Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
A synthetic analog of vasopressin with ORNITHINE substitution at residue 8 of the cyclic nonapeptide. It is used as a local vasoconstrictor and hemostatic.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Unequal cell division that results in daughter cells of different sizes.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.
The species Megaptera novaeangliae, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by its huge flippers and the arching of their back when diving. They are also known for their breaching and singing.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
The species Balaenoptera physalus, in the family Balaenopteridae, characterized by a large, strongly curved, dorsal fin. It is the second largest of the WHALES, highly migratory, but rarely seen near the shore.
The species Balaenoptera acutorostrata, in the family Balaenopteridae. It is the smallest of the WHALES in the family and though mainly oceanic, is often found in coastal waters including bays and estuaries.
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A syndrome characterized by growth retardation, severe MENTAL RETARDATION, short stature, a low-pitched growling cry, brachycephaly, low-set ears, webbed neck, carp mouth, depressed nasal bridge, bushy eyebrows meeting at the midline, hirsutism, and malformations of the hands. The condition may occur sporadically or be associated with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance or duplication of the long arm of chromosome 3. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p231)
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.1.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography. (1/153)

The transport function of the uterus and oviducts and its modulation by oxytocin has been examined using hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, recording of intrauterine pressure, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography of the Fallopian tubes. After application to the posterior vaginal fornix, a rapid (within minutes) uptake of the labelled particles into the uterus was observed during the follicular and during the luteal phase of the cycle in all patients. Transport into the oviducts, however, could only be demonstrated during the follicular phase. Transport was directed predominantly into the tube ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle; the contralateral oviduct appeared to be functionally closed. The proportion of patients exhibiting ipsilateral transport did increase concomitant with the increase of the diameter of the dominant follicle. That ipsilateral transport has biological significance is suggested by the observation that the pregnancy rate following spontaneous intercourse or insemination was significantly higher in those women in whom ipsilateral transport could be demonstrated than in those who failed to exhibit lateralization. Oxytocin administration was followed by a dramatic increase in the amount of material transported to the ipsilateral tube, as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging and by Doppler sonography following instillation of ultrasound contrast medium. Continuous recording of intrauterine pressure before and after oxytocin administration did show an increase in basal tonus and amplitude of contractions and a reversal of the pressure gradient from a fundo-cervical to a cervico-fundal direction. These actions of oxytocin were accompanied by an increase in amplitude of potentials recorded by electrohysterography. These data support the view that uterus and Fallopian tubes represent a functional unit that is acting as a peristaltic pump and that the increasing activity of this pump during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is reflected by an increased transport into the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle. In addition, they strongly suggest a critical role of oxytocin in this process. Failure of this mechanism appears to be a cause of subfertility or infertility, as indicated by the low pregnancy rate following intrauterine insemination or normal intercourse in the presence of patent Fallopian tubes. It may be regarded as a new nosological entity for which we propose the term tubal transport disorder (TTD). Since pregnancy rate of such patients is normal when treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF), hysterosalpingoscintigraphy seems to be useful for the choice of treatment modalities in patients with patent Fallopian tubes suffering from infertility.  (+info)

Sonographic evidence for the involvement of the utero-ovarian counter-current system in the ovarian control of directed uterine sperm transport. (2/153)

Sperm transport from the cervix into the tube is an important uterine function within the process of reproduction. This function is exerted by uterine peristalsis and is controlled by the dominant ovarian structure via a cascade of endocrine events. The uterine peristaltic activity involves only the stratum subvasculare of the myometrium, which exhibits a predominantly circular arrangement of muscular fibres that separate at the fundal level into the fibres of the cornua and continue into the circular muscles of the respective tubes. Since spermatozoa are transported preferentially into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, this asymmetric uterine function may be controlled by the ovary via direct effects utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system, in addition to the systemic circulation. To test this possibility the sonographic characteristics of the uterine vascular bed were studied during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Vaginal sonography with the measurement of Doppler flow characteristics of both uterine arteries and of the arterial anastomoses of the uterine and ovarian arteries (junctional vessels) in the cornual region of both sides of the uterus during the menstrual phase of regular-cycling women demonstrated significant lower resistance indices of the junctional vessels ipsilateral to the side of the dominant ovarian structure as compared with the corresponding arteries contralaterally. By the use of the perfusion mode technique, it could be observed that vascular perfusion of the fundal myometrium was significantly increased ipsilateral to the dominant follicle during the late follicular phase of the cycle. These results show that the endocrine control of the dominant ovarian structure over uterine function is not only exerted via the systemic circulation but also directly, most probably utilizing the utero-ovarian counter-current system.  (+info)

Sperm-oviduct interaction: induction of capacitation and preferential binding of uncapacitated spermatozoa to oviductal epithelial cells in porcine species. (3/153)

After mating, inseminated spermatozoa are transported to the oviduct. They attach to and interact with oviductal epithelial cells (OEC). To investigate sperm-OEC interactions, we used chlortetracycline to study the capacitation status of boar spermatozoa in coculture with homologous OEC and cells of nonreproductive origin (LLC-PK1, porcine kidney epithelial cell line). Boar spermatozoa were cocultured with OEC and LLC-PK1 cells for 15, 60, 120, or 240 min. The proportion of capacitated spermatozoa in coculture with the isthmic and ampullar cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) during incubation. However, most spermatozoa in coculture with LLC-PK1 cells or blank (medium only) remained uncapacitated. In addition, preferential binding of uncapacitated, capacitated, or acrosome-reacted boar spermatozoa to OEC and the other cell type was investigated. Our approach was to vary the proportions of uncapacitated, capacitated, or acrosome-reacted boar spermatozoa in suspension using long preincubation and lysophosphatidylcholine treatment of semen prior to a very short incubation with OEC or LLC-PK1 cells. The results showed that the majority of spermatozoa that were bound to OEC or LLC-PK1 cells were uncapacitated and that a significant relationship existed between the relative proportion of uncapacitated spermatozoa in the control samples and those bound to LLC-PK1 cells (r2 = 0.43, p < 0.005). However, there was no correlation between the proportion of uncapacitated spermatozoa in the control samples and the proportion of those bound to isthmic or ampullar cells. In conclusion, the results clearly demonstrated the specific nature of the sperm-OEC interaction in the porcine species. This interaction is initiated by uncapacitated spermatozoa binding to OEC and is continued by the induction of capacitation in cocultured spermatozoa.  (+info)

Sperm migration into and through the oviduct following artificial insemination at different stages of the estrous cycle in the rat. (4/153)

In order to examine whether sperm migration into and through the oviduct follows an invariable pattern or is subject to regulation, rats in proestrus, estrus, metestrus, or diestrus were inseminated in the upper third of each uterine horn with 10-20 million epididymal spermatozoa. Three or eight hours later, the numbers of spermatozoa free and adhering to the epithelium in the ampullary and isthmic segments were determined. A significantly higher number of spermatozoa were recovered in estrus than in other stages, at 3 h than at 8 h, and at all stages from the isthmus than from the ampulla. Spermatozoa adhering to the epithelium were observed only in proestrus and estrus and in the isthmus. The effect of exogenous estradiol-17beta (E2) and progesterone (P4) on sperm migration was investigated in rats in which the estrous cycle was inhibited pharmacologically. E2 facilitated sperm migration into the oviduct and P4 antagonized this effect, whereas P4 alone had no effect. Concomitant treatment with E2+P4 induced adhesion of spermatozoa to the oviductal epithelium. In conclusion, the pattern of sperm migration into and through the rat oviduct varies with the stage of the cycle, being dependent on E2 and P4. The adhesion of spermatozoa to the rat oviductal epithelium is stage- and segment-specific and requires the combined action of both hormones.  (+info)

Spermatid translocation in the rat seminiferous epithelium: coupling membrane trafficking machinery to a junction plaque. (5/153)

In this study, we demonstrate that specialized junction plaques that occur between Sertoli cells and spermatids in the rat testis support microtubule translocation in vitro. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cells are attached to spermatids by specialized adhesion junctions termed ectoplasmic specializations (ESs). These structures consist of regions of the plasma membrane adherent to the spermatid head, a submembrane layer of tightly packed actin filaments, and an attached cistern of endoplasmic reticulum. It has been proposed that motor proteins on the endoplasmic reticulum interact with adjacent microtubules to translocate the junction plaques, and hence the attached spermatids, within the epithelium. If this hypothesis is true, then isolated junctions should support microtubule transport. To verify this prediction, we have mechanically isolated rat spermatids, together with their attached ESs, and tested them for their ability to transport microtubules in vitro. Most assays were done in the presence of 2 mg/ml testicular cytosol and at room temperature. ESs attached to spermatids supported microtubule translocation. In some cases in which motility events were detected, microtubules moved smoothly over the junction site. In others, the movement was slow but progressive, saltatory and "inch-worm-like." No motility was detected in the absence of exogenous ATP or in the presence of apyrase (an enzyme that catalyses the breakdown of ATP). Our results are consistent with the microtubule-based motility hypothesis of spermatid translocation.  (+info)

Rat testis motor proteins associated with spermatid translocation (dynein) and spermatid flagella (kinesin-II). (6/153)

In this study, we report sites in the seminiferous epithelium of the rat testis that are immunoreactive with antibodies to the intermediate chain of cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin II. The study was done to determine whether or not microtubule-dependent motor proteins are present in Sertoli cell regions involved with spermatid translocation. Sections and epithelial fragments of perfusion-fixed rat testis were probed with an antibody (clone 74.1) to the intermediate chain of cytoplasmic dynein (IC74) and to kinesin-II. Labeling with the antibody to cytoplasmic dynein was dramatically evident in Sertoli cell regions surrounding apical crypts containing attached spermatids and known to contain unique intercellular attachment plaques. The antibody to kinesin II reacted only with spermatid tails. The levels of cytoplasmic dynein visible on immunoblots of supernatants collected from spermatid/junction complexes treated with an actin-severing enzyme (gelsolin) were greater than those of controls, indicating that at least some of the dynein may have been associated with Sertoli cell junction plaques attached to spermatids. Results are consistent with the conclusion that an isoform of cytoplasmic dynein may be responsible for the apical translocation of elongate spermatids that occurs before sperm release. Also, this is the first report of kinesin-II in mammalian spermatid tails.  (+info)

Sperm transport and storage in the agile antechinus (Antechinus agilis). (7/153)

This study was an examination of the timing of ejaculation and the dynamics of sperm transport in the female reproductive tract of the agile Antechinus (Antechinus agilis) and the relationship of these parameters to single and multiple matings. Mating in this species is characteristically long compared with that of other mammals, lasting for up to 8-12 h during which time the pair remain locked together. After the first hour of mating, only approximately 40% of males had ejaculated, but by the third hour all males had ejaculated. The total number of spermatozoa extracted from the female tract remained at approximately 30 x 10(3) spermatozoa per side over the next 9 h of copulation. After completion of male/female access (12 h), approximately 56% of spermatozoa extracted were located in the lower isthmic region of the oviduct where specialized sperm storage crypts are located. The number of spermatozoa extracted from the female reproductive tract did not decline over the next 3 days, but there was a change in the distribution of spermatozoa with an increase in the proportion of extracted spermatozoa stored in the lower isthmus (approximately 76%). However, 7 to 14 days after mating, only approximately 30% of the stored spermatozoa ( approximately 9.4 x 10(3) spermatozoa per side) were still present in the isthmus. When females were mated with a second male on a consecutive day, the sperm numbers extracted from the tract were about twice that deposited during single mating, with sperm transport to the lower isthmus occurring over a similar time frame. Although the occurrence of extended copulations in the wild has not yet been confirmed, these laboratory results suggest that similar periods of copulation are likely, since completion of the ejaculation process requires at least 3 h. The extended copulation in A. agilis reduces the possibility of an early second mating, which might interfere with the normal transport and crypt colonization of spermatozoa through competition.  (+info)

Acrosome formation during sperm transit through the epididymis in two marsupials, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). (8/153)

In certain Australian marsupials including the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) and the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), formation of the acrosome is not completed in the testis but during a complex differentiation process as spermatozoa pass through the epididymis. Using transmission and scanning electron microscopy this paper defined the process of acrosome formation in the epididymis, providing temporal and spatial information on the striking reorganisation of the acrosomal membranes and matrix and of the overlying sperm surface involved. On leaving the testis wallaby and possum spermatozoa had elongated 'scoop'-shaped acrosomes projecting from the dorsal surface of the head. During passage down the epididymis, this structure condensed into the compact button-like organelle found on ejaculated spermatozoa. This condensation was achieved by a complex process of infolding and fusion of the lateral projections of the 'scoop'. In the head of the epididymis the rims of the lateral scoop projections became shorter and thickened and folded inwards, to eventually meet midway along the longitudinal axis of the acrosome. As spermatozoa passed through the body of the epididymis the lateral projections fused together. Evidence of this fusion of the immature outer acrosomal membrane is the presence of vesicles within the acrosomal matrix which persist even in ejaculated spermatozoa. When spermatozoa have reached the tail of the epididymis the acrosome condenses into its mature form, as a small button-like structure contained within the depression on the anterior end of the nucleus. During the infolding process, the membranes associated with the immature acrosome are either engulfed into the acrosomal matrix (outer acrosomal membrane), or eliminated from the sperm head as tubular membrane elements (cytoplasmic membrane). Thus the surface and organelles of the testicular sperm head are transient structures in those marsupials with posttesticular acrosome formation and this must be taken into consideration in attempts to dissect the cell and molecular biology of fertilisation.  (+info)

A device for sterilizing females by occluding the uterotubal junction. The device includes a catheter with a releasable heat generating plug which is used to thermally damage the uterotubal junction and cause it to constrict around the plug, after which the plug is released from the catheter and left in place in the uterotubal junction.
Reprint (original publication in 1962) of a classic monograph on the anatomy and physiology of male and female aspects of reproduction; ovum, spermatozoon, semen, ovum and sperm transport and movement, fertilization, menstrual cycle, ovulation. Major emphasis on functions correlated with ovulation and the fertile period. Adequate attention to clinical aspects.. Bibliography, and subject and author indexes. Recommended for clinical and academic libraries. ...
Common bed bugs ( Cimexspp) have an uncommon way of insemination, haemocoelic insemination. Sperm deposited in a pouch, the spermalege (Fig. 1), in the abodomen of the female, migrate to sperm...
Throughout biology, cells and organisms use flagella and cilia to propel fluid and achieve motility. The beating of these organelles, and the corresponding ability to sense, respond to and modulate this beat is central to many processes in health and disease. While the mechanics of flagellum-fluid interaction has been the subject of extensive mathematical studies, these models have been restricted to being geometrically linear or weakly nonlinear, despite the high curvatures observed physiologically. We study the effect of geometrical nonlinearity, focusing on the spermatozoon flagellum. For a wide range of physiologically relevant parameters, the nonlinear model predicts that flagellar compression by the internal forces initiates an effective buckling behaviour, leading to a symmetry-breaking bifurcation that causes profound and complicated changes in the waveform and swimming trajectory, as well as the breakdown of the linear theory. The emergent waveform also induces curved swimming in an ...
Skeletal muscle collection includes over 185 mAbs against myosin isoforms for myofiber typing, MyoD and myogenin TFs, and Troponin complex I and T
Skeletal muscle collection includes over 185 mAbs against myosin isoforms for myofiber typing, MyoD and myogenin TFs, and Troponin complex I and T
The aim of this study was to examine whether the secreted fluid from the uterus influences the survival and fertilization capacity of fowl sperm in the hen oviduct. Hens with either regular uterine fluid secretion or irregular uterine fluid secretion were artificially inseminated through the transfer of sperm into the uterus. Twenty-four hours after artificial insemination, 3 hens with regular uterine fluid secretion and 3 hens with irregular uterine fluid secretion were killed and the utero-vaginal junction and infundibular sperm storage tubules were observed for the presence of sperm. There was no difference (P|0.05) in the fill rate of either the utero-vaginal junction sperm storage tubules or the infundibular sperm storage tubules between hens with regular or irregular uterine fluid secretion. However, the sperm transferred into hens with regular uterine fluid secretion had a longer lifespan and fertilization ability than the counterpart group (Psecretion from the hen uterus may sustain the
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Our observations constitute the first description of the functional morphology of penile eversion and ejaculation in birds. Eversion of the penis is explosive, occurring in approximately a third of a second in air, and less than half a second inside glass barriers. It is difficult to predict whether eversion inside of the female is faster or slower, because we do not know enough about how the female oviduct functions during intromission and the interactions between the male and female genitalia (see below). The explosive nature of penis eversion and ejaculation in waterfowl provides males with a mechanism to forcefully achieve insemination in a short period of time. Previous description of eversion in 15-20 s described by Liebe (1914) (cited in King 1981) is inaccurate and artifactual.. Our observations document that the s. spermaticus forms an efficient channel for sperm transport. Semen is ejected from the tip of the penis at a speed of up to 1.6 m s−1. Ejaculation is exactly timed relative ...
Adenomyosis is a benign condition characterized by the presence of endometrial glands and stroma deep within the myometrium. In recent years, the potential negative impact of adenomyosis on in vitro fertilization clinical outcomes has gained momentum, as well as, the possible link of this condition with obstetrical complications. The aim of this narrative review is to elucidate the possible association between uterine adenomyosis, infertility, and poor obstetrical outcomes. Several theories have been proposed to clarify the potential harmful impact of adenomyosis on fertility, such as a functional and structural defect of both the eutopic endometrium and the inner myometrium, an impairment of the uterine system of sperm transport, the presence of uterine dysperistalsis and of high levels of free radicals in the uterine milieu of women with the disease ...
Trying to conceive can suddenly make everything feel more like a science lab rather than the often typical, sweaty thing that happens between two people. With all of the ovulation tracking, questions, and data mapping, it can all get confusing, so its crucial to be able to suss out whats important - you know, like the whole egg meeting the sperm shenanigans - and whats not. Like, whats all this talk about cervical mucus? Wondering, Can I improve my cervical mucus to get pregnant? Its a pretty big deal for trying to conceive, so it makes sense that you want your cervical mucus to be as beneficial to the process as possible.. First of all, why is cervical mucus so important? According to the American Pregnancy Association, cervical mucus plays a key role in the trying to conceive process by nourishing and protecting sperm as it makes the long journey to meet your eggs. The amount and quality of cervical mucus will vary throughout your menstrual cycle, making certain days better options for ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Cell-specific and temporal aspects of gene expression in the chicken oviduct at different stages of the laying cycle. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Electron microscopic study was made on the water reabsorption of the epithelial cells of the rat cauda epididymidis. It was shown that when the epididymal duct was reabsorbing water at a maximal rate, widely dilated intercellular spaces were seen. It is suggested that the standing gradient model of water reabsorption first proposed for the gall bladder may also operate in the cauda epididymidis ...
1. I had an unprotected sex recently. How will my cervical mucus look like after ovulation if I am pregnant?. During the implantation, you may observe pink or brown discharge. However, for some women they may experience milky white and thin discharge. As pregnancy progresses, you will be observing an increase in the amount of white discharge.. 2. What does thick white cervical mucus mean after ovulation?. The thick cervical mucus after ovulation states that your fertile days are completed. If the discharge is excessive and white in color then it can indicate a conception. If the discharge is itchy, smelly, yellow or green in color then it indicates an infection. It is better to consult a doctor of you are observing any unusual changes in the cervical mucus.. 3. How does cervical mucus look like in early weeks of pregnancy?. Most of the women get confused between PMS (pre-menstrual syndrome) discharge and early pregnancy discharge. Usually, during early pregnancy the discharge will be milky white ...
Answer: As part of your daily fertility chart, monitoring changes in cervical mucus (CM, cervical fluids) is pivotal in determining the best time to make procreative love. During your menstrual cycle, youll likely experience a number of fluctuations in both the amount of cervical mucus present and in the quality of that those fluids: By quality, I am referring to the fertile or infertile quality of cervical fluids, their changing textures, colors, ph levels. As you near your ovulation day, cervical mucus will begin to become fertile and the amount of fluid present will likely increase daily as you near midcycle. Non-fertile CM is characterized by a thickness and sticky texture. It will hold its shape and wont stretch between fingertips, but rather disconnect or break. The color of this non-fertile mucus is going to be white or yellowish and it will be opaque (cant see light through it).Fertile cervical mucus (which enters the scene as you enter your fertile window) is going to be stretchy, ...
Synonyms for cervical mucus in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cervical mucus. 1 synonym for mucus: mucous secretion. What are synonyms for cervical mucus?
Dickman, C.R.; Parnaby, H.E.; Crowther, M.S.; King, D.H. 1998: Antechinus agilis (Marsupialia: Dasyuridae), a new species from the A. stuartii complex in south-eastern Australia. Australian journal of zoology, 46(1): 1-26. doi: 10.1071/ZO97036 ...
The mammalian female reproductive tract interacts with sperm in various ways in order to facilitate sperm migration to the egg while impeding migrations of pathogens into the tract, to keep sperm alive during the time between mating and ovulation, and to select the fittest sperm for fertilization. The two main types of interactions are physical and molecular. Physical interactions include the swimming responses of sperm to the microarchitecture of walls, to fluid flows, and to fluid viscoelasticity. When sperm encounter walls, they have a strong tendency to remain swimming along them. Sperm will also orient their swimming into gentle fluid flows. The female tract seems to use these tendencies of sperm to guide them to the site of fertilization. When sperm hyperactivate, they are better able to penetrate highly viscoelastic media, such as the cumulus matrix surrounding eggs. Molecular interactions include communications of sperm surface molecules with receptors on the epithelial lining of the ...
Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome ...
Most of the time, cervical mucus after ovulation is sticky or cloudy. Most women dont have much cervical mucus after ovulation...
It will be around five days (approximately) before your period that youll notice the biggest of changes in your cervical mucus, and this is when you will produce the most. Especially the cervical fluid as it shows up before ovulation and will give a couple a chance to abstain until after ovulation. Well, its true there is an increase In CM before you find out got are pregnant. Read reports about cancer symptoms by our users with Cervical Cancer, which involve terms such as abnormal, back, bleeding, discharge, fatigue, heavy, intercourse, irregular, pain, pap, pelvic, periods, sex, time, vaginal. To sum it up, CM (cervical mucus) is one of the best ways to gauge where you are in your menstrual cycle (one cycle is the time from the start of one period to the start of the next one, roughly a month) and changes based on estrogen levels. If you are seeing a cottage discharge then it can indicate a yeast infection. If there isnt enough or its too thick, the sperm will get beached and never make ...
Cervical mucus can give you a lot of information about your fertility phase. In fact, every small change in the cervical mucus has its own significance. To know more regarding the same, keep reading.
Cervical mucus can give you a lot of information about your fertility phase. In fact, every small change in the cervical mucus has its own significance. To know more regarding the same, keep reading.
Cervical mucus is one of the changes that a womans body will go through at the onset of adulthood. This cervical fluid can let you … ...
Your cervical mucus goes through different stages throughout the month, which can provide a clue as to when you ovulate. Find out how noting the changes in your cervical mucus during your menstrual cycle can help you tell when you are at your most fertile. - BabyCentre UK
Cervical mucus testing is important for getting pregnant. Why? Volume and texture of your cervical mucus let you know if youre ovulating normally.
FertileCM Cervical Mucus Supplement for Women - 90 Capsules - Improve the quantity and quality of your cervical mucus with doctor-developed FertileCM.
Cervical Mucus Before Period fertile, wet, watery It will be there around five days about before your period that you will notice the biggest of changes in your cervical mucus, and this is the time when you will produce the most.
Female discharge from your vagina - what does it mean? All Explanations white discharge to transparent Cervical mucus in ovulation.
Are you trying to get pregnant, or avoid it using a natural method? Then youll need to know more about cervical mucus (fertile mucus). Find out here!
How to check your cervical mucus so that you can know when you are fertile. Also includes information on checking your cervical position.
Cervical mucus is a substance secreted by the glands of a womans cervix. It serves as an aid for conception and helps protect the...
Cervical mucus is a fluid that is secreted by the cervix and stimulated by the hormone estrogen. Here are some tips on how you can improve it
Cervical mucus Is it possible to have watery, EWCM at CD 7? Does this mean I am fertile right now? Seems so early... Maybe ovulating early?? HELP PLEASE!!!
If youre trying to conceive, understanding the stages of cervical mucus can significantly aid your quest of conception. Heres everything you need to know.
Spycam installed in asian public toilet caught teen peeing with thick cervical mucus dripping from her cunt. She also cleans pussy discharge on dirty panties
Have you been trying to get pregnant? If so, you might be trying to understand all the signs and changes in your body. Changes in … ...
I have some weird things going on downstairs. :roll: My CM has increased alot and I feel as though its kinda wet alot (TMI!!) but there only seems...
The signs that signal ovulation include changes in the cervical mucus, an increased sex drive, tender breasts and an increase in the bodys basal temperature, according to About.com. Other signs of...
I thought I had my positive on cd 12 lots of stretchy CM (cervical mucus) and had bad O (ovulation) pains next day but now I dont know. I have never had opk test like this its usually cut and fry positive once and then not again. Help! Thanks
This bundle helps ensure proper nutrition, hormonal balance, and cervical mucus production which all play important roles in the conception process.
The evidence available for each of the above-mentioned MOAs will now be considered.. 5.1- Cervical mucus effects, sperm transport, and capacity to fertilize. Sperm can live up to 5 days in the cervical crypts or the fallopian tubes, waiting to fertilize the ovum when released (Wilcox, Weinberg, and Baird 1995). Sperm survival is affected by changes in cervical mucus and the endometrial environment (Odeblad 1978). To be able to fertilize the egg when released, sperm must additionally undergo capacitance and the acrosome reaction (Crucker and Lipford 1995). In patients using long-term progestin only contraceptives (pills, implants), the decreased cervical mucus quality makes it inhospitable to sperm, and this is one main mechanism by which these drugs exert their anti-fertility action (Moghissi, Syner, and McBride 1973; Lewis et al. 2010). However, evaluating these agents alongside a one-time administration of LNG is not a valid comparison because the continual release of the drug from implants ...
Structural and functional evidence indicate that the fucose-binding lectin present on bull sperm is a seminal plasma protein secreted by the seminal vesicles called PDC-109 (BSP-A1/A2) (Gwathmey et al 2003, Ignotz et al 2001). Upon ejaculation, this protein associates with the sperms plasmatic membrane enabling it to bind to the oviductal epithelium (figure 1). This proposed mechanism explains the limited binding capacity of sperm that have not been in contact with seminal fluids i.e., epididimal sperm (Gwathmey et al 2003, Petrunkina et al 2001). Furthermore, excess PDC-109 in seminal plasma may block sperm binding sites on posterior portions of the female reproductive tract facilitating sperm transport to the oviducts (Suárez, 2002). Mucus secretions. Overstreet and Cooper (1975) first observed that rabbit sperm collected from the isthmus of does before ovulation were immotile or weakly motile. This observation is interpreted as a transitory inhibition or suppression of sperm flagellar ...
Male infertility refers to a condition where a male is unable to impregnate a fertile female. Male infertility is caused due to deficiencies in his semen. A mans fertility depends on both the quality and quantity of his sperm. The total number of sperm a man ejaculates is important as a low sperm count is one of the major reasons that accounts for him failing to initiate a pregnancy.. Other major causes of male infertility include the failure of the testes to make sperm, sperm transport problems, and low levels of hormones made in the pituitary gland. IVF is a remedy for male infertility as it provides a platform for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection, a laboratory technique procedure that is used in the treatment of various infertility problems. This technique enhances the fertilization phase by injecting a single sperm into a mature egg and has proven to be extremely effective in allowing a female to conceive after insertion into the uterus.. ...
Vas-occlusive contraception is a form of male contraception that blocks sperm transport in the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts. Various vas-occlusive contraceptive methods have been researched for human-use, with interest in both reversible and irreversible methods, with the purpose of finding a suitable alternative to vasectomy and possible hormonal contraceptive treatments that are currently being researched. Potential methods include clips, plugs, valves, and other devices. There are numerous vas-occlusive contraceptive methods and devices that have been researched. Outlined here are a few main categories and descriptions. An intravasal control valve is a reversible valve implanted in the vas deferens with the ability to either inhibit or permit sperm passage depending on the position of the device. Bionyx has developed a T-shaped intravasal control valve composed of gold and stainless steel for use in humans. Through rotation, a ...
In boars, sperm cohorts are sequentially emitted in epididymal cauda fluid and resuspended in different Mixtures of accessory sex gland secretions while ejaculated in various fractions. During natural mating, these ejaculate fractions sequentially enter the cervix-uterine lumen, are quickly transported towards the tips of the uterine horns and colonize the oviductal sperm reservoirs (SR). Using a simple experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the first ejaculated sperm subpopulation (fortuitously present in the peak portion of the sperm-rich fraction [SRF], the so-called Portion 1, P1) is, by reaching first the SR, overrepresented there. Spermatozoa from P1- and of P2- (last portion of the SRF and the Post-SRF) were collected from 3 fertile boars. PI-spermatozoa were fluorophore DNA-stained, while P2-spermatozoa were kept unstained. Weaned estrous sows were conventionally inseminated (12 h after onset of estrus) with similar sperm numbers (approx 10(.) x 10(9) spermatozoa) per portion but in ...
Youngs syndrome, also known as azoospermia sinopulmonary infections, sinusitis-infertility syndrome and Barry-Perkins-Young syndrome, is a rare condition that encompasses a combination of syndromes such as bronchiectasis, rhinosinusitis and reduced fertility. In individuals with this syndrome, the functioning of the lungs is usually normal but the mucus is abnormally viscous. The reduced fertility (azoospermia) is due to functional obstruction of sperm transport down the genital tract at the epididymis where the sperms are found in viscous, lipid-rich fluid. The syndrome was named after Donald Young, the urologist who first made observations of the clinical signs of the syndrome in 1972. There have been several studies undertaken suggesting that contact with mercury might cause the syndrome. A variant of Youngs syndrome has been observed in an individual, showing slightly different signs and symptoms. Infertility Cystic fibrosis Handelsman DJ, Conway AJ, Boylan LM, Turtle JR (January 1984). ...
Cervical mucus has a very important role in the conception phase. It is vital that you improve the quantity of your cervical mucus as it aids the sperm in its journey to locate the egg. Therefore, the mucus must be prevalent enough to keep the sperm flowing in the direction of the egg.. One way to improve your cervical mucus quantity is to cut back on certain substances. Items such as caffeine and tobacco will hinder the production of cervical mucus and make it more difficult for the sperm to reach the egg. Eliminating or decreasing the intake of these items will help the process greatly.. Another way to improve your cervical mucus quantity is to drink enough fluids each day. Water is the best type of fluid to drink and you should drink approximately 10-6 oz. glasses of water per day. Besides drinking water each day, you should also drink grapefruit juice. The components of the grapefruit juice will aid in helping to produce extra cervical mucus which will in turn help you in your conception ...
CORTES, Manuel E.; GONZALEZ, Fernando and VIGIL, Pilar. Crystallization of Bovine Cervical Mucus at Oestrus: An Update. Rev. Med. Vet. [online]. 2014, n.28, pp.103-116. ISSN 0122-9354.. Bovine cervical mucus changes its biochemical composition and biophysical properties due to the variations in sex steroid levels during the oestrous cycle. As a consequence of oestrogen rise, cervical mucus is produced in larger amounts at oestrus-a stage also characterized by an increase in mucus crystallization when observed under light microscopy. The objective of this article is to provide an updated review of the main aspects regarding crystallization of bovine cervical mucus. First, it makes reference to the composition of cervical mucus and the critical functions that this secretion exerts on bovine reproductive physiology, as well as in other species. Then, the article deals with the phenomenon of crystallization observed in cervical mucus, describing the main models used to classify the crystalline ...
Clomid Cervical Mucus, So, hey... Im shooting photos at the Kansas City Warped Tour stop tomorrow. Im meeting up with my friends Zach and Sarah, who will be shooting photos for the Pitch, so not only will I be productive, Ill be having fun with friends I dont get to see all that often.. I did have some trouble getting into Warped tomorrow, however, 750mg Clomid Cervical Mucus. I was good on the photo pass, but because of some weird rule, the company doing promotion cant give out tickets to radio. TV, print, web, sure - everything but radio, Clomid Cervical Mucus. I guess they get in trouble or something... so I had to go through a label. The label, 40mg Clomid Cervical Mucus, of course, told me to get in contact with the promotion company.. Now I bounced around the e-mail accounts of various Epitaph staffers, trying to get on the list before Warped closes their lists at 6pm Pacific. Clomid Cervical Mucus, Thankfully, roughly two hours before it was too late, and I was going to just throw in ...
Internal fertilization occurs in birds and eutherian mammals. Foetal development, however, is either extra- respectively intra-corpore (egg vs uterus). In these animal classes, the female genital tract stores ejaculated spermatozoa into a restricted oviductal segment; the functional pre-ovulatory sperm reservoir, where they survive until ovulation/s occur. Paradoxically, this immunologically foreign sperm suspension in seminal fluid/plasma, often microbiologically contaminated, ought to be promptly eliminated by the female local immune defence which, instead, tolerates its presence. The female immune tolerance is presumably signalled via a biochemical interplay of spermatozoa, as well as the peptides and proteins of the extracellular seminal fluid, with female epithelial and immune cells. Such interplay can result in gene expression shifts in the sperm reservoir in relation to variations in fertility. To further aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, this thesis studied the proteome ...
Purpose Spermatozoa undergo critical changes in structure and function during the epididymal transit. Our previous studies in the domestic cat demonstrated that incidence of cenexin-a key protein...
This time is the most likely time to find what is commonly known as EWCM (egg-white cervical mucus) or spinn (short for spinnbarkeit which is German for spider-web). EWCM is stringy hence coming from the word spider-web. It may appear as a glob, or in smaller amounts amongst more watery mucus. Not all women have egg-white cervical mucus, so dont be alarmed if you dont notice any. If you were to stretch EWCM between your thumb and index finger, you may notice it stretches, unlike the infertile mucus that keeps its shape. You can see why this form of mucus favours sperm - it has a consistency similar to sperm and creates an ideal environment for them to reach the egg.. ...
This method depends on the observation of changes in the consistency and the volume of cervical mucus in relation to the ovulation. On feeling the cervical mucus in the vagina by fingers the dry days and the wet days are recognized by the women. The wet days are the fertile days.. The number of wet days are about 10 days in 28 day cycle. Wet days start with sticky white mucus for 2-3 days following 2-3 days dry days after menses. Sticky white mucus days is followed by clear slippery profuse mucus for 3-5 days (this slippery mucus is capable of being stretched between two fingers) . The last day is called the peak day. Following peak day there is sticky mucus for 3 days. This the end of fertile period.. Many women are unable to observe these symptoms and thus the Pregnancy failure rate is as high as 22 per 100 women year.. ...
Im so glad that youre here! Today we are going to talk about egg white cervical mucus (EWCM). We know that egg white cervical mucus is what everyone looks for around ovulation because it is the mucus that will help you to get pregnant. EWCM signals that ovulation is right around the corner but it also has special pro
Did you know that cervical mucus is an early pregnancy indicator. We discuss the signs, symptoms and expectations of cervical mucus in the first weeks of pregnancy.
Egg white cervical mucus is slippery, clear cervical mucus thats produced by a womans body during ovulation. Its ideal for...
Egg white cervical mucus is slippery, clear cervical mucus thats produced by a womans body during ovulation. Its ideal for...
FUNCTION: This gene encodes a member of a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of endoproteases that play important roles in various biological processes including cell signaling, adhesion and migration. This gene is specifically expressed in epididymis where the encoded protein is transferred to the sperm surface during epididymal transit. This gene is located adjacent to a related gene from the ADAM family of proteins on chromosome 14. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015 ...
Egg White Cervical Mucus Definition - Egg white cervical mucus is a vaginal fluid produced between the second and third week of a womans monthly...
Cervical Mucus and Pregnancy Early Signs info for expectant mothers create the best experience. Read on to know about Cervical Mucus and Pregnancy Early Signs.
So I always believed you had CM (cervical mucus) discharge like during ovulation. My predicted day of ovulation by calendar was the day before yesterday (we BD (baby dance (sex)) 2 days before and day of.) this morning I had sticky cm. I was thinking maybe my ovulation Date was off, as I believed this was a sign of ovulation. I was talking to my friend and she said she thought that cm was after ovulation, but I couldnt sworn it was during? Like a sign of impending? What do you guys go by? I cant seen to find a straight answer online. Going to BD (baby dance (sex)) today anyway just in case! Thank you all for your opinions/advice/knowledge!
To understand what happens to the cervix during ovulation, you must first understand its beginning, or non-fertile, state.. In the beginning and end of your cycle, outside of ovulation, your cervix sits lower in the vagina and it feels hard like the tip of your nose. It will also feel dry and closed. No sperm or bacterium can enter at this point.. Changes begin when ovulation starts creeping in. When you are at your most fertile, the state of your cervix will be the complete opposite of its non-fertile state. It will feel soft, high, open, and wet.. If you are paying attention, you can predict when you are about to ovulate simply by the position and state of your cervix and cervical mucus.. ...
Sticky? Creamy? Egg white? Heres what your cervical mucus looks like before your period, after ovulation, and every day in between so you can predict the days youre most likely to conceive.
Sexy blonde girlfriend playing with her fertile cervical mucus coming out from her wet pussy during ovulation. Its a pity she didnt taste it at the end!
Dr. HOLGADO responded: Ovulation. Your mucus starts to change into a thick, whitish discharge after |a href=/topics/ovulation track_data={
Can You Ovulate Without Detecting Cervical Fluid? Ovulation can take place even if you do not notice the stretchy egg-white fluid that we assume accompanies ovulation. Every woman can experience her own type of cervical fluid. Ovulation is assumed to take place on the day a woman has the most amount of wet fluid ...
The Billings Ovulation Method® is used by millions of women around the world. It was developed by Drs John and Evelyn Billings, validated by eminent i...
Learn about tracking ovulation and how to identify the best time to conceive using different methods, from LH, to cervical mucus and temperature
Many methods exist for tracking your dates of ovulation. Some, such as tracking changes in your cervical mucus or using an ovulation calculator, are free. But many women rely on over-the-counter ovulation predictor kits, which can be purchased at drugstores like CVS, Rite-aid and Walgreens, and at retailers like Wal-mart, K-Mart, and Target. You can […]. ...
Ever wondered why your discharge seems to change around your period, one day your cervical mucus can be creamy and another day its more clear and almost watery. But theres nothing wrong and theres simple reasons as to why it can change before your period and after ovulation.
The TTC Boost Bundle for Her has all you need to encourage hormonal balance, cycle regularity, and to promote fertile-quality cervical mucus.
Brannigan, Robert E.; Lipshultz, Larry I. (2008). "Sperm Transport and Capacitation". The Global Library of Women's Medicine. ... Some sperm remains in cervical crypts, infoldings of the endocervix, which act as a reservoir, releasing sperm over several ... the mucus is thin and serous to allow sperm to enter the uterus and is more alkaline and hence more hospitable to sperm. It is ... These changes allow it to function either as a barrier or a transport medium to spermatozoa. It contains electrolytes such as ...
ISBN 978-1-4557-7016-8. Kierszenbaum, Abraham L.; Tres, Laura (2011). "Chapter 21: Sperm Transport and Maturation". Histology ... Nutrients help support sperm until fertilisation occurs; prostaglandins may also assist by softening mucous of the cervix, and ... La Vignera S (October 2011). "Male accessory gland infection and sperm parameters". International Journal of Andrology. 34 ( ... by causing reverse contractions of parts of the female reproductive tract such as the fallopian tubes, to ensure that sperm are ...
"Seattle Sperm Bank. Retrieved 9 November 2014.. *^ a b c d Brannigan, Robert E.; Lipshultz, Larry I. (2008). "Sperm Transport ... Some sperm remains in cervical crypts, infoldings of the endocervix, which act as a reservoir, releasing sperm over several ... At midcycle around the time of ovulation-a period of high estrogen levels- the mucus is thin and serous to allow sperm to enter ... The cervical canal is a pathway through which sperm enter the uterus after sexual intercourse,[18] and some forms of artificial ...
... is the key to Gestational Surrogacy, which is when the sperm of the intended father and egg of intended mother are ... Carlson, Bruce M.; Kantaputra, Piranit N. (2014). "2 Transport of Gametes and Fertilization". Human embryology and ... after the head of the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the egg... the chromatin begins to spread out within the nucleus (now ... A tiny person (a homunculus) inside a sperm, as drawn by Nicolaas Hartsoeker in 1695 ...
Winston: A white sperm whale who communicates with sonar. His archenemy is a giant squid called Old One-Eye. Ralph Robin: ... He sometimes helps the Suntots with transport and any tasks that require brute strength deep under water. Despite his pleasant ...
Profet M (September 1993). "Menstruation as a defense against pathogens transported by sperm". The Quarterly Review of Biology ... If it is fertilized by a sperm, the oocyte promptly matures into an ootid, which blocks the other sperm cells and becomes a ... If it is not fertilized by a sperm, the oocyte degenerates. The mature egg has a diameter of about 0.1 mm (0.0039 in), and is ... This hypothesis held that menstruation protected the uterus against pathogens introduced by sperm. Hypothesis 1 does not take ...
"Menstruation as a Defense Against Pathogens Transported by Sperm". The Quarterly Review of Biology. Chicago, Illinois: The ...
Profet M (September 1993). "Menstruation as a defense against pathogens transported by sperm". The Quarterly Review of Biology ... ISBN 978-0-465-03127-6. Profet M (September 1993). "Menstruation as a defense against pathogens transported by sperm". The ...
Nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NASP gene. Multiple isoforms are encoded by ... This gene encodes a histone H1 binding protein that is involved in transporting histones into the nucleus of dividing cells. ... Welch JE, Zimmerman LJ, Joseph DR, O'Rand MG (1991). "Characterization of a sperm-specific nuclear autoantigenic protein. I. ... Batova I, O'Rand MG (1996). "Histone-binding domains in a human nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein". Biol. Reprod. 54 (6): ...
... it serves for transport of gases, nutrients and waste products around the body; it allows storage of sperm and eggs during ...
Profet M (September 1993). "Menstruation as a defense against pathogens transported by sperm". The Quarterly Review of Biology ...
They are often transported to pre dug pits by both parents, and are guarded. The fry will begin to swim in approximately 7 days ... Every couple of passes the male will interject and spray his sperm. The eggs will be ferociously guarded by both parents and a ... The most common genetic defect is a male who's sperm is infertile. Breeding partners of the same size is not necessary, as long ...
Profet M. Menstruation as a defense against pathogens transported by sperm. „Q Rev Biol". 68 (3), s. 335-86, September 1993. ...
The devices also create barriers to sperm transport and fertilization, and sensitive assays detect hCG in less than 1% of ... Potentially, they interfere with sperm function and transport within the uterus and tubes. It is difficult to determine whether ... reduced sperm capacite journal and survival, and increased phagocytosis of sperm.30,31… The progestin in the LNg IUC enhances ... reduced sperm capacite journal and survival, and increased phagocytosis of sperm.30,31… The progestin in the LNg IUC enhances ...
... it transports sperm from the epididymis in anticipation of ejaculation. In humans, the vas deferens routes up from the testicle ... In 1971, ten adult specimens of Podarcis sicula (the Italian wall lizard) were transported from the Croatian island of Pod ...
Both release eggs and sperm into the water. This is triggered by sexual pheromones. The eggs are then fertilized outside of the ... Larvae feed on plankton, and migrate vertically in the ocean in response to changes in light, causing a daily transport of ... Zeeck, Erich; Harder, Tilman; Beckmann, Manfred (1998). "Uric acid: the sperm-release pheromone of the marine polychaete ...
Vma21p coordinates assembly of the Vo subunits as well as escorting the Vo domain into vesicles for transport to the Golgi. The ... V-ATPases in the acrosomal membrane of sperm acidify the acrosome. This acidification activates proteases required to drill ... Malkus P, Graham LA, Stevens TH, Schekman R (November 2004). "Role of Vma21p in assembly and transport of the yeast vacuolar ... Rotation of the Vo domain transports the protons in movement coordinated with the V1 domain, which is responsible for ATP ...
Therefore, those who are missing both vas deferens are typically able to create sperm but are unable to transport them ... Their semen does not contain sperm, a condition known as azoospermia. There are two main populations of CAVD; the larger group ... It may either be unilateral (CUAVD) or bilateral (CBAVD). The vas deferens connect the sperm-producing testicles to the penis. ... Individuals with CAVD can reproduce with the assistance of modern technology with a combination of testicular sperm extraction ...
Each planarian transports its excretion to the other planarian, giving and receiving sperm. ... The gametophyte produces sperm or egg cells by mitosis. The sporophyte produces spores by meiosis which in turn develop into ... Sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves the union of the male and female germ cells, sperm and egg cells respectively ... "all male structures that are inserted in the female or that hold her near her gonopore during sperm transfer"; female genitalia ...
In some solitary species, sperm and eggs are shed into the sea and the larvae are planktonic. In others, especially colonial ... The blood may appear pale green, but this is not due to any respiratory pigments, and oxygen is transported dissolved in the ... An egg in each is fertilized internally by a sperm from another colony. The egg develops in a brood sac inside the blastozooid ... Others are phorozooids, have a transport function, and are arranged in a single central row. Other zooids link to the ...
... was found produce sperm with a normal sperm count, albeit abnormally low sperm viability; whether he was sterile or not is ... However, transport of the mature spermatozoa through the remainder of the male reproductive system is achieved via muscle ... The non-motile spermatozoa are transported to the epididymis in testicular fluid secreted by the Sertoli cells with the aid of ... However, only about half or 100 million of these become viable sperm. The entire process of spermatogenesis can be broken up ...
It also localizes to the acrosomal membrane of the sperm, where it putatively mediates calcium ion transmembrane transport. The ... Liu B, Wang P, Wang Z, Zhang W (9 February 2011). "The use of anti-VDAC2 antibody for the combined assessment of human sperm ... Though all VDAC isoforms are ubiquitously expressed, VDAC2 is majorly found in the sperm outer dense fiber (ODF), where it is ... VDACs generally are involved in cellular energy metabolism by transporting ATP and other small ions and metabolites across the ...
These open separately into the sperm duct or vas deferens and this stores the sperm. The vas deferentia then unite ... It is transported around the body by combined heart (posterior) and aorta (anterior) pulsations which are located dorsally just ... Sperm development is usually completed by the time the insect reaches adulthood. The male has two testes, which contain ... Making up usually less than 25% of an insect's body weight, it transports hormones, nutrients and wastes and has a role in ...
NAADP-activated calcium transport across endosomal/lysosomal membranes[5]. Cation channels of sperm. Calcium (CICR) PKD2 family ... sperm (specifically flagella) non-selective calcium-activated cation channel directing sperm in female reproductive tract[6]. ... Gao, Zhiqian; Ruden, Douglas M.; Lu, Xiangyi (2003-12-16). "PKD2 cation channel is required for directional sperm movement and ...
The cervical, uterine, and fallopian linings of the female reproductive system play a more important role in transporting sperm ... Most sperm have a single flagellum to help them swim. ... enables cells such as sperm to swim and others, such as ...
Each planarian transports its excretion to the other planarian, giving and receiving sperm. The life cycle of land plants ... The gametophyte produces sperm or egg cells by mitosis. The sporophyte produces spores by meiosis which in turn develop into ... sperm and egg cells respectively. Pollen is produced in stamens, and is carried to the pistil, which has the ovary at its base ... sperm, spermatophores) during or immediately after copulation". The visible portion of the mammalian genitals for males ...
The devices also create barriers to sperm transport and fertilization, and sensitive assays detect hCG in less than 1% of ... Potentially, they interfere with sperm function and transport within the uterus and tubes. It is difficult to determine whether ... reduced sperm capacitation and survival, and increased phagocytosis of sperm.30,31 The TCu380A causes an increase in copper ... It primarily works by killing the sperm. The copper IUD came into medical use in the 1970s. It is on the World Health ...
Each planarian transports its secretion to the other planarian, giving and receiving sperm. Eggs develop inside the body and ...
She left Valparaiso on 11 April and returned to London on 19 July with 200 tons of sperm oil. A letter from Jamaica, dated 3 ... She had left in company with Experiment, which was transporting convicts to New South Wales. However, the water on Policy had ... The report also mentioned that she had gathered 300 barrels of sperm oil. Policy returned to London on 9 December 1805. The ...
Fordney Settlage DS, Motoshima M, Tredway, DR (1973). Sperm transport from the external cervical os to the Fallopian tubes in ... Effect of intrauterine devices on sperm transport in the human being: preliminary report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Dec 1;123(7 ... Fordney-Settlage DS (1981). A review of cervical mucus and sperm interactions in humans. Int J Fertil. 1981;26(3):161-9. Lief ... Her early work looked at mechanisms of sperm motility following intercourse. She also published findings about sexual ...
"Barnacles Leak Sperm Into Ocean, Upending Mating Theory". National Geographic Society Newsroom. 15 January 2013.. ... The degree of disarticluation of fossils suggests the distance they have been transported, and since many species have narrow ... Barnacles can also reproduce through a method called spermcasting, in which the male barnacle releases his sperm into the water ... degrading to the condition of nothing more than sperm-producing cells.[15] ...
In 1856 the Danish zoologist Japetus Steenstrup demonstrated that it is used to transfer sperm, and only rarely detaches.[150] ... Octopus blood contains the copper-rich protein haemocyanin to transport oxygen. This makes the blood very viscous and it ... During breeding, the male uses a specially adapted arm to deliver a bundle of sperm directly into the female's mantle cavity, ... There is some speculation that he may first use his hectocotylus to remove any spermatophore or sperm already present in the ...
These birds are known to cache 32,000 pine seeds and transport the seeds as far as 12-22 kilometres (7.5-13.7 mi) from the ... The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... which allows the embryo to be transported and developed elsewhere.[3] ...
... is due to functional obstruction of sperm transport down the genital tract at the epididymis where the sperms are found in ...
They have no dorsal fin to prevent collision with pack ice.[16] Physeterids and Kogiids consist of sperm whales. Sperm whales ... Gigi II was another grey whale calf that was captured in the Ojo de Liebre Lagoon, and was transported to SeaWorld.[140] The ... sperm whales (physeterids), dwarf and pygmy sperm whales (kogiids), and beaked whales (ziphiids). There are six species, ... the sperm whale), Kogiidae (the dwarf and pygmy sperm whale), and Ziphiidae (the beaked whales). ...
As amniotes, reptile eggs are surrounded by membranes for protection and transport, which adapt them to reproduction on dry ... and so the male and female simply press their cloacas together as the male discharges sperm.[113] ...
transmembrane transport. • calcium ion transport. • regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • embryonic ... regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • ... calcium ion transmembrane transport. • camera-type eye development. • cardiac conduction. • calcium ion import. ... calcium ion transport into cytosol. • regulation of insulin secretion. • regulation of cardiac muscle contraction by regulation ...
Marine organisms with a larval stage often release large numbers of eggs and sperms into the water column. After fertilisation ... These live in the plankton, and may be transported long distances. Evolutionary theoryEdit. Probably the most widely accepted ...
... is the key to Gestational Surrogacy, which is when the sperm of the intended father and egg of intended mother are ... Carlson, Bruce M.; Kantaputra, Piranit N. (2014). "2 Transport of Gametes and Fertilization". Human embryology and ... after the head of the sperm enters the cytoplasm of the egg... the chromatin begins to spread out within the nucleus (now ... A tiny person (a homunculus) inside a sperm, as drawn by Nicolaas Hartsoeker in 1695 ...
The male deposits his sperm on the ground and the female then uses it to fertilize her eggs. ... coleoptrata apart from other centipedes is that their hemolymph was found to contain proteins for transporting oxygen. ...
The only domesticated species of honey bee are A. mellifera and A. cerana, and they are often maintained, fed, and transported ... which stores and maintains sperm after she has mated. Apis queens practice polyandry, with one female mating with multiple ... Honey bees did not naturally cross the Rocky Mountains; they were transported by the Mormon pioneers to Utah in the late 1840s ... Modern hives also enable beekeepers to transport bees, moving from field to field as the crop needs pollinating and allowing ...
endosomal transport. • actin filament polymerization. • regulation of T cell antigen processing and presentation. • immune ...
... sperm whales, minke whales and common, white-beaked and Risso's dolphins.[56] The Moray Firth colony of about 100 bottlenose ...
Hemipenes also have an outer groove called the sulcus spermaticus, which transports sperm through the outside, rather than the ... Sever, D.; Hamlett, W. (2002). "Female sperm storage in reptiles". The Journal of Experimental Zoology. 292 (2): 187-199. doi: ... Consequently, females can store sperm internally[13] for as long as five years, or possibly longer.[14] This phenomenon is ... This is structurally different from the human penis, which has sperm travel inside the organ through the vas deferens and the ...
Levin, R. J. (2011). Can the controversy about the putative role of the human female orgasm in sperm transport be settled with ... Levin, R. J. (2011). Can the controversy about the putative role of the human female orgasm in sperm transport be settled with ...
... sperm and egg cells), an issue that is studied in evolutionary developmental biology. Animals have evolved a considerable ... increased size have a decreased surface-to-volume ratio and have difficulty absorbing sufficient nutrients and transporting ... in the fusion of egg cell and sperm. Such fused cells are also involved in metazoan membranes such as those that prevent ...
Many ligand transport proteins bind particular small biomolecules and transport them to other locations in the body of a ... These proteins are crucial for cellular motility of single celled organisms and the sperm of many multicellular organisms which ... The canonical example of a ligand-binding protein is haemoglobin, which transports oxygen from the lungs to other organs and ... Transmembrane proteins can also serve as ligand transport proteins that alter the permeability of the cell membrane to small ...
Female birds have sperm storage mechanisms that allow sperm from males to remain viable long after copulation, a hundred days ... MacLean, Gordon L. (1 June 1983). "Water Transport by Sandgrouse". BioScience. 33 (6): 365-369. JSTOR 1309104. doi:10.2307/ ... Birkhead, T.R.; Møller, P. (1993). "Sexual selection and the temporal separation of reproductive events: sperm storage data ... The length is thought to be related to sperm competition.[74] When not copulating, it is hidden within the proctodeum ...
Females of some species have delayed fertilisation, in which sperm is stored in the reproductive tract for several months after ... Jürgens, Klaus Dieter; Bartels, Heinz; Bartels, Rut (1981). "Blood oxygen transport and organ weights of small bats and small ... the male may leave behind a mating plug to block the sperm of other males and thus ensure his paternity.[211] In hibernating ...
Whales transport more nitrogen through their feces in the Gulf of Maine than all of the rivers in that system combined. ... The iron defecation of just the 12,000 strong sperm whale population in the Southern Ocean results in the sequestration of ... Global nutrient transport in a world of giants. PNAS, October 26, 2015 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1502549112 ... Whales, along with other large animals, play a significant role in the transport of nutrients in global ecological cycles. ...
... usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs ... These plants make small, light, dry pollen grains that are custom-made for wind transport. ... The joining of the sperm to the ovules is called fertilization. Normally pollen is moved from one plant to another, but many ... Since the flowers are the reproductive organs of plant, they mediate the joining of the sperm, contained within pollen, to the ...
... help fertilise the surface of the ocean by consuming nutrients in the depths and transporting those nutrients to the oceans' ... "Sperm Whale". Archived from the original on 2007-02-20.. *^ Ellis, Richard (2011). The Great Sperm Whale: A Natural History of ... which contains the sperm whale, dwarf sperm whale, and pygmy sperm whale, diverged from other toothed whales soon after that, ... Macroanatomy of the sperm whale eye *^ Fristrup, K. M.; Harbison, G. R. (2002). "How do sperm whales catch squids?". Marine ...
... cloaca secrete a fluid which resembles that produced by mammalian prostate glands and which may transport and nourish the sperm ... Some species store sperm through long breeding seasons, as the extra time may allow for interactions with rival sperm.[75] ... In most of these, the male deposits a spermatophore, a small packet of sperm on top of a gelatinous cone, on the substrate ... The female takes up the sperm packet by grasping it with the lips of the cloaca and pushing it into the vent. The spermatozoa ...
... sperm lack flagella, a unique trait among myriapods.[5] In all except the bristle millipedes, copulation occurs with ... A Sceliages beetle transporting a millipede carcass. Millipedes are preyed on by a wide range of animals, including various ... Females lay from ten to three hundred eggs at a time, depending on species, fertilising them with the stored sperm as they do ... Reproduction in most species is carried out by modified male legs called gonopods, which transfer packets of sperm to females. ...
An advantage of ICSI over IVF is that lower quality sperm can be used since the sperm does not have to penetrate the zona ... Mare transport, care, and board if the mare is bred live cover at the stallion's residence ... This technique is very useful for subfertile stallions, as fewer sperm are needed, so a stallion with a low sperm count can ... Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI): Used in horses due to lack of successful co-incubation of female and male gametes in ...
anterograde axonal transport. • axonal transport of mitochondrion. • regulation of axon diameter. • peripheral nervous system ... retrograde axonal transport. • intermediate filament organization. • response to sodium arsenite. • neuron projection ...
Active transport moves calcium ions back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber. ATP causes the binding between ...
Glycerol and DMSO have been used for decades by cryobiologists to reduce ice formation in sperm,[2] oocytes,[3] and embryos ...
The urethra transports urine from the bladder to the outside of the body. This image shows (a) a female urethra and (b) a male ... There are several openings: (1) the ejaculatory duct receives sperm from the vas deferens and ejaculate fluid from the seminal ...
OS negatively affects flagellar axonemal structure with subsequent impairment of forward progressive sperm motility. This can ... Oxidative stress and epididymal sperm transport, motility and morphological defects Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 May; ... Objectives: Radical oxidative species (ROS) have an important effect on sperm quality and quantity. Oxidative stress (OS) ... Results: Compared to fertile controls, statistically highly significant higher degrees of abnormal sperm parameters (P,0.001) ...
Oocyte & sperm transport : Oocyte & sperm transport Sperm tail motility Vesiculase in seminal secretions form vaginal plug & ... Uterine contractions due to PG in semen Acid pH of vagina decreases sperm motility Alkaline pH of uterus increases sperm ... Phases of fertilization Passage of sperm through corona radiata Hyaluronidase from acrosome Sperm tail Tubal mucosal enzymes ... Fertilization is a complex sequence of events that begins with contact between a sperm and a secondary oocyte and ends with the ...
Injection of sperm RNAs from traumatized males into fertilized wild-type oocytes reproduced the behavioral and metabolic ... Injection of isolated RNA from the sperm of stressed males into donor fertilized oocytes is able to induce these phenotypic ... changes that are observed in rodents exposed to early life stress are mediated by changes in miRNA levels in the sperm of ... Direct evidence for transport of RNA from the mouse brain to the germline and offspring *Elizabeth A. OBrien ...
The full name is spermatazoan, abbreviated to sperm cell or sperm. Cell structure and transport. ... The sperm cell has a tail so it can swim to fertilise an egg cell. It has lots of mitochondria to generate the energy it ... Substances can cross the cell membrane by diffusion, osmosis and active transport. Use the animation to see how each of them ... The correct answer is: Stem cells, Muscle cells, Salivary gland cells, Sperm cell, Nerve cell) ...
... nourish sperm production and the survival of stem cells. ... by transplanting specialized cells that are critical to sperm ... Scientists have successfully restored sperm production in once-infertile mice ... Will robo-driving lead to fewer or more emissions from land-based transport?. ... Much of the volume of a mammalian testis consists of tightly coiled seminiferous tubules that hold mature sperm. Sperm ...
Blockage of sperm transport. What is it: Obstructions in the tubes leading sperm away from the testes to the penis can cause a ... Low numbers of sperm are made and/or the sperm made do not work properly. About two thirds of infertile men have sperm ... Sperm production problems. What is it: This is the most common cause of male infertility is problems with the sperm production ... Sperm antibodies. What is it: In some men, substances in the semen or blood called sperm antibodies can develop which can ...
View current promotions and reviews of Supplement To Increase Sperm Count and get free shipping at $35. ... Wheelchair & Transport Chair Accessories. *Shop Wheelchairs & Transport Chairs. *Sale on Wheelchairs & Transport Chairs ... Supplement To Increase Sperm Count at Walgreens. ...
Sperm transport disorders. Age can also play a role. The ability of sperm to move and the proportion of normal sperm tend to ... Healthy sperm arent always a given. Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your sperm and what you can do to improve your ... While not as important a factor as sperm quantity or movement, the more sperm you have with a normal shape and structure, the ... Dont smoke. Men who smoke cigarettes are more likely to have low sperm counts. Smoking can also decrease sperm movement and ...
Traffic / transport [i]. *. Zoology / agricultural and forest sciences [i]. *. interdisciplinary [i]. *. Select all ... How do female insects manage to keep the sperm fresh for months after mating? This is a central question of the sperm ... False-colour image of the fluorescence lifetime of the metabolic coenzyme NADH in sperm mass (here in yellow) in a female sperm ... The sperm were investigated in still intact closed organs, which in the male serve for storage before and in the females after ...
After microinjection of sperm into the oocyte, oocytes are incubated for 15 minutes in a 30 microlitre droplet of calcium ... Before Intracytoplasmic sperm injection adding calcium ionophore solution to the medium can increase fertilization rate of ... The aim of this study is to evaluate calcium ionophore solution on fertilization rate of patients during intracytoplasmic sperm ... Calcium Ionophore Solution Can Increase Fertilization Rate in Patients During Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection(ICSI) Who Have ...
Oocyte Transport. Infertility. [44,45]. Sperm Motility. Infertility. [46,47,48]. Fluid Transport. Hydrocephalus; Cell Migration ... Disruption of intraflagellar transport in adult mice leads to obesity and slow-onset cystic kidney disease. Curr. Biol. 2007, ...
This study demonstrated that RNA and proteins from xenografted tissue can ultimately reach sperm via exosomes, t by Cristina ... Soma-to-germline transmission of RNA in mice xenografted with human tumour cells: possible transport by exosomes. PLoS One. ... While studies of sperm cells suggest that epigenetic variations can potentially underlie phenotypic alterations across ...
Dashed lines indicate the transport of sperm. b, Number of hermaphrodites contacted by a male before mating initiation. c, d, ... e, The efficiency of sperm transfer. For b-e, the numbers of tested males are shown beneath the bars. f, g, Age-dependent ...
2006) Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update 12:23-37. ... Sperm size and sperm number in relation to risk of sperm competition. Sperm size is significantly associated with relative ... Sperm size can increase with sperm competition risk if (i) sperm density decreases the slope of r(m), and/or (ii) sperm density ... giant sperm (4), suggesting that males trade off sperm size and sperm number. Theoretical models of sperm size evolution in the ...
... is a clinical-grade fertility supplement designed to promote male fertility by decreasing oxidative stress and improving sperm ... Sperm Must Transport Chromosomes Intact and Unharmed. The final piece of the sperm story is sometimes overlooked but perhaps ... CoQ10-protects sperm cells and improves sperm motility.. *L-Carnitine, Arginine- improves sperm production, count, and motility ... In a healthy male, sperm are produced continually at a rate of roughly 100 million sperm per day and each sperm takes about 42 ...
... and infertility due to defective sperm transport.. Choice C: Huntington disease is an autosomal dominant inherited ... The consequence of abnormal chloride transport is viscous secretions in the lungs, pancreas, intestines and reproductive tract. ...
This review summarizes some recent findings in human sperm which show that progesterone and 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone are ... Ion Transport / drug effects * Male * Progesterone / pharmacology* * Receptors, GABA-A / metabolism * Receptors, Progesterone ... Rapid non-genomic actions of progesterone stimulate Ca2+ influx and the acrosome reaction in human sperm Cell Signal. 1993 Sep; ... These data suggest that human sperm have a cell surface steroid receptor which is unlike the genomic progesterone receptor and ...
... female reproductive tract provide different luminal microenvironments that can act as an aid or a barrier to gamete transport ... Sperm Motility / physiology*. Sperm Transport. Spermatozoa / ultrastructure. Vagina / chemistry*, ultrastructure. From MEDLINE ... The mechanism of sperm transport through the genital tract has not been fully established but, first of all, sperm cells ... In the light of this, we propose bovine vaginal fluid as a morphofunctional model for the study of sperm transport in mammals. ...
8. Defects of tubules that transport sperm. That is the reason why it is always suggested to undergo a blood test for marriage ... An infertility test is a special test that is designed to let you know the actual sperm count and health of ovaries. Since ... 4. Antibodies that attack sperm. 5. Tumours.. 6. Undescended testicles.. 7. Hormone imbalances.. ...
2006) Sperm transport in the female reproductive tract. Hum Reprod Update 12:23-37. ... The increased likelihood of a sperm-sperm collision may also have a more complex behavioral effect; when cells collide, ... 1980) Sperm populations in the female genital tract of the rabbit. J Reprod Fertil 60:213-218. ... Sperm motility is influenced by surfaces; this is most simply and strikingly evident in the accumulation of cells on the ...
... the wire interferes with sperm transport and fertilization. Both IUDs also create a mild inflammation, which prevents sperm ... inserted into the uterus that hampers the interaction and implantation of the sperm and egg. It has to be placed by a trained ...
Sperm are weird-looking, and scientists have done weird things with them. Some of their accomplishments would seem to be ... 7 Worm Sperm Without DNA. Sperm exist to transport DNA. They start in the testicles, and if theyre lucky, they deliver the ... DNA-less sperm did all of the normal things that nonmutant C. elegans sperm do. They crawled into a sperm-storage organ called ... Sperm like to fuse with other cells. In a best-case scenario, that other cell is an egg, but sperm dont always hold out for ...
A critical component of the sperm annulus that is essential for correct sperm tail differentiation and motility and hence male ... May be involved in a new regulatory pathway linking sulfate transport to RhoGTPase signaling in male germ cells. ... May form a molecular complex involved in the regulation of chloride and bicarbonate ions fluxes during sperm capacitation. ... sulfate and oxalate transport. May fulfill critical anion exchange functions in male germ line during meiosis and hence may ...
About 13 percent of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (i.e., no sperm in the semen because of low or absent sperm production ... circumventing severely decreased sperm quantity or quality. Only one viable sperm per egg is required for ICSI, and a precise ... When using sperm from men with known or presumed genetic infertility, it must be assumed that any male offspring also will be ... Strict criteria for sperm morphology. In: Lipshultz LI, Howards SS, eds. Infertility in the male. 3d ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1997 ...
intracellular protein transport IMP Inferred from Mutant Phenotype. more info. PubMed sperm individualization IMP Inferred from ...
Sperm transport in the reproductive tract of the female rabbit: I. The rapid transit phase of transport. Biol Reprod. 1978;19(1 ... SPERM TRANSPORT THROUGH THE CERVICAL MUCUS. Sperm movement inside the cervical mucus occurs primarily through the interstitial ... KEYWORDS: Sperm transport; Cervix mucus; Hydrogen ion concentration; Sperm agglutination; Uterine cervix disease; Vaginal ... "rapid transport", leaving behind the seminal plasma.2,7 Rapid sperm transport may begin within seconds after ejaculation. In ...
Causes of infertility include endometriosis, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and low sperm count. Pinpoint your symptoms and signs ... Immotile Sperm. *Sperm Transport Disorder (Obstruction of the Vas Deferens or Epididymus) ...
And the other is to nourish and transport sperm. That is an important evolutional development physiologically because its not ... This is a non-fertile cervical mucus and it will prevent sperm from surviving long enough to reach the egg. ... just about the meeting of the sperm and the egg - we need something to connect them. And that is what cervical mucus does. ...
Sperm transport disorder (10-20%). *Unknown causes (40-50%). Much research remains to be performed on the topic of male ... Sperm can be considered abnormal for two possible reasons: unusually short life span of the sperm and/or low mobility.. Sperm ... donor sperm can be used to help facilitate conception. In this procedure, donor sperm is obtained from a sperm bank and placed ... Sperm count - 20 million to 300 million per milliliter is considered in the normal range for sperm counts. Below 10 million is ...
RAB-Like 2 Has an Essential Role in Male Fertility, Sperm Intra-Flagellar Transport, and Tail Assembly Jennifer C. Y. Lo, ...
  • Increased ROS generation and reduced antioxidant capacity is negatively correlated with sperm concentration and motility in infertile men. (nih.gov)
  • A statistically negative correlation were found between different axonemal anomalies (absent axoneme (r(2)=-0.780), missing of central singlet tubules (r(2)=-0.611), and missing of outer doublet tubules (r(2)=-0.738) and forward progressive sperm motility. (nih.gov)
  • OS negatively affects flagellar axonemal structure with subsequent impairment of forward progressive sperm motility. (nih.gov)
  • Oocyte & sperm transport Sperm tail motility Vesiculase in seminal secretions form vaginal plug & prevents backflow of semen into vagina. (authorstream.com)
  • Also, there can be problems of abnormal sperm shape (morphology), movement (motility) or function. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Ultrastructural and rheological properties of bovine vaginal fluid and its relation to sperm motility and fertilization: a review. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Shown in a clinical study to improve sperm count, motility and morphology. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • In a prospective clinical trial, 148 infertile men were treated with FH PRO for Men for three months, which resulted in a significant reduction in sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal oxidative stress, and significant improvement in sperm count, progressive motility and morphology in infertile men. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • Oxidative stress is a leading cause of male infertility, as it leads to decreased sperm count and motility. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • CoQ10 - protects sperm cells and improves sperm motility. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • A comprehensive semen analysis will give you a good indication of your overall sperm health, including sperm count and motility. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • Motility and morphology are also key factors besides count - that is, sperm have to swim straight and fast and be of the right shape in order to reach and penetrate the egg. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • In this paper, we report experimental observations of the motility of populations of human sperm in fabricated microchannel environments and the effect of fluid viscosity. (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial cell movement in microchannels, particularly those produced with soft lithography, has perhaps received more attention than sperm, and studies have focused more closely on cell tracking and motility characteristics in the channels. (pnas.org)
  • A critical component of the sperm annulus that is essential for correct sperm tail differentiation and motility and hence male fertility. (uniprot.org)
  • All four CatSper ion channel proteins are required for male fertility and sperm cell hyperactivated motility. (nih.gov)
  • In birds, crossing in the vagina may be particularly challenging for sperm, so we tested the effect of female reproductive tract fluids on sperm swimming speed and motility. (springer.com)
  • If a PCPZ barrier exists at this stage of the fertilization process, heterospecific female fluids are predicted to reduce sperm swimming speed or motility relative to conspecific female fluid. (springer.com)
  • This chapter will describe the following aspects of mammalian sperm motility: structure of the flagellum, development of motility in the epididymis, changes in sperm movement patterns following ejaculation and during fertilization, biochemical mechanisms regulating sperm kinetic activity, methods to quantitate sperm motility, and a brief outline of the methods available to alter sperm motility in vitro . (springer.com)
  • Lindemann C.B., Kanous K.S. Regulation of mammalian sperm motility. (springer.com)
  • The reproductive profile in human toxicology studies was discussed and included semen analyses, sperm viability, measurements of sperm motility and velocity, and sperm morphology analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Semenogelins are thought to affect the sperm capacitation and motility ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The aim of this study was to test the effect of oestradiol-17 β (E 2 ) on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm in vitro . (scielo.org.za)
  • A small dose of E 2 (2 µg/mL) had a beneficial effect on the motility and acrosome integrity of bull sperm in vitro . (scielo.org.za)
  • Presence of E 2 in the female reproductive tract during this time modulates the motility and extent of the viability of sperm (Hunter, 1988). (scielo.org.za)
  • Motility of sperm is one of the primary mechanisms of sperm transport and traits closely correlated with fertility. (scielo.org.za)
  • Involved in flagellated sperm motility and spermatid development. (jax.org)
  • Tight circling sperm motility, as observed in select hyperactivated sperm and CatSper mutants, is predicted to disrupt the rheotactic response, whereas confinement to low shear regions generally requires boundary accumulation, thus introducing subtleties in the relationship between rheotactic behaviours and the flagellar waveform and sperm characteristics. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • A fundamental question concerning spermatozoan dynamics is guidance: how does a sperm know where to go, or indeed, does it, or is it merely a case that so many sperm are released that random motility is nonetheless sufficient. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • However, following insemination in humans, the observed presence at any given time of only 10-1000 sperm within the expanse of the fallopian tubes suggest randomness alone is implausible in bringing the sperm to the egg at this point [ 1 ], whereas highly directed motility is also recorded in video-microscopy of sperm motility in the bovine female reproductive tract [ 2 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Homozygous null mice display male infertility with impaired sperm motility. (jax.org)
  • with Peter Hura, Head of Logistics Department at First Egg Bank to find out everything about the process of transporting genetic biomaterial (oocytes, semen samples or embryos) to various international destinations, means of transportation and services offered by IVF courier. (myivfanswers.com)
  • You're most likely to be fertile if your ejaculate - the semen discharged in a single ejaculation - contains at least 15 million sperm per milliliter. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Obstructions in the tubes leading sperm away from the testes to the penis can cause a shortage of sperm in the ejaculated semen. (kidspot.com.au)
  • In some men, substances in the semen or blood called sperm antibodies can develop which can reduce sperm movement and block egg binding (where the sperm attaches to the egg) which is essential for fertilisation. (kidspot.com.au)
  • Low sperm count means that the fluid (semen) you ejaculate during an orgasm contains fewer sperm than normal. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Your sperm count is considered lower than normal if you have fewer than 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Once sperm are produced in the testicles, delicate tubes transport them until they mix with semen and are ejaculated out of the penis. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Based on studies with a fiber optic endoscope attached to a man's penis during sex, Baker describes how the cervix behaves during sex and orgasm, dipping down "like an elephant's trunk" into the pool of semen so that the sperm can more easily swim into it, the so-called "upsuck theory" of female orgasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • About 13 percent of men with nonobstructive azoospermia (i.e., no sperm in the semen because of low or absent sperm production) have been shown to have Y-chromosome microdeletions, and about 70 percent of men with congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens are carriers of cystic fibrosis mutations. (aafp.org)
  • Along the way, fluids made by the seminal vesicles and the prostate gland mix with the sperm cells to create semen. (cancer.ca)
  • Sperm in the semen can fertilize a female egg to start a pregnancy. (cancer.ca)
  • Semen contains sperm, which can fertilize a female egg. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Several glands and male reproductive organs are responsible for producing semen and transporting it for ejaculation. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Semen as a substance is a combination of secretions from the male reproductive glands as well as sperm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This gland produces a chemical called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) that causes a reaction in the gel-like semen, allowing the sperm to swim away and reach an available egg more easily. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although semen is usually a whitish-gray color, some men may have sperm that is yellow. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • oxytocin were given, mass transport of semen into the uterus occurred. (bioscientifica.com)
  • This striking difference between the two groups can be at least partly explained by sperm competition mechanisms depending on sperm size relative to the size of the female reproductive tract: in large animals (passerines), sperm numbers are advantageous in sperm competition owing to dilution inside the female tract, whereas in small animals (drosophilids), large sperm are advantageous for physical competition (sperm displacement). (pnas.org)
  • The tubular genital organs of the mammalian female reproductive tract provide different luminal microenvironments that can act as an aid or a barrier to gamete transport and the first steps of embryonic development. (biomedsearch.com)
  • however, both the female reproductive tract and microfluidic in vitro fertilization (IVF) devices present sperm with a much more confined and potentially tortuous geometry. (pnas.org)
  • Fertilization, organism-specific biosystem Mammalian fertilization comprises sperm migration through the female reproductive tract, biochemical and morphological changes to sperm, and sperm-egg interaction in the oviduct. (nih.gov)
  • Professor England's research interests are reproductive biology (particularly the interaction between sperm and the female reproductive tract, and the effect of environmental chemicals on fertility) and canine behaviour (predominantly epidemiological modelling of behavioural tests). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • In horses his work studies follicular dynamics, ovulation, and sperm transport within the female reproductive tract. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The study of guidance cues has fascinated sperm biologists and in particular the prospect of rheotaxis, that is a fluid flow orienting the direction of sperm swimming, has been the subject of extensive recent study, as readily motivated by the prospect that such guidance may be active in the mammalian female reproductive tract. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Fertilization is a complex sequence of events that begins with contact between a sperm and a secondary oocyte and ends with the intermingling of the maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase of 1st cleavage of Zygote. (authorstream.com)
  • While several assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, are now available for patients with low sperm counts, infertile patients with Sertoli cell defects have limited options. (scienceblog.com)
  • Calcium Ionophore Solution Can Increase Fertilization Rate in Patients During Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection(ICSI) Who Have Poor Ovarian Reserve? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Before Intracytoplasmic sperm injection adding calcium ionophore solution to the medium can increase fertilization rate of oocytes or not? (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Essential sperm cell-surface protein required for fertilization by acting as a ligand for IZUMO1R/JUNO receptor on egg. (uniprot.org)
  • The IZUMO1:IZUMO1R/JUNO interaction is a necessary adhesion event between sperm and egg that is required for fertilization but is not sufficient for cell fusion. (uniprot.org)
  • The mechanism of sperm transport through the genital tract has not been fully established but, first of all, sperm cells encounter and need to overcome mucous-like secretions to reach the site where fertilization occurs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To reach the site of fertilization, sperm must traverse narrow and convoluted channels, filled with viscous fluids. (pnas.org)
  • The most significant advance in the treatment of severe male infertility is in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). (aafp.org)
  • The pollen tube must remain intact throughout this journey, but then must burst open at exactly the right time and place when it arrives at the target to release sperm for fertilization. (eurekalert.org)
  • When a kindly monk passing by broke the seal, the monkey burst out, which is what the scientists were reminded of when they saw how the pollen tube explodes to release sperm and enable fertilization. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fertilization (egg + sperm) occurs within the female, except for seahorses. (studystack.com)
  • In this chapter I will describe the arduous journey that sperm must make through the female genitals to reach the egg, as well as the simultaneous adventure of the egg during which it matures to become genetically ready for fertilization, erupts from the ovary, and gets grabbed by the fallopian tube, fertilized, and then hustled along into the womb at exactly the right moment to implant. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • The tube swallows the egg, nourishes it before and during fertilization for three days, and then transports it into the uterus. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Though seminal plasma is not essential for fertilization, it does facilitate sperm transport. (cdc.gov)
  • It can affect the transport of sperm or eggs in the fallopian tube, preventing fertilization. (cnn.com)
  • The sperm and egg meet in the fallopian tube where fertilization occurs. (bellaonline.com)
  • The fallopian tube allows for fertilization and transport to the uterus. (bellaonline.com)
  • Mechanisms of activation of sperm and egg during fertilization of sea urchin gametes. (springer.com)
  • The system is designed to transport the ova to the site of fertilization.The female reproductive system is designed to carry out several functions. (scribd.com)
  • the fertilization of an egg by a sperm. (scribd.com)
  • In most cases of permanent ejaculation problems, sperm can still be retrieved directly from the testicles. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Sperm production numbers are big because they have to be - a single ejaculation may contain up to 150 million sperm but only roughly 15% of those will be perfectly normal sperm that can penetrate an egg. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • Male infertility usually occurs because of sperm that are abnormal, because of inadequate numbers of sperm, or problems with ejaculation. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Droplets of seminal fluid contain large amounts of sperm and may cause a pregnancy without ejaculation. (uen.org)
  • It makes a fluid that mixes with sperm and other fluids during ejaculation. (raysahelian.com)
  • The "sperm wars" include both literal battles between sperm inside a woman's reproductive tract, as well as figurative battles between men competing for the chance to mate. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biological purpose for the complex anatomy and physiology of the male reproductive system is to produce and deliver sperm cells for reproduction. (uen.org)
  • Such observations of sea urchin sperm have previously generated the hypothesis that chemotaxis is also important for mammals [ 6 ] and a further suggested mammalian sperm guidance mechanism is thermotaxis [ 7 ], which is based on very small temperature differences along the mammalian reproductive tract. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Rheotaxis, with sperm directed to swim into the current, was first reported over a century ago [ 11 ] and many times in past decades [ 12 - 14 ], though more recent studies have documented the rheotactic response for a variety of sperm in further detail, as well as emphasizing its prospective importance in the female mammalian reproductive tract. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • They are produced in large amounts in the reproductive tract and play an integral role in sperm maturation. (newswise.com)
  • While the study did not test stress management interventions to determine what effects they might have on attenuating the changes in sperm composition, Dr. Bale, who goes for regular runs to reduce the stress of the current COVID-19 pandemic, contends that any lifestyle habits that are good for the brain are likely good for the reproductive system. (newswise.com)
  • Sperm, the male gamete, and a secondary oocyte (along with first polar body and corona radiata), the male gamete must meet in the female reproductive system to create a new individual. (wikibooks.org)
  • While both the female and male reproductive systems are involved with producing, nourishing and transporting either the oocyte or sperm, they are different in shape and structure. (wikibooks.org)
  • Sperm are produced in the testes and are transported through the reproductive ducts. (wikibooks.org)
  • Bedford J.M. "Maturation, Transport, and Fate of Spermatozoa in the Epididymis. (springer.com)
  • Orgebin-Crist M.-C. Sperm maturation in rabbit epididymis. (springer.com)
  • Usselman M.C., Cone R.A. Rat sperm are mechanically immobilized in the caudal epididymis by "immobilin," a high molecular weight glycoprotein. (springer.com)
  • The epididymis is a coil-like structure in the testicles that helps store and transport sperm. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Sometimes the epididymis becomes blocked, preventing sperm being ejaculated normally. (www.nhs.uk)
  • As they mature into sperm cells, germ cells move from the lining, through the maze of seminiferous tubules and to the epididymis. (cancer.ca)
  • The epididymis stores sperm cells so they can completely mature. (cancer.ca)
  • The epididymis is the tube that transports sperm from the testicles to the vas deferens. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Too little sperm in an ejaculate might make it more difficult to get pregnant because there are fewer candidates available to fertilize the egg. (mayoclinic.org)
  • We show that in both groups, males increase their total ejaculate investment with increasing sperm competition risk, but whereas passerine birds allocate disproportionately to sperm number, drosophilids allocate disproportionately to sperm size. (pnas.org)
  • m = mass of each sperm, and s = number of sperm per ejaculate. (pnas.org)
  • Male masturbation is said to discard old, dying sperm, so that an ejaculate contains younger sperm that will stay active inside the cervix longer, with more of a chance of being present during the window of ovulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baker also proposes that men adjust the amount of sperm they ejaculate based on the time their mate has spent away from them. (wikipedia.org)
  • A major focus of the book is sperm heteromorphism, in which not only are a variety of morphological types of sperm apparent in every normal human ejaculate, but also at any one time fewer than 1% seem capable of responding to and fertilizing an egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baker calls these fertile sperm "egg-getters", and claims that the rest of the sperm in the ejaculate are infertile "kamikaze sperm" or "blockers", whose primary purpose is to prevent other men's sperm from getting to the egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Later, when the bird is mature, it will ejaculate sperm from that first embryo. (listverse.com)
  • During natural mating, these ejaculate fractions sequentially enter the cervix-uterine lumen, are quickly transported towards the tips of the uterine horns and colonize the oviductal sperm reservoirs (SR). Using a simple experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the first ejaculated sperm subpopulation (fortuitously present in the peak portion of the sperm-rich fraction [SRF], the so-called Portion 1, P1) is, by reaching first the SR, overrepresented there. (diva-portal.org)
  • the absence of sperm in the ejaculate. (webmd.com)
  • If you are planning your fertility treatment with donor eggs/sperm and you need to have the samples transported from an egg bank where you purchased them to a clinic of your choice, then IVF courier services may turn out to be the solution you need. (myivfanswers.com)
  • He is in charge of worldwide cryoshipments (frozen donor eggs, sperm, embryos) for intended parents or on demand for private fertility clinics and surrogacy agencies. (myivfanswers.com)
  • Understand how lifestyle factors can affect your sperm and what you can do to improve your fertility. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Start by understanding the various factors that can affect male fertility - then consider steps to help your sperm become top performers. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The ability of sperm to move and the proportion of normal sperm tend to decrease with age, affecting a man's fertility. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Ask your doctor about the impact on your fertility - or the possibility of retrieving and storing sperm before treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Many sperm production problems are hard to treat, although those with mild sperm abnormalities have responded to fertility drugs like Clomid. (kidspot.com.au)
  • He theorizes about how the timing of orgasm can affect fertility, due to changes in the cervical mucus said to accompany orgasm, which then affect its ability to "filter out" sperm and prevent them from traveling into the cervix. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies have found no connection to sperm transport or fertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our premium male fertility supplement designed to promote sperm function by decreasing oxidative stress. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • FH PRO for Men is a premium, patented and clinically proven fertility supplement designed to promote male fertility by increasing overall nutritional status, decreasing oxidative stress, and improving sperm function. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • In this review, we discuss the physiological role of the vaginal pH and cervical mucus in fertility, and describe several conditions that can render the cervical mucus hostile to sperm and therefore be implicated in the pathophysiology of unexplained infertility. (scielo.br)
  • Progestational agents may also alter sperm fertility. (drugs.com)
  • Mature sperm cells travel through the vas deferens. (cancer.ca)
  • Research work in the field of prevention of sperm transport through vas deferens has made significant advances. (ias.ac.in)
  • nourish and transport the sperm cells once they are produced a) VAS DEFERENS .Series of glands and ducts that store. (scribd.com)
  • F) Schematic showing predicted phosphorylation and organization of MSPs during C. elegans sperm maturation based on WormCat findings. (genetics.org)
  • Vijayaraghavan S., Hoskins D.D. Changes in the mitochondrial calcium influx and efflux properties are responsible for the decline in sperm calcium during epididymal maturation. (springer.com)
  • Once the sperm are produced, they moved from the seminiferous tubules into the rete testis for further maturation. (wikibooks.org)
  • The production of sperm is a complex process and requires normal functioning of the testicles (testes) as well as the hypothalamus and pituitary glands - organs in your brain that produce hormones that trigger sperm production. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The other kind of cell, located in the testicles, forms the sperm. (listverse.com)
  • In a healthy male, sperm are produced continually at a rate of roughly 100 million sperm per day and each sperm takes about 42 to 76 days of temps 2 degrees cooler than the body (hence the testicles hanging outside) to mature into a streamlined profile of sperm cells. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • The testicles make sperm. (cancer.ca)
  • The testicles make sperm and male hormones. (cancer.ca)
  • The testicles are the organs responsible for producing sperm. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Scientists have successfully restored sperm production in once-infertile mice by transplanting specialized cells that are critical to sperm development. (scienceblog.com)
  • Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine have successfully transplanted specialized cells that are critical to sperm development in mice, restoring sperm production in once-infertile animals. (scienceblog.com)
  • About two thirds of infertile men have sperm production problems. (kidspot.com.au)
  • About one in every 16 infertile men has sperm antibodies. (kidspot.com.au)
  • Likewise, women are found to be more likely to engage in extra-pair copulation and retain larger amounts of sperm during their most fertile phase of the month, and more likely to have sex with their regular partner during the infertile phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Morphology - the size and shape of the sperm affect the sperms ability to reach and fertilize an egg. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Overall, however, sperm performed equally in conspecific and heterospecific female fluids, and the species had similar sperm morphology and sperm swimming performance. (springer.com)
  • We thank Lars Erik Johannessen for assistance with R and CEROS analysis, Jostein Gohli for comments on a previous version of the manuscript, Even Stensrud for additional sperm morphology measures, and Alfonso Marzal Reynolds for providing wild Spanish sparrow sperm samples for comparison. (springer.com)
  • In order for conception to occur these sperm must travel to the ampulla in the fallopian tube and undergo a series of steps that will allow it to then penetrate the cell layer surrounding the oocyte and so fertilise it. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • In order for sperm to penetrate the oocyte it undergoes capacitation . (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Penetration of the zona pellucida allows the sperm and oocyte cell membranes to fuse almost immediately, calcium to enter to oocyte and the sperm cell stop moving. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Fusion of plasma membranes of secondary oocyte and sperm Completion of 2nd meiotic division of oocyte and formation of female pronucleus Formation of male pronucleus. (authorstream.com)
  • 14 With this technique, a single sperm is injected directly into the oocyte, circumventing severely decreased sperm quantity or quality. (aafp.org)
  • From an average of 200 to 300 million sperm deposited in the vagina, only a few hundred achieve proximity to the oocyte. (scielo.br)
  • In dogs his work studies peri-ovulatory physiology, cryopreservation of gametes, sperm transport and sperm-oocyte interaction. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Much of the volume of a mammalian testis consists of tightly coiled seminiferous tubules that hold mature sperm. (scienceblog.com)
  • Sexual intercourse that results in the deposition of sperm in the vagina at the level of the cervix is known as coitus . (teachmephysiology.com)
  • After sperm has been deposited at the cervix it is transported to the uterus where it fertilises the ovum and implants in the uterine stroma. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Following coitus, a small percentage of the millions of sperm deposited at the cervix will reach the site of fertilisation. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • To reach and fertilize an egg, sperm must move - wriggling and swimming through a woman's cervix, uterus and fallopian tubes. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although the vaginal canal and the cervix generally function as effective barriers to sperm, and although the production of mucus is essential to transport them from the vagina to the uterine cavity, these factors receive little attention in the investigation of couples with unexplained infertility. (scielo.br)
  • A substantial reduction in sperm number occurs as they transverse the cervix. (scielo.br)
  • IUI, also known as artificial insemination, involves inserting sperm into the womb via a fine plastic tube passed through the cervix. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Capacitation reorganises the sperm cell membrane and results in the tail movement changing from a beat-like action to a thrashing whip-like action to help propel the sperm forward. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • The changes that occur in capacitation induced by the removal of protein coat of sperm exposes acrosome enzymes. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • What reaction follows sperm capacitation to allow for penetration of the zona pellucida? (teachmephysiology.com)
  • May form a molecular complex involved in the regulation of chloride and bicarbonate ions fluxes during sperm capacitation. (uniprot.org)
  • Scientists at the University of Cambridge working with the Weizmann Institute have created primordial germ cells - cells that will go on to become egg and sperm - using human embryonic stem cells. (phys.org)
  • A small number of these cells become primordial germ cells (PGCs) - these have the potential to become germ cells (sperm and egg), which in later life will pass on the offspring's genetic information to its own offspring. (phys.org)
  • This gene which is abundantly expressed in testicular haploid germ cells encodes a protein that is recognized by sperm-agglutinating antibodies and implicated in infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • May be involved in a new regulatory pathway linking sulfate transport to RhoGTPase signaling in male germ cells. (uniprot.org)
  • The process of making sperm starts in germ cells, which line the seminiferous tubules. (cancer.ca)
  • They support the germ cells by helping make and transport sperm. (cancer.ca)
  • Testosterone helps germ cells make sperm. (cancer.ca)
  • Sperm development also occurs within these tubules, which are home to spermatogenic stem cells, the seeds from which spermatogenesis arises. (scienceblog.com)
  • In addition, combination hormonal contraceptives produce alterations in the genital tract, including changes in the cervical mucus, rendering it unfavorable for sperm penetration even if ovulation occurs. (drugs.com)
  • Rather, the pills delay ovulation , the release of eggs from ovaries that occurs before eggs are fertilized, and some pills also thicken cervical mucus so sperm have trouble swimming. (scarleteen.com)
  • The fallopian tubes consist of ciliated epithelium ( 21 ), the distance between opposed epithelial surfaces being of the order of 100 μm in many regions, particularly cervical crypts and the folds of the ampullary fallopian tube, comparable with the approximate 50-μm length of the human sperm flagellum. (pnas.org)
  • The ovaries produces the eggs, the fallopian tubes allows transport of the egg into the uterine cavity. (bellaonline.com)
  • Combination hormonal contraceptive drugs may alter the tubal transport of the ova through the fallopian tubes. (drugs.com)
  • In this review, we focus on recent studies that describe the relationships between the ultrastructural and rheological properties of bovine vaginal fluid and sperm motion. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the light of this, we propose bovine vaginal fluid as a morphofunctional model for the study of sperm transport in mammals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • It didn't contain many sperm cells, just seminal plasma , which is the sticky fluid that surrounds sperm. (listverse.com)
  • It produces the fluid that helps transport and nourish sperm. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In boars, sperm cohorts are sequentially emitted in epididymal cauda fluid and resuspended in different Mixtures of accessory sex gland secretions while ejaculated in various fractions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Sperm is first collected and washed in a fluid. (www.nhs.uk)
  • After insemination, sperm would be exposed to E 2 , particularly in tubal fluid. (scielo.org.za)
  • 2 ], has also generated the hypothesis that rheotaxis, i.e. the bias of sperm swimming by the direction of fluid flow, may provide a guidance cue [ 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Temperature has to be lower than normal in order for spermatogenesis (sperm production) to take place. (wikibooks.org)
  • Its main function is to nurture the developing sperm cells through the stages of spermatogenesis. (wikibooks.org)
  • Oxytocin stimulates uterine contraction which, along with the sperms' own propulsive activity, aids in transporting the sperm and helping it travel. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • The combined effect of viscosity and three-dimensional architecture should be accounted for in future in vitro studies of sperm chemoattraction. (pnas.org)
  • Limited studies have been performed to monitor in vitro the effect of oestrogens on bull sperm. (scielo.org.za)
  • Many couples resort to intrauterine insemination (where warmed sperm are inserted into the woman's uterus at the time of conception) or IVF. (kidspot.com.au)
  • The intrauterine device is a small-roughly 1 inch-plastic "T" inserted into the uterus that hampers the interaction and implantation of the sperm and egg. (slate.com)
  • Far back in the corners of the uterus, on each side, are microscopic canals through which the sperm must squeeze in order to reach the fallopian tube, where it may encounter an unfertilized egg. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Once the egg is safely within the tube, it is transported quickly toward the narrower region of the tube, the ampullary-isthmic junction, located two-thirds of the way toward the uterus. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • This review summarizes some recent findings in human sperm which show that progesterone and 17 alpha hydroxyprogesterone are able rapidly (within seconds) to elevate [Ca2+]i and elicit the acrosome reaction (AR) via a non-genomic cell surface receptor. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that human sperm have a cell surface steroid receptor which is unlike the genomic progesterone receptor and the GABAA Cl- channel steroid receptor. (nih.gov)
  • To see if similar differences occurred in human sperm, the researchers recruited students from the University of Pennsylvania to donate sperm each month for six months, and complete questionnaires about their perceived stress state in the preceding month. (newswise.com)
  • Healthy sperm aren't always a given. (mayoclinic.org)
  • You can take simple steps to increase your chances of producing healthy sperm. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Producing healthy sperm in the right amounts requires that the body have all the 'raw materials' it needs and as little as possible of the oxidative stress it doesn't need. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • Anything that increases the number of healthy sperm increases the chances of conception. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • This is the most common cause of male infertility is problems with the sperm production process in the testes. (kidspot.com.au)
  • Testosterone is produced in the testes which stimulates the production of sperm as well as give secondary sex characteristics beginning at puberty. (wikibooks.org)
  • The acrosome then swells and its outer membrane fuses with the sperm plasma membrane resulting in the release of enzymes from the acrosome into the space surrounding the head of the sperm. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Once within the cytoplasm of the ovum the tail of sperm degenerates & its head enlarges to form male pronucleus. (authorstream.com)
  • The sperm cell has a tail so it can 'swim' to fertilise an egg cell. (abpischools.org.uk)
  • We named this newly isolated gene oppo 1, and we suggest that it plays an important role in sperm tail structure and/or sperm movement. (bioone.org)
  • While the male produces billions of sperm every week, the female matures only one of her existing eggs for ovulation each month. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • Having a low sperm count decreases the odds that one of your sperm will fertilize your partner's egg, resulting in pregnancy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The cervical canal is a passage through which sperm must travel to fertilize an egg cell after sexual intercourse. (wikipedia.org)
  • NASA has announced that it used freeze-dried mouse sperm that spent months aboard the ISS to fertilize mouse overy eggs back on earth. (slashgear.com)
  • Surely his own sperm, ejaculated from his own penis, must be genetically his, right? (listverse.com)
  • Yes, of course, we deliver oocytes, as well as embryos and sperm samples to Italy. (myivfanswers.com)
  • Injection of sperm RNAs from traumatized males into fertilized wild-type oocytes reproduced the behavioral and metabolic alterations in the resulting offspring. (nature.com)
  • 1985. Phorbol ester and sperm activate mouse oocytes by inducing sustained oscillations in cell Ca. Nature (Lond.) . (springer.com)
  • Although the benefits have not been fully proven, wearing loose-fitting underwear, reducing the time you spend sitting, avoiding saunas and hot tubs, and limiting scrotum exposure to warm objects, such as a laptop, might enhance sperm quality. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although it is well established that the vaginal pH and cervical mucus play important roles in maintaining sperm function after intercourse, their importance in unexplained infertility is generally underestimated. (scielo.br)
  • This is a non-fertile cervical mucus and it will prevent sperm from surviving long enough to reach the egg. (redorbit.com)
  • Several methods of contraception, including cervical caps and cervical diaphragms aim to block or prevent the passage of sperm through the cervical canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Artificial insemination is an option if the man's sperm count is low. (americanpregnancy.org)
  • Newswise - Prolonged fear and anxiety brought on by major stressors, like the coronavirus pandemic, can not only take a toll on a person's mental health, but may also have a lasting impact on a man's sperm composition that could affect his future offspring. (newswise.com)
  • Prednisolone, a cortisone-like drug, can be used to lower the levels of sperm antibodies in the body. (kidspot.com.au)
  • The seemingly unlimited number of tiny sperm produced by males compared with the few large eggs produced by females (i.e., anisogamy) has shaped our understanding of sexual selection and the evolution of mating systems ( 1 - 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • Unlike a woman who is born with all the eggs she will ever have, a man must constantly produce new sperm. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • Eggs are removed from her ovaries and fertilised with sperm in a laboratory. (www.nhs.uk)
  • If you or your partner has an infertility problem, you may be able to receive eggs or sperm from a donor to help you conceive. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Anyone who registered to donate eggs or sperm after April 1 2005 can no longer remain anonymous and has to provide information about their identity. (www.nhs.uk)
  • This is because a child born as a result of donated eggs or sperm is legally entitled to find out the identity of the donor when they become an adult (at age 18). (www.nhs.uk)
  • 1983. Periodic hyperpolarizing responses in hamster and mouse eggs fertilized with mouse sperm. (springer.com)
  • When an egg cell is fertilised by a sperm, it begins to divide into a cluster of cells known as a blastocyst, the early stage of the embryo. (phys.org)
  • First, take sperm-forming cells from one embryo. (listverse.com)
  • Fawcett D.W. A comparative view of sperm ultrastructure. (springer.com)
  • Some research suggests that increasing BMI is linked with decreasing sperm count and sperm movement. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The inner cell membrane of the acrosome is then exposed and another glycoprotein (ZP2) holds the sperm near the egg. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • The proteolytic enzymes released from the acrosome then allow for penetration of the zona pellucida by the whiplashing sperm. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • Styrene maleic anhydride (SMA) disturbed the electrical charge of spermatozoa leading to acrosome rupture and consequent loss in fertilizing ability of sperm. (ias.ac.in)
  • Seminiferous tubules are lined with Sertoli cells, which are thought to nurture sperm cells as they develop and facilitate their eventual passage out of the testis. (scienceblog.com)
  • The zona pellucida specific cell surface glycoproteins (ZP3 proteins) interact with the capacitated sperm and allow calcium to enter the spermatozoa which results in an increase in intracellular cAMP. (teachmephysiology.com)
  • 15.6 +/- 2.1% P1-spermatozoa, Pless than0.05) or P1 and P2 sperm Suspensions were mixed (control, 36.9 +/- 2.70% P1-spermatozoa, Pless than0.05). (diva-portal.org)
  • We test these predictions using a comparative approach in two very different taxa with different sperm competition mechanisms: passerine birds (mechanism: simple raffle) and Drosophila fruit flies (sperm displacement). (pnas.org)
  • It introduces the concepts of the mechanisms of sperm competition and dilution to explain observed interspecific variation in sperm size. (pnas.org)
  • The cell membrane contains high amounts of fats that are easily damaged, and sperm do not have antioxidant mechanisms to keep free radicals at bay. (fairhavenhealth.com)
  • In some men, an underlying problem such as an inherited chromosomal abnormality, a hormonal imbalance, dilated testicular veins or a condition that blocks the passage of sperm may cause signs and symptoms. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Although some infections can result in permanent testicular damage, most often sperm can still be retrieved. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Low numbers of sperm are made and/or the sperm made do not work properly. (kidspot.com.au)