motility.. We studied the involvement of CATSPER in human sperm motility and P responsiveness.. Western blot analysis with an anti-CATSPER1 antibody demonstrated the presence of three major bands corresponding to CATSPER1, 2 and 3 4. By immunoflorescence we observed that channels are mainly located in the principal piece of the tail. Higher levels of CATSPER were found by flow cytometry analysis in swim up selected spermatozoa respect to unselected (50.9±16.6 vs 23.4±10.7, n=6, P=0.01). To investigate the role of CATSPER channels in human sperm motility, we evaluated the effects of the specific inhibitor NNC55-0396 (10 and 20 μM) and the non specific inhibitor mibefradil (30 and 40 μM) on swim up selected spermatozoa (n=13) by CASA system. Both compounds significantly inhibited several ...
The accuracy of three in vitro methods for estimating the proportion of dead rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss ) spermatozoa was investigated. Motility rating, fluorometry using ethidium bromide, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in seminal plasma were compared. Semen samples were prepared to contain 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% killed spermatozoa. All three methods demonstrated highly significant relationships (P,0.001) with the percentage of killed spermatozoa. Motility rating was found Show moreThe accuracy of three in vitro methods for estimating the proportion of dead rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss ) spermatozoa was investigated. Motility rating, fluorometry using ethidium bromide, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in seminal plasma were compared. Semen samples were prepared to contain 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% killed spermatozoa. All three methods demonstrated highly significant relationships (P,0.001) with the percentage of killed spermatozoa. Motility rating was found to be ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oligomycin A-induced inhibition of mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity suppresses boar sperm motility and in vitro capacitation achievement without modifying overall sperm energy levels. AU - Ramió-Lluch, Laura. AU - Yeste, Marc. AU - Fernández-Novell, Josep M.. AU - Estrada, Efrén. AU - Rocha, Luiz. AU - Cebrián-Pérez, José A.. AU - Muiño-Blanco, Teresa. AU - Concha, Ilona I.. AU - Ramírez, Alfredo. AU - Rodríguez-Gil, Joan E.. PY - 2014/1/1. Y1 - 2014/1/1. N2 - Incubation of boar spermatozoa in a capacitation medium with oligomycin A, a specific inhibitor of the F0 component of the mitochondrial ATP synthase, induced an immediate and almost complete immobilisation of cells. Oligomycin A also inhibited the ability of spermatozoa to achieve feasible in vitro capacitation (IVC), as measured through IVC-compatible changes in motility patterns, tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the acrosomal p32 protein, membrane fluidity and the ability of spermatozoa to achieve ...
Motility is an essential characteristic of all fl agellated spermatozoa and assessment of this parameter is one criterion for most semen or sperm evaluations. Computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA) can be used to measure sperm motility more objectively and accurately than manual methods, provided that analysis techniques are standardized. Previous studies have shown that evaluation of sperm subpopulations is more important than analyzing the total motile sperm population alone. We developed a quantitative method to determine cut-off values for swimming speed to identify three sperm subpopulations. We used the Sperm Class Analyzer ® (SCA) CASA system to assess the total percentage of motile spermatozoa in a sperm preparation as well as the percentages of rapid, medium and slow swimming spermatozoa for six mammalian species. Curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values were adjusted manually for each species to include 80% rapid, 15% medium and 5% slow swimming spermatozoa. Our results indicate that ...
Prostasomes are extracellularly occurring organelles which are secreted in human semen by the prostate gland. Prostasomes have several known biological activities, but their physiological function is still unclear. In this thesis some new aspects were studied on the biological role of the prostasomes. The motility-stimulatory effect of prostasomes on cryopreserved spermatozoa was further studied by supplementing the swim-up medium with seminal prostasomes, and with prostasomes purified from a PC-3 prostate cancer cell line (PC-3 prostasomes), on fresh spermatozoa. The recovery of motile spermatozoa after swim-up increased by 50% when the swim-up medium was supplemented with prostasomes. The PC-3 prostasomes bore a functional resemblance to seminal prostasomes as regards various expressions of sperm motility promotion. Prostasomes proved to have potent antibacterial effects. The effects were not strictly confined to Bacillus megaterium since a few other bacteria were also sensitive. The high ...
The competence of the sperm penetration assay (SPA) to predict male fertility, as determined by normal sperm morphology and the fertilizing potential, as shown by human in vitro fertilization (IVF), was investigated. A significant correlation was obtained between normal sperm morphology and the SPA (Φ = 0.623). A weaker correlation was however obtained with human IVF (Φ = 0.397). Notwithstanding this weak association, a positive SPA (, 10%) was highly predictive (95%) of human IVF success. In contrast, a negative SPA (≤ 10%) was associated with a high rate of false-negative (65%). The SPA does however warn that a male factor may be present, as the mean fertilation rate of this group of patients was markedly reduced. The preincubation period for the spermatozoa did not play a major role in the predictive ability of a SPA outcome ...
Experiments were designed to determine the interrelationship between cyclic AMP and Ca2+ during the processes of sperm capacitation and the acrosome reaction. In minimal culture media containing pyruvate and lactate as substrates, guinea pig spermatozoa required a minimum of 1.0-1.5 hr to capacitate in the presence of 1.7 mM Ca2+ and a minimum of 0.5-1.0 hr to capacitate in the absence of added Ca2+. Sperm cyclic AMP concentrations were increased by as much as 30-fold within 0.5 min after addition of cells to various media containing Ca2+, and the concentrations then remained increased for up to 4 hr. When the cells were added to several Ca2+-deficient media, however, cyclic AMP concentrations increased only about 3-fold within 0.5 min and then returned to basal concentrations within 2 min. D-600, a calcium transport antagonist, completely blocked the Ca2+-induced increase in sperm cyclic AMP concentrations. In contrast to capacitation, the acrosome reaction failed to occur in the absence of ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor ...
A specific hypoglycosylated isoform of the complement regulator membrane cofactor protein (MCP; CD46) is expressed on the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) of spermatozoa. This membrane is exposed after the acrosome reaction, an exocytosis event that occurs upon contact with the zona pellucida. We initiated this investigation to assess MCPs regulatory function in situ on spermatozoa. Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. Using FACS to simultaneously evaluate viability, acrosomal status, and complement deposition, we found that complement activation was initiated by C-reactive protein (CRP) and was C1q, C2, and factor B dependent. This pattern is consistent with engagement of the classical pathway followed by amplification through the alternative pathway. C3b deposition was targeted to the IAM, where it was cleaved to C3bi. Factor ...
At Atlantic Reproductives Andrology Laboratory, we offer abnormal sperm morphology treatment such as sperm testing and cryopreservation.
The COMET test measures sperm DNA damage (fragmentation). Sperm DNA can be damaged when sperm are made, breaking the DNA into smaller fragments. Men with high levels of sperm DNA damage are less likely to get their partner pregnant and have increased risk of miscarriage (1-5). Even if your sperm count is normal, the sperm may not be of good quality, and therefore sperm DNA damage can reduce the chance of you/partner having a baby (1-5).. Why should I get tested?. Knowing whether you have sperm DNA damage can help you make informed decisions about the type of treatment and/or lifestyle changes to improve your sperm DNA and fertility.. Can I improve my sperm DNA?. DNA damage is usually caused by oxidative stress. Oxidative stress produces free radicals which attack the DNA molecule causing breaks in the DNA strands. Sperm DNA damage is often associated with underlying medical conditions (such as varicocoele, infection or fever) or certain lifestyle choices (such as smoking or heat).. Your ...
Shop Sperm-associated acrosin inhibitor ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Sperm-associated acrosin inhibitor Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Semen samples were collected from four rams and pooled, diluted with Tris-egg yolk extender without RJ (control) or supplemented with different concentrations of RJ (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%), at a final concentration of 200 × 106 sperm/mL. Sperm viability, kinematics and membrane functionality were determined by nigrosin-eosin staining, computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA), and by using the hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST), respectively. Additionally, the oxidative and nitrosative status were evaluated after the RJ supplementation. The RJ supplementation resulted in a significant (P , 0.05) increase of sperm viability with the highest increase at 1% RJ concentration for 120 h. A significant protective effect of RJ on sperm membrane functionality was obtained at lower concentrations (0.5 and 1%) and in all incubated time points. The most prominent protective effect of RJ on sperm motility parameters was found on the progressive velocity (VSL) as after 72 h storage, no significant reduction was ...
The aim of this study was to examine whether the secreted fluid from the uterus influences the survival and fertilization capacity of fowl sperm in the hen oviduct. Hens with either regular uterine fluid secretion or irregular uterine fluid secretion were artificially inseminated through the transfer of sperm into the uterus. Twenty-four hours after artificial insemination, 3 hens with regular uterine fluid secretion and 3 hens with irregular uterine fluid secretion were killed and the utero-vaginal junction and infundibular sperm storage tubules were observed for the presence of sperm. There was no difference (P|0.05) in the fill rate of either the utero-vaginal junction sperm storage tubules or the infundibular sperm storage tubules between hens with regular or irregular uterine fluid secretion. However, the sperm transferred into hens with regular uterine fluid secretion had a longer lifespan and fertilization ability than the counterpart group (Psecretion from the hen uterus may sustain the
prevalence of human papilloma virus in sperm, sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI %)and ART Success in coupleswith repeated implantation failure ...
How To Increase Sperm Count. Low sperm count refers to an unhealthy condition that some men experience when they do not have appreciable amount of sperm cells in their semen. Semen is a white or grey liquid, but can occasionally appear yellowish. Pink or red semen suggests that blood is present. Although this is only rarely due to a serious health problem. Low sperm count and infertility in men is more prevalent than most couples think. People tend to think that if a woman is not getting pregnant the fertility issue must be with the woman.. Usually, each milliliter of semen contains millions of spermatozoa (sperm), but the majority of the volume consists of secretions of the glands in the male reproductive organs. Low sperm count is one of the leading causes of infertility in men. Gem and if you are thin so you could have a child in trouble. The purpose of semen is purely for reproduction, as a vehicle to carry the spermatozoa into the female reproductive tract. Having a low sperm count ...
Ca 2+ signaling in spermatozoa plays a crucial role during processes such as capacitation and release of the acrosome, but the underlying molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) is a potent Ca 2+ -releasing second messenger in a variety of cellular processes. The presence of a NAADP synthesizing enzyme in sea urchin sperm has been previously reported, suggesting a possible role of NAADP in sperm Ca 2+ signaling. In this work we used in vitro enzyme assays to show the presence of a novel NAADP synthesizing enzyme in human sperm, and to characterize its sensitivity to Ca 2+ and pH. Ca 2+ fluorescence imaging studies demonstrated that the permeable form of NAADP (NAADP-AM) induces intracellular [Ca 2+ ] increases in human sperm even in the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ . Using LysoTracker®, a fluorescent probe that selectively accumulates in acidic compartments, we identified two such stores in human sperm cells. Their acidic nature was further
Diagnosis of male infertility has been based mainly on the traditional semen parameters (concentration, motility and morphology). Historically, the semen analysis results are the foundation on which clinicians base their decision for treatment for a given couple. It has, however, become clear that semen parameters are insufficient for the determination of male fertility potential. A continuous search for better markers of male fertility has led to an increased focus on testing of sperm chromatin integrity in fertility workup and ART. Sperm DNA damage is a useful biomarker for male infertility diagnosis and prediction of assisted reproduction outcomes. It is associated with reduced fertilization rates, embryo quality and pregnancy rates, and higher rates of spontaneous miscarriage and childhood diseases. Successful fertilization of the human oocyte from spermatozoa with damaged DNA may lead to paternal transmission of defective genetic material with adverse consequences to embryo development. ...
mouse embryos Vitrification Freezing of mouse spermatozoa ICSI Freezing of oocytes Freezing of ovaries Gnotobiology Health monitoring Links Internal Site Bibliography Freezing of mouse spermatozoa Key references Landel CP Archiving mouse strains by cryopreservation Lab Anim NY 2005 34 50 7 PMID 15806091 Marschall S A Boersma and M H de Angelis 2009 Sperm cryopreservation and in vitro fertilization Methods Mol Biol 530 407 420 PMID 19266334 Marschall S Huffstadt U Balling R Hrabe de Angelis M Reliable recovery of inbred mouse lines using cryopreserved spermatozoa Mamm Genome 1999 10 773 6 PMID 10430662 Nakagata N Cryopreservation of mouse spermatozoa Mamm Genome 2000 11 572 6 PMID 10886025 Ogonuki N K Mochida H Miki K Inoue M Fray T Iwaki K Moriwaki Y Obata K Morozumi R Yanagimachi and A Ogura 2006 Spermatozoa and spermatids retrieved from frozen reproductive organs or frozen whole bodies of male mice can produce normal offspring Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 13098 13103 PMID 16920794 Ostermeier ...
Head-to-head agglutination of ram spermatozoa is induced by dilution in the Tyrodes capacitation medium with albumin, lactate and pyruvate (TALP) and ameliorated by the addition of the thiol d-penicillamine (PEN). To better understand the association and disassociation of ram spermatozoa, we investigated the mechanism of action of PEN in perturbing sperm agglutination. PEN acts as a chelator of heavy metals, an antioxidant and a reducing agent. Chelation is not the main mechanism of action, as the broad-spectrum chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and the copper-specific chelator bathocuproinedisulfonic acid were inferior anti-agglutination agents compared with PEN ...
Abstract Background: Although normal morphologic and motility characteristics of sperms are necessary for fertility, normal morphology per se cannot demonstrate sperm DNA competence. Since the health of sperm DNA affects the results of assisted reproductive technology the purpose of this study is to evaluate sperm parameters measured by CASA for ...
Comparative studies of the relative testes size in animals show that promiscuous species have relatively larger testes than monogamous species. Sperm competition favours the evolution of larger ejaculates in many animals - they give bigger testes. In the view, we presented data on relative testis mass for 17 Chinese species including 3 polyandrous species. We analyzed relative testis mass within the Chinese data set and combining those data with published data sets on Japanese and African frogs. We found that polyandrous foam nesting species have relatively large testes, suggesting that sperm competition was an important factor affecting the evolution of relative testes size. For 4 polyandrous species testes mass is positively correlated with intensity (males/mating) but not with risk (frequency of polyandrous matings) of sperm competition.
Morphometric analysis of avian spermatozoa from sperm samples preserved in formalin is a frequently adopted procedure in basic science (e.g. evolutionary ecology) and applied disciplines (e.g. animal breeding). Many research questions such as individual-based longitudinal studies of sperm traits require comparisons of formalin-stored sperm samples collected across multiple sampling events, which may be separated by years. Such analyses presuppose that prolonged storage in formalin does not affect sperm morphology, an assumption often implicitly made in the analysis of avian sperm morphology. This assumption, however, has never been tested, although for many study designs a potential effect of sperm storage duration may well confound the focal analysis. Based on pairwise comparisons of 22 experimental ejaculates from three passerine bird species, we found no evidence that differential storage duration of more than 1 year had affected the total length of spermatozoa stored in a 5 % formaldehyde ...
One thing the Sertoli cells do is act as a blood-testis barrier preventing sperm-immune cell contact. I believe that spermatozoa themselves have immunosuppressive properties (e.g., maybe by producing anti-inflammatory cytokines). The developing sperm are immunogenic - I guess what is happening here is that spermatozoa are not produced until puberty which is long after the establishment of tolerance to self-antigens (breakdown of tolerance to self is one cause of autoimmune diseases).. The testis immunological microenvironment does not always protect sperm against the male immune system since anti-sperm antibodies are not uncommon (e.g., prevalent in men with vasectomies) and can be one cause of infertility. According to one publication (see - http://molehr.oxfordjournals.org/content/13/7/437.long) there are at as many as 35 immunoreactive antigens in sperm from men with anti-sperm antibodies.. Last edited by Steve Lolait (8th Nov 2011 15:30:37). ...
This review explores the relationship between sperm chromosomal constitution and morphology. With the advent of techniques for obtaining information on the chromosome complements of spermatozoa, this relationship has been studied in fertile men and in men with a high frequency of chromosomal abnormalities. Using human sperm karyotype analysis, no relationship between sperm chromosome abnormalities and morphology was found in fertile men, translocation carriers or post-radiotherapy cancer patients. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis has not generally revealed a specific association between morphologically abnormal sperm and sperm chromosome abnormalities, but has indicated that teratozoospermia, like other forms of abnormal semen profiles (aesthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia) is associated with a modest increase in the frequency of sperm chromosome abnormalities. However, FISH studies on some infertile men and mouse strains have suggested that certain types of morphologically abnormal
BACKGROUND: Cryopreservation introduces iatrogenic damage to sperm cells due to excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can damage sperm macromolecules and alter the physiochemical properties of sperm cells. These altered properties can affect the biological potential of sperm cell towards fertility. OBJECTIVE: The study was designed to assess the role of oxidative stress in sperm DNA damage upon cryopreservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen samples (160) were classified into fertile and infertile on the basis of Computer Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA), and cryopreserved. Thawed samples were analyzed for 8OHdG marker, sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD)-based DNA fragmentation index (SCD-DFI) and ROS levels. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) was performed to find the specificity and sensitivity of SCD-DFI in assessing the sperm DNA integrity. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed to group semen parameters. RESULTS: SCD-DFI significantly correlates with 8OHdG in ...
Abstract. Infertility is an important aspect of human and animal reproduction and still presents with much etiological ambiguity. As fifty percent of infertility is related to the male partner, molecular investigations on sperm and seminal plasma can lead to new knowledge on male infertility. Several comparisons between fertile and infertile human and other species sperm proteome have shown the existence of potential fertility markers. These proteins have been categorized into energy related, structural and other functional proteins which play a major role in sperm motility, capacitation and sperm-oocyte binding. The data from these studies show the impact of sperm proteome studies on identifying different valuable markers for fertility screening. In this article, we review recent development in unraveling sperm fertility related proteins.. Keywords: proteomics, sperm, fertility, protein, infertility. ...
Results: Significant reduction of the progressive motility, viability and MMP was observed by the procedure of freezing and thawing, while there was not any significant difference between both cryopreservation techniques. Cryopreservation resulted in 48% reduction of the percentage of viable spermatozoa and 54.5% rise in the percentage of dead spermatozoa. In addition, high MMP was reduced by 24% and low MMP was increased by 34.75% in response to freezing and thawing. Progressive motility of spermatozoa was correlated significantly positive with high MMP and significantly negative with low MMP in control as well as post-thawing specimens (r=0.8881/ -0.8412, 0.7461/ -0.7510 and 0.7603/ -0.7839 for control, slow and vitrification respectively, p=0.0001 ...
Effect of relaxin on human sperm functions.: Relaxin is a circulating hormone with functions in pregnancy, parturition, and other aspects of female reproduction
Experiments on the physiology of the spermatozoon are in progress in which artificial insemination is used as a test of fertility. One of the variables which enters into the technique is the number of spermatozoa introduced into the vagina of the female. This number will depend upon the density of the suspension (i. e., the number of spermatozoa per cubic centimetre) and the volume. The following experiments were undertaken to test the effect of varying the density of the suspension, the volume being constant. Apart from solving a problem of technique it was hoped to gain information on some of the factors which affect fertility or sterility under normal breeding, since it is conceivable that here also the number or density of the ejaculated spermatozoa may play a part. ...
Agarwal, A., Deepinder, F., Cocuzza, M., Agarwal, R., Short, R. A., Sabanegh, E., & Marmar, J. L. (2007). Efficacy of varicocelectomy in improving semen parameters: new meta-analytical approach. Urology, 70 (3), 532-538. doi:10.1016/j.urology.2007.04.011. Agarwal, A., Makker, K., & Sharma, R. (2008). Clinical relevance of oxidative stress in male factor infertility: an update. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol., 59 (1), 2-11. doi:10/1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00559.x. Agarwal, A., Mulgund, A., Sharma, R., & Sabanegh, E. (2014). Mechanisms of oligozoospermia: an oxidative stress perspective. Syst. Biol. Reprod. Med., 60 (4), 206-216. doi:10/3109/19396368.2014.918675. Aitken, R. J. & Clarkson, J. S. (1987). Cellular basis of defective sperm function and its association with the genesis of reactive oxygen species by human spermatozoa. J. Reprod. Fertil., 81 (2), 459-469. doi:10.1530/jrf.0.0810459. Chornozub, T. V. (2013). Vplyv stanu antyoksydantnoi systemy na yakist spermy knuriv-plidnykiv ta yoho korektsiia, ...
LINE-1, HERV-K10, and SVA retrotransposons are transcriptionally expressed in human spermatozoa and cloned active retroelements can be incorporated in the human sperm genome, giving rise to de novo retrotransposition events.
Introduction. Sperm production of captive Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, remains a major hindrance to commercial production of this highly valued species. New biotechnological approaches involving efficient hormonal therapies that increase sperm production are thus needed to establish manageable in vitro fertilization protocols. Homologous recombinant gonadotropins, follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones (rFsh and rLh, respectively), produced in mammalian host cells, have recently arisen as promising candidates. Previous trials on juvenile fish using these hormones indicated that treatment with rFsh stimulates spermatogenesis, whereas rLh potentiates spermatozoa differentiation. The aim of the present work was to set up a protocol using rFsh and rLh to enhance sperm production in adult sole males. Material and methods. Senegalese sole males (~1 kg) were injected with rFsh (9 or 18 μg/kg) each week for 5 weeks, and on the 6th week treated with a single injection of rLh (9 or 18 ...
ABSTRACT. It is described the sperm ultraestructure differentiation during spermiogenesis of Tagelus plebeius (Lightfoot, 1786). The spermatozoon is an uniflagellated cell of the primitive type. The head region contains a rounded or conical nucleus surrounded by acrosome. The middle piece contains four mitochondria which are arranged around the axoneme. The flagellum contains the usual microtubular axoneme.. Key words: Mollusca, Bivalvia, Tagelus plebeius, ultrastructure, spermatozoa. ...
The sperm penetration assay is the most accurate test to predict the ability of sperm to fertilize an egg. It also aids in determining if laboratory techniques might improve the sperms ability to fertilize. The sperm penetration assay (SPA) as a measure of fertility is based on the theory that fertile sperm samples will penetrate most hamster ova and thereby approximate penetration in vivo.The prepared sperm iffunctionally competent,can complete the first steps of fertilization including the penetration of the egg,the calculation of which gives the actual percentages of penetration. A percentage above 50% indicates that the sperm should have the ability to fertilize. An unstimulated sample with a percentage between 30 percent and 50 percent indicate that stimulation of the sample might improve fertilization during artificial insemination. A percentage of 30 or less indicatesthat the likelihood of a sperm defect is high and intracytoplasmicsperm injection (ICSI + IVF) are usually recommended ...
1983, 1985), a monoclonal antibody, M29, raised against epididymal mouse spermatozoa binds specifically to the equatorial segment of the mouse acrosome (presumably with the plasma membrane over the equatorial segment). 2 mg purified IgM/ml), most spermatozoa are unable to fuse with the egg plasma membrane, although they can firmly attach (bind) to it. According to Matsuda et al. (1985), three monoclonal antibodies raised against hamster eggs bing to the egg plasma membrane and impair spermegg fusion. E. J.. and Levitan, H. (l978a). vloc~r~tirrorrrs piirpurlitus, is inhibited by fluorescein dyes. Deu. Biol. 63, 432-440. Carrol, E. J . and Levitan. H . (1978b). Fertilization is inhibited in five diverse animal phyla by erythrosin B. Deu. Biol. 64, 329-33 I . Carrol. E. J.. and Wolf, D. P. (1979). Mouse egg penetration is inhibited by erythrosin B. GutncJte Rrs. I , 293-298. Cherr. G. N . , and Clark. W. H. (1982). s Richardson. Deu. Crowrh Djffr. 24, 341-352. Cherr, G . N.. and Clark. W. H. ...
CASA is an automated system for sperm analysis which makes use of a software for the evaluation of sperm concentration, motility and morphology. The main advantage of CASA is that it eliminates the subjectivity associated with the human factor in manual semen analysis, thereby allowing for better standardization of the procedure. Furthermore, the software counts the spermatozoa more accurately, can calculate and record their exact speed and movement trajectory as well as the dimensions of their heads, midpieces and tails for more accurate morphology evaluation. Using computer aided sperm analysis also allows better visualization of the results, which aids patient understanding.. ...
Gene Information The correlation of anti-sperm antibodies with cases of unexplained infertility implicates a role for these antibodies in blocking fertilization. Improved diagnosis and treatment of immunologic infertility as well as identification of proteins for targeted contraception are dependent on the identification and characterization of relevant sperm antigens. The protein expressed by this gene is recognized by anti-sperm agglutinating antibodies from an infertile woman. Furthermore immunization of female rats with the recombinant human protein reduced fertility. This protein localizes to the plasma membrane of germ cells in the testis and to the post-acrosomal plasma membrane of mature spermatozoa. Recombinant polypeptide binds GTP and exhibits GTPase activity. Thus this protein may regulate GTP signal transduction pathways involved in spermatogenesis and fertilization. Two transcript variants of this gene encode the same protein. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
After ejaculation, mammalian spermatozoa must undergo a process known as capacitation in order to successfully fertilize the oocyte. Several post-translational modifications occur during capacitation, including sialylation, which despite being limited to a few proteins, seems to be essential for proper sperm-oocyte interaction. Regardless of its importance, to date, no single study has ever identified nor quantified which glycoproteins bearing terminal sialic acid (Sia) are altered during capacitation. Here we characterize sialylation during mouse sperm capacitation. Using tandem MS coupled with liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS), we found 142 nonreductant peptides, with 9 of them showing potential modifications on their sialylated oligosaccharides during capacitation. As such, N-linked sialoglycopeptides from C4b-binding protein, endothelial lipase (EL), serine proteases 39 and 52, testis-expressed protein 101 and zonadhesin were reduced following capacitation. In contrast, mitochondrial ...
There is, however, another opportunity not shown in the figure: if a Y spermatozoon has an additional chromosome, it will bring it to the far right end of the curve for Y spermatozoa... which will be pretty much within the median range for X spermatozoa! In simpler words, preference for X spermatozoa that will produce female embryos is expected to enrich the sample not only with X spermatozoa but also with abnormal Y spermatozoa made heavy by an additional chromosome. The latter sperm cells will produce male embryos with trisomy - an additional 3rd copy of a chromosome, e.g. chromosome 21 in Down syndrome. So I suppose that David Farnell may have used the Ericsson method to increase the likelihood of having a girl because he is not interested in boys. This led to selection of an X sperm cell that produced Pipah, and a Y sperm cell with an extra chromosome 21 that produced Gammy ...
Dr Kiriakidis, Reproductive Gynecologist mula sa Embryolab Fertility Clinic ang kasagutan sa iyong mga katanungan. Mga anti antibodies na sperm. Q: Ang aking asawa ay na-diagnose na may 100% na anti-sperm antibodies. Isang nabigo na sariwang paglipat ng ivf mas maaga sa taong ito at 1 natitirang itlog na natitira, naantala ang Fet dahil sa covid 19. Mayroon bang paraan ng paglilihi nang natural? Makakatulong ba ang pagpapalit ng diyeta sa mas mababang bilang? Posible rin na ang mga anti-sperm antibodies ay nailipat sa akin?. A: Ang mga anti sperm antibodies ay maaaring seryosong makahahadlang sa natural na paglilihi ngunit hindi mo maaaring ibukod ang posibilidad na iyon. Hindi sila ipapasa sa iyo ngunit sa iyong susunod na paggamot humingi ng ICSI at iwasan ang maginoo IVF.. Unexplained infertility. Q: Nagkaroon ako ng hindi maipaliwanag na kawalan ng katabaan sa loob ng higit sa 4 na taon, hindi kailanman naging buntis, walang makakahanap ng anumang mali, mayroon bang pag-asa sa natural na ...
"BoS , Biology of Spermatozoa meetings". www.bos.group.shef.ac.uk. Retrieved 8 January 2018. "Tim Birkhead". 4 January 2008. Al- ... Spallazani Medal, Biology of Spermatozoa community, 2015. Eisenmann Medal, the Linnaean Society of New York, 2016.[citation ... biennial meeting on reproductive biology in the Peak District National Park known as Biology of Spermatozoa (BoS). Delegates ...
Mullins JF, McCash WB, Lamar JK (January 1960). "Acne, estrogens and spermatozoa". Arch Dermatol. 81: 53-8. doi:10.1001/ ...
The objective is to isolate as many motile spermatozoa as possible and to eliminate non-motile or dead spermatozoa. After ... healthy spermatozoa go to the culture medium). In order to obtain the fraction rich in spermatozoa, the top layer is collected ... Non-mammalian spermatozoa do not require this capacitation step and are ready to fertilize an oocyte immediately after release ... Then, 0.5 -1 ml of culture medium is added at the top and after the incubation period at 37°C, the best motile spermatozoa will ...
Austin CR (1995). "Evolution of human gametes: spermatozoa.". In Grudzinskas JG, Yovich JL (eds.). Gametes: the spermatozoon. ... Examples range from the propulsion of single cells such as the swimming of spermatozoa to the transport of fluid along a ...
Spermatozoa do not reach full motility until they reach the vagina, where the alkaline pH is neutralized by acidic vaginal ... Spermatozoa formed in the testis enter the caput epididymis, progress to the corpus, and finally reach the cauda region, where ... The core function of the stereocilia is to resorb 90% of this fluid as the spermatozoa start to become motile. This absorption ... Jones RC (April 1999). "To store or mature spermatozoa? The primary role of the epididymis". International Journal of Andrology ...
It is associated with sugar transport in the spermatozoa. Additionally, it has been itdentified as a necessary component in the ... Vitavska O, Wieczorek H (November 2017). "+/sugar cotransporter in mammalian spermatozoa". Pflügers Archiv. 469 (11): 1433-1442 ...
Fouquet JP; Kann ML (1995). "The cytoskeleton of mammalian spermatozoa". Biol. Cell. 81 (2): 89-93. doi:10.1016/S0248-4900(94) ... To reach fertilization competence, spermatozoa undergo a series of morphological and molecular maturational processes, termed ...
Ying, X. P.; Yang, W. X.; Jiang, N. C.; Zhang, Y. P. (2004). "Ultrastructure of spermatozoa of Bullacta exarata (philippi) and ... Spermatozoa (Ying et al., 2004) Bullacta exarata feeds on diatoms. It is an important consumer in the tidal flat ecosystem. ...
Polge C (December 1957). "Low-temperature storage of mammalian spermatozoa". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series ... Vutyavanich T, Piromlertamorn W, Nunta S (April 2010). "Rapid freezing versus slow programmable freezing of human spermatozoa ...
... spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single ... spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ...
Correia JN, Conner SJ, Kirkman-Brown JC (May 2007). "Non-genomic steroid actions in human spermatozoa. "Persistent tickling ... Progesterone has also been shown to demonstrate effects on octopus spermatozoa. Progesterone is sometimes called the "hormone ... Kirkman-Brown JC, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (March 2004). "Slow calcium oscillations in human spermatozoa". The Biochemical ... Harper CV, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (October 2004). "Stimulation of human spermatozoa with progesterone gradients to simulate ...
... spermatozoa. As the spermatozoa pass through the flow cytometer in single file, each spermatozoon is encased by a single ... To select spermatozoa with low DNA damage index the population of sperm could be enriched with spermatozoa with non-fragmented ... spermatozoa and 70% for "male" spermatozoa. Sex selection Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Rappa, Kari L.; Rodriguez, Harold F ... As the X chromosome is larger (i.e. has more DNA) than the Y chromosome, the "female" (X-chromosome bearing) spermatozoa will ...
... they contain cysts which produce spermatozoa. Both tubes end in a spermiduct, one on each side of the mesosoma. They connect to ...
1677 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed spermatozoa. 1683 - Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed bacteria. Leeuwenhoek's discoveries ...
Kirkman-Brown JC, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (March 2004). "Slow calcium oscillations in human spermatozoa" (Free full text). ... Correia JN, Conner SJ, Kirkman-Brown JC (May 2007). "Non-genomic steroid actions in human spermatozoa. 'Persistent tickling ... Harper CV, Barratt CL, Publicover SJ (October 2004). "Stimulation of human spermatozoa with progesterone gradients to simulate ... in individual human spermatozoa exposed to progesterone". Developmental Biology. 222 (2): 326-35. doi:10.1006/dbio.2000.9729. ...
Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals, Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals, Buffalo bull ... ISBN 978-81-224-1968-9. Sardul S. Guraya (6 December 2011). Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals. Springer ... ISBN 978-3-642-71639-3. Sardul S. Guraya (6 December 2012). Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals. Springer ... Sardul S. Guraya (6 December 2011). Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. ISBN 978 ...
Spermatozoa are protected from the male's immune system by the blood-testis barrier. However, spermatozoa are deposited into ... In this way antibodies generated by the male are deposited into the female along with spermatozoa. Because of this and the ... Baskin, MJ (1932). "Temporary sterilization by injection of human spermatozoa: a preliminary report". American Journal of ... extensive travel in the female reproductive tract, spermatozoa are susceptible to anti-sperm antibodies generated by the male ...
Many products that come into direct contact with spermatozoa lack adequate testing for any adverse effect on semen quality. ... This increase in pregnancy rate occurs despite a lower value of total motile spermatozoa. Daily sexual activity increases sperm ... Lead, causing reduced spermatogenesis and abnormal spermatozoa. Mercury, being highly damaging to spermatogenesis. Many ... numerous products that are intended for exposure to spermatozoa have only a general assumption of safety based on the absence ...
Osmotic properties of spermatozoa from felids producing different proportions of pleiomorphisms: Influence of adding and ... Challenges in cryopreservation of clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) spermatozoa. Theriogenology 66:1790-6. Spindler, R.E., Y ... Creatine phosphokinase domestic cat epididymal spermatozoa. Molecular, Reproduction and Development 61, 1-6. Pukazhenthi, B, R ...
Editors: Kaimini Rao, Ashok Agarwal, MS Srinivas, 2010, ISBN 978-81-8448-901-9 Workbook on Human Spermatozoa and Assisted ... "Oxidative stress is associated with increased apoptosis leading to spermatozoa DNA damage in patients with male factor ... apoptosis and DNA denaturation in spermatozoa from patients examined for infertility". Hum Reprod. 19 (1): 129-38. doi:10.1093/ ... "Proteomic analysis of human spermatozoa proteins with oxidative stress". Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 11: 48. doi:10.1186/1477-7827- ...
doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2000.tb02196.x. J.M. Healy & R.C. Willan (1991). "Nudibranch spermatozoa : comparative ultrastructure ...
"Revival of spermatozoa after vitrification and dehydration." Nature (London), 164:666, 1949. Smith, A. U. "Prevention of ...
"Spermatozoa as Functional Components of Robotic Microswimmers". Advanced Materials. 29 (24): 1606301. doi:10.1002/adma. ...
Cotelli, F., & C. Lora Lamia Donin., (1980). The spermatozoon of Peracarida II. The spermatozoon of Tanaidacea. Journal of ...
Xia Y, Cheng S, Bian Q, Xu L, Collins MD, Chang HC, Song L, Liu J, Wang S, Wang X (2005). "Genotoxic effects on spermatozoa of ... Xia Y, Bian Q, Xu L, Cheng S, Song L, Liu J, Wu W, Wang S, Wang X (2004). "Genotoxic effects on human spermatozoa among ... Exposure of spermatozoa to lifestyle, environmental and/or occupational hazards may increase the risk of aneuploidy. Cigarette ...
Ronquist G, Fabiani R, Jin M, Nilsson BO, Elenbring K, Hjerten S (1996). "Adherence of human prostasomes to mouse spermatozoa ... Ronquist G, Nilsson BO, Hjertën S (1990). "Interaction between prostasomes and spermatozoa from human semen". Archives of ...
Testicular biopsy would confirm the absence of spermatozoa. Seminal plasma protein TEX101 was proposed for differentiation of ...
He believed that the seminal vesicles stored spermatozoa. He was not yet aware of the presence of spematozaoa as such; these ...
2005). "Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) regulation of spermatozoa physiology". Int. J. Impot. Res. 17 (3): 216-23. doi:10.1038/sj. ...
... a particular way in which spermatozoa are grouped together when transferred to the female. Spermatozoa are produced in a multi- ... After transfer to the female in either form, decapsulation and activation are necessary before the resulting spermatozoa can ... Each secondary spermatocyte then divides to produce two spermatids which undergo further development to form spermatozoa. In ... Michalik, Peter & Ramírez, Martín J. (2014), "Evolutionary morphology of the male reproductive system, spermatozoa and seminal ...
Sperm Existence of male spermatazoa discovered May 8, 1677 by Antony Van Leeuwenhoek (b. 1632 - d. 1723) of Holland. Persistent amongst mammal|mammals a...
A spermatozoon (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from Ancient Greek: σπέρμα ... During capacitation, spermatozoa acquire the capability to fertilize the oocyte. In vitro, it happens when the spermatozoa is ... we will do a testicular biopsy in order to check if there are spermatozoa in the testes or if no spermatozoa are being produced ... A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally ...
Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female ... Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female ... as well as to the protocols to cryopreserve and to select spermatozoa in assisted reproduction techniques. The purpose of this ...
Hoeber, 1941 - Spermatozoa - 314 pages. 0 Reviewshttps://books.google.com/books/about/Spermatozoa_and_Sterility.html?id= ... factors fallopian tubes female fertility genital tract glands gonadotropic Gynec Huhner test human semen human spermatozoa ... injections investigators lactic acid method microscope Moench morphology motility necrospermia normal number of spermatozoa ... analysis seminal fluid seminal plasma seminal vesicles solution specific specimen sper spermatocyte spermatogenesis spermatozoa ...
Human spermatozoa migration in microchannels reveals boundary-following navigation Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Indeed, the shear rate in the fluid surrounding spermatozoa changes from 1,000 s-1 in the vicinity of flagellum to 10 s-1 in ... Human spermatozoa migration in microchannels reveals boundary-following navigation. Petr Denissenko, Vasily Kantsler, David J. ... Spermatozoa in the "one way running track" microchannel geometry. The space outside the microchannel is shaded gray to indicate ...
A chemoattractant for ascidian spermatozoa is a sulfated steroid. Manabu Yoshida, Michio Murata, Kazuo Inaba, Masaaki Morisawa ... A chemoattractant for ascidian spermatozoa is a sulfated steroid. Manabu Yoshida, Michio Murata, Kazuo Inaba, Masaaki Morisawa ... Chemotaxis of spermatozoa toward eggs during fertilization is known in most animals and lower plants (1, 2). The chemical ... Spermatozoa of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis are either immotile or only slightly motile when suspended in seawater. However ...
Pistenma, D.A. BIOPHYSICAL STUDIES OF SPERMATOZOA., thesis or dissertation, January 1, 1970; [Berkeley, California]. (digital. ...
Human spermatozoa: fruits of creation, seeds of doubt. Reprod Fertil Dev 16:655-664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Ahmadi A, Ng SC (1999) Fertilizing ability of DNA-damaged spermatozoa. J Exp Zool 284:696-704CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Aitken RJ, Sawyer D (2003) The human spermatozoon-not waving but drowning. Adv Exp Med Biol 518:85-98PubMedGoogle Scholar ... The human spermatozoon-a cell in crisis? J Reprod Fertil 115:1-7PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Spermatozoa depend on this scavenging system provided by the seminal plasma after normal ejaculation in vivo [20, 68, 69, 79-81 ... R. J. Aitken and D. Sawyer, "The human spermatozoon-not waving but drowning," Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ... W. C. L. Ford, "The role of oxygen free radicals in the pathology of human spermatozoa: implications of IVF," in Clinical IVF ... Most of the focus in the literature is on the detrimental effects of ROS on spermatozoa. A target of direct ROS action is the ...
... are the male sex cells that carry a mans genetic material. They are so tiny that they cant be seen ... post a link to Spermatozoa (sperm) information on Facebook. ... post a link to Spermatozoa (sperm) information on Twitter. ... send a link to Spermatozoa (sperm) information by email. ... share a link to Spermatozoa (sperm) information by text. ...
A spermatozoon (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/, alternate spelling spermatozoön; plural spermatozoa; from Ancient Greek: σπέρμα ... The human spermatozoon contains over 6000 different proteins.[7]. DNA damage and repairEdit. DNA damages present in spermatozoa ... Spermatozoa production in mammalsEdit. Main article: Spermatogenesis. Spermatozoa are produced in the seminiferous tubules of ... A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote. (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes, that normally ...
BETA-ACROSIN HEAVY CHAINBETA-ACROSIN LIGHT CHAIN2-(ACETYLAMINO)-2-DEOXY-A-D-GLUCOPYRANOSEBETA-D-MANNOSEBETA-L-FUCOSEP-AMINO BENZAMIDINESULFATE ION
Analysis of CRP binding to AR spermatozoa. (A) Western blot of human spermatozoa. Ionophore-treated or untreated spermatozoa ... nonreacted spermatozoa to AR spermatozoa. A representative histogram of MCP expression by ionophore-treated spermatozoa is ... To better define the role of MCP on spermatozoa, we set out to evaluate MCP in situ as a complement regulator on spermatozoa. ... Spermatozoa samples. Spermatozoa samples were obtained with informed consent, and all studies were approved by the Washington ...
Failure to recognize the need for capacitation of spermatozoa and the... ... Bedford, J. M. (1965), Effect of environment on phagocytosis of rabbit spermatozoa, J Reprod. Fertil. 9:249.PubMedCrossRef ... Yanagimachi, R. (1972a), Penetration of guinea pig spermatozoa into hamster eggs in vitro,J. Reprod. Fertil. 28: 477.PubMed ... Barros, C, and Garavagno, R. (1970), Capacitation of hamster spermatozoa with blood sera,J. Reprod. Fertil. 22:381.CrossRef ...
THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-ACROSIN FROM BOAR SPERMATOZOA ... and as a protease to facilitate penetration of spermatozoa into ... Three dimensional structure of beta-acrosin from ram and boar spermatozoa. Tranter, R.. () Thesis --: -- ... THREE DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-ACROSIN FROM BOAR SPERMATOZOA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1FIZ/pdb ... Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. During ...
Three Dimensional Structure of Acrosin from Ram and Boar Spermatozoa. Tranter, R.. () To be published --: -- ... THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF BETA-ACROSIN FROM RAM SPERMATOZOA. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1FIW/pdb ... Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. During ... Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. During ...
Saltwater crocodile spermatozoa examined in this study exhibited unusually high levels of extra DNA charged (2C and 4C) ... Individual crocodiles with a high proportion of 2C spermatozoa in their ejaculate, also showed a high level of DNA ... From the ejaculates of five crocodiles, abnormal spermatozoa containing 2C (1-12%) and 4C DNA (0-2%) charges were discriminated ... Whole extra-charged DNA spermatozoa in the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) ejaculate ...
The RNA profiles of spermatozoa from high-fertility and a low-fertility Holstein bulls were analysed using Affymetrix bovine ... A total of 415 transcripts out of approximately 24,000 were differentially detected in spermatozoa collected from ... Spermatozoa deliver more than the paternal genome into the oocyte; they also carry remnant messenger RNA from spermatogenesis. ... Spermatozoa deliver more than the paternal genome into the oocyte; they also carry remnant messenger RNA from spermatogenesis. ...
Home / Shop / Books / Medicine and Health / Spermatozoa: Biology, Motility and Function and Chromosomal Abnormalities. ... Spermatozoa: Biology, Motility and Function and Chromosomal Abnormalities. Brenda T. Erickson (Editor) ... In this book the authors present current research in the study of spermatozoa. This compilation focuses on the biology, ... Spermatozoa Motility and Morphology. (Lamia Said, Higher Institute of Biotechnology, Monastir, Tunisia) ...
Home , December 1963 - Volume 18 - Issue 6 , Infertility: CAPACITATION OF RABBIT SPERMATOZOA IN THE FALLO... ... Infertility: CAPACITATION OF RABBIT SPERMATOZOA IN THE FALLOPIAN TUBE AND IN THE UTERUS ...
Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. The tight irreversible binding of ... As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes ... The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal enzymes released, along with the hyperactivated beat pattern of the bound spermatozoon, ... ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. They require a certain period of residence in the female genital ...
Download this Vector Icon Isolated On White Ovum And Spermatozoon vector illustration now. And search more of the webs best ... Vector icon isolated on white - Ovum and spermatozoon - Illustration. .... Human Egg, Beauty, Cell, Conjugation - Biological ...
... spermatozoa from P0: 113 and 117; spermatozoa from P1: 114 and 118; spermatozoa from P2: 115 and 119 and spermatozoa from P3: ... In contrast to "SRF-spermatozoa," those spermatozoa present in the post-SRF are mainly resuspended in secretions from the ... Spermadhesins can even impair boar sperm fertility if overexpressed in spermatozoa or when spermatozoa are exposed to them in ... The same proteins were underexpressed in spermatozoa from the post-SRF compared with cauda epididymis spermatozoa, which ...
Guraya, S. S. is the author of Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals with ISBN 9780387171432 and ISBN ...
Two experiments were designed to determine if adding seminal plasma back to spermatozoa, prior to cryopreservation, would ... Seminal plasma is generally removed from equine spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation. ... In this experiment, spermatozoa were incubated with 5 or 20% seminal plasma for up to 6h at either 5 or 20 degrees C prior to ... Semen was washed through 15% Percoll to remove seminal plasma and spermatozoa resuspended to 350 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a clear ...
Spermatozoa from 2 dairy AI (artificial insemination) bulls (A and B), identified by their abnormal spermiogram with cells ... Macrocephaly in bull spermatozoa is associated with nuclear vacuoles, diploidy and alteration of chromatin condensation.. Revay ... The 7.5% XY-bearing cells and the presence of diploid spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry indicate a meiotic arrest in the ... In the second part of this study the previously unknown chromosomal constitution of large-headed spermatozoa of bull A was ...
A Quantitative Analysis of Flagellar Movement in Echinoderm Spermatozoa Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ... Computerized analyses were performed on the movement of spermatozoa recorded with a high-speed camera. These provide evidence ...
... enabling the spermatozoa to penetrate the zona pellucida. These processes can be achieved only if the spermatozoa have good ... Our results suggest that the increase in the R123 fluorescence intensity in capacitated spermatozoa is due to changes in the ... Membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity are important viability parameters of spermatozoa and fluorescent techniques ... The proportion of labeled spermatozoa and their fluorescence intensities were measured using a flow cytometer. The fluorescence ...
... spermatozoon icon in .PNG or .ICO format. Icon designed by A M Sadath Anam found in the icon set Human Anatomy Vol. 1 ... Fertilization, pregnancy, sex, sexual, sperm, spermatozoon icon. * Basic license · Categories: Healthcare & medical Styles: ...
This studys objective was use of microarray technology to differentiate the gene expressions of spermatozoa that achieved ... Differential Transcriptomic Profile in Spermatozoa Achieving Pregnancy or Not via ICSI Reprod Biomed Online. 2011 Jan;22(1):25- ... The level of expression of some of the transcripts from fresh spermatozoa was shown to differ for those that achieved pregnancy ... A study of nested cases and controls was designed to evaluate fresh and frozen spermatozoa from infertile males undergoing ICSI ...
  • Proteome of mature boar spermatozoa from cauda epididymal and ejaculated sources were analyzed by iTRAQ-based LC-MS/MS. (mcponline.org)
  • The proteome of boar spermatozoa is remodelled during ejaculation. (mcponline.org)
  • The present study showed that the proteome of boar spermatozoa is remodeled during ejaculation involving proteins clearly implicated in sperm function. (mcponline.org)
  • R. Fierro, H. González-Márquez, R. Ortiz, J. Chevrier and B. Foliguet, "Fluorometric Viability Assessment of Capacitated and Acrosome-Reacted Boar Spermatozoa by Flow Cytometry," Optics and Photonics Journal , Vol. 3 No. 1, 2013, pp. 40-44. (scirp.org)
  • In the present study, we applied a comprehensive proteomic approach to identify global protein biomarkers in boar spermatozoa in order to increase the precision of male fertility prognoses and diagnoses. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we used high- and low-litter size boar spermatozoa to develop suitable biomarkers. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the present study, we investigated the presence of PRDX2 in mouse and boar spermatozoa as well as in mouse spermatids using proteomic techniques and immunocytochemistry. (umsystem.edu)
  • Boar spermatozoa displayed similar PRDX2 localization as in mouse spermatozoa. (umsystem.edu)
  • Boar spermatozoa with disrupted acrosomes expressed PRDX2 in the postacrosomal sheath region. (umsystem.edu)
  • Differential subcellular distribution of tubulin epitopes in boar spermatozoa: recognition of class III beta-tubulin epitope in sperm tail. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The exposure of tubulin epitopes was studied in ejaculated boar spermatozoa using a panel of four monoclonal antibodies specific to the N-terminal or C-terminal structural domains of tubulin and three monoclonal antibodies against class III beta-tubulin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Due to this particular composition, the cold shock point is quite high, thus making boar spermatozoa more sensitive to temperature drops. (imv-technologies.com)
  • Below 15°C, the boar spermatozoa membrane could have an irreversible cold shock. (imv-technologies.com)
  • DNA damages present in spermatozoa in the period after meiosis but before fertilization may be repaired in the fertilized egg, but if not repaired, can have serious deleterious effects on fertility and the developing embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemotaxis of spermatozoa toward eggs during fertilization is known in most animals and lower plants ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • On the one hand, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mandatory mediators for essential cellular functions including the function of germ cells (oocytes and spermatozoa) and thereby the fertilization process. (hindawi.com)
  • Failure to recognize the need for capacitation of spermatozoa and the complicating factors of the internal site of fertilization, the somewhat rigorous environmental requirement for consistent success in fertilization in vitro , and the very few eggs ovulated at one time have all been at least partly responsible for our relatively poor knowledge of the physiology of mammalian fertilization. (springer.com)
  • To achieve this goal, the spermatozoon must attain full fertilization capacity, which implies they underwent molecular and/or functional maturational changes in the epididymis to later display an active forward movement, undergo capacitation, zona binding and the acrosome reaction, and chromatin decondensation during fertilization ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Spermatozoa from turtles have osmotic properties and resistance to changing chemical environments similar to spermatozoa from other vertebrates that have internal fertilization, and appear to be stable over long periods of time compared with spermatozoa from other vertebrate species. (cdc.gov)
  • Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. (ebscohost.com)
  • In order to reach fertilization in the context of IVF, the presence of high concentrations of spermatozoa is associated with a higher degree of sperm metabolism and a higher concentration of sperm degradation products, which may adversely affect not only sperm and oocyte viability and the fertilization rate. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Finally, spermatozoa treated with RVT before ferrous iron/ascorbate treatment showed a significant increase in oocyte fertilization (1.2-fold), relative to spermatozoa treated with ferrous iron/ascorbate. (mdpi.com)
  • There are few published reports concerning fertilization and pregnancy outcomes achieved with cryopreserved spermatozoa from cancer patients. (ovid.com)
  • We assess fertilization and pregnancy outcomes achieved with cryopreserved spermatozoa from cancer patients using assisted reproductive techniques. (ovid.com)
  • In this study, to map genetic regions responsible for the susceptibility of spermatozoa to freezing-thawing, we performed in vitro fertilization using spermatozoa from recombinant inbred mice derived from the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J strains, whose spermatozoa showed distinct fertilization abilities after freezing. (go.jp)
  • A correlation analysis using recombinant inbred strains revealed that the fertilization rate was strongly correlated with the capacitation rate of frozen-thawed spermatozoa after preincubation. (go.jp)
  • This result is consistent with the fact that C57BL/6J frozen-thawed spermatozoa recover their fertilization capacity following treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin to enhance sperm capacitation. (go.jp)
  • fertilizing ability of stored mouse spermatozoa in fresh oocytes and significantly increases the fertilization rate of vitrified oocytes with fresh spermatozoa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Analysis of the interaction partners of β-arrestin2 indicates that odorant receptor signaling in spermatozoa may be important for the regulation of gene expression during the early processes of fertilization. (biologists.org)
  • This nuclear translocation takes place in mature human spermatozoa after stimulation of the testicular OR hOR17-4, and could be important for the initiation or modulation of early transcriptional events during fertilization. (biologists.org)
  • Mammals generally ejaculate many more spermatozoa than seem to be needed for fertilization. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • These results suggested that SCR-3 of CD46 on human ejaculated spermatozoa may participate in human fertilization. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Moreover, with the use of fresh and cryopreserved epididymal and testicular spermatozoa for this procedure, fertilization and pregnancies could be accomplished. (minervamedica.it)
  • The migratory abilities of motile human spermatozoa in vivo are essential for natural fertility, but it remains a mystery what properties distinguish the tens of cells which find an egg from the millions of cells ejaculated. (pnas.org)
  • The RNA profiles of spermatozoa from high-fertility and a low-fertility Holstein bulls were analysed using Affymetrix bovine genechips. (rti.org)
  • Spermatozoa from high-fertility bulls contained higher concentrations of transcripts for membrane and extracellular space protein locations, while spermatozoa from the low-fertility bulls were deficient of transcripts for transcriptional and translational factors. (rti.org)
  • This study presents the global analysis of spermatozoa originating from bulls with opposite fertility. (rti.org)
  • These results provide some specific transcripts in spermatozoa that could be associated with bull fertility. (rti.org)
  • Low temperature storage of rhesus monkey spermatozoa and fertility evaluation by intracytoplasmic in. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The study found that the cryopreservation of spermatozoa samples significantly and irreversibly reduced the proportion of cells with a high level of MMP which of course has negative knock on effects for fertility. (news-medical.net)
  • The literature reveals strong relationships between proteins and post-transcriptional modifications in spermatozoa which have a positive impact on fertility of men and mice, whereas, limited studies have been reported in buffalo bulls. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, several studies have reported that proteomics is an effective tool that has the potential to transform our understanding of spermatozoa ( 14 - 16 ) by acquiring new biomarkers of male infertility and/or fertility. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results suggest that RVT possesses antioxidant properties that may prevent the deleterious effects produced by oxidative damage on spermatozoa, resulting in the maintenance of fertility. (mdpi.com)
  • kidney showing hyperchromatic nuclei, gradual loss and degeneration of flattened squamous epithelial cells lining and testis shows grossly distorted seminiferous tubules and epididymis with loss of cellular structure and an area of inflammatory changes with complete absence of spermatozoa, which may lead to low fertility. (stopumts.nl)
  • Contents Bull spermatozoa are rich in active miRNAs, and it has been shown that specific spermborne miRNAs can be linked to fertility. (ovid.com)
  • Thus, expression profiling of spermatozoa could be helpful for understanding male fertility and the ability of spermatozoa to initiate and sustain zygotic, embryonic and foetal development. (ovid.com)
  • This study was aimed at determining the effects of the ethanolic extract of the whole fruit of Lagenaria breviflora Robert on male fertility by evaluating some andrological parameters of the Wistar rat such as morphology of spermatozoa, sperm count, motility, liveability and volume of the semen. (academicjournals.org)
  • The present findings suggest that where mechanisms exist that could protect the acrosome and, or, the whole spermatozoon in the female tract, a much lower level of sperm production can be maintained without compromising fertility. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Acrobeads Test A new diagnostic test for assesment of the fertilizing capacity of human spermatozoa' Fertility and Sterility. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The aims of this study were to (1) directly compare pregnancy rates for fresh and frozen-thawed stallion epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa after conventional artificial insemination and (2) to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on the fertility of epididymal spermatozoa after insemination. (uzh.ch)
  • Proacrosin is a serine protease found specifically within the acrosomal vesicle of all mammalian spermatozoa. (rcsb.org)
  • A method and apparatus are disclosed for the mechanical sorting of mammalian spermatozoa by sex-type, into a fraction enriched in X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa, and a fraction enriched in Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. (lsuagcenter.com)
  • Cryopreservation induces differential remodeling of the proteome in mammalian spermatozoa. (diva-portal.org)
  • Spermatozoa are highly regulated processes that consist of differentiated cells based on a head, mid-piece, and tail while the mammalian sperm head is composed of a nucleus and acrosome. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the specific role of PRDX2 in the total peroxidase activity of sperm extract is still an open question, the present study for the first time shows the presence of PRDX2 in mammalian spermatozoa. (umsystem.edu)
  • Contrary to other mammalian spermatozoa, swine spermatozoa are characterized by a high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a low concentration of cholesterol. (imv-technologies.com)
  • Why so many mammalian spermatozoa - a clue from marsupials? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, in contrast to the acrosomal localization of CRES protein in mouse spermatozoa, indirect immunofluorescence of human spermatozoa treated with methanol/acetic acid using anti-human CRES antibodies revealed that CRES was strictly localized to the equatorial segment. (bioone.org)
  • This novel membrane localization was reinforced by the isolation and identification of biotin-conjugated surface proteins from ejaculated and capacitated boar and mouse spermatozoa, prompting us to hypothesize that GSTO2 has an oxidative/reductive role in regulating sperm function during capacitation. (mdpi.com)
  • Although it is known that the susceptibility of mouse spermatozoa to freezing-thawing varies greatly with genetic background, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. (go.jp)
  • Thus, our data provide important clues to the molecular mechanisms underlying cryodamage to mouse spermatozoa. (go.jp)
  • fertilizing ability of stored mouse spermatozoa. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Endogenous redox activity in mouse spermatozoa and its role in regulat" by Heath W. Ecroyd, Russell C. Jones et al. (edu.au)
  • We investigated the role of endogenous redox activity in regulating the signal transduction pathway leading to tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse spermatozoa. (edu.au)
  • This study provides the first evidence that tyrosine phosphorylation associated with capacitation in mouse spermatozoa is redox regulated by a flavinoid-containing enzyme involving mediation by hydrogen peroxide. (edu.au)
  • Bicarbonate regulated the redox activity of mouse spermatozoa, and this regulation may contribute to the impact of this anion on tyrosine phosphorylation during capacitation of mouse spermatozoa. (edu.au)
  • Effect of seminal plasma on the cryopreservation of equine spermatozoa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Seminal plasma is generally removed from equine spermatozoa prior to cryopreservation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two experiments were designed to determine if adding seminal plasma back to spermatozoa, prior to cryopreservation, would benefit the spermatozoa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this experiment, spermatozoa were incubated with 5 or 20% seminal plasma for up to 6h at either 5 or 20 degrees C prior to cryopreservation in a skim milk, egg yolk freezing extender. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In conclusion, although the short-term exposure of sperm to seminal plasma had no significant effect on the motility of cryopreserved equine spermatozoa, prolonged exposure to seminal plasma, prior to cryopreservation, was deleterious. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Market leaders in temperature controlled microscopy, Linkam Scientific Instruments report on the use of their temperature controlled stages in the study of the effects of cryopreservation of Koala spermatozoa in Australia. (news-medical.net)
  • One that has been highlighted is how incorrect cryopreservation can lead to adverse effects on the motility of spermatozoa samples. (news-medical.net)
  • The study also looked at how cryopreservation affects the plasma membrane of the cell, and whether or not cryoprotectants such as Glycerol may improve the viability of spermatozoa. (news-medical.net)
  • Retrieved on April 10, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20150428/Linkam-stages-used-to-study-the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-quality-of-Koala-spermatozoa-samples.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. (ebscohost.com)
  • Cryopreservation quantitatively altered more proteins in ejaculated than cauda epididymal spermatozoa. (diva-portal.org)
  • Differential protein-protein networks highlighted a set of proteins quantitatively altered in ejaculated spermatozoa, directly involved in mitochondrial functionality which would explain why ejaculated spermatozoa deteriorate during cryopreservation. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, we present protocols that have been successfully used for dolphin spermatozoa collection, cryopreservation, and heterologous IVF performance using bovine oocytes. (jove.com)
  • Felid spermatozoa are sensitive to cryopreservation-induced damage, but functional losses can be mitigated by post-thaw swim-up or density gradient processing methods that selectively recover motile or structurally-normal spermatozoa, respectively. (cheetah.org)
  • Therefore, to clarify the role of this complex population of mRNAs in human ejaculated sperm, we have isolated on discontinuous density gradients two main fractions from the same sample: high- and low-motile spermatozoa. (portlandpress.com)
  • While the percentage of total motile sperm remained unchanged, sex sorting reduced the percentages of progressive motile spermatozoa and of rapid spermatozoa as well as curvilinear velocity (VCL). (diva-portal.org)
  • The recovery of motile spermatozoa after swim-up increased by 50% when the swim-up medium was supplemented with prostasomes. (diva-portal.org)
  • In the condition of low ionic strength, 50% of motile spermatozoa lose motility in the high electric gradient about 160V/2mm. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Describes the first pregnancy achieved with intracytoplasmic injection of epididymal spermatozoa into cryopreserved human oocytes. (ebscohost.com)
  • In men with obstructive diseases of the vas deferens, the epididymal spermatozoa could be collected by means of electric stimulation but not so consistently as in the animal experiments. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The 7.5% XY-bearing cells and the presence of diploid spermatozoa detected by flow cytometry indicate a meiotic arrest in the first division in bull A, becoming the first proven case of association of macrocephaly and M1 diploidy. (nih.gov)
  • Immunolabeled-spermatozoa were submitted to flow cytometry analyses and data were statistically analyzed with ANOVA. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Higher levels of CATSPER were found by flow cytometry analysis in swim up selected spermatozoa respect to unselected (50.9±16.6 vs 23.4±10.7, n =6, P =0.01). (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • This study aimed (i) to update the porcine sperm proteome and (ii) to identify proteins differentially expressed in mature spermatozoa from cauda epididymis and those delivered in separate ejaculate fractions. (mcponline.org)
  • Chemical and thermal effects on the viability and motility of spermatozoa from the turtle epididymis. (cdc.gov)
  • Spermatozoa were harvested from three fertile boars and reproductive tract (testes and epididymis) and sex accessory gland (prostate and seminal vesicles) tissues were collected post-mortem from each boar. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Epididymis ducts were sectioned into caput, corpus, and cauda regions, and spermatozoa were mechanically collected. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The present study aimed to clarify this issue evaluating differential changes in the proteome of fresh and frozen-thawed pig spermatozoa retrieved from the cauda epididymis and the ejaculate of the same boars, with clear differences in cryotolerance. (diva-portal.org)
  • Immediately after collection, spermatozoa from 3 different regions of the epididymis, i.e. the head, body and tail, were obtained to study morphological changes of the spermatozoa during passage through these regions. (scielo.org.za)
  • In the bull, the most striking morphological change in the spermatozoa during their passage through epididymis is the migration of the cytoplasmic droplet from the proximal to the distal end of the mid-piece 9,12 . (scielo.org.za)
  • Thus the present study examines morphological changes as the spermatozoa pass through the epididymis. (scielo.org.za)
  • Australian marsupials, which usually lack such features, store spermatozoa in the epididymis in numbers more close to those in comparably sized eutheriam mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The morphology, motility and viability of frozen-thawed southern minke whale ( Balaenoptera acutorostrata ) spermatozoa was evaluated. (go.jp)
  • Comparative morphology of spermatozoa from five marsupial families. (scielo.br)
  • 1979. Comparative spermatozoon morphology and bivalve phylogeny. (scielo.br)
  • Disruption of both alleles of the murine nectin-2 gene resulted in morphologically aberrant spermatozoa with defects in nuclear and cytoskeletal morphology and mitochondrial localization. (asm.org)
  • We scored 44 characters from the gross morphology of the reproductive system as well as spermatozoa including four new characters for the male spider reproductive system. (amnh.org)
  • Collectively, findings revealed a metabolically-robust subpopulation of cryopreserved cat, but not cheetah, spermatozoa, recovered by selecting for motility rather than morphology. (cheetah.org)
  • Spermatozoa are highly differentiated, structurally complex and dynamic cells that deliver the paternal genome/epigenome to mature oocytes. (mcponline.org)
  • A study of nested cases and controls was designed to evaluate fresh and frozen spermatozoa from infertile males undergoing ICSI with donor oocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Insemination of the oocytes with a lower concentration of spermatozoa. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The storage conditions were optimized by storing the mouse epididymides at 4 C in mineral oil or in the mouse body for up to 4 days after death, and the retrieved spermatozoa were used to fertilize fresh oocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Spermatozoa retrieved from epididymides stored in mineral oil were then used to fertilize fresh and vitrified oocytes with or without ZIP treatment. (nii.ac.jp)
  • When 2-cell embryos derived from ZIP fresh and vitrified oocytes inseminated with 2 day-stored spermatozoa were transferred into recipient females, 47.9 and 15.0% of the embryos developed to term, respectively. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Anti-SCR-3 antibodies prevented human spermatozoa from penetrating zona-free hamster oocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The viability and motility of spermatozoa harvested from the epididymides of turtles were estimated to elucidate properties that might enable them to be stored over long periods of time. (cdc.gov)
  • Spermatozoa from C. picta and T. scripta, suspended in F-10 medium, showed low motility (3-6% motile) and motion velocities, whereas the motility of spermatozoa from S. odoratus was higher (40% motile). (cdc.gov)
  • Antisperm antibodies are immunoglobulins which diminish the mobility and progressive motility of spermatozoa by agglutinating or immobilizing it inside the semen and/or female genital system. (scirp.org)
  • Western blot analysis of protein lysates prepared from human testis and ejaculated spermatozoa showed a predominant 19-kDa protein and a minor 14-kDa protein. (bioone.org)
  • We report here on the ultrastructure of the spermatozoa of the rhea, Rhea americans albisceus, and its development in the testis. (docme.ru)
  • SLLP1 exhibited a very restricted normal tissue expression, being found only in testis/spermatozoa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In humans at puberty, spermatozoa are produced by spermatogonia meiosis in the seminiferous tubules of the testis (male gonad). (edu.au)
  • In contrast to spermatozoa from other species, human spermatozoa still contain a significant amount of histones, including testis-specific histone 2B (TH2B). (eur.nl)
  • In the present study it is shown that an antibody targeting tyrosine hydroxylase, which has been found previously to cross-react with rat TH2B, also specifically immunoreacts with human TH2B on Western blots, in immunohistochemistry of human testis tissue, and in immunocytochemistry of decondensed human spermatozoa. (eur.nl)
  • Genetic damage in spermatozoa can originate during spermatogenesis, or it can originate during transit in both male and female genital tracts. (springer.com)
  • Guraya, S. S. is the author of 'Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals' with ISBN 9780387171432 and ISBN 0387171436. (valorebooks.com)
  • This page introduces spermatogenesis the development of spermatozoa, the male haploid gamete cell. (edu.au)
  • In normal mice, Nectin-2 is expressed in the testes only during the later stages of spermatogenesis, during which the morphological transformations that produce spermatozoa from the round spermatid occur. (asm.org)
  • Individual crocodiles with a high proportion of 2C spermatozoa in their ejaculate, also showed a high level of DNA fragmentation in 1C sperm cells (8.7- 12.7%) but there was no such relationship between DNA fragmentation and 2C sperm. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Pig spermatozoa, emitted in well-defined ejaculate fractions, vary in their functionality, which could be related to different sperm protein composition. (mcponline.org)
  • Because the ejaculate contains a heterogeneous suspension of spermatozoa, sperm sub-populations of different quality and functionality are present ( 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • There was, however, a striking intercellular variability in the intensity of staining of spermatozoa within an ejaculate. (eur.nl)
  • Expression of MCP by human spermatozoa is restricted to the inner acrosomal membrane (IAM) ( 19 , 20 ), which is exposed following binding of spermatozoa to the zona pellucida (Figure 1 ). (jci.org)
  • Also, Abs against MCP inhibit binding to and penetration of zona-free hamster eggs ( 19 , 29 , 30 ) and human zona ( 31 ) by human spermatozoa. (jci.org)
  • beta-acrosin is thought to be multifunctional with roles in acrosomal exocytosis, as a receptor for zona pellucida proteins, and as a protease to facilitate penetration of spermatozoa into the egg. (rcsb.org)
  • Only capacitated spermatozoa interact with the extracellular egg coat, the zona pellucida. (hindawi.com)
  • The hydrolytic action of the acrosomal glycohydrolases and proteinases, released at the sperm binding site, along with the enhanced thrust generated by the hyperactivated spermatozoon are important factors that regulates the penetration of the zona pellucida (ZP), the extracellular glycocalyx that surrounds the egg, and fertilize it [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • the acrosome reaction (AR) is an exocytotic event induced by calcium influx, enabling the spermatozoa to penetrate the zona pellucida. (scirp.org)
  • Acrosome reaction is crucial to the penetration of spermatozoa through the zona pellucida (ZP). (bioone.org)
  • In humans, zona pellucida glycoprotein-1 binds to spermatozoa and induces acrosomal exocytosis. (genscript.com)
  • Membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity are important viability parameters of spermatozoa and fluorescent techniques based on membrane permeability to dyes have been developed to determine these parameters. (scirp.org)
  • Our results suggest that the increase in the R123 fluorescence intensity in capacitated spermatozoa is due to changes in the mitochondrial membrane activity because the spermatozoa experienced changes in membrane fluidity and flagellar activation during capacitation. (scirp.org)
  • One key aspect of this particular study used fluorescent labelling to differentiate Koala spermatozoa cells between those with either low or high levels of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). (news-medical.net)
  • We determined that l -amino acid oxidase, mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase 2, NAD (MDH2), cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase 1B, lysozyme-like protein 4, and calmodulin (CALM) were significantly and abundantly expressed in high-litter size spermatozoa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we observed that in group I there was a decrease in acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity, and an increase in DNA fragmentation, when compared to group C. Group AI showed an increase in acrosome integrity and mitochondrial activity when compared with group I. Based on our findings, we conclude that the vitamin E supplementation had a positive effect in protecting human spermatozoon from induced oxidative stress. (urotoday.com)
  • In most oviparous fishes that spawn in seawater (SW), spermatozoa may be exposed to harmful ROS loads associated with the hyperosmotic stress of axonemal activation and ATP synthesis from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. (uib.no)
  • Here, we show that a marine teleost orthologue of human aquaporin-8, termed Aqp8b, is rapidly phosphorylated and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane of SW-activated spermatozoa, where it facilitates H2O2 efflux from this compartment. (uib.no)
  • When Aqp8b intracellular trafficking and mitochondrial channel activity are immunologically blocked in activated spermatozoa, ROS levels accumulate in the mitochondria leading to mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, the reduction of ATP production, and the progressive arrest of sperm motility. (uib.no)
  • These findings reveal a previously unknown detoxification mechanism in spermatozoa under hypertonic conditions, whereby mitochondrial Aqp8b-mediated H2O2 efflux permits fuel production and the maintenance of flagellar motility. (uib.no)
  • The heads of spermatozoa from nectin-2 −/− mice contain mitochondria, dense outer filaments, and misshapen nuclei, and the mitochondrial sheath of the middle piece is disorganized. (asm.org)
  • Fluorometric assessments of mitochondrial function and viability in cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitochondrial function and sperm viability were quantified in samples of cryopreserved bovine spermatozoa from 12 bulls using fluorometric techniques. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was measured in cat spermatozoa. (cheetah.org)
  • The human spermatozoon contains at least 7500 different proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The human spermatozoon contains over 6000 different proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of these essential functional processes involve modifications in the expression of proteins through sperm interaction with the surrounding environment, as evidenced in spermatozoa from rodents, humans and livestock species, including pigs ( 2 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 7 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Immunocytochemical staining of spermatozoa revealed no TH2B immunosignal, but immunostaining was observed when spermatozoa obtained from semen were decondensed to make nuclear proteins accessible to the antibody. (eur.nl)
  • Although few dysfunctional proteins could result in abnormal junction between the head and tail of spermatozoon, little is known about the genetic cues in this process. (bmj.com)
  • Semen has an alkaline nature and the spermatozoa do not reach full motility (hypermotility) until they reach the vagina, where the alkaline pH is neutralized by acidic vaginal fluids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Semen was washed through 15% Percoll to remove seminal plasma and spermatozoa resuspended to 350 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a clear Hepes buffered diluent containing either 0, 5, 10, 20, 40 or 80% seminal plasma for 15 min, prior to being diluted to a final concentration of 50 x 10(6)sperm/mL in a Lactose-EDTA freezing diluent and cryopreserved. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Knowing the morphological changes in spermatozoa during epididymal passage in the Mithun will help define semen quality in the species. (scielo.org.za)
  • Spermatozoa were prepared from semen collected by massage from a n adult male rhea. (docme.ru)
  • Investigations with ram semen were conducted to develop procedures of cyrogenic preservation that would provide long-term retention of fertilizing capacity in ram spermatozoa. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Is Absence of Spontaneous Agglutinates of Spermatozoa in Semen a Reliable Indicator of Non-Autosensization against Human Sperm Antigens? (scirp.org)
  • As spermatozoa traverse through the female genital tract, they undergo multiple biochemical and physiological changes collectively referred to as capacitation. (hindawi.com)
  • Utilizing an inhibitor specific to the active site of GSTO2 in spermatozoa, inhibition of this enzyme led to a decrease in tyrosine phosphorylation late in the capacitation process, followed by an expected decrease in acrosome exocytosis and motility. (mdpi.com)
  • These studies indicate that the concentration of intracellular free calcium of ejaculated rabbit spermatozoa does not change as a result of in vitro capacitation. (eurekamag.com)
  • Chemiluminescence increased in spermatozoa that were actively undergoing cAMP-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation events associated with capacitation and was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by addition of catalase or diphenylene iodonium, both of which also inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation within the cell at points downstream of cAMP. (edu.au)
  • THE ANATOMICAL RECORD 223276-282 (1989) Development of Spermatozoa in the Rhea DAVID M. PHILLIPS AND CHERYL S. ASA The Population Council, New York,New York 10021 ABSTRACT We have examined the ultrastructural changes that take place during spermiogenesis in the rhea. (docme.ru)
  • Ultrastructural studies of spermiogenesis and spermatozoa have dealt primarily with insects and mammals. (docme.ru)
  • Dicrocoelium hospes Looss, 1907 (Digenea, Dicrocoeliidae): spermiogenesis, mature spermatozoon and ultrastructural comparative study. (degruyter.com)
  • Spermiogenesis and the spermatozoon ultrastructure of Robphildollfusium fractum (Digenea: Gyliauchenidae), an intestinal parasite of Sarpa salpa (Pisces: Teleostei). (degruyter.com)
  • The structural defects observed in spermatozoa of nectin-2 −/− mice suggest a role for this protein in organization and reorganization of the cytoskeleton during spermiogenesis. (asm.org)
  • Ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Holorchis micracanthum (Digenea: Lepocreadiidae), an intestinal parasite of Plectorhinchus mediterraneus (Pisces, Teleostei) in Senegal. (degruyter.com)
  • Upon exposure of human spermatozoa to autologous serum or follicular fluid, we unexpectedly observed that acrosome-reacted spermatozoa activated the complement cascade efficiently through C3 but not beyond. (jci.org)
  • Furthermore, the same staining was observed in both capacitated and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa. (bioone.org)
  • Experiment 1 determined if different concentrations of seminal plasma affected post-thaw sperm motility, viability and acrosomal integrity of frozen/thawed stallion spermatozoa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To better understand the changes induced in stallion spermatozoa during the sorting procedure, pooled sperm samples were sorted: sperm motility and kinematics were assessed using computer assisted sperm analysis, sperm membrane integrity was assessed using the YoPro-1 assay, while plasmalemmal stability and lipid architecture were assessed using Merocyanine 540/SYTOX green and Annexin-V, respectively. (diva-portal.org)
  • This study aims to investigate the signal transduction pathway leading to acrosomal exocytosis in stallion spermatozoa, particularly the role of soluble adenylyl cyclase (SACY) and protein kinase A (PKA). (cornell.edu)
  • The use of epididymal stallion spermatozoa for routine artificial insemination can secure easy future use of valuable genetics after unforeseen death or injury of a valuable stallion. (uzh.ch)
  • From the ejaculates of five crocodiles, abnormal spermatozoa containing 2C (1-12%) and 4C DNA (0-2%) charges were discriminated after assessing 1500 spermatozoa using morphological characterisation under fluorescence microscopic and image analysis protocols. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Spermatozoa from 2 dairy AI (artificial insemination) bulls (A and B), identified by their abnormal spermiogram with cells depicting frequent macrocephaly, double tails and nuclear vacuoles, were case-investigated and compared to normal spermatozoa from a control AI sire (C). Head sizes were measured and morphological abnormalities scored using brightfield and differential interference contrast microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • Aitken RJ, Clarkson JS (1987) Cellular basis of defective sperm function and its association with the genesis of reactive oxygen species by human spermatozoa. (springer.com)
  • Aitken RJ, Buckingham DW, West K, Wu FC, Zikopoulos K, Richardson DW (1992) Contribution of leucocytes and spermatozoa to the generation of reactive oxygen species in the ejaculates of oligozoospermic patients and fertile donors. (springer.com)
  • Aitken RJ, Fisher HM, Fulton N, Gomez E, Knox W, Lewis B, Irvine S (1997) Reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa is induced by exogenous NADPH and inhibited by the flavoprotein inhibitors diphenylene iodonium and quinacrine. (springer.com)
  • Spermatozoa were analyzed for freeze tolerance, DNA integrity, viability, motility, ATP levels, and acrosome intactness at rest and after acute stress, induced by Cu 2+ ions, as well as levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after exposure to FeSO 4 and H 2 O 2 . (frontiersin.org)
  • Total and progressive motility, viability, and mitochondria membrane potential were higher and membrane fluidity and reactive oxygen species generation lower in frozen-thawed (FT) epididymal than ejaculated spermatozoa. (diva-portal.org)
  • The fertile lifespan of spermatozoa in the reproductive tract of the bitch is considerably longer than in most other domestic species, and the main sperm reservoirs appear to be the uterine crypts and the distal part of the uterotubal junction, where spermatozoa attach by their heads to uterine epithelium. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1983. Ultrastructural studies of spermatozoa in three bivalves species with notes on evolution of elongated sperm nucleus in primitive spermatozoa. (scielo.br)
  • The spermatozoa of dasyurids are not paired, but the species examined possess distinctive sperm storage crypts in the oviducal isthmus similar to those in the opossum. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • While the number ejaculated typically by any one species is probably determined ultimately by several interacting factors, it therefore seems likely that a most important one in this respect relates to conditions spermatozoa face in the female tract. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This study aimed to compare the pregnancy rate using the conventional artificial insemination (AI) or deep intracornual artificial insemination (DIAI), with low number of spermatozoa (4.0 million sperm) in 270 Nelore cows. (scielo.br)
  • The ultrastructural organization of the spermatozoon of the digenean Macvicaria obovata (Opecoelidae) is described by transmission electron microscopy. (degruyter.com)
  • Macrocephaly in bull spermatozoa is associated with nuclear vacuoles, diploidy and alteration of chromatin condensation. (nih.gov)
  • Effect of Glutathione in Extender on the Freezability of Sahiwal Bull Spermatozoa. (ebscohost.com)
  • This study was designed to evaluate the effect of glutathione addition in tris-citric acid extender on the freezability of Sahiwal bull spermatozoa. (ebscohost.com)
  • In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing an X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the mouse and other mammals studied, including man, ejaculated spermatozoa cannot immediately fertilize an egg. (hindawi.com)
  • 1. Chromosome dimorphism of the spermatozoa has been shown for a variety of mammals, and in some cases this has been shown to be correlated with dimorphism in the head lengths of the spermatozoa. (biologists.org)
  • 3. The interest of these results lies in the probability that the histological difference in the X- and Y-spermatozoa may account for the inequality of the sexes at conception in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • However, some 5% of the spermatozoa that the opossum ejaculates populate the oviduct about 12 h later when ovulation can be anticipated - a success rate in the female orders of magnitude greater than in eutherian mammals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • 1986). RESULTS Mature Spermatozoa A curved, tapering head characterizes the spermatozoa of R. americans albisceus. (docme.ru)
  • Mature spermatozoa have highly condensed DNA that is essentially silent both transcriptionally and translationally. (frontiersin.org)
  • PRDX2 occurred as a Triton soluble form in the spermatids and as an insoluble form in mature spermatozoa. (umsystem.edu)
  • In a healthy adult human male it takes about 48 days from meiosis to produce a mature spermatozoa, and he produces somewhere between 45 to 207 million spermatozoa per day, or about 1 to 2,000 every second. (edu.au)
  • suggesting that β-arrestin2 could regulate chemoreceptor responses in mature spermatozoa. (biologists.org)
  • In the second part of this study the previously unknown chromosomal constitution of large-headed spermatozoa of bull A was investigated by fluorescence in situ hybridization using an X-Y painting probe set. (nih.gov)
  • These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR), spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS) and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS). (ebscohost.com)
  • The activities of spermatozoa and erythrocyte G6PD were determined and the relation of sperm parameters with G6PD activity was evaluated. (sid.ir)
  • Finally, these results indicate that viral DNA is present in purified sperm from HIV-positive men and that HIV infection of spermatozoa could be associated with lower seminal parameters as demonstrated by the PCA method. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The viability of spermatozoa held in liquid nitrogen storage 18 to 21.8 months was examined. (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, the origin of seminal relaxin, within the male reproductive tract, and the moment of its release in the vicinity of spermatozoa remain unclear. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Holding ram spermatozoa in seminal plasma for four hours prior to extension caused no significant change in postfreeze motility or percent survival, The addition of glycerol to the freezing medium caused a significant increase in acrosomal damage. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The motility-stimulatory effect of prostasomes on cryopreserved spermatozoa was further studied by supplementing the swim-up medium with seminal prostasomes, and with prostasomes purified from a PC-3 prostate cancer cell line (PC-3 prostasomes), on fresh spermatozoa. (diva-portal.org)
  • During the first phase (38°C to 25°C), only the spermatozoa metabolism is affected. (imv-technologies.com)
  • We hypothesized that freezing/thawing impairs sperm metabolism and that swim-up, but not density gradient centrifugation, recovers metabolically-normal spermatozoa. (cheetah.org)
  • Here, we assessed the longitudinal distribution of relaxin and its receptors RXFP1 and RXFP2 in the reproductive tract, sex accessory glands, and spermatozoa of adult boars. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Current knowledge on the transport and fate of spermatozoa in the reproductive tract of the bitch. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the present study, we analyzed the primary male reproductive system and spermatozoa of goblin spiders for the first time. (amnh.org)
  • Our study is the first to use a tandem mass tag (TMT) approach to analyze Tibetan pig spermatozoa, and provides a foundation to understand the mechanisms underlying the reproductive adaptations of Tibetan pigs to high-altitude environments. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, study showed that histone retention and DNA methylation were changed in the method of selecting human spermatozoa by density-gradients in assisted reproductive technologies. (alliedacademies.org)
  • An imbalance between ROS generation and the antioxidant capacity of spermatozoa leads to oxidative stress, and the exposure of spermatozoa to this condition appears to be related to male infertility [ 3 , 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Nuclear fragmentation, i.e. the ratio of red to total (red + green) fluorescence, reached 7.1% and 31% in bulls A and B, compared to 2% in bull C. The proportion of immature spermatozoa, i.e. those with incomplete histone-protamine exchange and depicting higher green fluorescence compared to the main population of the control bull, reached 9.54% in A and 7.75% in B, compared to only 0.47% in the control. (nih.gov)
  • This study's objective was use of microarray technology to differentiate the gene expressions of spermatozoa that achieved pregnancy in an intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)cycle in an oocyte donation programme with those that did not achieve pregnancy. (nih.gov)
  • These results indicate that poor quality cryopreserved spermatozoa from cancer patients, irrespective of the length of storage, may provide successful results with the latest micromanipulative techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (ovid.com)
  • Recent studies have shown associations of aberrant DNA methylation in spermatozoa with idiopathic infertility. (nih.gov)
  • Spermatozoa were collected from 10 healthy, sexually mature, and fertile boars, and cryopreserved using a standard 0.5 mL-straw protocol. (diva-portal.org)
  • Aitken RJ, Gordon E, Harkiss D, Twigg JP, Milne P, Jennings Z, Irvine DS (1998a) Relative impact of oxidative stress on the functional competence and genomic integrity of human spermatozoa. (springer.com)
  • This study demonstrates that in addition to providing half of the genomic material, spermatozoa also contribute transcripts to the oocyte. (rti.org)
  • Aitken RJ, Harkiss D, Knox W, Paterson M, Irvine DS (1998b) A novel signal transduction cascade in capacitating human spermatozoa characterised by a redox-regulated, cAMP-mediated induction of tyrosine phosphorylation. (springer.com)
  • Cheetah spermatozoa isolated by either selection method exhibited improved motility and/or acrosomal integrity, but remained metabolically compromised. (cheetah.org)
  • Protein sumoylation was recently demonstrated in human and rodent spermatozoa, with potential consequences for sperm motility and DNA integrity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Damage can also be due to ageing, environmental or iatrogenic conditions, as well as to the protocols to cryopreserve and to select spermatozoa in assisted reproduction techniques. (springer.com)
  • Objective Based on patients with severe decapitated and decaudated spermatozoa (DDS) syndrome, the study aimed to validate whether new mutation exists on their Hook microtubule-tethering protein 1 ( HOOK1 ) genes and follow their results of assisted reproduction treatment (ART). (bmj.com)
  • But information of the outcomes of different human spermatozoa selection methods for assisted reproduction in clinical work remains limited. (alliedacademies.org)