The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Supporting cells projecting inward from the basement membrane of SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. They surround and nourish the developing male germ cells and secrete ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN and hormones such as ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. The tight junctions of Sertoli cells with the SPERMATOGONIA and SPERMATOCYTES provide a BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER.
Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The epithelium lining the seminiferous tubules composed of primary male germ cells (SPERMATOGONIA) and supporting SERTOLI CELLS. As SPERMATOGENESIS proceeds, the developing germ cells migrate toward the lumen. The adluminal compartment, the inner two thirds of the tubules, contains SPERMATOCYTES and the more advanced germ cells.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
A specialized barrier, in the TESTIS, between the interstitial BLOOD compartment and the adluminal compartment of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. The barrier is formed by layers of cells from the VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM of the capillary BLOOD VESSELS, to the SEMINIFEROUS EPITHELIUM of the seminiferous tubules. TIGHT JUNCTIONS form between adjacent SERTOLI CELLS, as well as between the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Chemical substances which inhibit the process of spermatozoa formation at either the first stage, in which spermatogonia develop into spermatocytes and then into spermatids, or the second stage, in which spermatids transform into spermatozoa.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The stage in the first meiotic prophase, following ZYGOTENE STAGE, when CROSSING OVER between homologous CHROMOSOMES begins.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
Pathological processes of the TESTIS.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
The male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans and in some other male-heterogametic species in which the homologue of the X chromosome has been retained.
A type of male infertility in which no germ cells are visible in any of the biopsied SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES (type I) or in which germ cells are present in a minority of tubules (type II). Clinical features include AZOOSPERMIA, normal VIRILIZATION, and normal chromosomal complement.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).
The process of germ cell development from the primordial GERM CELLS to the mature haploid GAMETES: ova in the female (OOGENESIS) or sperm in the male (SPERMATOGENESIS).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The chromosomal constitution of cells, in which each type of CHROMOSOME is represented once. Symbol: N.
In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
A cyclin A subtype primarily found in male GERM CELLS. It may play a role in the passage of SPERMATOCYTES into meiosis I.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Congenital conditions of atypical sexual development associated with abnormal sex chromosome constitutions including MONOSOMY; TRISOMY; and MOSAICISM.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds which increase the capacity of the male to induce conception.
Procedures to obtain viable sperm from the male reproductive tract, including the TESTES, the EPIDIDYMIS, or the VAS DEFERENS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE growing in Peru mountains. It is the source of maca root.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
Carrier proteins produced in the Sertoli cells of the testis, secreted into the seminiferous tubules, and transported via the efferent ducts to the epididymis. They participate in the transport of androgens. Androgen-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as SEX HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.

Identification of a nuclear localization signal in activin/inhibin betaA subunit; intranuclear betaA in rat spermatogenic cells. (1/4031)

Activin is a dimeric glycoprotein hormone that was initially characterized by its ability to stimulate pituitary FSH secretion and was subsequently recognized as a growth factor with diverse biological functions in a large variety of tissues. In the testis, activin has been implicated in the auto/paracrine regulation of spermatogenesis through its cognate cell membrane receptors on Sertoli and germ cells. In this study we provide evidence for intranuclear activin/inhibin betaA subunit and show its distribution in the rat seminiferous epithelium. We have shown by transient expression in HeLa cells of beta-galactosidase fusion proteins that the betaA subunit precursor contains a functional nuclear localization signal within the lysine-rich sequence corresponding to amino acids 231-244. In all stages of the rat seminiferous epithelial cycle, an intense immunohistochemical staining of nuclear betaA was demonstrated in intermediate or type B spermatogonia or primary spermatocytes in their initial stages of the first meiotic prophase, as well as in pachytene spermatocytes and elongating spermatids primarily in stages IX-XII. In some pachytene spermatocytes, the pattern of betaA immunoreactivity was consistent with the characteristic distribution of pachytene chromosomes. In the nuclei of round spermatids, betaA immunoreactivity was less intense, and in late spermatids it was localized in the residual cytoplasm, suggesting disposal of betaA before spermatozoal maturation. Immunoblot analysis of a protein extract from isolated testicular nuclei revealed a nuclear betaA species with a molecular mass of approximately 24 kDa, which is more than 1.5 times that of the mature activin betaA subunit present in activin dimers. These results suggest that activin/inhibin betaA may elicit its biological functions through two parallel signal transduction pathways, one involving the dimeric molecule and cell surface receptors and the other an alternately processed betaA sequence acting directly within the nucleus. According to our immunohistochemical data, betaA may play a significant role in the regulation of nuclear functions during meiosis and spermiogenesis.  (+info)

Effects of spinal cord injury on spermatogenesis and the expression of messenger ribonucleic acid for Sertoli cell proteins in rat Sertoli cell-enriched testes. (2/4031)

The study was an examination of the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI) on spermatogenesis and Sertoli cell functions in adult rats with Sertoli cell-enriched (SCE) testes. The effects of SCI on the seminiferous epithelium were characterized by abnormalities in the remaining spermatogenic cells during the first month after SCI. Three days after SCI, serum testosterone levels were 80% lower, while serum FSH and LH levels were 25% and 50% higher, respectively, than those of sham control SCE rats. At this time, the levels of mRNA for androgen receptor (AR), FSH receptor (FSH-R), and androgen-binding protein (ABP) were normal whereas those for transferrin (Trf) had decreased by 40%. Thereafter, serum testosterone levels increased, but they remained lower than those of the sham control rats 28 days after SCI; and serum FSH and LH levels returned to normal. The levels of mRNA for AR, ABP, and Trf exhibited a biphasic increase 7 days after SCI and remained elevated 28 days after SCI. FSH-R mRNA levels were also elevated 90 days after SCI. Unexpectedly, active spermatogenesis, including qualitatively complete spermatogenesis, persisted in > 40% of the tubules 90 days after SCI. These results suggest that the stem cells and/or undifferentiated spermatogonia in SCE testes are less susceptible to the deleterious effects of SCI than the normal testes and that they were able to proliferate and differentiate after SCI. The presence of elevated levels of mRNA for Sertoli cell FSH-R and AR, as well as of that for the Sertoli cell proteins, in the SCE testes during the chronic stage of SCI suggests a modification of Sertoli cell physiology. Such changes in Sertoli cell functions may provide a beneficial environment for the proliferation of the stem cells and differentiation of postmeiotic cells, thus resulting in the persistence of spermatogenesis in these testes.  (+info)

hMSH5: a human MutS homologue that forms a novel heterodimer with hMSH4 and is expressed during spermatogenesis. (3/4031)

MutS homologues have been identified in nearly all organisms examined to date. They play essential roles in maintaining mitotic genetic fidelity and meiotic segregation fidelity. MutS homologues appear to function as a molecular switch that signals genomic manipulation events. Here we describe the identification of the human homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MSH5, which is known to participate in meiotic segregation fidelity and crossing-over. The human MSH5 (hMSH5) was localized to chromosome 6p22-21 and appears to play a role in meiosis because expression is induced during spermatogenesis between the late primary spermatocytes and the elongated spermatid phase. hMSH5 interacts specifically with hMSH4, confirming the generality of functional heterodimeric interactions in the eukaryotic MutS homologue, which also includes hMSH2-hMSH3 and hMSH2-hMSH6.  (+info)

The degenerative fate of germ cells not conforming to stage in the pubertal golden hamster testis. (4/4031)

In the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), pubertal establishment of spermatogenesis includes a defined period (d 26-30 of life) during which elongation of spermatids is selectively arrested. The resulting appearance of germ cell associations not conforming to stage and the phenomenon of desynchronisation-related germ cell degeneration are analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively by means of light and 'retrospective' electron microscopy. From d 26 onwards, the portion of tubules containing non-stage conforming germ cell associations gradually increases up to 37.5% of sectioned tubules on d 32. Concomitantly, the degree of desynchronisation rises to a maturational gap between spermatids and associated younger germ cells of 7 stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, i.e. of fully half a cycle. Beyond d 32, the frequency of desynchronised tubule segments decreases again. Some of the arrested round spermatids and, eventually, all belatedly elongating spermatids degenerate and are lost from the epithelium. Thus a regular maturation of advanced spermatids does not succeed under non-stage conforming conditions. Possibly it is not the desynchronisation between the associated germ cell generations and the spermatids by itself that impedes normal further development of the latter cells. Instead this may be due to the maturational delay of the stage-aberrant cells by several stages compared to the seminiferous epithelium as a whole and, especially, in relation to the stage-conditioned functional state of the neighbouring Sertoli cells.  (+info)

The effects of a t-allele (tAE5) in the mouse on the lymphoid system and reproduction. (5/4031)

Mice homozygous for tAE5, a recessive allele at the complex T-locus, are characterized by their unique short-tailed phenotype as well as by runting and low fertility. Histological and histochemical studies of the lymphoid and reproductive systems disclosed structural changes in the mutant spleen resembling those found in autoimmune conditions. Involution of the mutant thymus was greatly accelerated compared to normal. Necrotic changes occurred during spermiogenesis whereas ovarian structure was normal in mutants. The possible mechanisms of the mutant effects are discussed in the framework of other similar syndromes and the mode of action of alleles at the complex T-locus.  (+info)

Genetic analysis of viable Hsp90 alleles reveals a critical role in Drosophila spermatogenesis. (6/4031)

The Hsp90 chaperone protein maintains the activities of a remarkable variety of signal transducers, but its most critical functions in the context of the whole organism are unknown. Point mutations of Hsp83 (the Drosophila Hsp90 gene) obtained in two different screens are lethal as homozygotes. We report that eight transheterozygous mutant combinations produce viable adults. All exhibit the same developmental defects: sterile males and sterile or weakly fertile females. We also report that scratch, a previously identified male-sterile mutation, is an allele of Hsp82 with a P-element insertion in the intron that reduces expression. Thus, it is a simple reduction in Hsp90 function, rather than possible altered functions in the point mutants, that leads to male sterility. As shown by light and electron microscopy, all stages of spermatogenesis involving microtubule function are affected, from early mitotic divisions to later stages of sperm maturation, individualization, and motility. Aberrant microtubules are prominent in yeast cells carrying mutations in HSP82 (the yeast Hsp90 gene), confirming that Hsp90 function is connected to microtubule dynamics and that this connection is highly conserved. A small fraction of Hsp90 copurifies with taxol-stabilized microtubule proteins in Drosophila embryo extracts, but Hsp90 does not remain associated with microtubules through repeated temperature-induced assembly and disassembly reactions. If the spermatogenesis phenotypes are due to defects in microtubule dynamics, we suggest these are indirect, reflecting a role for Hsp90 in maintaining critical signal transduction pathways and microtubule effectors, rather than a direct role in the assembly and disassembly of microtubules themselves.  (+info)

Y chromosome and male infertility. (7/4031)

Recent genome analysis of the Y chromosome has increased the number of genes found on this chromosome markedly. Many of these genes in the part of the Y chromosome that does not undergo recombination with the X chromosome are members of gene families. Evolutionary considerations imply that genes on the Y chromosome will degenerate unless they have male advantageous or female deleterious functions. Spermatogenesis is an example of a male advantageous function and genes in three regions of the human Y chromosome have been promoted as candidate male fertility factors.  (+info)

Role of heat shock protein HSP70-2 in spermatogenesis. (8/4031)

The HSP70 heat-shock proteins are molecular chaperones that assist other proteins in their folding, transport and assembly into complexes. Most of these proteins are either constitutively expressed or their expression is induced by heat shock and other stresses. However, two members of the Hsp70 family (HSP70-2 and HSC70T in mice) are regulated developmentally and expressed specifically in spermatogenic cells. The HSP70-2 protein is synthesized during the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis and is abundant in pachytene spermatocytes. The knockout approach was used to determine whether HSP70-2 is a chaperone for proteins involved in meiosis. Male mice lacking HSP70-2 were infertile while females lacking HSP70-2 were fertile. Spermatogenic cell development was arrested in prophase of meiosis I at the G2-M-phase transition and late pachytene spermatocytes were eliminated by apoptosis, resulting in an absence of spermatids. HSP70-2 is required for Cdc2 to form a heterodimer with cyclin B1, suggesting that it is a chaperone necessary for the progression of meiosis in the germ cells of male mice. HSP70-2 is also associated with the synaptonemal complex and desynapsis is disrupted in male mice lacking this protein. Homologues of HSP70-2 are present in the testes of many animals, suggesting that the role of this spermatogenic cell chaperone is conserved across phyla.  (+info)

Mammalian spermatogenesis consists of many cell types and biological processes and serves as an excellent model for studying gene regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. identified five major regulatory mechanisms termed transcript only, transcript degradation, translation repression, translation de-repression, and protein degradation based on changes in protein level relative to changes in mRNA level at the mitosis/meiosis transition and the meiosis/post-meiotic development transition. We found that post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms are related to the generation of piRNAs and antisense transcripts. Our results provide a valuable inventory of proteins produced during mouse spermatogenesis and contribute to elucidating the mechanisms of the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in mammalian spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis in animals is usually a complex yet tightly regulated developmental process that involves many cell types. Similar to other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - asunder is a critical regulator of dynein-dynactin localization during Drosophila spermatogenesis. AU - Anderson, Michael A.. AU - Jodoin, Jeanne N.. AU - Lee, Ethan. AU - Hales, Karen G.. AU - Hays, Thomas S.. AU - Lee, Laura A.. PY - 2009/6/1. Y1 - 2009/6/1. N2 - Spermatogenesis uses mitotic and meiotic cell cycles coordinated with growth and differentiation programs to generate functional sperm. Our analysis of a Drosophila mutant has revealed that asunder (asun), which encodes a conserved protein, is an essential regulator of spermatogenesis. asun spermatocytes arrest during prophase of meiosis I. Strikingly, arrested spermatocytes contain free centrosomes that fail to stably associate with the nucleus. Spermatocytes that overcome arrest exhibit severe defects in meiotic spindle assembly, chromosome segregation, and cytokinesis. Furthermore, the centriole-derived basal body is detached from the nucleus in asun postmeiotic spermatids, resulting in abnormalities later in ...
Mammalian spermatogenesis is certainly a complicated differentiation process that occurs in many stages in the seminiferous tubules of the testes. attained from entire testes to end up being separated with a water lean. The STA-PUT technique, exhibited right here, uses a linear BSA gradient and basic sedimentation to individual spermatogenic cells centered on size and mass6-9. The STA-PUT technique offers many advantages over the additional two most broadly utilized strategies to individual spermatogenic cell types: FACS and elutriation10-13. The STA-PUT equipment needs just many items of specific glassware put together in a chilly space or huge refrigerator. Therefore, it is usually much less costly than using a cell sorter or an elutriator. The STA-PUT technique produces higher quantities of cells per cell type and testis than can become categorized by FACS in a similar period framework, although the chastity of each cell 158013-43-5 supplier populace is usually not really as high as those ...
Much prior work has shown that C. elegans spermatogenesis requires the proper morphogenesis and function of its MO secretory vesicles. While many mutants that affect the ultrastructure and cellular position of MO secretory vesicles are known (reviewed by LHernault 2006, 2009), little is known about how the affected proteins alter cell physiology. In this article, we show that morphogenesis of MO secretory vesicles is associated with a physiological transition when this compartment becomes acidified. This acidification is apparently synchronous and occurs coincident with spermatid budding from the residual body, which is when each FB-MO matures into a MO secretory vesicle (Figure 1, D and E). This acidification requires the V-ATPase, which is composed of a V0 sector that forms a pore in the membrane and a V1 sector that hydrolyzes ATP to provide the electromotive force for proton transport through V0 (reviewed by, e.g., Toei et al. 2010). spe-5 mutants do not show this MO acidification. In ...
During spermatogenesis, preleptotene and leptotene spermatocytes, residing in the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium, must traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) to gain entry to the adluminal compartment for further development at late stage VIII and early stage IX of the epithelial cycle. As such, the timely opening and closing of the BTB is crucial to spermatogenesis. A compromise in this process can lead to infertility. Moreover, the BTB is unique in its relative localization in the seminiferous epithelium compared to the tight junctions (TJs) found in other epithelia. Sertoli cell TJs are situated near the basal lamina in the testis, closest to the basement membrane (a modified form of extracellular matrix [ECM]), unlike TJs found in other epithelia, which are found nearest the apical portion of an epithelium, farthest away from ECM. Needless to say, BTB function in the testis is maintained by intricate regulatory mechanisms. In addition to hormones and cytokines, nitric ...
5.2.1 Spermatogenesis (Animation) -At what point in life do spermatogonia begin to undergo meiosis? -How many spermatozoa result from a single primary spermatocyte? -What is spermiogenesis? -What are the structural components of a mature spermatozoon? -How long does it takes for a primary spermatocyte to become a mature spermatozoon? -What testicular hormone is required for maintenance of spermatogenesis? -How do chronically high levels of anabolic steroids such as testosterone suppress spermatogenesis ...
The title of my Ph.D. thesis was Bioinformatic Analysis of Gene Families in Mouse and Human Spermatogenesis. Initially we determined gene expression profiles during the development of spermatogenesis in newborn mice. I wrote a data integration system to incorporate data from differnt sources including Differential Display, DNA array, and in situ hybridization data. We were able to show that the first wave of spermatogenesis was constituted of three major clusters of expression originating from Sertoli cells, Pachytene germ cells, and spermatids - and that all genes expressed could be associated to one or more of these clusters. This made it possible to determine the germ cell composition of the growing testis from total RNA and work is still ongoing to utilize this to located disrupted germ cell populations that may be caused by hormone like agents such as phthalates, parabenes, and pesticides - leading to impaired testicular function ...
What is the difference between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis? Spermiogenesis consists of a differentiation process while spermatogenesis consists of ..
Mammalian spermatogenesis is regulated by coordinated gene expression in a spatiotemporal manner. The spatiotemporal regulation of major sperm proteins plays important roles during normal development of the male gamete, of which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. A-kinase anchoring protein 3 (AKAP3) is one of the major components of the fibrous sheath of the sperm tail that is formed during spermiogenesis. In the present study, we analyzed the expression of sperm-specific Akap3 and the potential regulatory factors of its protein synthesis during mouse spermiogenesis. Results showed that the transcription of Akap3 precedes its protein synthesis by about 2 wk. Nascent AKAP3 was found to form protein complex with PKA and RNA binding proteins (RBPs), including PIWIL1, PABPC1, and NONO, as revealed by coimmunoprecipitation and protein mass spectrometry. RNA electrophoretic gel mobility shift assay showed that these RBPs bind sperm-specific mRNAs, of which proteins are synthesized
de Rooij DG. (2017). The nature and dynamics of spermatogonial stem cells. Development , 144, 3022-3030. PMID: 28851723 DOI. Griswold MD. (2016). Spermatogenesis: The Commitment to Meiosis. Physiol. Rev. , 96, 1-17. PMID: 26537427 DOI. Talwar P & Hayatnagarkar S. (2015). Sperm function test. J Hum Reprod Sci , 8, 61-9. PMID: 26157295 DOI. Yoshida S. (2010). Stem cells in mammalian spermatogenesis. Dev. Growth Differ. , 52, 311-7. PMID: 20388168 DOI. Hogarth CA & Griswold MD. (2010). The key role of vitamin A in spermatogenesis. J. Clin. Invest. , 120, 956-62. PMID: 20364093 DOI. Ruwanpura SM, McLachlan RI & Meachem SJ. (2010). Hormonal regulation of male germ cell development. J. Endocrinol. , 205, 117-31. PMID: 20144980 DOI. Hermo L, Pelletier RM, Cyr DG & Smith CE. (2010). Surfing the wave, cycle, life history, and genes/proteins expressed by testicular germ cells. Part 1: background to spermatogenesis, spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. Microsc. Res. Tech. , 73, 241-78. PMID: 19941293 DOI. ...
Taking advantage of conditions that allow spermatogenesis in vitro, the timing and sequence of morphological changes leading from the primary spermatocyte to the spermatozoon is described by light and electron microscopy. Together with previous studies, this allows a detailed description of the nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane changes occurring during spermatozoan morphogenesis. By comparison with wild type, abnormalities in spermatogenesis leading to aberrant infertile spermatozoa are found in six fertilization-defective (fer) mutants. In fer-1 mutant males, spermatids appear normal, but during spermiogenesis membranous organelles (MO) fail to fuse with the sperm plasma membrane and a short, though motile. pseudopod is formed. In fer-2, fer-3, and fer-4 mutants, spermatids accumulate 48-nm tubules around their nuclei where the centriole and an RNA containing perinuclear halo would normally be. In all three mutants, spermatids still activate to spermatozoa with normal fusion of their MOs, but ...
SirT1 whole body KO mice have been shown to lack pituitary hormones for reproduction, and fertility in females can be rescued by administration of these hormones (Kolthur-Seetharam et al., 2009; McBurney et al., 2003). The present study demonstrates that SirT1 is necessary in male germ cells for normal spermatogenesis. Mice lacking SirT1 in male germ cells displayed decreased sperm counts, and many of their spermatozoa have aberrant morphology and increased DNA lesions. These defects explain why male germ cell SirT1 KO mice sire only ∼15% of the progeny number that are sired by control mice. Our findings indicate that SirT1 plays an additional essential role in male germ cells.. Cells in the mid-to-late stages of meiosis I contain the highest levels of SirT1, whereas it is present at moderate levels in differentiating spermatogonia and haploid round spermatids. Without SirT1, the appearance of pachytene cells in seminiferous tubules is delayed, demonstrating that SirT1 is required for ...
Spermatogenesis Definition - Spermatogenesis is the process of sperm development. Sperm, the male sex cells, are essential for reproduction, and any...
The spe-10 gene encodes a novel, predicted four-pass integral membrane protein that contains a highly conserved DHHC-CRD motif (Bohm et al. 1997; Putilina et al. 1999). If a potential glycosylation site following TM4 is utilized, then the N-terminal region, the DHHC-CRD zinc-finger, and the C-terminal region should all face the lumen of the MO (Figure 6A). This orientation would allow the N-linked glycans to face the exterior of the cell surface when the MOs fuse to the plasma membrane. Northern hybridizations comparing oogenesis-specific and spermatogenesis-specific transcripts indicate that the spe-10 mRNA is found only in worms that are actively engaged in spermatogenesis (Figure 4B). SPE-10 localizes within the lysosome-like FB-MOs and segregates to spermatids as they bud from the residual body during C. elegans spermatogenesis (Figure 8). These results suggest that a lack of wild-type SPE-10 in the FB-MOs of spe-10 mutants probably causes the previously described sperm ultrastructural ...
Methods of assessing spermatogenesis disorders are described. The biological basis of male infertility or sub fertility is not well understood, due to the lack of research on this topic and the primitive state of current diagnostic procedures. For most males afflicted with spermatogenesis disorders, there is no therapy or rehabilitative method. A careful and expert semen evaluation provides import
Generally, age-related testicular changes are associated with an increase of germ cell degeneration, decline of spermatogenesis and androgen decline resulting in a gradual decrease of sperm count. Unfortunately, an association of these findings to vascular atherosclerotic alterations has never been investigated systematically, although arterial lesions in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men have been described already 30 years ago.
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Recombinant Spermatogenesis Associated 24 (SPATA24) Protein (His tag). Species: Human. Source: Escherichia coli (E. coli). Order product ABIN3077430.
The similarity of the Cbx3hypo/hypospermatogenesis defect to Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutants [21, 22] prompted us to investigate whether there were any changes in the expression of retrotransposon expression in the mutant testes. For this, we used a polyclonal antibody to the L1-encoded ORF1 protein [23]. ORF1p is required for L1 transposition, and its levels of expression are increased in germ cells, as the L1 transposons become de-repressed [24, 25]. Using this antibody, we found that 45% of the tubules in Cbx3hypo/hypotestes that contained germ cells were positive by immunohistochemistry for ORF1 protein expression, compared with 5% in wild-type testes (see Additional file 6 and 7, Figure s6 and Figure s7). Again, this indicates that the Cbx3hypo/hypomutation may affect the same silencing pathway that is affected in the Dnmt3L and Miwi2 mutants [21, 22].. We next investigated whether the Cbx3 hypo mutation affects the expression of the other two HP1 isotypes, HP1α and HP1β. Accordingly, we stained ...
Meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis is characterized by transcriptional silencing of genes on both the X and Y chromosomes in mid...
Deficiencies in sperm function are usually the result of spermatogenic defects. Spermatogenesis is a biologically complex and essential process during which spermatogonia undergo meiotic recombination
Recent studies have shown that TDRDs are critical regulators of spermatogenesis in mice (Pan et al., 2005; Chuma et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2009; Vasileva et al., 2009). Based on their expression and the spermatogenic stages by which the phenotypes manifest in mutant animals, TDRDs can be classified into two groups: those that show expression from embryonic germ cells and are critical for progression of the meiotic prophase, and those that begin their expression in neonatal germ cells, show prominent expression from the pachytene stage onwards, and are essential for spermiogenesis. The first group includes TDRD1 and TDRD9 (Chuma et al., 2006; Shoji et al., 2009) and the second group includes TDRD4/RNF17 and TDRD6 (Pan et al., 2005; Vasileva et al., 2009). A key phenotype of the first group of mutants is the derepression of retrotransposons, especially the LINE-1 elements, and the consequent meiotic catastrophe (Chuma et al., 2006; Reuter et al., 2009; Shoji et al., 2009), whereas the second ...
Spermatogenesis, the sperm-generating process, is a complex process involving mitosis of spermatogonia, meiosis of spermatocytes and spermiogenesis of spermatids. The protein expression levels have been well studied by high-throughput proteomic studies, however, the PTMs including phosphorylation have been less explored. Using advanced mass spectrometry, we successfully identified 17,971 phosphorylation sites of 4131 phosphoproteins from adult mouse testes. Gene ontology annotation reveals that those phosphoproteins mainly function in spermatogenesis, mitosis, transcription, translational regulation and RNA splicing. Substrate and kinase annotation reveals important roles of PLK family kinases in the testicular phosphoproteome. Using small molecule inhibitor of PLKs, we found that PLKs play important functions in the spermatocyte cell line GC2. This mouse testicular phosphoproteome can be a rich resource for the study of mechanisms of spermatogenesis ...
Important stages of spermatogenesis relative to the transcription. Here, we commence with the differentiation of prespermatogonial gonocytes in spermatogonia. S
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stage-dependent enzymatic activities in spermatogenesis of mice with the standard karyotype and of chromosomal variants with impaired fertility. AU - Redi, C. A.. AU - Hilscher, B.. AU - Winking, H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 6139043. AN - SCOPUS:0021064209. VL - 15. SP - 322. EP - 330. JO - Andrologia. JF - Andrologia. SN - 0303-4569. IS - 4. ER - ...
SOHLH2 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 2), Authors: Flavia R Mangone, Ana Carolina Pavanelli, Maria A. Nagai. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Oogenesis vs Spermatogenesis Sex can be one of the most pleasurable things a couple can do. Some do it for fun while some do it for procreation. All of the
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Spermatogenesis:new: SpermatogenesisMethods and ProtocolsSeries: Methods in Molecular Biology, Vol. 927 Barnard, Lori; Aston, Kenneth I. (Eds.)2013
Spermatogenesis arrest information including symptoms, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, treatment, causes, patient stories, videos, forums, prevention, and prognosis.
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Sperm production. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sperm cells (spermatozoa) in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. This is the site of spermatogenesis (sperm production). Each sperm cell consists of a head (grey), which contains the genetic material that fertilises the female egg cell, and a tail (blue), which propels the sperm. The heads of the sperm are buried in Sertoli cells (pink), which nourish the developing sperm. - Stock Image C016/9765
Sperm production. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of sperm cells (spermatozoa) in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. This is the site of spermatogenesis (sperm production). Each sperm cell consists of a head (green orange), which contains the genetic material that fertilises the female egg cell, and a tail (blue), which propels the sperm. The heads of the sperm are buried in Sertoli cells (yellow and orange), which nourish the developing sperm. - Stock Image C003/0692
We have published three new studies related to hybridization and speciation. Our study on the disruption of gene expression during spermatogenesis in mice led by postdoc Erica Larson has been accepted in Molecular Biology and Evolution. We present the most detailed assessment of hybrid gene expression across mouse spermatogenesis to date. Aided by novel FACS cell-specific expression data, we find evidence for disruption of X chromosome regulation at multiple stages of spermatogenesis.. Our study on the disruption of gene expression during placental development in hamsters led by recent PhD graduate Tom Brekke has been published in Evolution. In this work we present evidence for extensive disruption of genomic imprinting associated with placental and embryonic overgrowth in hybrid dwarf hamsters. Finally, a collaborative study examining the dynamics of mitochondrial introgression in chipmunks has been published in Genome Biology and Evolution. This work was led by lab postdoc Brice Sarver as part ...
This study aimed to explore the regulatory mechanism of metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 during the differentiation process of chicken embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into spermatogonial stem...
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Dynamic analysis of testicular histology of Meig1-deficient mice during the first wave of spermatogenesis. Representative testicular sections stained with Hemat
Our research explores sperm development, structure and function. Our overarching aim is to improve our understanding of the processes of sperm formation and function using a variety of laboratory techniques and models.
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In a screen for RNA binding proteins expressed during murine spermatogenesis, we cloned a novel, ancient zinc finger protein possessing a region common to a small class of RNA binding proteins. Zfr (zinc ...
In a screen for RNA binding proteins expressed during murine spermatogenesis, we cloned a novel, ancient zinc finger protein possessing a region common to a small class of RNA binding proteins. Zfr (zinc ...
Grimaldi P, Orlando P, Di Siena S, Lolicato F, Petrosino S, Bisogno T, Geremia R, De Petrocellis L and Di Marzo V. The endocannabinoid system and pivotal role of CB2 receptor in mouse spermatogenesis. PNAS 2009; 106(27):11131- ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stem Cell Defects in ATM-Deficient Undifferentiated Spermatogonia through DNA Damage-Induced Cell-Cycle Arrest. AU - Takubo, Keiyo. AU - Ohmura, Masako. AU - Azuma, Masaki. AU - Nagamatsu, Go. AU - Yamada, Wakako. AU - Arai, Fumio. AU - Hirao, Atsushi. AU - Suda, Toshio. PY - 2008/2/7. Y1 - 2008/2/7. N2 - Mammalian spermatogenesis is maintained by stem cell capacity within undifferentiated spermatogonial subpopulation. Here, using a combination of surface markers, we describe a purification method for undifferentiated spermatogonia. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that this population is composed of Plzf-positive cells and exhibits quiescence and the side population phenotype, fulfilling general stem cell criteria. We then applied this method to analyze undifferentiated spermatogonia and stem cell activity of Atm-/- mice. Atm-/- testis shows progressive depletion of undifferentiated spermatogonia accompanied by cell-cycle arrest. In Atm-/- undifferentiated spermatogonia, a ...
Looking for online definition of TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis in the Medical Dictionary? TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis explanation free. What is TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis? Meaning of TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis medical term. What does TPR-containing protein involved in spermatogenesis mean?
Very recent publications in Gut and elsewhere1 2 suggest that gut microbiota affects fertility. The application of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to modify fertility is an emerging novel area of interest.3 FMT from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) leads to the disruption of ovarian function and a decrease in fertility which indicates that modification of gut microbiota may be a valuable approach in the management of PCOS.2 FMT of gut microbes, that developed under a high-fat diet, into mice on a normal diet leads to the disruption of spermatogenesis and a reduction of sperm motility,1 which highlights that restoring gut microbiota may be a means of improving disturbed male infertility caused by environmental factors.1 However, to date, there are no reports that address improvements of fertility following FMT. In a recent study,4 we found that busulfan damages spermatogenesis and sperm quality, and disturbs gut microbiota as found in many other studies.5 6 Alginate ...
A spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) is a subtype of undifferentiated spermatogonium. During foetal development gonocytes develop from primordial germ cells and following this SSCs develop from gonocytes in the testis. SSCs are the early precursor for spermatozoa and are responsible for the continuation of spermatogenesis in adult mammals. The stem cells are capable of dividing into more SSCs which is vital for maintaining the stem cell pool. Alternatively they go on to differentiate into spermatocytes, spermatids and finally spermatozoa. One SSC is the precursor for multiple spermatozoa and therefore SSCs are much less numerous in the testes than cells undergoing spermatogenesis. In Humans Undifferentiated spermatogonia can be split into 2 groups; A Dark (Ad) and A Pale (Ap) Ad spermatogonia are reserve stem cells. These cells are capable of dividing to produce more SSCs but usually do not. Ap spermatogonia are actively dividing to maintain the stem cell pool. B1-B4 spermatogonia encompass the ...
During spermiogenesis, the post-meiotic phase of mammalian spermatogenesis, transcription is progressively repressed as nuclei of haploid spermatids are compacted through a dramatic chromatin reorganization involving hyper-acetylation and replacement of most histones with protamines. Although BRDT functions in transcription and histone removal in spermatids, it is unknown whether other BET family proteins play a role. Immunofluorescence of spermatogenic cells revealed BRD4 in a ring around the nuclei of spermatids containing hyper-acetylated histones. The ring lies directly adjacent to the acroplaxome, the cytoskeletal base of the acrosome, previously linked to chromatin reorganization. The BRD4 ring does not form in acrosomal mutant mice. ChIP sequencing in spermatids revealed enrichment of BRD4 and acetylated histones at the promoters of active genes. BRD4 and BRDT show distinct and synergistic binding patterns, with a pronounced enrichment of BRD4 at spermatogenesis-specific genes. Direct association
Germ cell development involves formation of the spermatogenic or oogenic lineages from the bipotential primordial germ cells. Signaling mechanisms in the fetal testis and ovary determine whether germ cells enter the male or female developmental pathway, respectively. These signaling processes underpin an important phase of germ cell development, disruption of which can lead to failed germ cell function resulting in infertility or the formation of germ cell tumours. In this study we have developed a small molecule screening protocol combined with flow cytometry to identify signaling pathways that direct male-specific development of germ cells. Here we provide a detailed method for this screening protocol, which we have used to identify signaling pathways important for male germ cell development. This method will be of particular use in screening inhibitors of signaling pathways, endocrine disruptors or other chemicals for their ability to disrupt testis and germ cell development, thereby providing
Androgen signalling is essential both for male development and function of the male reproductive system in adulthood. Within the adult testis, Germ cells (GC) do not express androgen receptor (AR) suggesting androgen-mediated promotion of spermatogenesis must act via AR-expressing somatic cell-types. Several recent studies have exploited the Cre/lox system of conditional gene-targeting to ablate AR function from key somatic cell-types in order to establish the cell-specific role of AR in promotion of male fertility. In this study, we have used a similar approach to specifically ablate AR-signalling from Vascular Endothelial (VE) cells, with a view to defining the significance of androgen signalling within this cell-type on spermatogenesis. AR expression in VE cells of the testicular vasculature was confirmed using an antibody against AR. A Cre-inducible fluorescent reporter line was used to empirically establish the utility of a mouse line expressing Cre Recombinase driven by the Tie2-Promoter, for
Bisphenol A (BPA), which has previously been shown to have estrogenic activity, was examined for its effect on spermatogenesis in offspring of mice that had been exposed to BPA during gestation. BPA (0, 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant mice from the 10th to the 17th day of gestation, and testes of 60- and 120-day-old male offspring were removed and processed for histological analysis. The results demonstrate that prenatal exposure to BPA brings about histopathological changes in the seminiferous epithelium of testes in mouse offspring, such as loss of the luminal space of the seminiferous tubules, accumulation of amorphous material in the tubes, reduction in the number of maturating elongate spermatids, and an aberrant distribution of spermatogenic cells within the epithelium. Electron microscopy suggested that disturbed spermiogenesis is one of the reasons for the reduction in the number of elongate spermatids, and that degeneration of somatic Sertoli cells ...
Dive into the research topics of Effects of testosterone on spermatogenesis and luteinizing hormone release in Japanese quail. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Spermatogenesis comprises a complex succession of steps of mitosis, meiosis, and differentiation, starting with the commitment of diploid spermatogonial stem cells to differentiate and ending with the formation of haploid spermatozoa. Rodent models have been routinely used to study germ cell development and reproductive toxicology, since they present many similarities with their human counterpart while offering the advantage of recapitulating within a few weeks a process that normally takes years to occur. This article describes a method to isolate subpopulations of adult germ cells, more specifically pachytene spermatocytes, using two successive gradients, without using an elutriation centrifuge, a specialized device not available in many laboratories. Moreover, the method was designed to isolate enriched pachytene spermatocytes preparations devoid of contaminating syncitia, often formed in response to toxicants or environmental insults.
If this trend continues, humans in the future will not be able to have normal pregnancy and childbirth. | No kidding! Noisy streets can cause male infertility
The spermatogenic cycle of Tantilla coronata is post-nuptial. Spermatogenesis begins in May and reaches a peak in July and August. The sexual segment of the kidney has a cycle opposite that of the testis. Hypertrophy of the sexual segment occurs in the early spring (May) and summer july-September). Mating occurs during the period of sexual segment hypertrophy. The youngest males examined (approximately 1 2 months of age) begin spermatogenesis at the same time of year as adults, and the course of spermatogenesis appears similar to adults. It appears, however, that insufficient sperm are produced to permit successful mating following the first spermatogenic season. During the second spermatogenic season, enough sperm are produced to permit mating in the summer or following spring.
PDE8B, a cAMP-specific PDE, is highly expressed in testis.Genetic aberrations in cAMP-signaling predispose to endocrine tumors and fertility. Testes isolated from wild-type(WT) and Pde8b-/-(knock-out(KO)) mice at 6,9, and 12months(n=3-8/group).Pde8b-/- testis revealed regressive changes in seminiferous tubules(ST),containing increased atrophied tubules, 12 months (WT:0±0.001%vs.KO:11±0.012%),ST diameter significantly decreased(WT: 209.3±6.65um vs. KO: 169.6±4.22um). Atrophied tubules resembled Sertoli-cell only(SCO) syndrome. Sox9-immunostaining: significantly higher numbers of Sertoli cells(SC) in Pde8b-/-testes(KO:27.68±0.15vs.WT:19.20±0.05_Sox9+cells/tubule);SC in Pde8b-/- testes are maintained in immature state.Since spermatogonial differentiation/accumulation of spermatogonia in ST has been shown to induce germ cell death, hypothesized that germ-cell loss resulted from increased apoptosis due to accumulation of spermatogonia undergoing defective spermatogenesis.TUNEL to assess cell ...
Supplement In the early stages of spermatogenesis, the undifferentiated male germ cells (spermatogonia) divide mitotically and give rise to new spermatogonia. Some of the spermatogonia carry on the next stages to become spermatocytes, which in turn differentiate into mature sperm cells. In humans, the spermatogonia are found in the basal compartment of seminiferous tubules of the male reproductive system. ...
THE EFFECT OF TESLAC IN THE TREATMENT OF IDIOPATHIC OLIGOSPERMIA Robert A. Vigersky, M.D. While a review of the treatment of idiopathic oligospermia is beyond the scope of this part of the syllabus, it is obvious from perusal of the recent literature that there is no reliable therapeutic modality available to the clinician to treat patients with this disorder. Most of the recent literature has focused on treatment approaches that raise the level of LH and FSH. While it is well known that the gonadotropins are important for spermatogenesis, other hormonal factors are also crucial. The ability of estrogens to modulate spermatogenesis has not been fully investigated in either animals or man. Several pieces of evidence suggest that estradiol (E~) may play a regulatory role in spermatogenesis. E~ inhibits spermatogenesis directly in the rat (1). It indirectly inhibits spermatogenesis by preventing the Leydig cell from maximally producing testosterone in response to a given amount of LH (2). ...
Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are at the foundation of mammalian spermatogenesis, maintaining sperm production throughout adult life. The molecular mechanism...
To date, IP6K1 is the only inositol polyphosphate metabolic enzyme shown to participate in mammalian gametogenesis. Another Ip6k1 mutant mouse strain generated by gene trapping technology introduced a retroviral insertion between exons 2 and 3 (coding exons 1 and 2), resulting in the loss of Ip6k1 transcript ( Preliminary histological analysis of these male mice revealed bilateral epididymal azoospermia and testicular degeneration, suggesting that they would display male sterility, similar to what we observe upon deletion of the terminal exon 6. Deletion of the other IP6K isoforms, IP6K2 and IP6K3, has no effect on spermatogenesis (Morrison et al., 2009; Fu et al., 2015; Moritoh et al., 2016), indicating that the different IP6K isoforms have non-overlapping functions in mammalian reproductive physiology. Treatment of mice with the pan-IP6K inhibitor TNP was shown to have no effect on male fertility, which was attributed to the inability of this ...
Intriguingly, effects of irradiation on the morphology of Sertoli cells were found in eight monkeys. Possibly, irradiation at the time these cells were not yet terminally differentiated and still proliferating, and/or the abnormal hormone levels induced by the disappearance of most of the germ cells, altered some of the Sertoli cells. The appearance of these aberrant cells was hyperplastic-like, but no evidence for tumor formation was seen.. In rodent studies, no effects of irradiation on tubular width and Sertoli cell morphology have been reported. Unlike in the LBNF1 rat, no arrest of spermatogenesis was seen in the monkey, because the repopulated tubules generally showed full spermatogenesis. However, the present study was carried out at a very long time after irradiation, and a transient disturbance in spermatogenesis at an earlier interval after irradiation may have taken place.. The nonaffected concentrations of testosterone indicate that Leydig cell function in the monkeys was not ...
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ER-resident proteins destined for degradation are dislocated into the cytosol by components of the ER quality control machinery for proteasomal degradation. Dislocation substrates are ubiquitylated in the cytosol by E2 ubiquitin-conjugating/E3 ligase complexes. UBE2J1 is one of the well-characterized E2 enzymes that participate in this process. However, the physiological function of Ube2j1 is poorly defined. We find that Ube2j1−/− mice have reduced viability and fail to thrive early after birth. Male Ube2j1−/− mice are sterile due to a defect in late spermatogenesis. Ultrastructural analysis shows that removal of the cytoplasm is incomplete in Ube2j1−/− elongating spermatids, compromising the release of mature elongate spermatids into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule. Our findings identify an essential function for the ubiquitin-proteasome-system in spermiogenesis and define a novel, non-redundant physiological function for the dislocation step of ER quality control ...
The formation of the sex vesicle, or XY body, during male meiosis and pairing of the sex chromosomes are thought to be essential for successful spermatogenesis. Despite its cytological discovery a century ago, the mechanism of XY body formation, particularly heterochromatinization of the sex chromos …
Presentation Authors: Russell Hayden*, Anna Mielnik, Peter Schlegel, Darius Paduch, New York, NY. Introduction: Chromatin-modifying complexes (CPCs) play a critical role in epigenetic gene regulation and are thought to implement global genetic programs. Several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been found to interact with CPCs to help guide these complexes to appropriate gene targets, the most notable examples being Xist and HOTAIR. In this study, we attempted to identify CPC associated lncRNAs that were differentially expressed among men with Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCO) and men with normal spermatogenesis.. Methods: Testis biopsies were obtained during testicular sperm extraction for infertility. RNA-seq was performed on testis biopsies from 11 men with SCO and 10 with normal spermatogenesis using the Illumina HiSeq2000 platform. Reads were mapped using the STAR Aligner v2.5 against human genome hg38. Raw counts were normalized with Limma v3.6. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were then ...
Histone phosphorylation is sometimes associated with mitosis and meiosis. We have recently identified a phosphorylation of the 127th threonine on TH2A (pTH2A), a germ cell-specific H2A variant, in condensed spermatids and mitotic early preimplantation embryos of mice. Here, we further report the existence of pTH2A at the centromeres in metaphase I spermatocytes and oocytes. Moreover, we identified Haspin, a known kinase for the 3rd threonine on H3, is responsible for pTH2A in vivo. In contrast to the severe meiotic defect in oocytes treated with a Haspin inhibitor, pTH2A-deficient mice, in which the 127th threonine was replaced by alanine, maintained the fertility and exhibited no obvious defect in both oocytes and spermatogenesis ...
has been found in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a reduction in being pregnant guidelines. Testicular histology of treated rats demonstrated structural changes such as for example hypoplasia of germ cells, decrease in the width of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (past due maturation arrest) and decrease in the amount of Leydig cells. Gene manifestation degrees of two SSCs markers (GFR1 and CSF1) in charge of self-renewal had been relatively counter-balanced. To conclude, whole vegetable and leaves aqueous components transformed the gene manifestation of two SSCs markers resulting in the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation leading to past due maturation arrest. (L.) Weber former mate F.H. Wigg. (Compositae) have already been traditionally found in Jordan folk medication to take care of infertility. However, a recently available study has ...
A subset of olfactory receptors (ORs) is expressed in mammalian male germ cells. Recent studies on human and mouse sperm have suggested that calcium signaling via a testicular OR regulates sperm flagellar motility. However, it remains to be determined at what stages testicular ORs are expressed duri
Basigin (BSG) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that plays an important role in both female and male reproduction since female knockout (KO) mice are infertile and male KO mice are sterile. The aim of the present study was to determine 1) whether BSG is required for proliferation of the uterine luminal epithelium during early pregnancy in preparation for implantation; 2) whether BSG is required for HESCs decidualization; and 3) whether BSG is essential for the interactions between gametes and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis. BSG protein was expressed in the uterine epithelium at estrus in βERKO mice but not in αERKO mice. However, a higher level of Bsg mRNA was observed in the uteri of αERKO mice as compared with wild type (WT) and βERKO mice. In the mouse, estrogen alone induces the proliferation of both luminal and glandular epithelial cells during early pregnancy. On day 1 of pregnancy, the expression levels of ERα and a well-known estrogen responsive gene, MUC1, appeared to be ...
Sertoli cell is associated with developing germ cells in seminiferous tubule of the testis.. These cells protect the developing sperm besides maintaining, nourishing, and regulating the process of spermatogenesis (process by which male gametes form).. Process of Spermatogenesis : diploid spermatogonium (undifferentiated male germ cell) , spermatocyte , spermatid (immature male sex cell) , mature sperm ...
Koo, G C.; Mittl, L R.; and Goldberg, C L., Expression of h-y antigen during spermatogenesis. (1979). Subject Strain Bibliography 1979. 717 ...
Shepherd A.M.; Clark S.A., 1983: Spermatogenesis and sperm structure in some meloidogyne spp heteroderoidea meloidogynidae and a comparison with those in some cyst nematodes heteroderoidea heteroderidae
The cycle of spermatogenesis/seminiferous cycle was investigated in the goat testis using both light and electron microscopy techniques. Using the various cell associations and the accompanying changes in spermatid shape and location, the cycle was divided into eight (8) successive stages. The cycle began with the accomplishment of spermiation (stage 1) and ended with apical migration and close attachment of late maturation phase spermatids at the Sertoli cell apex accompanied by adluminal retention of residual bodies with dense staining inclusions (stage 8). The early stages of the cycle (stages 1-4) were therefore characterized by the presence of only one generation of spermatids, the second one appearing only after the division of secondary spermatocytes in stage 4. Consequently, stages 5-8 had two generations of spermatids; Golgi or cap phase as well as maturation phase spermatids. Although stages 5 to 7 appeared as distinct entities, stages 6 and 7 were rather short-lived and considered as ...
May play a role in spermatogenesis. Spermatogenesis is a complex process regulated by extracellular and intracellular factors as well as cellular interactions among interstitial cells of the testis, Sertoli cells, and germ cells. This gene is expressed in the testis in Sertoli cells but not germ cells. The protein encoded by this gene contains plant homeodomain (PHD) finger domains, also known as leukemia associated protein (LAP) domains, believed to be involved in transcriptional regulation. The protein, which localizes to the nucleus of transfected cells, has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of spermatogenesis. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants of this gene. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013]
The TATA box-binding protein (TBP) is a conserved transcription factor that binds to the core promoter, and TBP-associated factors, or TAFs, represent one of several classes of coactivators that participate in transcription activation. The presence of varied TAFs allows for plasticity in function for transcribing specific genes. For example, several testis-specific TAFs function in regulating gene expression in Drosophila spermatogenesis. Chen et al. now find that in the male germ line, tissue-specific TAFs regulate gene expression by counteracting the repressive effect of Polycomb protein complexes to allow terminal differentiation. The testis TAFs sequester Polycomb-containing complexes to the nucleolus, which suggests that subnuclear localization functions in regulating transcription.. X. Chen, M. Hiller, Y. Sancak, M. T. Fuller, Tissue-specific TAFs counteract polycomb to turn on terminal differentiation. Science 310, 869-872 (2005). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Men, listen up! If you are suffering from impotence, low sperm count, or infertility, and think you have tried everything, you should pay attention. Your b
INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disorder characterized by hyperglycemia and Carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism disorder (Williams & Pickup, 2004). According to the census of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2008, nearly 246 million people suffer from diabetes. It is estimated that this figure reach 380 million by 2050. About 90% of the diabetic patients have sexual dysfunctions in the form of reduction in sexual derive and fertility (Pereira et al., 2007).. Testis function is, at first, controlled by hypophysis hormones. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) regulates spermatogenesis whereas; luteinizing hormone (LH) controls the performance of interstitial cells (Ward et al., 1991). FSH is a crucial factor in the development of testis, performance of sustentacular cells, and protection of normal spermatogenesis. Also, the hypophysis of diabetic rats is affected by the reduction in response along with reduction in FSH and LH levels (Seethalakshmi et al., 1987). These ...
Background. Members of the Runx gene family encode transcription factors that bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner. Among the three Runx proteins, Runx2 comprises 607 amino acid (aa) residues, is expressed in bone, and plays crucial roles in osteoblast differentiation and bone development. We examined whether the Runx2 gene is also expressed in testes. Methods. Murine testes from 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 10-week-old male mice of the C57BL/6J strain and W∕Wv strain were used throughout the study. Northern Blot Analyses were performed using extracts form the murine testes. Sequencing of cDNA clones and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA ends were performed to determine the full length of the transcripts, which revealed that the testicular Runx2 comprises 106 aa residues coding novel protein. Generating an antiserum using the amino-terminal 15 aa of Runx2 (Met1 to Gly15) as an antigen, immunoblot analyses were performed to detect the predicted polypeptide of 106 aa residues with the initiating Met1. With
This study was aimed to evaluate the effect on spermatogenesis of a 62kDa protein (Rp) isolated from 50% ethanolic extract of the root of Ricinus communis in mice. A dose response study in mice revealed that 25mg/kg body weight/day was the most effective dose. Swiss strain mature male mice of 30 days old were divided into two group namely control and Rp treated (25mg/kg body weight/day). The study ...
Lonidamine (LND) [1-(2,4-dichlorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxylic acid], a well-known antispermatogenic drug, was studied for the first time in pubertal mice to assess its possible effects on spermatogenesis. Male CD1 mice were orally treated on Postnatal Day (PND) 28 with a single dose of LND (100 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed on PND30, PND42 ...
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An understanding of testicular anatomy, development, and seasonality has implications for studies of morphology, behavior, physiology, and bioenergetics of males. Ontogenetic testicular development an
NSL3 could also have important endocrine or paracrine roles in other tissues. Although defective spermatogenesis found in INSL3 or LGR8 null mice could be the secondary effects of cryptorchidism, Leydig cell-derived INSL3 could play a paracrine role in the testis because LGR8 is also expressed in the testis. In females, INSL3 is expressed in the luteal cells of the ovary through the estrous cycle and during pregnancy [1] ...
Deleted in azoospermia-like is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAZL gene. The DAZ (Deleted in AZoospermia) gene family encodes potential RNA binding proteins that are expressed in prenatal and postnatal germ cells of males and females. The protein encoded by this gene is localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm of fetal germ cells and to the cytoplasm of developing oocytes. In the testis, this protein is localized to the nucleus of spermatogonia but relocates to the cytoplasm during meiosis where it persists in spermatids and spermatozoa. Transposition and amplification of this autosomal gene during primate evolution gave rise to the DAZ gene cluster on the Y chromosome. Mutations in this gene have been linked to severe spermatogenic failure and infertility in males. DAZL has been shown to interact with DAZ1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000092345 - Ensembl, May 2017 Human PubMed Reference:. Saxena R, Brown LG, Hawkins T, Alagappan RK, Skaletsky H, Reeve MP, Reijo R, Rozen S, ...
Efforts are underway to try and increase identification of Klinefelter males as soon as possible to allow intervention at an earlier stage, although it is unknown if that will necessarily change the course of the disorder. While this may certainly turn out to be important for the learning difficulties that are part of the Klinefelter phenotype, it is unclear at this time whether early therapeutic involvement in terms of androgen replacement or fertility is helpful or hurtful to the individual. This contribution will briefly summarize what is understood about testicular function and anatomy as regards both the androgenic and spermatogenic compartments.. ...
Surrogate Fathers New Scientist 31 Jan 98. ONE of the worlds leading reproductive biologists has applied for funding to transplant cells from human testes into those of mice. The aim is to create mice that produce human sperm. The first time you say to anyone that we want to produce human sperm in mice, they look at you with frank horror, says Roger Short of the Royal Womens Hospital in Melbourne. But once people overcome their initial gut reaction, he claims, many accept the proposal. Developments in IVF now mean that many women with fertility problems can conceive. But men who produce little or no sperm have scant hope of becoming fathers. In many cases, says Short, the cause may be a mutation in one of the genes on the Y chromosome that control spermatogenesis-the producfion of sperm from germ cells, which are known as spermatogonial stem cells. Being able to study human spermatogenesis in a laboratory animal may help researchers to work out why the process fails in many infertile men. ...
A research team led by Professor and Janeway Distinguished Chair Robert Braun, Ph.D., and Associate Research Scientist Manju Sharma, Ph.D., found a rare subpopulation of spermatogonial cells expressing a specific protein, EOMES, that appear to represent the elusive long-lived spermatogonial stem cells that support continued spermatogenesis.
Spermatogenesis[edit]. During puberty, androgen, LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) production increase and the sex ... androgens mediate the development of masculine secondary sexual characteristics as well as the activation of spermatogenesis ...
DNA damage during spermatogenesis[edit]. During the mitotic and meiotic cell divisions of mammalian gametogenesis, DNA repair ... is effective at removing DNA damages.[16] However, in spermatogenesis the ability to repair DNA damages decreases substantially ...
Gilbert SF (2000). "Spermatogenesis". Developmental Biology (6th ed.). Gilbert SF (2000). "Oogenesis". Developmental Biology ( ...
Kaur G, Dufour JM (January 2012). "Cell lines: Valuable tools or useless artifacts". Spermatogenesis. 2 (1): 1-5. doi:10.4161/ ...
... complex proteins during spermatogenesis". Spermatogenesis. 5 (1): e979061. doi:10.4161/21565562.2014.979061. PMC 4581071. PMID ...
... is the final stage of spermatogenesis, which sees the maturation of spermatids into mature spermatozoa. The ... Spermatogenesis. 1 (1): 14-35. doi:10.4161/spmg.1.1.14525. PMC 3158646. PMID 21866274. Fraser, L. R. (September 1998). " ...
In spermatogenesis, the fusome partitioning is symmetric and the fusome is still present during the meiotic divisions. 1.2 ... Fuller, M.T. (1993). Spermatogenesis. In The Development of Drosophila, M. Bate and A. Martinez-Arias, eds. (Cold Spring Harbor ...
Spermatogenesis. Methods in Molecular Biology. 927. pp. 77-87. doi:10.1007/978-1-62703-038-0_8. ISBN 978-1-62703-037-3. PMID ...
... complex proteins during spermatogenesis". Spermatogenesis. 5 (1): e979061. doi:10.4161/21565562.2014.979061. PMC 4581071. PMID ... Humans with a FANCD deficiency display hypogonadism, male infertility, impaired spermatogenesis, and reduced female fertility. ...
"Comparative testicular structure and spermatogenesis in bony fishes". Spermatogenesis. e983400 (3): e983400. doi:10.4161/ ...
... whereas in other stages of spermatogenesis the reciprocal exchange type of HRR is more frequent. During mouse spermatogenesis, ... "Spermatogenesis". Retrieved 22 March 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Riddle, DL; Blumenthal, T; Meyer, B.J ... The spermatogenesis process has been elucidated throughout the years by researchers who divided the process into multiple ... The spermatogenesis process in mammals as a whole, involving cellular transformation, mitosis, and meiosis, has been well ...
Therefore, once spermatogenesis has begun, no more Sertoli cells are created. Recently however, some scientists have found a ... Because its main function is to nourish the developing sperm cells through the stages of spermatogenesis, the Sertoli cell has ... Anamnionts (fish and amphibians) are employing cystic spermatogenesis in order to produce sperm cells. In case of amniota ... Walter CA, Intano GW, McCarrey JR, McMahan CA, Walter RB (August 1998). "Mutation frequency declines during spermatogenesis in ...
Vangompel MJ, Xu EY (Jan 2011). "The roles of the DAZ family in spermatogenesis: More than just translation?". Spermatogenesis ... "Mutations in the human BOULE gene are not a major cause of impaired spermatogenesis". Fertility and Sterility. 83 (2): 513-5. ...
DAZ is not absolutely required for spermatogenesis as some DAZ deleted men are still able to father children. DAZ pushes ESCs ... BOULE and DAZL are important for both oogenesis and spermatogenesis. BOULE and DAZL are both located on autosomes as single ... One DAZ homologue is expressed in nearly every stage of spermatogenesis, from Primordial Germ Cells (PGCs) to mature ... Vangompel MJ, Xu EY (January 2011). "The roles of the DAZ family in spermatogenesis: More than just translation?". ...
Each type Ad spermatogonium divides to produce another type Ad spermatogonium, which can further carry on spermatogenesis, and ... instead serving to maintain the supply of stem cells for spermatogenesis. ...
They found that Taf7l has dual functionality during spermatogenesis. In early stage spermatocytes, for example in primary ... TAF7l localizes in a different compartment relative to TBP during early spermatogenesis, implying a TBP-independent function ... Proteomics of Spermatogenesis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 327. ISBN 9780387276557. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ...
It may detect signs of testicular dysgenesis, which is often related to an impaired spermatogenesis and to a higher risk of ... These deletions affect protein production that is vital for spermatogenesis. Studies have shown that this is an inherited trait ... Carreau S, Bouraima-Lelong H, Delalande C (2012). "Role of estrogens in spermatogenesis". Front Biosci. 4: 1-11. doi:10.2741/ ... A 1 degree increase in temperature will reduce 14% of spermatogenesis. Researchers in Calcutta conducted a study between 1981 ...
Fice, Heather E.; Robaire, Bernard (2019-07-12). "Telomere Dynamics Throughout Spermatogenesis". Genes. 10 (7). doi:10.3390/ ...
27 (93): 147-9. Painter T.S. (1922). "The spermatogenesis of man". Anat. Res. 23: 129. Painter T.S. (1923). "Studies in ... mammalian spermatogenesis II". J. Exp. Zoology. 37 (3): 291-336. doi:10.1002/jez.1400370303. Wright, Pearce (11 December 2001 ...
The Spermatogenesis of Batrachoseps. Polymorphous spermatogonia, auxocytes, and spermatocytes. Journal of Morphology. DOI: ...
C.Y. Cheng (24 October 2009). Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 259-. ISBN 978-0- ...
Washington NL, Ward S (June 2006). "FER-1 regulates Ca2+ -mediated membrane fusion during C. elegans spermatogenesis". Journal ... Riddle DL, Blumenthal T, Meyer BJ, Priess JR (1997). Organelle Morphogenesis During Spermatogenesis. Cold Spring Harbor ... factor involved in fusion of vesicles called membraneous organelles with the sperm plasma membrane during spermatogenesis in C ...
Spermatogenesis continues after birth. In the third to fifth months of life, some of the fetal spermatogonia residing along the ... Spermatogenesis arrests at this stage until puberty. Most normal-appearing undescended testes are also normal by microscopic ... The inhibition of spermatogenesis by ordinary intra-abdominal temperature is so potent that continual suspension of normal ... At least one contributing mechanism for reduced spermatogenesis in cryptorchid testes is temperature. The temperature of testes ...
Spermatogenesis is enhanced at temperatures slightly less than core body temperature. The spermatogenesis is less efficient at ... In all cases, the loss in testes volume corresponds with a loss of spermatogenesis. Testicles of a male calf or other livestock ... The testes grow in response to the start of spermatogenesis. Size depends on lytic function, sperm production (amount of ... Both excess and deficient levels of estrogens can disrupt spermatogenesis and cause infertility. Bell-clapper deformity is a ...
Frank French (6 December 2012). Hormonal Regulation of Spermatogenesis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 159-. ISBN 978-1 ...
Spermatogenesis is also androgen-dependent and is inhibited by CPA, meaning that patients treated with high doses of CPA are ... Cyproterone acetate] inhibits spermatogenesis and produces reversible infertility (but is not a male contraceptive). Neumann F ... However, while bicalutamide does not seem to be able to adversely influence testicular spermatogenesis, it may interfere with ... ISBN 978-3-642-72185-4. Cheng C (24 October 2009). Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis. Springer Science & Business Media. ...
Testicular testosterone production is essential for spermatogenesis and fertility in men. Suppression of spermatogenesis and ... This results in suppression of spermatogenesis and is responsible for its hormonal contraceptive effects in men. The medication ... Molecular Mechanisms in Spermatogenesis. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 258-. ISBN 978-0-387-09597-4. Corona G, ...
... contributes to spermatogenesis. In women, folate is important for oocyte quality and maturation, implantation, ...
Chemotherapy may suppress spermatogenesis. Pretesticular azoospermia is seen in about 2% of azoospermia. Pretesticular ... "Inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone as markers of persistent spermatogenesis in men with non-obstructive azoospermia: a meta- ... "Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility". Sci Rep. 6: 21776. doi:10.1038/srep21776. PMC ... includes absence of failure production as well as low production and maturation arrest during the process of spermatogenesis. ...
Painter, Theophilus S. (April 1923). "Studies in mammalian spermatogenesis. II. The spermatogenesis of man". Journal of ... 27 (93): 147-9. Painter TS (1922). "The spermatogenesis of man". Anat. Res. 23: 129. ...
Seiji Kawa, Chizuru Ito, Yoshiro Toyama, Mamiko Maekawa, Tohru Tezuka, Takahisa Nakamura, Takanobu Nakazawa, Kazumasa Yokoyama, Nobuaki Yoshida, Kiyotaka Toshimori, and Tadashi Yamamoto ...
Spermatogenesis is a biologically complex and essential process during which spermatogonia undergo meiotic recombination ... Spermiogenesis and Spermatogenesis: Methods and Protocols details protocols used in the study of spermatogenesis, clinical ... Defects in any step of spermatogenesis or spermatogenesis can lead to male infertility, a disease that affects approximately 5- ... Authoritative and easily accessible, Spermiogenesis and Spermatogenesis: Methods and Protocols is unique in its breadth, and ...
Exposure to pesticides also affects spermatogenesis. Hormonal control of spermatogenesis varies among species. In humans the ... Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. ... Thus, spermatogenesis is the male version of gametogenesis, of which the female equivalent is oogenesis. In mammals it occurs ... Spermatogenesis is highly dependent upon optimal conditions for the process to occur correctly, and is essential for sexual ...
Spermatogenesis arrest is known as the interruption of germinal cells of specific cellular type, which elicits an altered ... It is known that spermatogenesis is under the control of androgens, but germ cells (that will become gametes), do not express a ... Spermatogenesis is controlled by androgens, namely testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these are the most ... This hormone is the main androgenic steroid in the process of spermatogenesis and is regulated by a hormone known as ...
Spermatogenesis definition is - the process of male gamete formation including formation of a spermatocyte from a ... Comments on spermatogenesis. What made you want to look up spermatogenesis? Please tell us where you read or heard it ( ... Post the Definition of spermatogenesis to Facebook Share the Definition of spermatogenesis on Twitter ... Examples of spermatogenesis in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web Vibliome will develop a drug that will impair ...
During spermatogenesis, the population of stem cells (diploid spermatogonia) divides and differentiates into tetraploid ... during spermatogenesis in mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 11, 7947-7959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... MEZQUITA, C. and COROMINAS, M. (1983). ADP-ribosyl transferase activity during rooster spermatogenesis. J. Cell Biol. 97, 138a. ... VAUGHN, J.C. and THOMSON, L.A. (1972). A kinetic study of DNA and basic protein metabolism during spermatogenesis in the sand ...
Testicular volumes and sizes were associated with spermatogenesis abnormality severity (. and , right testicle and left ... Spermatogenesis abnormality severity was not associated with the total therapy duration (. ) or patient age at the time of ... Spermatogenesis Abnormalities following Hormonal Therapy in Transwomen. Sirachai Jindarak,1 Kasama Nilprapha,1 Taywin Atikankul ... To measure spermatogenesis abnormalities in transwomen at the time of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and to analyze the ...
S. W. Rasmussen, "Ultrastructural studies of spermatogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster Meigen," Cell and Tissue Research, vol ... D. M. de Kretser, K. L. Loveland, A. Meinhardt, D. Simorangkir, and N. Wreford, "Spermatogenesis," Human Reproduction, vol. 13 ... C. H. Lee, I. Bartels, and W. Engel, "Haploid expression of a protamine gene during bovine spermatogenesis," Biological ... Allelic Expression of Drosophila Protamines during Spermatogenesis. Rachelle L. Kanippayoor and Amanda J. Moehring ...
These cells are now thought to be the stem cells useful to support spermatogenesis. Several researches suggest that adult dark ... Early surgical intervention in infancy may allow the normal development of stem cells for spermatogenesis.Moreover it is very ... Early surgical intervention in infancy may allow the normal development of stem cells for spermatogenesis.Moreover it is very ... these transformations are inhibited leading to a deficient pool of stem cells for post pubertal spermatogenesis. ...
Approach to male infertility and induction of spermatogenesis.. Anawalt BD1.. Author information. 1. University of Washington ... Although the most common cause of male subfertility is idiopathic failure of spermatogenesis, a significant percentage of male ... The endocrinologist must recognize when to use medical therapy to stimulate spermatogenesis and when to refer for consideration ...
Regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis.. Eddy EM1.. Author information. 1. Gamete Biology Section, Laboratory of ... Spermatogenesis occurs in successive mitotic, meiotic and post-meiotic phases and genes expressed during this process encode ...
Thus, key elements in regulation of spermatogenesis in mammals occur through posttranscriptional as well as transcriptional ... An RNA-binding protein is required for spermatogenesis and enhances translation of specific mRNAs. ... An RNA-binding protein is required for spermatogenesis and enhances translation of specific mRNAs. ... in spermatogenesis that appears to reflect its regulation of a set of particular mRNAs. Sam68 is a member of a family of RNA ...
Spermatogenesis in adult mammals is highly organized, with the goal being continual sperm production. Vertebrate testes are ... and testosterone play in regulating spermatogenesis and describe our current understanding of how vitamin A regulates germ cell ...
25.1: Spermatogenesis Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid sperm cells are produced in the male testes. It starts ... Spermatogenesis and Capacitation. At the end of spermatogenesis, sperm demonstrate their characteristic shape: a "head" ... As spermatogenesis proceeds, spermatocytes embark on meiosis, and each ultimately divides to form four sperm-each with only 23 ... Factors that Affect Spermatogenesis. Several factors can affect sperm production. One well-documented influence is exposure to ...
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Restoration of Spermatogenesis in Infertile Mice by Sertoli Cell Transplantation. Takashi Shinohara, Kyle E. Orwig, Mary R. ... Takashi Shinohara, Kyle E. Orwig, Mary R. Avarbock, and Ralph L. Brinster "Restoration of Spermatogenesis in Infertile Mice by ... In addition, the technique provides a novel tool with which to analyze spermatogenesis and might provide a mechanism for ... Takashi Shinohara, Kyle E. Orwig, Mary R. Avarbock, Ralph L. Brinster "Restoration of Spermatogenesis in Infertile Mice by ...
... prenuptial spermatogenesis) or following mating (postnuptial spermatogenesis). In postnuptial spermatogenesis, sperm are ... Most notably, prenuptial spermatogenesis is the ancestral condition for Squamata with continuous spermatogenesis evolving ... Seasonal Timing of Spermatogenesis and Mating in Squamates: A Reinterpretation. Robert D. Aldridge, Dustin S. Siegel, Stephen R ... Robert D. Aldridge, Dustin S. Siegel, Stephen R. Goldberg, and R. Alexander Pyron "Seasonal Timing of Spermatogenesis and ...
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The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Compare spermatogenesis associated 2 like Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, ... Your search returned 11 spermatogenesis associated 2 like Biomolecules across 5 suppliers. ...
... are closely linked in enabling the testis to fulfill its dual functions of spermatogenesis and testosterone production. The ...
Spermatogenesis following male germ-cell transplantation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 91, 11298-11302 (1994).. ... Donor-derived spermatogenesis following allogeneic SSCT in germline-ablated NANOS2 knockout bucks. (A) Image of five NANOS2 KO ... Donor-derived spermatogenesis following stem cell transplantation in sterile NANOS2 knockout males. Michela Ciccarelli, Mariana ... Donor-Derived Spermatogenesis Following Allogeneic SSCT in NANOS2 Knockout Boars.. Translation of the SSCT concept from mice to ...
Secretory vesicles become acidified during C. elegans spermatogenesis. During C. elegans spermatogenesis, the unusual secretory ... A null mutation in spe-5 severely affects spermatogenesis, but it is not lethal, so we could examine the role of the V-ATPase ... 2010 Spermatogenesis-defective (spe) mutants of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans provide clues to solve the puzzle of male ... Certain spermatogenesis-defective (spe or fer) mutants change the position and/or function of sperm secretory vesicles, and ...
One was a hypophysectomized man with persistent spermatogenesis (11) and the other a man with normal spermatogenesis in the ... C show normal spermatogenesis and testis and SV sizes. In D, spermatogenesis is shown as arrested at the RS stage, with small ... F) Identical treatment of Fshr-CAM/Lhr-/- mice (n = 5/group) had no apparent effect on spermatogenesis and testis size, but ... LH/T deficiency with persistent spermatogenesis) and explain how the hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis has shifted from ...
Genetic Dissection of Hybrid Male Sterility Across Stages of Spermatogenesis. Denise J. Schwahn, View ORCID ProfileRichard J. ... Genetic Dissection of Hybrid Male Sterility Across Stages of Spermatogenesis. Denise J. Schwahn, View ORCID ProfileRichard J. ... Genetic Dissection of Hybrid Male Sterility Across Stages of Spermatogenesis. Denise J. Schwahn, View ORCID ProfileRichard J. ... Genetic Dissection of Hybrid Male Sterility Across Stages of Spermatogenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ...
Spermatogenesis - Fertilization - Contraception. Book Subtitle. Molecular, Cellular and Endocrine Events in Male Reproduction. ... Spermatogenesis - Fertilization - Contraception. Molecular, Cellular and Endocrine Events in Male Reproduction. Editors: ... Cell Surface Actions of Steroids: A Complementary Mechanism for Regulation of Spermatogenesis? ...
... human spermatogenesis in vitro. At the end of 2014 the company was able to produce fully formed human spermatozoa in the ... "Achieving full spermatogenesis in vitro, from spermatogonia through to the final stage of mature spermatozoa, not just in ... Spermatogenesis is an extremely complex physiological process that takes 72 days in vivo. To achieve this world first, ... Kallistem achieves complete human spermatogenesis in vitro for treatment of male infertility. *Download PDF Copy ...
Spermatogenesis and Capacitation. At the end of spermatogenesis, sperm demonstrate their characteristic shape: a "head" ... Spermatogenesis and Capacitation. At the end of spermatogenesis, sperm demonstrate their characteristic shape: a "head" ... Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid sperm cells are produced in the male testes. It starts with stem cells located ... Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid sperm cells are produced in the male testes. It starts with stem cells located ...
... Hum Genet. 1980;54(3):391-404. doi ...
Spermatogenesis: Molecular Mechanisms, Regulation and Biological Perspectives. Gladys Robinson (Editor). Series: Human ... Spermatogenesis is a tightly regulated cellular renovation and differentiation process. It consists of self-renewal and ... Home / Shop / Books / Medicine and Health / Spermatogenesis: Molecular Mechanisms, Regulation and Biological Perspectives. ... Chapter Two briefly addresses the basics of spermatogenesis and the synthesis of ncRNAs, and then the authors discuss the ...
  • Furthermore, transplantation of wild-type Sertoli cells into infertile Steel/Steel dickie testes created a permissive testicular microenvironment for generating spermatogenesis and spermatozoa. (
  • In postnuptial spermatogenesis, sperm are produced following the mating season and stored in the efferent testicular ducts (primarily the ductus deferens) until the following spring mating season. (
  • Foetal determinants of spermatogenesis in adulthood (e.g. reduced sertoli cell proliferation and final number, reduced perinatal germ cell development, Testicular germ cell cancer and testicular dysgenesis syndrome), 2. (
  • Testicular stages of spermatogenesis are more sensitive to methamidophos toxicity. (
  • Zukerman Z, Rodriguez-Rigau LJ, Weiss DB, Chowdhury AK, Smith KD, Steinberger E (1978) Quantitative analysis of the seminiferous epithelium in human testicular biopsies, and the relation of spermatogenesis to sperm density. (
  • The luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were monitored in the groups for the 1st week and monthly, as were the serum total testosterone level, testicular volume and spermatogenesis rate in monthly follow-up sessions. (
  • Generally, age-related testicular changes are associated with an increase of germ cell degeneration, decline of spermatogenesis and androgen decline resulting in a gradual decrease of sperm count. (
  • A number of studies have addressed the specific question of testicular gene modulation by androgens and, despite the use of various models (for review, see [13] ), the way T regulates spermatogenesis are still not fully understood. (
  • However, it remains to be determined at what stages testicular ORs are expressed during spermatogenesis and whether each germ cell expresses one or multiple ORs. (
  • Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. (
  • Spermatogenesis issues may manifest as low sperm count and stem from reproductive axis dysfunction or testicular degeneration. (
  • Testicular stem cells, spermatogenesis and infertility. (
  • Testicular germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis. (
  • TGF- signaling in testicular development, spermatogenesis, and infertility. (
  • JAK-STAT pathway: Testicular development, spermatogenesis and fertility. (
  • In this study, we aimed to improve the whole neonatal mouse testicular tissue cryopreservation protocols by comparing cryosurvival, spermatogenesis, and androgen production of grafted testicular tissue after cryopreservation with three different vitrification protocols and an automated computed controlled-rate freezing. (
  • This study shows that completed spermatogenesis from whole neonatal mouse testes were obtained when frozen with controlled-rate freezing and V1 vitrification solution and that testicular cryopreservation efficacy vary with the protocol and vitrification technique. (
  • A10-FMT (busulfan plus gut microbiota from AOS 10 mg/kg mice) significantly increased sperm concentration (twofold) and sperm motility (twentyfold) ( figure 1A,B ). Spermatogenesis was significantly improved by A10-FMT as shown by the germ cell marker VASA ( figure 1C ) in murine testicular samples. (
  • The location [Testes/Scrotum] is specifically important as the process of spermatogenesis requires a lower temperature to produce viable sperm, specifically 1°-8 °C lower than normal body temperature of 37 °C (98.6 °F). Clinically, small fluctuations in temperature such as from an athletic support strap, causes no impairment in sperm viability or count. (
  • In the undescended testes, these transformations are inhibited leading to a deficient pool of stem cells for post pubertal spermatogenesis. (
  • During human spermatogenesis, stem cells give within the testes give rise to functional sperm cells. (
  • Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid sperm cells are produced in the male testes. (
  • We report here that Sertoli cells recovered and dissociated from testes of donor male mice can be microinjected into recipient testes, form mature seminiferous tubule structures, and support spermatogenesis. (
  • These data suggest that exposure to BPA during fetal life has profound effects on spermatogenesis in the testes when the offspring become adult. (
  • Metal oxide affinity chromatography using TiO2combined with LC-MS/MS was conducted to profile the phosphoproteome of adult human testes with full spermatogenesis. (
  • Medical Xpress)-A team of researchers with members from Tokyo Medical University and Aichi Medical University, both in Japan, has tested the feasibility of removing testes from one rat and surgically implanting them into the neck of another rat to preserve spermatogenesis for the first rat. (
  • A novel mammalian bubblegum-related acyl-CoA synthetase restricted to testes and possibly involved in spermatogenesis. (
  • Thus, the BGR gene expands the bubblegum ACS family with a testes-specific, developmentally regulated member that may play a role in spermatogenesis. (
  • In humans, spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous tubules , which are an intricate system of tubules in the testes where spermatogenesis takes place. (
  • Y chromosomal fertility genes are essential for spermatogenesis, but those genes which code for major structural components of the spermatozoon and those controlling sperm morphogenesis must be located on a different chromosome. (
  • This gene encodes one of the testis-specific transcription factors which are essential for spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and folliculogenesis. (
  • Together, these data demonstrate that Lgr4 signaling through Wnt/β-catenin regulates PMCs and is essential for spermatogenesis. (
  • From the sensitivity of the hypomorph mutants to low food iron levels we conclude that mitochondrial iron is essential for spermatogenesis. (
  • The team at Stamford has previously determined the role of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 4 (HIPK4) in the later stages of spermatogenesis , and it is thought that a drug targeting this kinase could be used as a contraceptive. (
  • A kinetic study of DNA and basic protein metabolism during spermatogenesis in the sand crab, Emerita analoga. (
  • Nuclear protein transitions during spermatogenesis. (
  • describe an essential role for the protein Sam68 (Src-associated substrate in mitosis of 68 kD, also called KH-DRBS1) in spermatogenesis that appears to reflect its regulation of a set of particular mRNAs. (
  • An RNA-binding protein is required for spermatogenesis and enhances translation of specific mRNAs. (
  • Notably, the low protein levels of pro-apoptotic cleaved caspase-3 and CytC in cytoplasm were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses, indicating that the CytC-Caspase model might be responsible for the effects of germ cell apoptosis on seasonal spermatogenesis. (
  • In the present review, we highlight recent findings that have made a significant impact on our understanding of this protein family in normal cell function and in disease, with the emphasis on the role of MTMs and MTMRs in spermatogenesis. (
  • Expression of a Testis-Specific Nuclear Protein, TRA98, in Mouse Testis during Spermatogenesis. (
  • N. Inoue, Y. Onohara and S. Yokota, "Expression of a Testis-Specific Nuclear Protein, TRA98, in Mouse Testis during Spermatogenesis. (
  • Here we investigate the role of Drosophila mitoferrin (dmfrn), which is a mitochondrial carrier protein with an established role in the mitochondrial iron metabolism, during spermatogenesis. (
  • Takashi Shinohara , Kyle E. Orwig , Mary R. Avarbock , and Ralph L. Brinster "Restoration of Spermatogenesis in Infertile Mice by Sertoli Cell Transplantation," Biology of Reproduction 68(3), 1064-1071, (1 March 2003). (
  • Tsumura Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) to mice suffering from severe aspermatogenesis after busulfan treatment to determine whether TJ107 can recover spermatogenesis. (
  • In mice and rats and most animals, these stages pass like a wave along the seminiferous tubule, and at any given point along the tubule at any time, you only see one of these stages, meaning there may be no sperm or elongated spermatids seen, even though spermatogenesis is normal, and you are seeing only one stage at any given point [1-10]. (
  • Bisphenol A (BPA), which has previously been shown to have estrogenic activity, was examined for its effect on spermatogenesis in offspring of mice that had been exposed to BPA during gestation. (
  • Targeted disruption of the estrogen receptor gene in male mice causes alteration of spermatogenesis and infertility. (
  • Here we show that genetic deficiency of Cyld, a recently identified deubiquitinating enzyme, attenuates the early wave of germ cell apoptosis and causes impaired spermatogenesis in mice. (
  • However, expression of the acrosome marker SP-10 was extremely low in germ cells of Bsg KO mice indicating that spermatogenesis in Bsg KO mice was arrested at the round spermatid stages. (
  • 2 FMT of gut microbes, that developed under a high-fat diet, into mice on a normal diet leads to the disruption of spermatogenesis and a reduction of sperm motility, 1 which highlights that restoring gut microbiota may be a means of improving disturbed male infertility caused by environmental factors. (
  • To test this hypothesis, we set out to explore the beneficial improvement of sperm quality and spermatogenesis following FMT from AOS dosed animals to busulfan treated mice ( online supplementary file 1 , online supplementary figure 1 ). (
  • The expression pattern of Sohlh1 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 1) and Sohlh2 in mice has been reported in previous studies. (
  • Stra8 and its inducer, retinoic acid, regulate meiotic initiation in both spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mice. (
  • The entire process of spermatogenesis can be broken up into several distinct stages, each corresponding to a particular type of cell in humans. (
  • RNA transcription and chromatin structure during meiotic and postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. (
  • Genotoxic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate and X-rays at different stages of rat spermatogenesis, studied by inhibition of DNA synthesis and induction of DNA repair in vitro. (
  • Immunofluorescence with a SPE-5 -specific monoclonal antibody shows that SPE-5 expression begins in spermatocytes and is found in all subsequent stages of spermatogenesis. (
  • In contrast to earlier proposals concerning sequential determinative events during this process, male sterile mutations can block spermatogenesis at nearly every stage, and not, as previously postulated, exclusively at the transitions between gonial, meiotic, and postmeiotic stages. (
  • Spermatogenesis consists of stages: (1) spermatocytogenesis , (2) spermatidogenesis , and (3) spermiogenesis . (
  • Male infertility is affected by a variety of environmental, behavioral, genotoxic and genetic factors, resulting in an impaired spermatogenesis at various stages [ 4 ]. (
  • We evaluated MET effects on sperm quality, fertilization and DNA integrity, exploring the sensitivity of different stages of spermatogenesis. (
  • Data suggest that meiosis and mitosis are the more sensitive stages of spermatogenesis for MET reproductive toxicity compared to epididymal maturation. (
  • Spermatogenesis in the human can be divided into cycles based on the six stages of spermatid maturation from round spermatid to the elongated sperm with a tail (Figs. 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, and 6.4). (
  • There are six distinct cellular associations of spermatogonia and spermatocytes in each of these stages of the cycle of spermatogenesis. (
  • However, in the human there is no such obvious wave, and the cellular associations of various stages or all stages of spermatogenesis may very well be in any location of the tubule you biopsy (Figs. 6.5a, b and 6.6). (
  • This chaotic distribution of the stages of spermatogenesis in the human is very important for clinical performance of TESE as will be explained in Part II of this book. (
  • Human sperm production, unlike that of many other animals, occurs in many overlapping waves such that all stages of spermatogenesis are present at any given time. (
  • Both controlled-rate freezing and V1 protocol groups displayed the most advanced stages of spermatogenesis with elongated spermatids and spermatozoa in 17.6 ± 1.3% and 16.3 ± 1.9% of seminiferous tubules based on histopathological evaluation, respectively. (
  • As spermatogenesis proceeds, the spermatids lose cytoplasm, thin, and develop characteristic tails called flagella. (
  • Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid spermatozoa develop from germ cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. (
  • Spermatogenesis starts in the bottom part of seminiferous tubes and, progressively, cells go deeper into tubes and moving along it until mature spermatozoa reaches the lumen, where mature spermatozoa are deposited. (
  • Spermatogenesis produces mature male gametes, commonly called sperm but more specifically known as spermatozoa, which are able to fertilize the counterpart female gamete, the oocyte, during conception to produce a single-celled individual known as a zygote. (
  • Spermatogenesis arrest is known as the interruption of germinal cells of specific cellular type, which elicits an altered spermatozoa formation. (
  • Achieving full spermatogenesis in vitro, from spermatogonia through to the final stage of mature spermatozoa, not just in animal species, but also in humans, is a real biotechnology achievement," said Professor Hervé Lejeune of the Department of Reproductive Medicine at Lyon University Hospital's Women's, Mother and Baby center. (
  • Guraya, S. S. is the author of 'Biology of Spermatogenesis and Spermatozoa in Mammals' with ISBN 9780387171432 and ISBN 0387171436. (
  • This process, known as spermatogenesis, is dependent on the establishment early in neonatal development, of a population of self renewing germ line stem cells known as GSC's, from which the highly differentiated haploid spermatozoa are produced. (
  • Spermatogenesis is a highly specialized process of cellular differentiation to produce spermatozoa. (
  • Spermatogenesis is the process by which male spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa . (
  • Regulation of gene expression during spermatogenesis. (
  • Others have shown that the X chromosome is transcriptionally silent in the male germline, so expression of the autosomally located spe-5 gene ensures that a V-ATPase B subunit is present during spermatogenesis. (
  • shows the null phenotype of this gene to be lethal, the second gene encoding a B subunit showed upregulated expression during spermatogenesis. (
  • Furthermore, using RNA-Seq and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling, a large number of apoptosis-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at different phases of spermatogenesis were identified and characterized in the testis. (
  • The first mitochondrial dynamics gene, Fuzzy onions (Fzo), was discovered in 1997 to mediate mitochondrial fusion during Drosophila spermatogenesis. (
  • Cloning and characterization of testis-specific spermatogenesis associated gene homologous to human SPATA4 in rat. (
  • In this thesis, I examine gene expression and regulation during the mitotic and meiotic phases of spermatogenesis. (
  • Copy number gain of VCX, X-linked multi-copy gene, leads to cell proliferation and apoptosis during spermatogenesis. (
  • Spermatogenesis is controlled by androgens, namely testosterone and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), these are the most important androgens that control the process. (
  • However, testosterone has been found to be the most important hormone that is responsible for both the initiation and the maintenance of spermatogenesis. (
  • In this Review, we briefly outline the roles that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone play in regulating spermatogenesis and describe our current understanding of how vitamin A regulates germ cell differentiation and how it may lead to the generation of both the cycle of the seminiferous epithelium and the spermatogenic wave. (
  • Considerable evidence indicates that these two areas, or compartments, are closely linked in enabling the testis to fulfill its dual functions of spermatogenesis and testosterone production. (
  • There is little data concerning the ability of Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL) to reverse the inhibitory effects of estrogen on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. (
  • Kula K, Rodriguez-Rigau LJ, Steinberger E (1983) Synthesis of testosterone and 5 alpha-reduced androgens during initiation of spermatogenesis in the rat. (
  • Testosterone signaling in spermatogenesis, male fertility and infertility. (
  • Spontaneous germ cell apoptosis in testis has been broadly investigated in mammals that have an associated spermatogenesis pattern. (
  • However, the mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in seasonally breeding reptiles following a dissociated spermatogenesis has remained enigmatic. (
  • TUNEL and TEM analyses presented dynamic changes and ultrastructural characteristics of apoptotic germ cells during seasonal spermatogenesis, implying that apoptosis might be one of the key mechanisms to clear degraded germ cells. (
  • DGE and RT-qPCR analysis revealed that the critical anti-apoptosis genes, such as Bcl-2, BAG1 , and BAG5 , showed up-regulated patterns during intermediate and late spermatogenesis. (
  • These results facilitate understanding the regulatory mechanisms of apoptosis during spermatogenesis and uncovering the biological process of the dissociated spermatogenesis system in reptiles. (
  • Phosphorylation events were enriched in proteins functionally related to spermatogenesis, as well as to highly active processes in the male gonad, such as transcriptional and translational regulation, cytoskeleton organization, DNA packaging, cell cycle and apoptosis. (
  • Regulation of early wave of germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis by deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD. (
  • Spermatogenesis involves an early wave of germ cell apoptosis, which is required for maintaining the balance between germ cells and supporting Sertoli cells. (
  • These findings establish CYLD as a pivotal deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) that regulates germ cell apoptosis and spermatogenesis and suggest an essential role for CYLD in controlling the RIP1/NF-kappaB signaling axis in testis. (
  • Spermatogenesis in Drosophila. (
  • Mammals and Drosophila melanogaster share some striking similarities in spermatogenesis. (
  • Mammalian spermatogenesis is one of the most complex and lengthy differentiation processes in biology, transforming spermatogonial stem cells into highly specialized sperm cells over a 5-week period. (
  • Mammalian spermatogenesis includes two types of cell divisions. (
  • During mammalian spermatogenesis temporal translational regulation of the protamine 1 (Prm1) mRNA is dependent on a highly conserved sequence located in the distal region of its 3' UTR. (
  • Steinberger E (1971) Hormonal control of mammalian spermatogenesis. (
  • Y. Clermont, R. Oko and L. Hermo, "Cell Biology of Mammalian Spermatogenesis," In: C. Desjardins and L. L. Ewing, Eds. (
  • Thus, key elements in regulation of spermatogenesis in mammals occur through posttranscriptional as well as transcriptional regulation. (
  • Spermatogenesis in adult mammals is highly organized, with the goal being continual sperm production. (
  • In mammals, however, the role of mitochondrial fusion during spermatogenesis remained unknown for nearly two decades after discovery of Fzo. (
  • Cell Surface Actions of Steroids: A Complementary Mechanism for Regulation of Spermatogenesis? (
  • Chapter Two briefly addresses the basics of spermatogenesis and the synthesis of ncRNAs, and then the authors discuss the recent progress in understanding of the functions of miRNAs, endo-siRNAs, piRNAs and lncRNAs in the regulation of spermatogenesis. (
  • Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis. (
  • These factors affect not only the development of germ cells during spermatogenesis but also the functions of mature sperm, ultimately impairing fertilization or embryogenesis. (
  • C.Katagiri & K.Yagi: 'Immuno-electron microscopic localization of calmodulin and calmodulin-binding proteins in the mouse germ cells during spermatogenesis and maturation. (
  • Apart from this, public concern about adverse effects of environmental chemicals (ECs) (pesticides, food additives, persistent pollutants such as DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls) on spermatogenesis in adult men are, in general, not supported by the available data for humans. (
  • Histological examinations showed maturation arrest in 36.4%, hypospermatogenesis in 26%, Sertoli cell-only syndrome in 20.2%, normal spermatogenesis in 11%, and seminiferous tubule hyalinization in 6.4% of the specimens. (
  • Sertoli cells are the only somatic cells in the seminiferous tubule that closely interact with germ cells to create a favorable environment for spermatogenesis. (
  • Taken collectively, these results illustrate that ICAM2 plays an important role in apical ES dynamics during spermatogenesis. (
  • Clermont Y, Morgentaler H (1955) Quantitative study of spermatogenesis in the hypophysectomized rat. (
  • Steinberger A (1975) In vitro techniques for the study of spermatogenesis. (
  • Estrogen exerts its effect on spermatogenesis by two mechanisms. (
  • Consequently, the control of spermatogenesis by T is more likely to occur by modulating somatic signaling rather than by a direct effect on the germ cells. (
  • Approach to male infertility and induction of spermatogenesis. (
  • The processes that will be tackled in this article are about oogenesis and spermatogenesis. (
  • During oogenesis and spermatogenesis transcription ceases prior to the differentiation of the mature cells. (
  • Chowdhury AK, Steinberger E (1975) Effect of 5alpha reduced androgens on sex accessory organs, initiation and maintenance of spermatogenesis in the rat. (
  • During spermatogenesis, the population of stem cells (diploid spermatogonia) divides and differentiates into tetraploid spermatocytes. (
  • Clermont Y (1962) Quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis of the rat: a revised model for the renewal of spermatogonia. (
  • Downregulation led to an arrest of spermatogenesis at the level of spermatogonia/primary spermatocytes. (
  • Instead, certain types of spermatogonia divide to produce copies of themselves, thereby ensuring a constant supply of gametogonia to fuel spermatogenesis. (
  • Spermatogenesis occurs in successive mitotic, meiotic and post-meiotic phases and genes expressed during this process encode proteins necessary for processes specific to the different phases of germ cell development. (
  • In mammalian and fruit fly testis, components of the mitochondrial iron metabolism are expressed, but so far their function during spermatogenesis is unknown. (
  • This is the first time that a link between the mitochondrial iron metabolism and spermatogenesis has been shown. (
  • This review assesses potential causes involving adverse effects on testis development in perinatal life (primarily effects on Sertoli cell number), which are probably irreversible, or effects on the process of spermatogenesis in adulthood, which are probably mainly reversible. (
  • In mammalian testis Spermatogenesis takes place in the seminiferous tubules which are composed of Sertoli cells (SCs) and maturing germ cells surrounded by one (rodents) or more (large animals) layer(s) of peritubular myoid cells [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • and 3) whether BSG is essential for the interactions between gametes and Sertoli cells during spermatogenesis. (
  • Secretory vesicles are used during spermatogenesis to deliver proteins to the cell surface. (
  • Crucial to spermatogenesis are a number of RNA binding proteins, which are expressed in germ cells. (
  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulates sexual maturation and spermatogenesis through the release of two gonadotropins from the anterior pituitary upon GnRH stimulation, the luteinizing hormone (LH) and the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) [1] . (
  • In some studies, patients with unilateral cryptorchidism had normal spermatogenesis, suggesting that additive detrimental factors may be responsible for impaired fertility. (
  • Some traditional herbal medicines have been administered to improve spermatogenesis. (
  • 7 Gut microbiota from AOS dosed animals may improve spermatogenesis through benefit to the recipients gut microbes. (
  • These cells are now thought to be the stem cells useful to support spermatogenesis. (
  • Spermatogenesis is a tightly regulated cellular renovation and differentiation process. (
  • Differentiation of male germ cells is best characterized as spermeoteleosis, since male sterile mutations have the effect of aborting spermatogenesis rather than changing the cellular fate of the germ cells. (
  • Spermatogenesis is a complex cell differentiation process that includes marked genetic, cellular, functional and structural changes. (
  • This differentiation process accompanies morphological changes that are controlled by a number of genes expressed in a stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis. (
  • In addition, the technique provides a novel tool with which to analyze spermatogenesis and might provide a mechanism for correcting fertility in males suffering from supporting cell defects. (
  • This may make spermatogenesis in humans inherently more vulnerable to disruption by outside factors, as there is little room for manoeuvre in terms of maintaining the production of adequate numbers of normal sperm, and thus fertility. (
  • Therefore, the primary aim of the present study was to determine if EL extract could counteract the adverse effects of estrogen on spermatogenesis and improve fertility in Sprague-Dawley rats. (
  • GH-IGF1 axis in spermatogenesis and male fertility. (
  • Retinoic acid signaling in spermatogenesis and male (in)fertility. (
  • Spermatogenesis takes place within several structures of the male reproductive system. (
  • The endocrinologist must recognize when to use medical therapy to stimulate spermatogenesis and when to refer for consideration of assisted reproductive technology. (
  • As spermatogenesis proceeds, spermatocytes embark on meiosis, and each ultimately divides to form four sperm-each with only 23 chromosomes- that are expelled into the male reproductive tract. (
  • Kallistem, which develops innovative cell culture technologies in reproductive biology, today announces a world first: human spermatogenesis in vitro. (
  • These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system. (
  • In snakes in temperate climates, sperm production (spermatogenesis) may occur immediately prior to mating (prenuptial spermatogenesis) or following mating (postnuptial spermatogenesis). (
  • Early surgical intervention in infancy may allow the normal development of stem cells for spermatogenesis. (
  • In addition to carrying out the meiosis-specific chromosome processes of pairing and recombination, the chromosomes in male germline cells activate transcription of a diverse set of spermatogenesis-specific genes. (
  • This locus represents naturally occurring read-through transcription between the neighboring CCDC169 (C13orf38 chromosome 13 open reading frame 38) and SOHLH2 (spermatogenesis and oogenesis specific basic helix-loop-helix 2) genes. (
  • Spermatogenesis is highly dependent upon optimal conditions for the process to occur correctly, and is essential for sexual reproduction. (
  • For humans, the entire process of spermatogenesis is variously estimated as taking 74 days (according to tritium-labelled biopsies) and approximately 120 days (according to DNA clock measurements). (
  • This hormone is the main androgenic steroid in the process of spermatogenesis and is regulated by a hormone known as luteinizing hormone. (
  • A null mutation in spe-5 severely affects spermatogenesis, but it is not lethal, so we could examine the role of the V-ATPase during this process. (
  • Spermatogenesis is an extremely complex physiological process that takes 72 days in vivo. (
  • Here, we consider only spermatogenesis, particularly concentrating on the conservation and divergence of the spermatogenic process at a genetic and cellular level. (
  • The process of spermatogenesis is not initiated until puberty and is then maintained throughout the rest of life in normal men. (
  • Spermatogenesis is the process of producing sperm that is capable of bearing the right amount of chromosomes. (
  • 1.Spermatogenesis is the process in which the sperm is produced while oogenesis is the process of producing the egg cell or ovum. (
  • Its function must, therefore, be confined to the process of spermatogenesis. (
  • MCs not only influence the process of spermatogenesis but also have effects on the function of other testis residing cells. (
  • Spermatogenesis is the highest throughput process in the human body, producing ~1,000 sperm per second. (
  • Lead poisoning also appears to directly impair the process of spermatogenesis itself as well as sperm function. (
  • Spermatogenesis is the process by which the male gametes, called sperm, are created. (
  • We propose that the major difference between snake and lizard spermatogenic cycles is the presence of postnuptial spermatogenesis in snakes and the absence of true postnuptial spermatogenesis in lizards. (
  • The authors propose that, through its Src and MAPK-dependent phosphorylation, Sam68 may link intracellular signaling pathways to RNA processing, in particular controlling recruitment to polysomes and enhanced translation of a set of mRNAs required for spermatogenesis. (
  • Accumulated evidence has shown that the sperm components undergo sequential changes from the beginning of spermatogenesis to the time of fertilization/embryogenesis. (
  • In this book, I discuss the events that occur in the normal sperm head and govern the structure-function relationship from the time of spermatogenesis to that of fertilization or egg activation. (
  • M acrostomum pusillum 's relatively simple sperm morphology likely explains the short spermatogenesis duration we report, and is linked to a hypodermically inseminating mode of fertilization, which we show also means that these worms are capable of self-fertilization. (
  • In humans, chromosomal abnormalities arising from incorrect spermatogenesis results in congenital defects and abnormal birth defects (Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome) and in most cases, spontaneous abortion of the developing foetus. (
  • The hyperthermia, between 35 and 37°C rather than 33°C, evoked by the abnormal position of the testis may respond for the impaired spermatogenesis. (
  • Phenotypic characterization of the immune and mast cell infiltrates in the human testis shows normal and abnormal spermatogenesis. (
  • Various treatments have been discovered in order to aid those with spermatogenesis arrest, one of these being through the use of arginine. (
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Spermatogenesis arrest. (
  • More detailed information about the symptoms , causes , and treatments of Spermatogenesis arrest is available below. (
  • Wrongly Diagnosed with Spermatogenesis arrest? (
  • Read more about causes of Spermatogenesis arrest . (
  • Visit our research pages for current research about Spermatogenesis arrest treatments . (
  • Spermatogenesis arrest is listed as a " rare disease " by the Office of Rare Diseases (ORD) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • This means that Spermatogenesis arrest, or a subtype of Spermatogenesis arrest, affects less than 200,000 people in the US population. (
  • What is Spermatogenesis arrest? (
  • Although the dissociated spermatogenesis system has been widely described and the transitional and evolutionarily significance has also been reported in many turtle species, the mechanisms underlying dissociated spermatogenesis have not been fully elucidated. (
  • This suggests there are fundamental differences between spermatogenesis in the human and other species that result in production of lower quality sperm overall. (
  • In fish species the importance of androgens is emphasized by their ability to induce sex reversal of the developing fries and to trigger spermatogenesis. (
  • 1. In all main points the spermatogenesis of these three species of louse agrees with that described for Pediculus corporis and Pediculus capitis by the late Professor Doncaster and the present author. (
  • Changes in chromatin structure during spermatogenesis in maturing rooster testis as demonstrated by the initiation pattern of ribonucleic acid synthesis in vitro. (
  • Steinberger E, Root A, Ficher M, Smith KD (1973) The role of androgens in the initiation of spermatogenesis in man. (
  • To measure spermatogenesis abnormalities in transwomen at the time of sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and to analyze the association between hormonal therapy duration and infertility severity. (
  • The present study examined the degree to which downregulation with a GnRH agonist impaired spermatogenesis and the time course of morphological and hormonal changes that occurred during recrudescence of spermatogenesis. (
  • Your search returned 16 spermatogenesis associated 19 Biomolecules across 8 suppliers. (
  • Your search returned 11 spermatogenesis associated 2 like Biomolecules across 5 suppliers. (
  • Studies have shown that Vitamin A deficiencies in rats , as well as zinc deficiencies in human males may prevent the normal functioning of spermatogenesis. (
  • A number of teams throughout the world have been trying for over 15 years to achieve human spermatogenesis in vitro. (
  • Known times at which environmental/lifestyle factors can negatively impact on spermatogenesis and sperm counts in human males in relation to the major relevant events in testis development and function. (
  • Russell L (1983) Atlas of human spermatogenesis. (
  • To compare the efficacies of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse subcutaneous infusion with combined human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) intramuscular injection have been performed to treat male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) spermatogenesis. (

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