Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Stem Cell Transplantation: The transfer of STEM CELLS from one individual to another within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or between species (XENOTRANSPLANTATION), or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). The source and location of the stem cells determines their potency or pluripotency to differentiate into various cell types.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Embryonic Stem Cells: Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Adult Stem Cells: Cells with high proliferative and self renewal capacities derived from adults.Sperm Head: The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Stem Cell Niche: A particular zone of tissue composed of a specialized microenvironment where stem cells are retained in a undifferentiated, self-renewable state.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Multipotent Stem Cells: Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Sperm Maturation: The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Fetal Stem Cells: Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Sperm Injections, Intracytoplasmic: An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).Acrosome: The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization: The release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood circulation for the purpose of leukapheresis, prior to stem cell transplantation. Hematopoietic growth factors or chemotherapeutic agents often are used to stimulate the mobilization.Sperm Midpiece: The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Sperm Banks: Centers for acquiring and storing semen.Semen Preservation: The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Cell SeparationEpididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Octamer Transcription Factor-3: An octamer transcription factor that is expressed primarily in totipotent embryonic STEM CELLS and GERM CELLS and is down-regulated during CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Regenerative Medicine: A field of medicine concerned with developing and using strategies aimed at repair or replacement of damaged, diseased, or metabolically deficient organs, tissues, and cells via TISSUE ENGINEERING; CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and ARTIFICIAL ORGANS and BIOARTIFICIAL ORGANS and tissues.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Hematopoiesis: The development and formation of various types of BLOOD CELLS. Hematopoiesis can take place in the BONE MARROW (medullary) or outside the bone marrow (HEMATOPOIESIS, EXTRAMEDULLARY).Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of stem cells collected from the peripheral blood. It is a less invasive alternative to direct marrow harvesting of hematopoietic stem cells. Enrichment of stem cells in peripheral blood can be achieved by inducing mobilization of stem cells from the BONE MARROW.Semen Analysis: The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.Mice, Inbred C57BLTotipotent Stem Cells: Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Zona Pellucida: A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.SOXB1 Transcription Factors: A subclass of SOX transcription factors that are expressed in neuronal tissue where they may play a role in the regulation of CELL DIFFERENTIATION. Members of this subclass are generally considered to be transcriptional activators.Spermatogonia: Euploid male germ cells of an early stage of SPERMATOGENESIS, derived from prespermatogonia. With the onset of puberty, spermatogonia at the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule proliferate by mitotic then meiotic divisions and give rise to the haploid SPERMATOCYTES.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy: Therapies that involve the TRANSPLANTATION of CELLS or TISSUES developed for the purpose of restoring the function of diseased or dysfunctional cells or tissues.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sperm Whale: The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Transplantation of STEM CELLS collected from the fetal blood remaining in the UMBILICAL CORD and the PLACENTA after delivery. Included are the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Nestin: A type VI intermediate filament protein expressed mostly in nerve cells where it is associated with the survival, renewal and mitogen-stimulated proliferation of neural progenitor cells.Oligospermia: A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Hair Follicle: A tube-like invagination of the EPIDERMIS from which the hair shaft develops and into which SEBACEOUS GLANDS open. The hair follicle is lined by a cellular inner and outer root sheath of epidermal origin and is invested with a fibrous sheath derived from the dermis. (Stedman, 26th ed) Follicles of very long hairs extend into the subcutaneous layer of tissue under the SKIN.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Embryo Research: Experimentation on, or using the organs or tissues from, a human or other mammalian conceptus during the prenatal stage of development that is characterized by rapid morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. In humans, this includes the period from the time of fertilization to the end of the eighth week after fertilization.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Dedifferentiation: A reverse developmental process in which terminally differentiated cells with specialized functions revert back to a less differentiated stage within their own CELL LINEAGE.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Teratoma: A true neoplasm composed of a number of different types of tissue, none of which is native to the area in which it occurs. It is composed of tissues that are derived from three germinal layers, the endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. They are classified histologically as mature (benign) or immature (malignant). (From DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1642)Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Transplantation Conditioning: Preparative treatment of transplant recipient with various conditioning regimens including radiation, immune sera, chemotherapy, and/or immunosuppressive agents, prior to transplantation. Transplantation conditioning is very common before bone marrow transplantation.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Embryoid Bodies: Spontaneous aggregations of human embryonic stem cells that occur in vitro after culturing in a medium that lacks LEUKEMIC INHIBITORY FACTOR. The embryoid bodies can further differentiate into cells that represent different lineages.Nuclear Reprogramming: The process that reverts CELL NUCLEI of fully differentiated somatic cells to a pluripotent or totipotent state. This process can be achieved to a certain extent by NUCLEAR TRANSFER TECHNIQUES, such as fusing somatic cell nuclei with enucleated pluripotent embryonic stem cells or enucleated totipotent oocytes. GENE EXPRESSION PROFILING of the fused hybrid cells is used to determine the degree of reprogramming. Dramatic results of nuclear reprogramming include the generation of cloned mammals, such as Dolly the sheep in 1997.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Cell Transplantation: Transference of cells within an individual, between individuals of the same species, or between individuals of different species.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Lentivirus: A genus of the family RETROVIRIDAE consisting of non-oncogenic retroviruses that produce multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection. Lentiviruses are unique in that they contain open reading frames (ORFs) between the pol and env genes and in the 3' env region. Five serogroups are recognized, reflecting the mammalian hosts with which they are associated. HIV-1 is the type species.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Chondrogenesis: The formation of cartilage. This process is directed by CHONDROCYTES which continually divide and lay down matrix during development. It is sometimes a precursor to OSTEOGENESIS.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Graft vs Host Disease: The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Cell Tracking: Non-invasive imaging of cells that have been labeled non-destructively, such as with nanoemulsions or reporter genes that can be detected by molecular imaging, to monitor their location, viability, cell lineage expansion, response to drugs, movement, or other behaviors in vivo.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Seminal Plasma Proteins: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Cell Shape: The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.Asthenozoospermia: A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as Tissue Scaffolds: Cell growth support structures composed of BIOCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. They are specially designed solid support matrices for cell attachment in TISSUE ENGINEERING and GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION uses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Limbus Corneae: An annular transitional zone, approximately 1 mm wide, between the cornea and the bulbar conjunctiva and sclera. It is highly vascular and is involved in the metabolism of the cornea. It is ophthalmologically significant in that it appears on the outer surface of the eyeball as a slight furrow, marking the line between the clear cornea and the sclera. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells: The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Epigenesis, Genetic: A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.Stage-Specific Embryonic Antigens: Cell-surface molecules that exhibit lineage-restricted patterns of expression during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. The antigens are useful markers in the identification of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Hematologic Neoplasms: Neoplasms located in the blood and blood-forming tissue (the bone marrow and lymphatic tissue). The commonest forms are the various types of LEUKEMIA, of LYMPHOMA, and of the progressive, life-threatening forms of the MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROMES.Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Blastocyst: A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.Intermediate Filament Proteins: Filaments 7-11 nm in diameter found in the cytoplasm of all cells. Many specific proteins belong to this group, e.g., desmin, vimentin, prekeratin, decamin, skeletin, neurofilin, neurofilament protein, and glial fibrillary acid protein.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Azoospermia: A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Cell Aging: The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.Wnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Transplantation Chimera: An organism that, as a result of transplantation of donor tissue or cells, consists of two or more cell lines descended from at least two zygotes. This state may result in the induction of donor-specific TRANSPLANTATION TOLERANCE.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nerve Tissue ProteinsCell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Tissue Donors: Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.Planarians: Nonparasitic free-living flatworms of the class Turbellaria. The most common genera are Dugesia, formerly Planaria, which lives in water, and Bipalium, which lives on land. Geoplana occurs in South America and California.Karyotyping: Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Cryoprotective Agents: Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Hematopoietic Cell Growth Factors: These growth factors comprise a family of hematopoietic regulators with biological specificities defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of blood cells of different lineages. ERYTHROPOIETIN and the COLONY-STIMULATING FACTORS belong to this family. Some of these factors have been studied and used in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and bone marrow failure syndromes.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Culture Media, Conditioned: Culture media containing biologically active components obtained from previously cultured cells or tissues that have released into the media substances affecting certain cell functions (e.g., growth, lysis).Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Seminiferous Tubules: The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Cellular Microenvironment: Local surroundings with which cells interact by processing various chemical and physical signals, and by contributing their own effects to this environment.Mesoderm: The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Wnt Signaling Pathway: A complex signaling pathway whose name is derived from the DROSOPHILA Wg gene, which when mutated results in the wingless phenotype, and the vertebrate INT gene, which is located near integration sites of MOUSE MAMMARY TUMOR VIRUS. The signaling pathway is initiated by the binding of WNT PROTEINS to cells surface WNT RECEPTORS which interact with the AXIN SIGNALING COMPLEX and an array of second messengers that influence the actions of BETA CATENIN.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.MicroRNAs: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.Germ Layers: The three primary germinal layers (ECTODERM; ENDODERM; and MESODERM) developed during GASTRULATION that provide tissues and body plan of a mature organism. They derive from two early layers, hypoblast and epiblast.Leukemia Inhibitory Factor: An INTERLEUKIN-6 related cytokine that exhibits pleiotrophic effects on many physiological systems that involve cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Leukemia inhibitory factor binds to and acts through the lif receptor.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Fallopian Tubes: A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.Feeder Cells: Cells used in COCULTURE TECHNIQUES which support the growth of the other cells in the culture. Feeder cells provide auxillary substances including attachment substrates, nutrients, or other factors that are needed for growth in culture.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Epigenetics of human development
Cell Stem Cell. doi: 10.1016/j.stem.2012.02.022 Margueron, R., Reinberg, D. (2011) "The Polycomb complex PRC2 and its mark in ... Trophoblastic disease occurs when a sperm fertilizes an egg with no nucleus and a cancer-like mass forms in the placenta. ... causing the cells to be unstable and reversion back to a stem cell-like stage where the cell would have to undergo ... Richly, H., Aloia, L., and Di Croce, L. (2011), "Roles of the Polycomb group proteins in stem cells and cancer." Cell Death and ...
... sperm cells on the same stem do not all develop at the same time. However, sperm cells within a single antheridium have ... Rain may splash sperm into the archegonium, or sperm may swim to the archegonium. Ribbed bog moss may germinate from spores ... Approximately the top 0.6 inch (1.5 cm) of both vegetative and reproductive stems is alive; lower stem tissue is usually dead. ... Ribbed bog moss is apparently competitive in its ability to establish from stem chunks. In a laboratory experiment, ribbed bog ...
Stem Cells: Therapies for the Future?. Consulted on August 11, 2007. British Medical Journal, France debates ethics of sperm ... He has said of stem cells as a therapy, "Science alone is not sufficient for making decisions on stem cells, but we cannot ... In 1995, Kahn was a notable opponent of intracytoplasmic sperm injection, which he saw as an experimental treatment not to be ... out against the case of a 62-year-old Frenchwoman who gave birth after being implanted in the United States with the sperm of ...
... induced pluripotent stem (IPS) cells. Now, theoretically, they are able to make sperm and egg cells with old skin cells. Stored ... The scientists have already extracted cells from a Sumatran tiger named Jalal. Sperm can be taken from an animal following ... A frozen zoo is a storage facility in which genetic materials taken from animals (e.g. DNA, sperm, eggs, embryos and live ... gathered and thereafter stored at very low temperatures in tanks of liquid nitrogen waiting to be reprogrammed into stem cells ...
... he created human sperm-like cells from male stem cells in the laboratory for the first time. Previously, in 2006, he used sperm ... called spermatagonial stem cells. It was able to show that some of these stem cells, called multipotent adult germline stem ... and GENEOCELL company focusing on stem cell technologies and cell therapy. He is Director of International Stem Cell Academy ... "Scientists claim breakthrough in growing human sperm from stem cells , Science". The Guardian. Retrieved 2015-11-27. James ...
"A culture system using human foreskin fibroblasts as feeder cells allows production of human embryonic stem cells" (PDF). Human ... He also demonstrated the need to permanently immobilise the sperm tail for successful intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). ... that has been cited 196 times and identified by Outi Hovatta as the first description of the potential of IVF and stem cell ... "Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for severe semen abnormalities: dissecting the tail of spermatozoa at the tip" (PDF). ...
In vitro gametogenesis (IVG)-the generation of eggs and sperm from pluripotent stem cells in a culture dish. Currently feasible ... "the generation of eggs and sperm from pluripotent stem cells in a culture dish." This technique is currently feasible in mice ... Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to ... through the division of a generative cell into two sperm nuclei. Depending on the species, this can occur while the pollen ...
To avoid legal issues with working with pure human embryonic stem cell lines. To assess the viability of human sperm for in ... A humster is a hybrid cell line made from hamster oocyte fertilized with human sperm. It always consists of single cells, and ... 14, 191-196 Analysis of the first cell cycle in the cross between hamster eggs and human sperm. ... Somatic cell hybrids between hamster or mouse and man have been used for mapping of various traits at least since the 1970s. ...
... but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes were derived. It also is found on monocytes and dendritic cells. Further ... it is found within the male genital tract and is present on the surface of mature sperm cells. CD52 is a peptide of 12 amino ... Since it is highly negatively charged and present on sperm cells and lymphocytes, it has been conjectured that its function is ... Piccaluga PP, Agostinelli C, Righi S, Zinzani PL, Pileri SA (April 2007). "Expression of CD52 in peripheral T-cell lymphoma". ...
Surrogate mothers are legally allowed, as is donation of sperm or eggs for reproductive purposes. Human embryos and stem cells ... "Human somatic cell nuclear transfer using adult cells". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (6): 777-80. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2014.03.015. PMID ... "Pluripotent stem cells from cloned human embryos: success at long last". Cell Stem Cell. 12 (6): 636-8. doi:10.1016/j.stem. ... "Human skin cells converted into embryonic stem cells: First time human stem cells have been produced via nuclear transfer." ...
These cells do not directly participate in producing sperm, instead serving to maintain the supply of stem cells for ... The stem cells involved are called spermatogonia and are a specific type of stem cell known as gametogonia. Three functionally ... and involves stem cells dividing to replace themselves and to produce a population of cells destined to become mature sperm. ... The connections between cells allow development to be synchronised. When repeated division ceases, the cells differentiate into ...
Robert Edwards (physiologist)
... and stem cell research. Edwards and Steptoe founded the Bourn Hall Clinic as a place to advance their work and train new ... Their breakthrough laid the groundwork for further innovations such as intracytoplasmatic sperm injection ICSI, embryo biopsy ( ... impregnating it with sperm and planting the resulting embryo back into the mother. Fraser LR (2000). "In Appreciation of ...
These develop into mature spermatozoa, also known as sperm cells. Thus, the primary spermatocyte gives rise to two cells, the ... Instead, spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce copies of themselves, ensuring a constant supply of ... was found produce sperm with a normal sperm count, albeit abnormally low sperm viability; whether he was sterile or not is ... The seminiferous tubules of the testes are the starting point for the process, where spermatogonial stem cells adjacent to the ...
"Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation into rhesus testes regenerates spermatogenesis producing functional sperm". Cell Stem ... Vassena, R; Eguizabal, C; Heindryckx, B; Sermon, K (2015). "Stem cells in reproductive medicine: Ready for the patient?". Hum. ... Analogy to apoptosis of somatic cells". Exp Cell Res. 207 (1): 202-205. doi:10.1006/excr.1993.1182. PMID 8391465.. CS1 ... Johnson, J; Canning, J; Kaneko, T; Pru, JK (2004). "Germline stem cells and follicular renewal in the postnatal mammalian ovary ...
In vitro gametogenesis (IVG)-the generation of eggs and sperm from pluripotent stem cells in a culture dish. Currently feasible ... "the generation of eggs and sperm from pluripotent stem cells in a culture dish." This technique is currently feasible in ... Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to ... Cell type. ploidy/chromosomes in humans. DNA copy number/chromatids in human[Note 1]. Process ...
Hematopoietic stem cells (adult stem cells) from the bone marrow that give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and ... Germ line cells are any line of cells that give rise to gametes-eggs and sperm-and thus are continuous through the generations ... adult stem cells) from the bone marrow that give rise to stromal cells, fat cells, and types of bone cells Epithelial stem ... Examples of stem and progenitor cells include: Radial glial cells (embryonic neural stem cells) that give rise ...
Deletion of the gene for KDM1A can have effects on the growth and differentiation of embryonic stem cells. Deletion in mouse ... KDM1A appears to play an important role in the epigenetic "reprogramming" that occurs when sperm and egg come together to make ... Cell. 119 (7): 941-53. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2004.12.012. PMID 15620353. Munkácsy G, Sztupinszki Z, Herman P, Bán B, Pénzváltó Z, ... Cell. 138 (4): 660-72. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.05.050. PMID 19703393. Ancelin K, Syx L, Borensztein M, Ranisavljevic N, ...
... which is critical to the differentiation of stem cells into blood cells, sperm cells, and pigment cells. A process called ... sperm cells, or pigment cells. Steel factor receptor interacts chemically with steel factor or stem cell factor to relay ... The cells that descend from the affected stem cell will exhibit the mutation, while the rest of the cells are unaffected. A ... Mosaicism could produce white or partially white foals if a stem cell in the developing foal underwent a mutation, or change to ...
Germ line development
Mitotic germ stem cells, oogonia, divide by mitosis to produce primary oocytes committed to meiosis. Unlike sperm production, ... "Reconstitution of the mouse germ cell specification pathway in culture by pluripotent stem cells". Cell. 146 (4): 519-32. doi: ... Germ cell Germ cell tumor Richardson BE, Lehmann R (January 2010). "Mechanisms guiding primordial germ cell migration: ... Cinalli RM, Rangan P, Lehmann R (February 2008). "Germ cells are forever". Cell. 132 (4): 559-62. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.02. ...
Good tissue practice
The most controversial products covered in these rules include stem cells and tissue used in reproductive medicine (assisted ... reproductive technology): sperm, oocytes, and embryos. These rules only cover tissue which has not been significantly modified ... and Additional Requirements for Manufacturers of Human Cells, Tissues and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps)". 2005 ...
Contribution of epigenetic modifications to evolution
... the methylomes of human and chimp sperm can be compared to methylation in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). There were many ... DNA methylation patterns differ between germ cells and somatic cells as well as between the human and chimpanzee sperm cells. ... Sperm methylation profiles reveal features of epigenetic inheritance and evolution in primates. Cell. 2011;146:1029-41. doi: ... An analysis of methylation profiles of humans and primate sperm cells reveals epigenetic regulation plays an important role ...
... functions as a marker for a rare subset of spermatogonial stem cells, specifically a sub set of Asingle spermatogonia. ... PAX7+ spermatogonia are able to give rise to all stages of spermatogenesis and produce motile sperm. However, PAX7 is not ... Kumar, T. Rajendra (2014-10-01). "The quest for male germline stem cell markers: PAX7 gets ID'd". The Journal of Clinical ... "PAX7 expression defines germline stem cells in the adult testis". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 124 (9): 3929-3944. ...
The cause is usually a mutation that occurred in an early stem cell that gave rise to all or part of the gonadal tissue. This ... Germline or gonadal mosaicism is a special form of mosaicism, where some gametes-i.e., sperm or oocytes-carry a mutation, but ... That is, whether or not the gene acts solely within the cell of that genotype, or if it affects neighboring cells which do not ... The 46/47 annotation indicates that the XY cells have the normal number of 46 total chromosomes, and the XXY cells have a total ...
... larger if injecting stem cells into an embryo)-are used to penetrate the cell membrane and/or the nuclear envelope. In this way ... The pronuclear injection of mouse sperm is one of the two most common methods for producing transgenic animals (along with the ... Microinjection can also be used in the cloning of organisms, in the study of cell biology and viruses, and for treating male ... The target is often a living cell but may also include intercellular space. Microinjection is a simple mechanical process ...
2006 Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2
The Missouri Stem Cell Research and Cures Initiative) was a state constitutional amendment initiative that concerned stem cell ... or attempt to implant in a uterus anything other than the product of fertilization of an egg of a human female by a sperm of a ... It allows any stem cell research and therapy in Missouri that is legal under federal law, including somatic cell nuclear ... The measure was proposed to stop repeated attempts by the Missouri Legislature to ban certain types of stem cell research, ...
... molecular mechanisms responsible for germline stem cells and the processes by which germ cells develop into sperm or egg cells ... Discovery of the distal tip cell gave her the means of exploring the control of germline stem cells. She then began to examine ... When she destroyed the distal tip cell, germ cells stopped dividing. When she moved the somatic cell to a different place, germ ... Kimble found a special somatic cell at the tip of the gonad which tells nearby germ cells - reproductive cells - how to divide ...
Some of the newborn chimera mice will have gonads derived from knocked-out stem cells, and will therefore produce eggs or sperm ... some parts of their bodies result from the original stem cells, other parts from the knocked-out stem cells. Their fur will ... The embryonic stem cells that incorporated the knocked-out gene are isolated from the unaltered cells using the marker gene ... The blastocysts now contain two types of stem cells: the original ones (from the grey mouse), and the knocked-out cells (from ...
In 2011, Ogawa and his colleagues succeeded to produce functional sperm from spermatogonial stem cells with the testis of mouse ... Wishig to study germ cells, he served as a postdoctoral fellow under Ralph L. Brinster at University of Pennsylvania between ... Seandel, M; Rafii, S (2011). "Reproductive biology: In vitro sperm maturation". Nature. 471 (7339): 453-5. doi:10.1038/471453a ... "Offspring production with sperm grown in vitro from cryopreserved testis tissues". Nature Communications. 5: 4320. doi:10.1038/ ...
... but also in epidermal cells, in activated T cell and B cell lymphocytes, as well as in certain adult stem cells, but in the ... In adults, telomerase is highly expressed only in cells that need to divide regularly especially in male sperm cells[citation ... Epithelial stem cell tissue and its early daughter cells are the only noncancerous cells in which hTERT can be detected. Since ... found no differences between colon cancer stem cells and fetal colon stem cells. A study in 2010 found that there was " ...
LMNA - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Halaschek-Wiener J, Brooks-Wilson A. Progeria of stem cells: stem cell exhaustion in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. J. ... Major sperm proteins. *原核细胞骨架 *Crescentin. *FtsZ ... M phase of mitotic cell cycle. · mitotic prophase. · mitotic ... J. Cell. Sci. October 2000, 113 (19): 3473-84. PMID 10984438.. *^ Dreuillet C, Tillit J, Kress M, Ernoult-Lange M. In vivo and ... mitotic cell cycle. · apoptotic process. · cellular component disassembly involved in execution phase of apoptosis. · ...
The generative cell in the pollen grain divides into two haploid sperm cells by mitosis leading to the development of the ... Apical growth of the stem was slow from 1926 through 1936 when the tree was competing with herbs and shrubs and probably shaded ... At fertilization, one of the sperm cells unites its haploid nucleus with the haploid nucleus of an egg cell. The female cone ... Then, the first tracheids of the transition zone are formed, where the radial size of cells and thickness of their cell walls ...
... which will function to support sperm cell formation. A minor population of nonepithelial cells appear between the tubules by ... An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... The androgens function as paracrine hormones required by the Sertoli cells to support sperm production. They are also required ... Throughout adulthood, androgens and FSH cooperatively act on Sertoli cells in the testes to support sperm production. ...
It seems that this infectious tissue derives from left-over sperm from their father, who has found a sneaky way of having more ... and the Hutterites stem from very small founder populations. The same is true for some Hasidic and Haredi Jewish groups. ... "The evolution of hermaphroditism by an infectious male-derived cell lineage: an inclusive-fitness analysis" (PDF). The ...
These are the "mammal-like amniotes", or stem-mammals, that later gave rise to the true mammals. Soon after, another group ... and so the male and female simply press their cloacas together as the male discharges sperm. ... Cell. 25 (4): 326-328. doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2013.05.011. PMID 23725759.. ... This stem-based definition is equivalent to the more common definition of Sauropsida, which Modesto and Anderson synonymized ...
Analysis of histone modifications in embryonic stem cells (and other stem cells) revealed many gene promoters carrying both ... 939 In contrast mature sperm cells largely use protamines to package their genomic DNA, most likely because this allows them to ... "A bivalent chromatin structure marks key developmental genes in embryonic stem cells". Cell. 125 (2): 315-26. doi:10.1016/j. ... they are not required in stem cells, but are rapidly required after differentiation into some lineages. Once the cell starts to ...
Cilmes šūna - Vikipēdija
"Journal of Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine.. *↑ "Index of CD34+ Cells and Mononuclear Cells in the Bone Marrow of Spinal ... 2] These cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the ... Making human embryonic stem cells». The Economist. 2007-11-22.. *↑ Ian Murnaghan for Explore Stem Cells. Updated: 16 December ... name="nih",Stem Cell Basics: What are the potential uses of human stem cells and the obstacles that must be overcome before ...
For a long time, the most efficient approach had been to use bone marrow graft, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. ... Alternatively, during egg and sperm formation, a mutation can develop in the IDS gene on his X chromosome. In this second case ... Because of all these reasons, bone marrow grafts or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have seen a decrease in their ... The matrix surrounds the cells of the body in an organized meshwork and functions as the glue that holds the cells of the body ...
... and its links to stem cell research. Embryology is the key to Gestational Surrogacy, which is when the sperm of the intended ... division of the cell) in the zygote to form a multi-nucleated cell (a cell containing multiple nuclei) known as a syncytium. ... The fact that a lamb was derived from an adult cell confirms that differentiation of that cell did not involve the irreversible ... "Cell. 40 (1): 3-5. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(85)90300-9. PMID 3967292. Development is based on the differential expression of the ...
The cause is usually a mutation that occurred in an early stem cell that gave rise to all or part of the gametes. ... Germline or gonadal mosaicism is a special form of mosaicism, where some gametes-i.e., sperm or oocytes-carry a mutation, but ... The 46/47 annotation indicates that the XY cells have the normal number of 46 total chromosomes, and the XXY cells have a total ... After further rounds of replication, this cell would result in a patch, or "clone" of cells mutant for the allele being studied ...
... or maintain the embryonic stem cell (ESC) phenotypic via epigenetic approach. Adult stem cells like bone marrow stem cells have ... It has been shown that at least some nucleosomes are retained in sperm cells (where most but not all histones are replaced by ... In mammals, most cells terminally differentiate, with only stem cells retaining the ability to differentiate into several cell ... totipotent stem cells become the various pluripotent cell lines of the embryo, which in turn become fully differentiated cells ...
The Y chromosome is passed exclusively through sperm, which undergo multiple cell divisions during gametogenesis. Each cellular ... It has been found that men with a higher percentage of hematopoietic stem cells in blood lacking the Y chromosome (and perhaps ... Graves JA (March 2006). "Sex chromosome specialization and degeneration in mammals". Cell. 124 (5): 901-14. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... However, YCM is also known to be present in a significant number of men with reduced fertility or reduced sperm count.[citation ...
The central cell, once fertilized by a sperm cell from the pollen becomes the first cell of the endosperm, and the egg cell ... The term gynoecium is also used by botanists to refer to a cluster of archegonia and any associated modified leaves or stems ... The megagametophyte typically develops a small number of cells, including two special cells, an egg cell and a binucleate ... egg cells), the gynoecium produces megaspores, each of which develops into a female gametophyte which then produces egg cells. ...
Female birds have sperm storage mechanisms that allow sperm from males to remain viable long after copulation, a hundred days ... Birds have specialised light-sensing cells deep in their brains[permanent dead link] that respond to light without input from ... "stem-birds", such as Archaeopteryx, were not yet capable of fully powered flight, and many retained primitive characteristics ... Birds are tetrachromatic, possessing ultraviolet (UV) sensitive cone cells in the eye as well as green, red and blue ones. ...
The stem or stalk subtending a flower is called a peduncle. If a peduncle supports more than one flower, the stems connecting ... usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs ... These give rise to egg cells. The gynoecium of a flower is also described using an alternative terminology wherein the ... Flowers provide less food than other major plant parts (seeds, fruits, roots, stems and leaves), but still provide several ...
Lambert, O.; Bianucci, G. & de Muizon, C. (August 2008). "A new stem-sperm whale (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Physeteroidea) from the ... The blood has a high density of red blood cells, which contain oxygen-carrying haemoglobin. The oxygenated blood can be ... "Sperm Whale". Archived from the original on 2007-02-20.. *^ Ellis, Richard (2011). The Great Sperm Whale: A Natural History of ... which contains the sperm whale, dwarf sperm whale, and pygmy sperm whale, diverged from other toothed whales soon after that, ...
Iodine and T4 (over stimulate the spectacular apoptosis [programmed cell death] of the cells of the larval gills, tail and fins ... Some species store sperm through long breeding seasons, as the extra time may allow for interactions with rival sperm. ... The amphibious salamander Ensatina attaches its similar clusters by stalks to underwater stems and roots. The greenhouse frog ( ... The skin colour of amphibians is produced by three layers of pigment cells called chromatophores. These three cell layers ...
"Cell Research. 26 (1): 21-33. doi:10.1038/cr.2015.147. PMC 4816135. PMID 26667385.. ... Males are virile throughout the year in most regions, but have a lower sperm production during the summer in most cases. During ... The assumption that dingoes and thylacines were competitors for the same prey stems from their external similarities; the ... "Comparative NMR studies of diffusional water permeability of red blood cells from different species: XVI Dingo (Canis ...
may cause injury to red blood cells (hemolysis), kidney or the liver Courthouse News Service Review Of The Use Of Dispersants ... There is limited evidence that 2-Butoxy Ethanol may damage the male reproductive system (including decreasing the sperm count) ... stemming from the use of Corexit. Of the eight European countries in the Bonn Agreement, France, Germany, and the Netherlands ... Like 9527, 9500 can cause hemolysis (rupture of blood cells) and may also cause internal bleeding. According to BP data, 20 ...
კისტური ფიბროზი - ვიკიპედია
"Functional repair of CFTR by CRISPR/Cas9 in intestinal stem cell organoids of cystic fibrosis patients". Cell Stem Cell 13 (6 ... cystic fibrosis mutation analysis and intracytoplasmic sperm injection". Hum. Reprod. 15 (2): 431-5. . PMID 10655317. ... Cell Mol. Biol. 27 (5): 619-27. . PMID 12397022. *↑ Tate S, Elborn S (March 2005). "Progress towards gene therapy for cystic ... "Salmonella typhi uses CFTR to enter intestinal epithelial cells". Nature 393 (6680): 79-82. Bibcode 1998Natur.393...79P. . PMID ...
Glycerol and DMSO have been used for decades by cryobiologists to reduce ice formation in sperm, oocytes, and embryos ... Stem-cell therapy. *Tissue engineering. *Robot-assisted surgery. *Synthetic biology *Synthetic genomics ... Cryoprotectants operate by increasing the solute concentration in cells. However, in order to be biologically viable they must ... easily penetrate and must not be toxic to cells. Glass transition temperature. Some cryoprotectants function by lowering ...
위키백과:모든 언어의 위키백과마다 꼭 있어야 하는 문서 목록/확장판/생물학 및 의과학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
The third, fourth and fifth rays of the male's anal fin are formed into a tube-like structure in which the sperm of the fish is ... "Memoirs: Notes on the Development, Structure, and Origin of the Median and Paired Fins of Fish." Journal of Cell Science s2-50 ... "joined cartilaginous stem," that extended from the gill arch. Additional rays arose from along the arch and from the central ... Fins can also be used for other purposes; male sharks and mosquitofish use a modified fin to deliver sperm, thresher sharks use ...
... with the haploid form reduced to single cell gametes such as sperm or eggs. ... The word genetics stems from the ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos meaning "genitive"/"generative", which in turn derives from ... All the cells in a multicellular organism derive from a single cell, differentiating into variant cell types in response to ... To become a cancer cell, a cell has to accumulate mutations in a number of genes (three to seven). A cancer cell can divide ...
Female insects are able make eggs, receive and store sperm, manipulate sperm from different males, and lay eggs. Accessory ... At least a few insects have nociceptors, cells that detect and transmit signals responsible for the sensation of pain.[not ... Late Carboniferous and Early Permian insect orders include both extant groups, their stem groups, and a number of Paleozoic ... Spermathecae are tubes or sacs in which sperm can be stored between the time of mating and the time an egg is fertilized.: ...
Stems branch from the crown and are densely hairy. Leaves are opposite and pinnately compound. Densely hairy leaflets are ... in cultured mouse macrophage cells". J. Ethnopharmacol. 83 (1-2): 153-159. doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00205-2. PMID 12413723.. ... which improves human sperm motility and viability, may be due to its antioxidant properties. On the basis of the results, the ... The stems radiate from the crown to a diameter of about 10 cm (3.9 in) to over 1 m (3 ft 3 in), often branching. They are ...
... the DNA of the germ cells mutates quickly. If an egg is fertilized with sperm that has damaged DNA, a possibility ... Stem Cell Line-Based Biomarker Assay for Developmental Toxicity". Toxicological Sciences. 174 (2): 189-209. doi:10.1093/toxsci/ ... This is because, as humans age, male germ cells acquire mutations at a much faster rate than female germ cells. ... Male germ cells mutate at a much faster rate than female germ cells, and as the father ages, ...
Nuclear DNA has two copies per cell (except for sperm and egg cells), one copy being inherited from the father and the other ... "Mitochondrial gene replacement in primate offspring and embryonic stem cells". Nature. 461 (7262): 367-372. Bibcode:2009Natur. ... the organelles that generate energy for the cell. Mitochondria are found in every cell of the human body except red blood cells ... "Cell. 148 (6): 1145-59. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.02.035. PMC 5381524. PMID 22424226.. ...
"X Chromosome Inactivation and Embryonic Stem Cells". In Meshorer E, Plath K. The Cell Biology of Stem Cells. Landes Bioscience ... When the egg (carrying XM), is fertilized by a sperm (carrying a Y or an XP) a diploid zygote forms. From zygote, through adult ... 2-4 cell stage 2-8 cell stage 2 Imprinted (paternal) X-inactivation 4-8 cell stage Unclear if it takes place in ... deficient cells and normal cells, depending on whether the inactivated X chromosome (in the nucleus of the red cell's ...
"Sperm-like cells made from human embryonic stem cells". Nature News. doi:10.1038/news.2009.646. Archived from the original on 9 ... and such research involves adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells, and induced pluripotent stem cells. ... Healthy adult brains contain neural stem cells which divide to maintain general stem-cell numbers, or become progenitor cells. ... Stem cell chip. References. *^ Mahla RS (2016). "Stem cells application in regenerative medicine and disease threpeutics" ...
Stem cells turned into sperm | New Scientist
The sperm generated by the new technique went on to fertilise eggs and produce live offspring in mice - the method may one day ... Stem cells taken from mouse embryos have been used to generate sperm that went on to fertilise eggs and produce live offspring ... Sperm have been created from stem cells and injected into eggs before, but the resultant embryos stopped growing after a couple ... Stem cells were extracted from early mouse embryos, and coaxed into becoming sperm by manipulating the environment in which ...
Sperm stem cells restore male fertility | New Scientist
... suggests that boys left infertile after chemotherapy may one day reproduce naturally after an injection of sperm stem cells ... He says that while boys dont make sperm cells, they do possess "spermatogonial" stem cells that will eventually produce them. ... Journal reference: Cell Stem Cell, DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2012.07.017 ... To see if these stem cells could be used to restore fertility, Orwig and his team took samples of the cells from the testes of ...
Generating oocytes and sperm from embryonic stem cells. - PubMed - NCBI
Generating oocytes and sperm from embryonic stem cells.. Kehler J1, Hübner K, Garrett S, Schöler HR. ... Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derivatives of cells of early mammalian embryos, have turned out to be one of the most powerful ... tools in developmental and stem cell biology. When injected into embryos, ES cells can contribute to tissues derived from all ... In addition to previous successes in deriving somatic cell types, recent studies have shown that both mouse and human ES cells ...
Preserving sperm stem cells restores fertility in mice | National Institutes of Health (NIH)
Scientists stored stem cells that produce sperm for months and used them to restore fertility in male mice. The approach could ... Preserving sperm stem cells restores fertility in mice. At a Glance. *Researchers successfully stored stem cells that produce ... Scientists havent yet found a way to grow sperm-producing stem cells, called spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), in culture. If ... Production of sperm (red) was restored when the testes of infertile male mice were transplanted with sperm-producing stem cells ...
Stem Cell Derived Sperm: It Works! | Medgadget
... derived from embryonic stem cells, have a reproductive potential. From BBC News: Professor Karim ... They encouraged these early-stage sperm cells, known as spermatogonial stem cells, to grow into adult sperm cells and then ... German investigators have demonstrated that sperm cells, derived from embryonic stem cells, have a reproductive potential.. ... Using a specialised sorting instrument they were able to isolate some stem cells that had begun to develop as sperm.. ...
Artificial sperm made from stem cells - BioNews
Scientists in Japan have successfully generated viable sperm cells from embryonic stem cells in mice. The sperm cells were able ... US scientists have succeeded in creating early-stage sperm and egg cells from human embryonic stem cells (ES cells). By ... These stem cells are known as iPS cells (induced pluripotent stem cells) and have previously been created from a variety of ... Stem cells found in human skin can be turned into sperm precursor cells, US researchers have found. The findings could help ...
Human sperm created from embryonic stem cells
... stem_cells_for_the_first_time_in_a_scientific_development_which_will_lead_researchers_to_a_better_understanding_of_the_causes_ ... Stem Cell Research. Human embryonic stem cells have the potential to develop into eggs and sperm in the laboratory. June 19, ... In the technique developed at Newcastle, stem cells with XY chromosomes (male) were developed into germline stem cells which ... IVD sperm). In contrast, stem cells with XX chromosomes (female) were prompted to form early stage sperm, spermatagonia, but ...
Stem cells: Japanese scientists make sperm from embryonic stem cells derived from mice - latimes
... its probably that they have the potential to grow into any type of cell in the body. That, of course, is why scientists find ... If you know just one thing about embryonic stem cells, ... Sperm made from stem cells could aid men with fertility ... the recipe used to transform the mouse stem cells into sperm will need to be modified to work with human embryonic stem cells. ... So the second step will be to figure out a way to make the sperm precursor cells out of induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS ...
Johns Hopkins Researchers Make Stem Cells From Developing Sperm - 08/06/2009
Cell Stem Cell , researchers show that two proteins are responsible redirecting cells on the way to becoming sperm back to stem ... stem cell state , whose fate is yet to be determined. Now, cell scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine ... have identified key molecular players responsible for this reversion in fruit fly sperm cells. Reporting online this week in ... The promise of stem cell therapy may lie in uncovering how adult cells revert back into a primordial, ...
Stem Cells Made from Developing Sperm by Johns Hopkins Researchers
... stem cell state is one of the key steps in bringing to fruition the promise of stem cell therapy. ... Uncovering how adult cells revert back into a primordial, ... Stem Cells News. Stem Cells Made from Developing Sperm by Johns ... Like all stem cells, each of the nine stem cells in the fly testis divides to form two daughter cells: One stays a stem cell ... they found that the loss of Jak-STAT caused fewer cells to revert to stem cells; only 60 percent of testes regained stem cells ...
Scientists Have Created Functional Sperm From Stem Cells | Gizmodo Australia
Scientists from China have made history by taking a cell thats not a sperm cell and then used it to create a live animal. A ... sexual reproductive cells, like an ovum or sperm) from stem cells. However, they were unable to prove if these cells were ... hed have to donate his own stem cells to create his own personalised sperm. Theoretically, human stem cells are likely capable ... from the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of mice. ESCs are cells that form in the embryo and eventually give rise to sperm. Then ...
Sperm from stem cells sparks media furore - BioNews
... a long way from being authentic sperm cells.. SOURCES & REFERENCES. Human sperm created from stem cells in world first, claims ... treated human ES cells with a chemical to prompt them into becoming germline stem cells - stem cells that are found in the ... The sperm, called in vitro-derived (IVD) sperm, were grown from embryonic stem (ES) cells. The researchers hope that the IVD ... Banked sperm-producing stem cells have been used to restore sperm production in monkeys made infertile by chemotherapy ...
Novel Mechanism for Sperm Stem Cell Number Control identified
Constant sperm stem cell numbers could be achieved through a self-organized process in which sperms actively migrate and ... Sperm production depends on the constant number of sperm stem cells in the testis. A new mechanism for stem cell number control ... In these tissues, stem cell numbers are controlled simply by the capacity of the niche.. However, sperm stem cells are not ... Discovery of sperm stem cell density control mechanism could have implications for the regulation of stem cell density in ...
Healthy mouse sperm grown in a dish from stem cells
Scientists in China have succeeded in creating functioning sperm from mouse embryonic stem cells. This raises hopes for ... Scientists in China have successfully made mouse sperm cells from embryonic stem cells. These "spermatid-like cells" were used ... Despite some previous reports of haploid sperm cells being generated in vitro from stem cells, the study by Quan Zhou and his ... Making sperm from stem cells in a dish. Researchers have taken important steps in conserving endangered cats. dragaroo/Flickr ...
Worldwide First: Stem Cells Turned Into Sperm Turned Into Living Animals - 80beats : 80beats
Researchers at Kyoto University in Japan have created fully functioning sperm from mouse embryonic stem cells. The sperm cells ... They take a stem cell, perform whatever genetic alterations they want, turn it into sperm and egg, allow the cell populations ... Scientists have been trying for many years to create viable sperm and egg cells from embryonic stem cells, which can become any ... main hurdle will be figuring out how to make human sperm cells from induced pluripotent stem cells, which are often taken from ...
The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm Function: Erwin Goldberg: Hardcover: 9780387950242: Powell's Books
From Stem Cell to Sperm Function by Erwin Goldberg available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. This ... The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm Function presents the proceedings of the XVth Testis Workshop held in Louisville, Kentucky ... from stem cell to cell function, but that is necessarily preceded by sex determination, the quintessential requirement for ... Topics covered include testis development and differentiation, paracrine and endocrine interactions, genetics and cell biology ...
stem cell scientists create embryo without egg or sperm cloning | Science | News | Express.co.uk
SCIENTISTS have created a living embryo in a laboratory without using either egg or sperm in ground-breaking but hugely ... The experimental research combined two types of stem cells and created a viable embryo - which the team say would provide an ... SCIENTISTS have created a living embryo in a laboratory without using either egg or sperm in ground-breaking but hugely ...
IVF.net - Stem cell sperm success - IVF News
Who is the father of offspring born from laboratory sperm? A collection of stem cells in a Petri dish? She continued: Sperm ... began with mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells which they sorted in order to isolate cells that were capable of becoming sperm ... These spermatogonial stem cells were then encouraged to grow into adult sperm and, when mature, were injected into mouse eggs. ... Scientists have for the first time managed to create sperm from mouse stem cells capable of fertilising eggs and resulting in ...
Researchers find fertility genes required for sperm stem cells
"Spermatogonial stem cells allow men-even in their 70s-to generate sperm and father children," said Song, who also co-authored ... Researchers find fertility genes required for sperm stem cells. by University of California - San Diego ... Sperm are made from cells that undergo many stages. Transcription factors have been identified that direct most of these cell ... Citation: Researchers find fertility genes required for sperm stem cells (2016, September 27) retrieved 23 April 2019 from ...
Sperm derived from stem cells - Experts reaction - Science Media Centre
The research, published in Cell Stem Cell, provides a platform for generating sperm cells that could one day be used to treat ... "The first is the derivation of the sperm cells from embryonic stem cells involving the destruction of embryos. This is inherent ... To accomplish this feat, the researchers coaxed mouse embryonic stem cells to turn into functional sperm-like cells, which were ... "This study was done using mice and with embryonic stem cells; it remains to be understood how embryonic stem cells could be ...
Scientists Create Artificial Human Sperm, Eggs From Stem Cells | WorldTruth.Tv
... which decides which cells become sperm and egg cells. They then harvested these cells by culturing human embryonic stem cells ... Some cells become stem cells, which can then develop into any cell in the body. Some of these will become germ cells, and will ... using human embryonic stem cells and skin cells.. While this process was previously achieved in rats, this is the first time it ... The findings were published in the journal Cell.. However, the end result was not working sperm and eggs, but so-called germ ...
Sperm made of stem cells claim retracted - Health - Cloning and stem cells | NBC News
A scientific journal has retracted a controversial paper claiming to have created the first human sperm from embryonic stem ... Next story in Cloning and stem cells Scientists make cells that form eggs, sperm ... Sperm made of stem cells claim retracted Scientific journal found two plagiarized paragraphs in reports introduction Below:. * ... Graham Parker, editor of Stem Cells and Development, said on the journals Web site that the sperm study "is being retracted," ...
Role of PUF-8/PUF protein in stem cell control, sperm-oocyte decision and cell fate reprogramming.
Moreover, they are also present in vertebrate stem cells. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has multiple PUF proteins wit ... proteins are conserved stem cell regulators that maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) in worms and flies. ... PUF (Pumilio and FBF) proteins are conserved stem cell regulators that maintain germline stem cells (GSCs) in worms and flies. ... 24269919 - Heterogeneity and hierarchy of hematopoietic stem cells.. 25025449 - Cytotoxic t-cell and nk-cell lymphomas: current ...
New Research on Sperm Stem Cells has Implications for Male Infertility and Cancer - Huntsman Cancer Institute - University of...
Their findings outlined four distinct cellular phases of sperm stem cells maturation, revealing how the stem cells progress ... state during which stem cells divide, to a final "differentiation" state when stem cells mature to become sperm. Specifically, ... the Cairns lab profiled cells individually, establishing the gene expression profile in human sperm stem cells. ... Previous studies of sperm stem cells have been limited to model systems, including mice. But this first study of developing ...
Differentiation of zebrafish spermatogonial stem cells to functional sperm in culture.::National Institute of Genetics
Here, we established cell culture systems for production of functional sperm from self-renewing spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs ... Differentiation of zebrafish spermatogonial stem cells to functional sperm in culture.. Model Fish Genomics Resource Laboratory ... Differentiation of zebrafish spermatogonial stem cells to functional sperm in culture.. Toshihiro Kawasaki, Kellee R Siegfried ... Oxygen at the concentration of air proved to be detrimental for sperm differentiation from SSCs. These results indicate that ...
Weekend reads: sperm, stem cells, chimeras, STAP, DNA Apps - The Niche
Stem cell news & pubs including Parkinsons "secret" trial, does freeze alter stem cells, #COVID19 stem cell standards & list ... Stem cells in your languageIve been working on an outreach program I call the Knoepfler Lab Stem Cell Outreach Program for ... Lab-grown sperm made from stem cells cant swim, but are able to fertilize eggs, reports Eric Boodman over at STAT. ... Stem cells A guide to cellular transdifferentiation. I love direct reprogramming. Alzheimers and the Inflamed Brain: Their ...
Lab-Grown Sperm Leads to Healthy Mice | Stem Cells Portal - Stem Cells Journal Online Community
They started from embryonic stem cells. While other groups have generated primordial germ cells from both embryonic and induced ... generating few of the desired cells. These cells generally were not good at generating sperm. ... to efficiently create primordial mouse germ cell-like cells in a dish that had the capacity to go on to form viable sperm. ... The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing ...
Forget sperm and eggs, researchers have created embryo stem cells from skin cells - American Friends of the Hebrew University
... reprogram the cells into each of three early embryonic cell types-iPS cells which create fetuses, placental stem cells, and ... Forget sperm and eggs, researchers have created embryo stem cells from skin cells. 5.1.19 ... Forget sperm and eggs, researchers have created embryo stem cells from skin cells. 5.1.19 ... These reprogrammed skin cells, termed "Induced Plutipotent Stem Cells" (iPSCs), are similar to cells that develop in the early ...
Creating egg and sperm cells from stem cells raises ethical issues - STAT
... and types of other cells. That raises a host of ethical issues. ... It may someday be possible to make sperm and egg cells from ... These cells, which can develop into any kind of human cell, are then nudged to become egg or sperm cells. ... Creating eggs and sperm from stem cells: the next big thing in assisted reproduction?. ... In a female-female couple, for example, skin cells from one partner could be turned into sperm cells used to fertilize the ...
Download The Testis: From Stem Cell To Sperm Function 2000
... by ... Purovsky Region of the Russian Federation, near the download The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm Function of Tarko-Sale in the ... The download The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm will prevent shown to your Kindle v. It may is up to 1-5 businesses before you ... By formatting our download The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm and Creating to our users test, you are to our system of tests ...
Produce spermResearchersGermScientistsInfertileGenerated from embryonic stemFertilityInfertilityEmbryoTestisDifferentiationAdult cellsKarim NayerniaEggs and spermMature spermLaboratoryBiologyGeneticChromosomesCreate human spermMake spermRegenerativeGenerateKnown as spermatogonial stem cellsDonorTransplantationPrecursorHumanNormal spermGermline stem cellsMaturationGrownResearchTherapiesSomaticTissueFertilise eggsMesenchymal stemUndergoMultipotent stemTesticular Sperm ExtrSSCsFunctional sperm and egg cellsEmbryonic cellHealthyBone marrowViable
- Men who lose the ability to produce sperm after chemotherapy might one day be able to regain their fertility. (newscientist.com)
- Unfortunately, the drugs can also kill other rapidly dividing cells, including those that produce sperm. (newscientist.com)
- Researchers successfully stored stem cells that produce sperm for months and used them to restore fertility in male mice. (nih.gov)
- But prepubescent boys don't yet produce sperm that can be banked. (nih.gov)
- A research team led by Dr. Sandra Ryeom at the University of Pennsylvania set out to understand how testicular endothelial cells (TECs) help SSCs thrive and produce sperm. (nih.gov)
- Following transplantation, the PGCs restored the previously infertile mice's ability to produce sperm, which was then extracted and used to fertilise eggs in vitro . (bionews.org.uk)
- If these technical hurdles can be overcome, a man with fertility issues theoretically could donate a patch of skin and let scientists use that to produce sperm that contains his DNA. (latimes.com)
- This brings hope to men who are unable to produce sperm either as result of congenital problems, such as Sertoli-only cell syndrome where the cells that produce sperm do not form, or from surgery, infection or cancer treatments. (theconversation.com)
- Estimates suggest that one in seven couples in the UK have difficulty conceiving, about one per cent of all men don't produce sperm and a further 3-4 per cent of men have a low sperm count. (ivf.net)
- This is an interesting study which represents a further step forward in our abilities to produce sperm outside the body in a laboratory dish. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- To get around this problem, scientists have been investigating the possibility of removing the parts of the testicles that produce sperm and implanting them into another person-such as a brother or a father. (medicalxpress.com)
- If the transplanted testes continue to produce sperm, they can be harvested at a later date, or even better, be returned to the original patient after completion of cancer treatment. (medicalxpress.com)
- More testing is required to learn about the survival rates of testes in the neck and how long they will continue to produce sperm. (medicalxpress.com)
- In the study, mouse cells in long-term culture restored the ability of mice after chemotherapy-induced infertility to produce sperm. (upi.com)
- Six of the seven men had severe failure to produce sperm, and one man's sperm production was moderately affected. (www.nhs.uk)
- For years researchers have been trying to find ways to grow and expand these cells from testicular biopsies donated by young patients prior to their cancer treatment, but until now, there has not been a consistently successful approach," Ryeom says. (nih.gov)
- The researchers converted mouse embryonic stem cells into primordial germ cells (PGCs) using a cocktail of specific proteins . (bionews.org.uk)
- For the first time, researchers have succeeded in creating human sperm and egg precursor cells from stem cells. (bionews.org.uk)
- A team of Japanese researchers has created mouse eggs from stem cells and has fertilised them using IVF to produce baby mice. (bionews.org.uk)
- Stem cells found in human skin can be turned into sperm precursor cells, US researchers have found. (bionews.org.uk)
- Researchers in Japan have successfully grown sperm for the first time in a study that could eventually help preserve the fertility of cancer patients and help infertile men have children. (bionews.org.uk)
- Human sperm have been created using embryonic stem cells for the first time in a scientific development which will lead researchers to a better understanding of the causes of infertility. (biologynews.net)
- Researchers led by Professor Karim Nayernia at Newcastle University and the NorthEast England Stem Cell Institute (NESCI) have developed a new technique which has made the creation of human sperm possible in the laboratory. (biologynews.net)
- Professor Nayernia says: "This is an important development as it will allow researchers to study in detail how sperm forms and lead to a better understanding of infertility in men - why it happens and what is causing it. (biologynews.net)
- This demonstrates to researchers that the genes on a Y chromosome are essential for meiosis and for sperm maturation. (biologynews.net)
- This week, a group of Japanese researchers from Kyoto University said they had figured out a way to turn embryonic stem cells into the more specific type of stem cell that makes sperm. (latimes.com)
- The Japanese researchers were able to make sperm progenitor cells out of iPS cells, and some mouse pups were born as a result, but the entire process worked less well than with embryonic stem cells. (latimes.com)
- To figure out how this was happening, the researchers first suspected two proteins -- Jak and STAT -- known to act together to help stem cells maintain their stem cell-ness. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Researchers from Nanjing Medical University created functional primordial germ cells - cells that get passed down to the next generation - from the embryonic stem cells (ESCs) of mice. (gizmodo.com.au)
- The researchers hope that the IVD sperm will provide a useful model for studying the development of sperm cells and the causes of male infertility. (bionews.org.uk)
- In this study, the researchers found that a subset of lymphatic endothelial (LE) cells produce FGFs (Fgf5, 8 and 4 in particular), which promote stem cell self-renewal. (medindia.net)
- The researchers grew embryonic stem cells together with cells from mice testicles and exposed them to chemicals and hormones that encouraged them to form sperm. (theconversation.com)
- Researchers at Kyoto University in Japan have created fully functioning sperm from mouse embryonic stem cells . (discovermagazine.com)
- In 2003, researchers succeeded in creating sperm-like cells , but the experiments could not produce successful pregnancies in mice. (discovermagazine.com)
- Also in 2009, researchers in the current study discovered a way to coax early embryo cells-called epiblast cells -to turn into primordial germ cells , the precursors to sperm and eggs. (discovermagazine.com)
- The researchers first created epiblast-like cells from a cocktail containing embryonic stem cells and several growth factors and proteins, which control cell proliferation, differentiation, and other activities. (discovermagazine.com)
- The researchers were able to do this in their mouse study (and some mouse pups were born), but the process was a lot less successful than when they used embryonic stem cells. (discovermagazine.com)
- The work is important for the insight that it gives to researchers looking at problems in sperm development and may one day help to develop new treatments for male infertility. (ivf.net)
- The researchers concluded that Rhox10 is the most critical gene in the Rhox cluster, and that it plays a role in spermatogonial stem cell formation. (medicalxpress.com)
- In laboratory experiments, the researchers found that one of the low sperm count-associated mutations significantly impaired transcription factor RHOXF2/2B's ability to regulate its target genes. (medicalxpress.com)
- To accomplish this feat, the researchers coaxed mouse embryonic stem cells to turn into functional sperm-like cells, which were then injected into egg cells to produce fertile mouse offspring. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Back in 2006, Japanese researchers discovered the capacity of skin cells to be "reprogrammed" into early embryonic cells that can generate an entire fetus, by expressing four central embryonic genes. (afhu.org)
- For example, the researchers discovered that the gene "Eomes" pushes the cell towards placental stem cell identity and placental development, while the "Esrrb" gene orchestrates fetus stem cells development through the temporary acquisition of an extraembryonic stem cell identity. (afhu.org)
- To uncover the molecular mechanisms that are activated during the formation of these various cell types, the researchers analyzed changes to the genome structure and function inside the cells when the five genes are introduced into the cell. (afhu.org)
- For example, researchers must show evidence of the correct nuclear DNA content at specific meiotic stages, normal chromosome number and organization, and the capacity of germ cells to produce viable offspring. (esciencenews.com)
- Next, the researchers mimicked the natural tissue environment of these precursor germ cells by exposing them to testicular cells as well as sex hormones such as testosterone. (esciencenews.com)
- To provide final gold-standard proof of meiosis, the researchers injected these sperm-like cells into mouse egg cells and transferred the embryos into female mice. (esciencenews.com)
- November 6, 2018 - Researchers discovered a set of brain cells that keeps track of time in mice. (nih.gov)
- Similarly at InStem, researchers are dedicated to breaking boundaries in stem cell research while collaborating with labs and scientists to advance their discoveries. (news-medical.net)
- US researchers say they will redouble their efforts to create human sperm from stem cells following the success of a Japanese study involving mice. (wordpress.com)
- Researchers devise a technique for creating gametes from murine embryonic stem cells. (the-scientist.com)
- Researchers harness the power of genome editing to track cell lineages throughout zebrafish development. (the-scientist.com)
- Using patient-derived stem cells, researchers create laboratory neuron models that reflect a patient's response to a pain drug. (the-scientist.com)
- Additional research is required to determine which cells to cultivate and when, as researchers question how much epigenetic memory is actually erased when creating stem cell models. (genengnews.com)
- Researchers hope in future it may be possible to treat men with Type-1 diabetes with islet cells grown from their own spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). (blogspot.com)
- The researchers also found the Rhox10 is a master regulator of genes that control the germ cells' movement from one part of the testis to another that, due to a different chemical environment, helps the germ cells transform into SSCs. (ca.gov)
- That's because researchers from Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York report in the journal, Nature, the ability to reprogram support cells in the eyes of blind mice to become photoreceptors, the light-sensing cells that enable sight. (ca.gov)
- Now, a team of researchers from Nanjing Medical University has carried out a robust, step-by-step process that not only coaxed embryonic stem cells from mice to turn into functional sperm-like cells, but also injected them into egg cells to produce fertile mouse offspring. (basilita.com)
- Next, the researchers exposed the cells to testicular cells - as well as sex hormones such as testosterone - in order to recreate the natural tissue environment of the cells. (basilita.com)
- The researchers showed that these haploid stem cells were pluripotent-meaning they were able to differentiate into many other cell types, including nerve, heart, and pancreatic cells-while retaining a single set of chromosomes. (phys.org)
- These cells will provide researchers with a novel tool for improving our understanding of human development, and the reasons why we reproduce sexually, instead of from a single parent. (phys.org)
- The researchers were also able to show that by virtue of having just a single copy of a gene to target, haploid human cells may constitute a powerful tool for genetic screens. (phys.org)
- The technology for versatile, grow-in-a-dish transplant tissue took a step toward clinical use Thursday when researchers announced they have found a safe way to turn skin cells into stem cells. (phys.org)
- Currently, the best-studied stem cells are those that generate blood cells, even though these cells, which reside in bone marrow, are relatively inaccessible to researchers. (scienceblog.com)
- A team of French researchers engineered healthy human cells to make a viral protein found in many tumors and watched the cells grow in a petri dish. (nytimes.com)
- Muscle stem cells grown in large numbers in lab by Chinese researchers could help athletes and those with muscle-related injuries grow new muscles. (cas.cn)
- The University of Macao (UM) researchers developed a new way to store stem cells at room temperature for a minimum of seven days without the loss of viability and biological activities, the university's latest news release said on Thursday. (cas.cn)
- To avoid this problem, researchers are putting live kidney cells to work in dialysis machines. (tribuneindia.com)
- Researchers at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center (UT Southwestern) have used embryonic stem cells from mice to grow muscle cells. (technologyreview.com)
- However, many researchers have found it difficult to direct every stem cell in a culture to form a specific type of cell. (technologyreview.com)
- The researchers then isolated these cells, creating a solution that consisted solely of muscle cells. (technologyreview.com)
- Researchers have figured out how to grow human stem cells retrieved before treatment and reinjected years later. (upi.com)
- Oct. 22 (UPI) -- Researchers have figured out how to grow human stem cells to help children treated for cancer who become infertile later in life. (upi.com)
- In the past, researchers have restored sperm production in mice that were sterilized after treatment with the chemotherapeutic agent busulfan. (upi.com)
- The researchers identified that testicular endothelial cells were a critical niche population for the maintenance and expansion of human cells in the lab. (upi.com)
- To test the effects of any mutations identified in this gene, the researchers genetically modified cells in the laboratory to contain the mutated form of the gene. (www.nhs.uk)
- When the researchers engineered cells to carry the mutated gene, they found that the protein produced by mutant NR5A1 was in the appropriate location of the cell (the nucleus), but its function (controlling the activation of genes) was impaired. (www.nhs.uk)
- The researchers say that mutations in NR5A1 are associated with unexplained, severe failures in sperm production in otherwise healthy men. (www.nhs.uk)
- Japanese researchers have produced mouse eggs from stem cells that bred healthy offspring, a breakthrough that may one day help treat human infertility. (time.com)
- In the current study, published in the journal Science, the researchers first added growth factors and proteins to the stem cells to turn them into primordial germ cells. (time.com)
- The researchers said the lab-created egg cells led to healthy pups less frequently than did natural mouse eggs, which were also fertilized and transferred to female mice in a control group. (time.com)
- In the largest study of its kind, researchers find that sperm count in Western countries has more than halved in recent decades. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- With these factors in mind, a group of researchers recently set out to conduct a large-scale systematic review and meta-analysis of sperm count trends. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Functioning sperm have been created in a laboratory in China, say researchers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In addition to previous successes in deriving somatic cell types, recent studies have shown that both mouse and human ES cells can also give rise to primordial germ cells (PGCs) in culture. (nih.gov)
- These mouse germ cells appear to be capable of undergoing meiosis and forming both male and female gametes. (nih.gov)
- Although the full function of these ES-derived germ cells and gametes remains to be demonstrated, these findings open the door for undertaking new types of reproductive studies and novel approaches in regenerative medicine. (nih.gov)
- After further differentiation, these in vitro derived germline stem cells expressed markers which are specific to primordial germ cells, spermatogonial stem cells, meiotic (spermatocytes) and post meiotic germ cells (spermatids and sperm). (biologynews.net)
- These results indicated maturation of the primordial germ cells to haploid male gametes - called IVD sperm - characterised by containing half a chromosome set (23 chromosomes). (biologynews.net)
- Scientists had previously demonstrated that it's possible to generate germ cells (sexual reproductive cells, like an ovum or sperm) from stem cells. (gizmodo.com.au)
- the gene expression profile of human germ cells is similar to those of mice, but different in important ways. (gizmodo.com.au)
- The technique involved induced signaling of BMP4 , a protein long known to be required for the generation of germ cells . (discovermagazine.com)
- Then, using their method devised a couple years ago, they turned those epiblast cells into primordial germ cells. (discovermagazine.com)
- A glimpse into the future is provided with information from EST, protein, and genome databases that already have an impact on progress in our understanding of the male germ cell. (powells.com)
- For example, Rhox genes may have roles in testicular tumors that arise from germ cells that failed to convert into spermatogonial stem cells and thus are "frozen" at the pro-spermatogonia stage. (medicalxpress.com)
- However, the end result was not working sperm and eggs, but so-called germ cells that could potentially mature to become viable for fertility. (worldtruth.tv)
- "Germ cells are 'immortal' in the sense that they provide an enduring link between all generations, carrying genetic information from one generation to the next," Azim Surani, professor of physiology and reproduction at the University of Cambridge, said in a press release. (worldtruth.tv)
- Some of these will become germ cells, and will then become sperm or eggs. (worldtruth.tv)
- They next used a protocol they developed a couple years ago to mature those cells into primordial germ-like cells, then used molecular markers to select those cells in the culture that were most likely to have the ability to form sperm. (stemcellsportal.com)
- In the not-too-distant future, it may be possible to use cells from almost any part of the body to create these germ cells, also known as gametes. (statnews.com)
- Reproducing germ cell development in vitro has remained a central goal in both reproductive biology and reproductive medicine," says co-senior study author Jiahao Sha of Nanjing Medical University. (esciencenews.com)
- Several studies have reported the successful generation of germ cells from stem cells, but they did not fully evaluate the functionality of the germ cells or provide proof for all key hallmarks of meiosis. (esciencenews.com)
- Recently, a panel of reproductive biologists proposed gold standard criteria to prove that the major events of meiosis have taken place in engineered germ cells. (esciencenews.com)
- The first step was to expose mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a chemical cocktail, which coaxed the ESCs to turn into primordial germ cells. (esciencenews.com)
- Under these biologically relevant conditions, the ESC-derived primordial germ cells underwent complete meiosis, resulting in sperm-like cells with correct nuclear DNA and chromosomal content. (esciencenews.com)
- Here we show that changes in the stem cell orientation with respect to the niche during ageing contribute to the decline in spermatogenesis in the male germ line of Drosophila . (nature.com)
- The reprogrammed germ-like cells were unable to fertilize eggs, however. (the-scientist.com)
- The group, based at Newcastle University, grew these cells in a laboratory and treated them so they developed into male reproductive cells called germ cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The SSC itself forms from primordial germ cells. (ca.gov)
- The key genetic switches that help these germ cells give rise to SSCs was not well understood. (ca.gov)
- Further analysis, indicated Rhox10 was key to driving the development of germ cells into SSCs. (ca.gov)
- Scientists have previously generated germ cells from stem cells , but the functionality of the germ cells was not proven, nor was there evidence of all the key hallmarks of meiosis. (basilita.com)
- Acceptable evidence includes proof that the DNA has correct nuclear content at specific meiotic stages, that there is a normal number of chromosomes, that the chromosomes are correctly organized, and that the germ cells can produce viable offspring. (basilita.com)
- Reproducing germ cell development in this way has therefore been a key goal for both reproductive biologists and reproductive medicine. (basilita.com)
- The team started by exposing mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a chemical cocktail that caused the ESCs to turn into primordial germ cells. (basilita.com)
- Because their genetic content is equivalent to germ cells, they might also be useful for reproductive purposes. (phys.org)
- There are about 35,000 stem cells per testis, constituting about 0.03% of all germ cells in the testis. (nih.gov)
- The investigators aim at generating haploid stem cells from human germ cells that are a useful tool in genetic research and screening. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The investigators aim at generating haploid stem cells from human haploid germ cells. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Collected germ cells will be cultured in medium. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The germ cell cultures will be infected with reprograming factors. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Spermatogenesis is a highly organized process, requiring just the right environment, or 'niche,' around the germ line stem cells," said Ralph L. Brinster, professor of reproductive physiology at Penn. (scienceblog.com)
- Male infertility can be caused either by defective germ cells or by a testicular environment that fails to promote proper spermatogenesis," Brinster said. (scienceblog.com)
- Scientists haven't yet found a way to grow sperm-producing stem cells, called spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), in culture. (nih.gov)
- Scientists in Japan have successfully generated viable sperm cells from embryonic stem cells in mice. (bionews.org.uk)
- It is the first time scientists have reported producing properly functioning eggs using this type of stem cell. (bionews.org.uk)
- US scientists have succeeded in creating early-stage sperm and egg cells from human embryonic stem cells (ES cells). (bionews.org.uk)
- It will also allow scientists to study how cells involved in reproduction are affected by toxins, for example, why young boys with leukaemia who undergo chemotherapy can become infertile for life - and possibly lead us to a solution. (biologynews.net)
- Mouse stem cells used to produce eggs, Japanese scientists. (latimes.com)
- Now, cell scientists at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine have identified key molecular players responsible for this reversion in fruit fly sperm cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Scientists from China have made history by taking a cell that's not a sperm cell and then used it to create a live animal. (gizmodo.com.au)
- Theoretically, human stem cells are likely capable of performing the same trick, but scientists still have to prove that. (gizmodo.com.au)
- UK scientists have created human sperm cells in the laboratory for the first time. (bionews.org.uk)
- Scientists in China have successfully made mouse sperm cells from embryonic stem cells. (theconversation.com)
- Scientists have been trying for many years to create viable sperm and egg cells from embryonic stem cells, which can become any type of tissue in the body. (discovermagazine.com)
- More recently in 2009, scientists at Newcastle University claimed to have created early-stage human sperm from embryonic stem cells. (discovermagazine.com)
- Many biologists doubted the research team's results, and the study, which was published in the journal Stem Cells and Development , was later retracted after editors found that the scientists plagiarized a previous paper . (discovermagazine.com)
- SCIENTISTS have created a living embryo in a laboratory without using either egg or sperm in ground-breaking but hugely controversial experiments. (express.co.uk)
- Scientists have for the first time managed to create sperm from mouse stem cells capable of fertilising eggs and resulting in live births. (ivf.net)
- Scientists in China have created functioning sperm from mice stem cells in the laboratory. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Therefore it's reassuring to see that the scientists in this study have paid very careful attention to this and their results appear to show that the sperm-like cells they have made are genetically normal. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Scientists from Cambridge University have created artificial human eggs and sperm for the first time, using human embryonic stem cells and skin cells. (worldtruth.tv)
- The scientists identified a gene known as SOX17, which decides which cells become sperm and egg cells. (worldtruth.tv)
- However, this doesn't mean that men and women can donate any cells instead of sperm and eggs when they visit a fertility clinic - but the scientists hope the experiment will shed more light on the study of human genetics. (worldtruth.tv)
- The Newcastle scientists reported this month that they had produced the sperm in a laboratory and that it could one day help infertile men father children. (nbcnews.com)
- SALT LAKE CITY - New research from scientists at Huntsman Cancer Institute (HCI) at the University of Utah and collaborators at University of Utah Health (U of U Health) sheds light on the complex process that occurs in the development of human sperm stem cells. (huntsmancancer.org)
- Using genome analysis tools, scientists outlined the multistage process that sperm stem cells undergo during their normal development. (huntsmancancer.org)
- In the study, scientists examined all of the genes that turn 'on' or 'off' in any given cell during normal development. (huntsmancancer.org)
- Scientists in China have finally succeeded in creating functioning sperm from mice in the laboratory. (esciencenews.com)
- Earlier this month, British scientists at Newcastle University in England reported the creation of spermatozoa from human stem cells, the official announcement of which was published in the journal Stem Cells and Development. (cellmedicine.com)
- Organoids grown from genetically edited stem cells are giving scientists a new tool to screen drugs and test treatments. (the-scientist.com)
- Scientists have succeeded in transforming sperm stem cells into the pancreatic cells that generate insulin. (blogspot.com)
- Using state-of-the art microscopy, scientists have peered inside cardiac cells while they beat, revealing tube-like structures that buckle and then snap back into shape, much like shock absorbers. (gizmodo.com.au)
- Scientists believe that stem cell research can be used to treat medical conditions including Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, stroke, burns, heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. (cnn.com)
- Scientists who research stem cells are trying to identify how undifferentiated stem cells become differentiated as serious medical conditions, such as cancer and birth defects, are due to abnormal cell division and differentiation. (cnn.com)
- Scientists believe stem cells can be used to generate cells and tissues that could be used for cell-based therapies as the need for donated organs and tissues outweighs the supply. (cnn.com)
- Functioning sperm that could one day be used to treat infertility in men have been created in a laboratory by scientists in China, according to a report in Cell Stem Cell . (basilita.com)
- Scientists have created sperm that can successfully reproduce. (basilita.com)
- Scientists from The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute (NYSCF) have succeeded in generating a new type of embryonic stem cell that carries a single copy of the human genome, instead of the two copies typically found in normal stem cells. (phys.org)
- In this study, the scientists triggered unfertilized human egg cells into dividing. (phys.org)
- Until Yamanaka proved differently, scientists believed that this could only be achieved with stem cells harvested from embyros, the foundation said in a statement. (phys.org)
- AP) -- Five scientists have won prestigious research awards for developing a life-saving leukemia treatment and for advances in "reprogramming" DNA, which led to a new kind of stem cell. (phys.org)
- The simple recipe scientists earlier discovered for making adult stem cells behave like embryonic-like stem cells just got even simpler. (phys.org)
- Their point that ES cells will lead to some Brave New World scenario - not likely unless iPSC fail to live up to their promise and evil scientists from Klandathu take over the world. (scienceblogs.com)
- German scientists have designed a new method to use iron-coated sperm as a drug delivery system for gynecological cancer , according to MIT Technology Review . (sciencemag.org)
- Scientists first douse bull sperm in the common cancer chemotherapy drug Doxorubicin, which they readily absorb, and then coax the sperm into tiny, laser-printed, iron-coated harnesses. (sciencemag.org)
- Scientists have successfully restored sperm production in once-infertile mice by transplanting specialized cells that are critical to sperm development. (scienceblog.com)
- Scientists at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine have successfully transplanted specialized cells that are critical to sperm development in mice, restoring sperm production in once-infertile animals. (scienceblog.com)
- The Brinster group's technique for transplanting Sertoli cells will likely allow scientists to study stem cells' specialized environment in a way that has not been possible before. (scienceblog.com)
- Stem-cell therapy has become controversial following developments such as the ability of scientists to isolate and culture embryonic stem cells , to create stem cells using somatic cell nuclear transfer and their use of techniques to create induced pluripotent stem cells . (wikipedia.org)
- In many kinds of tumor cells, for instance, scientists find proteins produced by endogenous retroviruses. (nytimes.com)
- Placentas make viral proteins, and scientists have found that some types, known as syncytins, fuse together placental cells, a crucial step in fetal development. (nytimes.com)
- GEN ) - Scientists say they have developed a novel technique to create expanded potential stem cells (EPSCs) of both pig and human cells. (cbhd.org)
- Research by an EU-supported international team of scientists has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) - synthetic organic chemicals found widely in the environment and absorbed in the diet - may damage sperm. (innovations-report.com)
- The scientists used Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA) to test the integrity of sperm samples from the majority of the volunteers and assess the level of DNA damage - the DNA fragmentation index (DFI). (innovations-report.com)
- Scientists from China said Thursday they have finally succeeded in creating functioning sperm from mouse embryonic stem cells in the laboratory, a major scientific development that could some day lead to a treatment for male infertility in humans. (cas.cn)
- An international team of scientists headed by biologists at UC San Diego has discovered that an important class of stem cells known as human "induced pluripotent stem cells," or iPSCs, which are derived from an individual's own cells, can be differentiated into various ty. (cas.cn)
- Scientists have developed a way to produce a pure source of muscle cells, a technique that might one day prove useful for treating muscle-related diseases. (technologyreview.com)
- Scientists say that the research, while still in its early stages, could eventually lead to a cell-based therapy for patients with muscular dystrophy and other muscle-related diseases. (technologyreview.com)
- In lab experiments, scientists often end up with a mixture of cells that, when injected into an animal, form large clusters resembling a tumor. (technologyreview.com)
- In previous efforts, scientists - including the current group - have been able to create sperm and egg cells in the lab, but they weren't able to produce healthy offspring from those cells. (time.com)
- Four weeks later, the scientists removed them again, isolated immature egg cells from the ovaries and allowed them to mature in a dish. (time.com)
- This allowed the company to begin searching for the first patients who might qualify for this phase 1 clinical trial, which means scientists are trying to determine the safety of introducing these cells into a human. (cnn.com)
- In conjunction with stem cell research, Foundation scientists also apply patented processes to help diagnose male reproductive tract disorders. (wikipedia.org)
- Dr Allan Pacey, a leading researcher into male fertility at the University of Sheffield, said: 'This is quite a step forward in developing a process by which sperm could be made for infertile men, perhaps by taking as a starting point a cell from their skin or from something like bone marrow. (bionews.org.uk)
- Banked sperm-producing stem cells have been used to restore sperm production in monkeys made infertile by chemotherapy treatment. (bionews.org.uk)
- If the technique does work for humans, it will be possible to correct genetic defects in the stem cells of infertile patients and use them to make sperm cells capable of fertilising eggs. (gizmodo.com.au)
- This is a significant breakthrough and makes the possibility of generating functional sperm for men who are infertile that bit closer. (theconversation.com)
- Our finding that Rhox10 is critical for spermatogonial stem cells, coupled with the finding that human RHOX genes are mutated in infertile men, suggests that mutations in these genes cause human male infertility. (medicalxpress.com)
- But to make sperm for infertile men, it would probably be necessary to use an adult cell from some part of their body. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Brinster and colleagues worked with Steel mutant mice, which are congenitally infertile due to a Sertoli cell defect. (scienceblog.com)
- While several assisted reproductive technologies, such as in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, are now available for patients with low sperm counts, infertile patients with Sertoli cell defects have limited options. (scienceblog.com)
- The technique developed by Brinster and his colleagues may provide a new way of replacing defective Sertoli cells with healthy ones, which may initiate normal spermatogenesis in some infertile patients. (scienceblog.com)
- But cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation, leave most boys infertile because sperm-producing stem cells are killed. (upi.com)
Generated from embryonic stem1
- If future studies in humans are successful, storing stem cells could potentially help preserve fertility in young boys undergoing chemotherapy. (nih.gov)
- The findings could help restore fertility to cancer patients, and could provide a new way of studying the development of sperm cells in the lab. (bionews.org.uk)
- The IVD sperm will not and cannot be used for fertility treatment. (biologynews.net)
- Stem cells could lead to future fertility treatments, study. (latimes.com)
- Fertility not the only thing you should be worried about if you have a Low sperm count, finds a new study. (medindia.net)
- Dr Allan Pacey, honorary secretary of the British Fertility Society and a senior lecturer in andrology, said, 'To be able to make functional sperm under controlled conditions in the laboratory will be very useful to study the basic biology of sperm production. (ivf.net)
- Infertility in general, and especially male fertility, gets little attention considering how common of a problem it is-about 15 percent of couples are affected, and nearly half of these cases are due to male infertility ," said Miles Wilkinson, PhD, professor of reproductive medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine and senior author of the Cell Reports study. (medicalxpress.com)
- Rhox genes may also be useful for regenerative medicine approaches to restoring fertility through therapy with spermatogonial stem cells. (medicalxpress.com)
- Early Sperm and Male Fertility Loss Linked to Deficient Stem Cell. (genengnews.com)
- Using fertilized eggs left over at fertility clinics is also controversial because removing the stem cells destroys them. (cnn.com)
- How many Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) specialists are working at this fertility clinic? (placidway.com)
- What is the success rate of the Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) procedure at this fertility clinic? (placidway.com)
- For patients from all around the globe looking for Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) options, Albuquerque, United States is an ideal destination with plenty of trustworthy fertility clinics to choose from. (placidway.com)
- Background: In male pre-pubertal cancer patients, radiation and chemotherapy impact future fertility by eradication of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). (elsevier.com)
- The impact of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs), of which PCBs and DDT are two, on human fertility is still unknown and there are limited and contradictory findings so far as to whether PCBs and DDT/DDE damage human sperm. (innovations-report.com)
- That's because, for the first time, infertility has been reversed in a male primate using an injection of stem cells. (newscientist.com)
- The research, published in the journal Cell , may someday help treat infertility in humans. (discovermagazine.com)
- Mutations in the RHOX transcription factor family inhibit sperm development and are associated with infertility in men. (medicalxpress.com)
- The research, published in Cell Stem Cell , provides a platform for generating sperm cells that could one day be used to treat male infertility in humans, say the authors. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Infertility due to cell failure or cancer treatment could cease to be the emotionally shattering issue it is for many families and individuals. (statnews.com)
- Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) maintain spermatogenesis throughout a man's life and may have application for treating some cases of male infertility, including those caused by chemotherapy before puberty. (elsevier.com)
- But according to Miles Wilkinson, professor of reproductive medicine at UC San Diego School of Medicine, infertility issues can just as likely be due to problems with sperm production in the male. (ca.gov)
- The study results, funded in part by CIRM and published yesterday in Cell Reports , may help provide a path toward new treatment options for male infertility. (ca.gov)
- To get at a cellular and molecular understanding of infertility, the team focused on the function of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). (ca.gov)
- A CDC study in 2002 found that male infertility caused 7.5% of all sexually experienced men under 45 years to seek help at some time, 14% of whom were diagnosed with sperm or semen problems. (basilita.com)
- Infertility affects a growing number of people throughout the entire world, and that's the reason why couples decide to take Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction). (placidway.com)
- In men, some common infertility causes are low sperm count and poor sperm health. (placidway.com)
- Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) helps patients struggling with infertility conceive, have a normal pregnancy, and give birth to a healthy baby. (placidway.com)
- Male sperm quality, which is steadily declining in Western countries, accounts for 40 percent of infertility problems among couples. (nocamels.com)
- This case-control study tested whether men seeking infertility treatment for unexplained reduced sperm counts had genetic mutations in a gene called NR5A1. (www.nhs.uk)
- The study recruited 315 French men who had unexplained reduced sperm counts and who sought infertility treatment. (www.nhs.uk)
- Nevertheless, the advance sheds light on how precursor cells eventually develop into sperm or egg cells, a scientific understanding that could in itself aid infertility treatments. (time.com)
- ESCs are cells that form in the embryo and eventually give rise to sperm. (gizmodo.com.au)
- Professor Karim Nayernia and colleagues at the Georg-August University in Göttingen, Germany, took stem cells from a mouse embryo that was only a few days old and grew these cells in the laboratory. (medgadget.com)
- The experimental research combined two types of stem cells and created a viable embryo - which the team say would provide an unlimited stock for medical research. (express.co.uk)
- As published in Cell Stem Cell , Dr. Yossi Buganim of HU's Department of Developmental Biology and Cancer Research and his team discovered a set of genes capable of transforming murine skin cells into all three of the cell types that comprise the early embryo: the embryo itself, the placenta and the extraembryonic tissues, such as the umbilical cord. (afhu.org)
- Recently, attempts have been made to develop an entire mouse embryo without using sperm or egg cells. (afhu.org)
- These attempts used the three early cell types isolated directly from a live, developing embryo. (afhu.org)
- Sperm-derived factors play an important role in nucleus reprogramming and cytoskeleton remodeling during SCNT embryo development. (biomedcentral.com)
- Totipotent stem cells that develop into cells that make up all the cells in an embryo and fetus. (cnn.com)
- These stem cells have the features of the first cells in the developing embryo and can develop into any type of cell, according to the research team from the LKS Faculty of Medicine of The University of Hong Kong (HKUMed), the Wellcome Sanger Institute, and the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut in Germany. (cbhd.org)
- Stem cells are the body's growth and maintenance units that are able to differentiate indefinitely into specialised cell types, first in the growing embryo into various organ cell types, and later form the body's repair mechanism by producing cells when the tissue they reside in is damaged. (cas.cn)
- These stem cells are found in most tissue types as well as in the embryo. (cas.cn)
- Once again, Perlingeiro looked to basic developmental research and found that, during normal muscle formation in the embryo, stem cells that become very early versions of muscle cells display certain surface molecules, or markers. (technologyreview.com)
- In vitro fertilization (IVF) is the process of fertilising an egg with a sperm in the laboratory to produce an embryo. (ivf.net)
- The contributors describe how the first cell lineages arise in the mammalian embryo, stem cell dynamics during the development and homeostasis of specific tissues (e.g., epithelia and brain), and what happens when stem cell integrity is compromised (e.g., by DNA mutations). (cshlpress.com)
- Like all stem cells, each of the nine stem cells in the fly testis divides to form two daughter cells: One stays a stem cell and the other differentiates into an adult cell, in this case, a sperm cell. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- To figure out what might cause sperm cells to revert, or dedifferentiate, Matunis's research team genetically altered the flies so that both cells become sperm, reducing the stem cell population in the testis to nothing. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Sperm production depends on the constant number of sperm stem cells in the testis. (medindia.net)
- In tissues like the testis and ovary of the fruitfly Drosophila and intestine of mammalians, stem cells are clustered in their specialized home where self-renewal-promoting factors are abundant: the stem cell niche. (medindia.net)
- However, sperm stem cells are not clustered in mouse testis, but are highly motile and widely dispersed across the basement membrane. (medindia.net)
- Asst. Prof. Kitadate said, "The lymphatic endothelial cells in the testis were described via the use of electron microscopy in the 1970s, but had scant attention paid to them for a long time. (medindia.net)
- Prof. Yoshida said, "Sperm stem cells migrate in the testis to intake FGFs, just as cows move around the meadow to eat the grass which they live on. (medindia.net)
- The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm Function presents the proceedings of the XVth Testis Workshop held in Louisville, Kentucky. (powells.com)
- Topics covered include testis development and differentiation, paracrine and endocrine interactions, genetics and cell biology of spermatogenesis, epididymal maturation and fertilization, and genetic defects and remedies. (powells.com)
- The first two chapters provide a useful historical perspective of testis physiology and formulate compelling research questions about important aspects of sperm formation and function. (powells.com)
- This prologue sets the scene for the remainder of the volume that follows a logical progression, as the title implies, from stem cell to cell function, but that is necessarily preceded by sex determination, the quintessential requirement for there being a testis in the first place. (powells.com)
- Developing download The Testis: From Stem server in the goods sent one of the 14 people. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
- L had download The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm Function tools help effect from maintenance Seer. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
- American of 5' and 3' previous download The Testis: From Stem Cell to Sperm. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
- The download The Testis: From Stem Cell to section careers as readiness those date books that have an Associate word of the search of the AT and the Pedagogy problem opens the cans from the heart of an boat as sale if that list employed focused with the a of saver. (atlantaflyfishingschool.com)
- So when the gene is deleted, not enough SSCs develop in the testis, leading to low sperm counts. (ca.gov)
- Furthermore, the total number of Sertoli cells per testis was estimated using the disector method. (nih.gov)
- Subsequently, estimates were made of the total numbers of the different spermatogonial cell populations per testis. (nih.gov)
- Much of the volume of a mammalian testis consists of tightly coiled seminiferous tubules that hold mature sperm. (scienceblog.com)
- Seminiferous tubules are lined with Sertoli cells, which are thought to nurture sperm cells as they develop and facilitate their eventual passage out of the testis. (scienceblog.com)
- Transplantation of testicular cells and tissues has been studied for the investigation of immunology of the testis, which is an immunologically privileged organ. (medicalxpress.com)
- They also explore specialized niches in which stem cells reside (e.g., in the testis and lung) and how the extracellular cues in those microenvironments regulate stem cell behavior. (cshlpress.com)
- Their findings outlined four distinct cellular phases of sperm stem cells maturation, revealing how the stem cells progress from a "quiescent" state, to a "proliferation" state during which stem cells divide, to a final "differentiation" state when stem cells mature to become sperm. (huntsmancancer.org)
- Differentiation of zebrafish spermatogonial stem cells to functional sperm in culture. (nig.ac.jp)
- Through improvements of culture conditions, we achieved efficient propagation of the SSCs and differentiation to sperm that gave rise to offspring. (nig.ac.jp)
- Oxygen at the concentration of air proved to be detrimental for sperm differentiation from SSCs. (nig.ac.jp)
- SSCs that express green fluorescent protein grow in propagation culture (left and middle panels), while they differentiated into sperm in differentiation culture (the right panel). (nig.ac.jp)
- Derivation and differentiation of haploid human embryonic stem cells, Nature (2016). (phys.org)
- Advanced biomaterials have significantly contributed to three-dimensional cell culture systems in recent decades, and more unique and complex biomaterials have been proposed for improving stem-cell proliferation and controlled differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
- The sperm/oocyte decision in the hermaphrodite germline of Caenorhabditis elegans provides a powerful model for the characterization of stem cell fate specification and differentiation. (nih.gov)
- Through this process, called differentiation, tissues start to form, and all the cell types of the organism begin to arise. (rochester.edu)
- As cells divide during differentiation, changes in gene expression provide each cell type with a specific identity and function. (rochester.edu)
- For these reasons as well as others, zebrafish have become a prevailing model for studying cell state transitions during vertebrate differentiation and in carcinogenesis. (rochester.edu)
- Humans have four sets of Hox genes, numbering 39 genes altogether, all of which aid in the differentiation of cells by location. (wikipedia.org)
- The promise of stem cell therapy may lie in uncovering how adult cells revert back into a primordial, stem cell state , whose fate is yet to be determined. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- Uncovering how adult cells revert back into a primordial, stem cell state is one of the key steps in bringing to fruition the promise of stem cell therapy. (medindia.net)
- Reconstruction of male and female gamete development in culture from either embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells (adult cells that are reprogrammed to a state similar to an embryonic stem cell) remains a great challenge in reproductive biology. (theconversation.com)
- AP) -- The Balzan Foundation says its prize for the biology of stem cells has gone to a Japanese researcher for discovering a way to transform adult cells into cells with the characteristics of stem cells. (phys.org)
- In a similar sense, when the gene expression patterns of normal adult cells change inappropriately, the cell identity also changes, and this can lead to carcinogenesis. (rochester.edu)
- A team led by Professor Karim Nayernia, now Professor of Stem Cell Biology at Newcastle University, began with mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells which they sorted in order to isolate cells that were capable of becoming sperm precursor cells. (ivf.net)
- Karim Nayernia, who led the sperm research at Newcastle University, was unavailable to comment. (nbcnews.com)
Eggs and sperm3
- The research team, from the North-East England Stem Cell Institute (NESCI) in Newcastle, UK, treated human ES cells with a chemical to prompt them into becoming germline stem cells - stem cells that are found in the reproductive organs and give rise to eggs and sperm. (bionews.org.uk)
- Creating eggs and sperm from stem cells: the next big thing in assisted reproduction? (statnews.com)
- These haploid cells cannot divide to make more eggs and sperm. (phys.org)
- These were shown to produce fully mature, sperm called scientifically, In Vitro Derived sperm (IVD sperm). (biologynews.net)
- They then selected out these germline stem cells and continued to grow them in the presence of chemicals to encourage them to develop further into mature sperm cells. (bionews.org.uk)
- However, it's important to note that the sperm-like cells produced in the study were not fully mature sperm as we might know them. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- The next step for them is to see if they can grow mature sperm from these stem cells. (thenakedscientists.com)
- Through a multistep process within the male reproductive system, SSCs form into mature sperm cells capable of fertilizing an egg. (ca.gov)
- When these five factors were added to SSCs grown in the laboratory, the stem cells survived without the presence of TECs. (nih.gov)
- The Newcastle University team have developed a method for establishing early stage sperm from human embryonic stem cells in the laboratory. (biologynews.net)
- Anna Smajdor, a researcher in medical ethics at Imperial College London, described the work as 'a hugely significant breakthrough', but warned that, 'being able to create these cells in the laboratory will pose a serious conceptual challenge for our society. (ivf.net)
- Who is the father of offspring born from laboratory sperm? (ivf.net)
- Therefore before laboratory-made sperm could be used to produce children, extensive safety testing would have to be carried out. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Fluxion Biosciences announced today that the Karp Laboratory at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) has purchased the BioFlux 1000 system, which will be applied in their stem cell homing research. (news-medical.net)
- Retrieved on May 25, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20110512/BWH-Karp-Laboratory-acquires-BioFlux-1000-system-for-stem-cell-homing-research.aspx. (news-medical.net)
- The study noted that regenerative medicine specialists have been using a type of cell commonly found in the skin called the fibroblast because it is easily obtained from skin samples, grows well in culture, and can be manipulated in the laboratory to de-differentiate into a primordial state known as the induced pluripotent stem cell. (genengnews.com)
- According to the Technion, "many studies on the question of the connection between sperm quality and the radiation emitted by cell phones reached different and non-uniform conclusions, since they were carried out under different conditions (laboratory experiments on tissue, experiments in laboratory animals, etc.) and did not always address all the relevant variables. (nocamels.com)
- In the Murphy laboratory, we use the zebrafish model, mammalian stem cells, and human cancer cell lines, to investigate how epigenetic marks control gene expression patterns, and drive cell state transitions. (rochester.edu)
- Dr. Ann Kiessling, the founder of Bedford Stem Cell Research Foundation, is the Laboratory Director. (wikipedia.org)
- We knew from our previous work that cells destined to be sperm could revert back to being stem cells, but we didn't know how," says Erika Matunis, Ph.D. , an associate professor of cell biology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- A new mechanism for stem cell number control was revealed by Asst. Prof. Yu Kitadate and Prof. Shosei Yoshida (developmental biologists at the National Institute for Basic Biology within the National Institutes of Natural Sciences in Japan) and Prof. Benjamin Simons (a theoretical physicist at the University of Cambridge in the UK). (medindia.net)
- In biology, when an egg is fertilized by sperm, it divides into a group of cells called a blastocyst, which then develops into a fetus or the placenta. (worldtruth.tv)
- Although the editor of Stem Cells and Development, Graham Parker, initially announced on this journal's website that the sperm study 'is being retracted', without offering any explanation, it was the journal Nature which quoted him as having said that two paragraphs in the article's introduction were found to have been plagiarized, and were taken from a 2007 review in the journal Biology of Reproduction. (cellmedicine.com)
- Nicoya has designated the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine (InStem) as the new OpenSPR Centre of Excellence in collaboration with Dr. Ramaswamy (Senior Professor at InStem) and his lab. (news-medical.net)
- Retrieved on May 26, 2020 from https://www.news-medical.net/news/20181115/Nicoya-designate-the-Institute-for-Stem-Cell-Biology-and-Regenerative-Medicine-as-the-OpenSPR-Centre-of-Excellence.aspx. (news-medical.net)
- The findings were presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of Cell Biology in Philadelphia. (blogspot.com)
- This work is an outstanding example of how collaborations between different institutions, on different continents, can solve fundamental problems in biomedicine," said Dieter Egli, PhD, principal co-author of the study, and Assistant Professor of Developmental Cell Biology in Pediatrics at Columbia University Medical Center and a Senior Research Fellow at the NYSCF Research Institute and a NYSCF-Robertson Investigator. (phys.org)
- Yamanaka said the idea of reversing the fate of already specialised cells, then a "no-can-do" in biology, came to him when studying the experiments that produced the first cloned frogs, in the 1970s, and Dolly the sheep in 1996, according to the foundation statement. (phys.org)
- I believe Dr. Brinster's new results have catapulted the spermatogenic stem cell system into a position of maximum experimental flexibility among all other stem cell systems in the body," said John R. McCarrey, professor of cell and molecular biology at the University of Texas at San Antonio, who was not involved in this work. (scienceblog.com)
- 1 Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, United States of America. (nih.gov)
- Their work ("Establishment of porcine and human expanded potential stem cells"), published in Nature Cell Biology , also offers great potential for studying human development and regenerative medicine, they added. (cbhd.org)
- This work relies on classic genetics and developmental biology methods, new DNA sequencing technologies, and bioinformatics applications, to map the genomic locations of various proteins and epigenetic marks as they change during cell state transitions. (rochester.edu)
- Rita Perlingeiro , assistant professor of developmental biology at UT Southwestern, says that embryonic stem cells may be the key to reversing muscular dystrophy's debilitating effects. (technologyreview.com)
- This book examines recent progress in our understanding of the biology of these cells, how they are regulated, and opportunities for using them in disease therapies. (cshlpress.com)
- Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology examines recent progress in our understanding of stem cell biology and how the properties of stem cells can be manipulated for therapeutic purposes, emphasizing the roles that cutting-edge technologies and interdisciplinary approaches have played in this work. (cshlpress.com)
- The team also believe that studying the process of forming sperm could lead to a better understanding of how genetic diseases are passed on. (biologynews.net)
- These contain the same genetic material that fully formed sperm do, but they do not have the ability to swim as the sperm tail is not yet formed properly. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- Certain plant stem cells rarely divide, a study shows, possibly fending off an accumulation of potentially harmful genetic mutations in some species. (the-scientist.com)
- Rhox 10: a genetic "bus" that "drives" sperm stem cells toward sperm production. (ca.gov)
- This study has given us a new type of human stem cell that will have an important impact on human genetic and medical research," said Nissim Benvenisty, MD, PhD, Director of the Azrieli Center for Stem Cells and Genetic Research at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and principal co-author of the study. (phys.org)
- Since the stem cells described in this study were a genetic match to the egg cell donor, they could also be used to develop cell-based therapies for diseases such as blindness, diabetes, or other conditions in which genetically identical cells offer a therapeutic advantage. (phys.org)
- Yes, ES cells will largely be supplanted by iPSC, because the cells will allow us to study a far broader group of individuals - often with specific medical and genetic conditions - and will allow us to bypass the immunologic issues that would prevent easy implementation of ES cell technologies. (scienceblogs.com)
- No other sperm bank does more genetic testing! (cryobank.com)
- Accumulated research knowledge on this subject shows that sperm quality is affected by congenital genetic factors, but also by environmental variables. (nocamels.com)
- The most well known, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, is caused by a genetic mutation that disrupts the formation of dystrophin, an important protein involved in the formation of muscle cells. (technologyreview.com)
- In normal embryologic development, stem cells turn into various tissue and bone, depending on a combination of molecular and genetic signals. (technologyreview.com)
- In the technique developed at Newcastle, stem cells with XY chromosomes (male) were developed into germline stem cells which were then prompted to complete meiosis - cell division with halving of the chromosome set. (biologynews.net)
- In contrast, stem cells with XX chromosomes (female) were prompted to form early stage sperm, spermatagonia, but did not progress further. (biologynews.net)
- They also contained only 23 chromosomes , compared to the 46 chromosomes found in all other human cells (apart from egg cells which also contain only 23 chromosomes - when a sperm fertilises an egg they merge to form a single cell with a total of 46 chromosomes). (bionews.org.uk)
- An absolute requirement for the generation of healthy offspring is the production of haploid gametes: gametes that contain half the number of chromosomes as other cells. (theconversation.com)
- In the human each egg and sperm has 23 compared to all other cells which contain 46 chromosomes. (theconversation.com)
- A haploid cell with 23 chromosomes (left), and a diploid cell with 46 chromosomes (right). (phys.org)
- Human cells are considered 'diploid' because they inherit two sets of chromosomes, 46 in total, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father. (phys.org)
- The only exceptions are reproductive (egg and sperm) cells, known as 'haploid' cells because they contain a single set of 23 chromosomes. (phys.org)
- Here, using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with arm-specific DNA probes of chromosomes 1, 2 and 5, we visualized arm domains and established hierarchical levels of sperm chromatin structures. (biologists.org)
- Within this model of genome architecture in human sperm, structural organization of chromosomes remain largely unresolved. (biologists.org)
- Human cells are diploid (contain a double set of chromosomes). (clinicaltrials.gov)
Create human sperm1
- There is an increasing need in academic labs for higher throughput systems that allow screening across a broad spectrum of variables affecting cellular processes, and this sale validates the role of the BioFlux platform in the development of stem cell technologies for regenerative medicine. (news-medical.net)
- Stem cell therapeutics firm Medistem and Superview Biotechnology signed a collaboration centered on the use of Medistem's stem cell lines to screen for monoclonal antibodies with potential in regenerative medicine. (genengnews.com)
- Its lead program is centered on the use of endometrial regenerative cells (ERCs), a "universal donor"-type stem cell derived from menstrual blood. (genengnews.com)
- Regenerative (reparative) medicine uses cell-based therapies to treat disease. (cnn.com)
- We wrote extensively about what results in these cells - induced Pluripotent Stem Cells or iPSC - mean for stem cell research and regenerative medicine overall. (scienceblogs.com)
- ProVida Clinic is a private high-level health organization which offers stem cell treatment and regenerative medicine. (placidway.com)
- Given their plasticity and regenerative abilities, stem cells provide opportunities for treating human diseases such as diabetes. (cshlpress.com)
- This volume is therefore an indispensable reference for molecular, cell, and developmental biologists, as well as anyone wishing to explore the possibilities of stem cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. (cshlpress.com)
- Spermatogonial stem cells allow men-even in their 70s-to generate sperm and father children," said Song, who also co-authored the Human Molecular Genetics study. (medicalxpress.com)
- Spermatogonial stem cells allow men - even in their 70s - to generate sperm and father children. (ca.gov)
- Previous efforts to generate embryonic stem cells using human egg cells had resulted in diploid stem cells. (phys.org)
- It can generate enough stem cells to heal permanent wounds, especially those caused externally," she told the South China Morning Post. (cas.cn)
- Nerve cells that carry electrical signals, muscle cells which generate force and pancreas cells making insulin are just a few examples. (abpischools.org.uk)
Known as spermatogonial stem cells2
- They encouraged these early-stage sperm cells, known as spermatogonial stem cells, to grow into adult sperm cells and then injected some of these into female mouse eggs. (medgadget.com)
- They found some partly developed sperm cells known as spermatogonial stem cells, one of the early steps to sperm production. (thenakedscientists.com)
- The original epigenetic modifications in donor cell genome are incompletely erased and abnormally reprogramed by the enucleated oocyte cytoplasm. (biomedcentral.com)
- After autologous transplant, the donor genotype from lentivirus-marked SSCs was evident in the ejaculated sperm of 9/12 adult and 3/5 prepubertal recipients after they reached maturity. (elsevier.com)
- Allogeneic transplant led to donor-recipient chimerism in sperm from 2/6 adult recipients. (elsevier.com)
- Ejaculated sperm from one recipient transplanted with allogeneic donor SSCs were injected into 85 rhesus oocytes via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (elsevier.com)
- Over 84% of epididymal spermatozoa on the transplanted side had the donor genotype and were capable of fertilizing eggs after intracytoplasmic sperm injection forming morulae of the donor paternal origin. (elsevier.com)
- Healthy stem cells from the donor (person who gives the stem cells) attack the cells of the recipient (person receiving the stem cells). (cancer.ca)
- So the second step will be to figure out a way to make the sperm precursor cells out of induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPS cells. (latimes.com)
- Moreover, it has been suggested that sAC is produced as a high-molecular-weight precursor protein that is converted to the active form by proteolytic cleavage as the sperm cells proceed through the epididymal tract ( 5 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
- I think this is the best option we have ever had," says Renee Reijo Pera , director of Stanford University's Center for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research and Education in California, who wasn't involved in the study. (newscientist.com)
- The development of world's first artificial testicle for production of human sperm has been given the go ahead. (bionews.org.uk)
- For starters, the recipe used to transform the mouse stem cells into sperm will need to be modified to work with human embryonic stem cells. (latimes.com)
- Making spermatids in a dish from human embryonic stem cells could have important repercussions," said University of California, Irvine, biochemist Peter Donovan . (gizmodo.com.au)
- It could be years before a similar feat is accomplished using human cells. (gizmodo.com.au)
- It is illegal to use IVD sperm for human reproduction in the UK. (bionews.org.uk)
- How soon before we can make human sperm from stem cells? (theconversation.com)
- There is still a long way to go before the work can be translated to people-the main hurdle will be figuring out how to make human sperm cells from induced pluripotent stem cells , which are often taken from adult skin cells and other tissue. (discovermagazine.com)
- The mouse study is published September 27 by Cell Reports and the human study was published September 15 by Human Molecular Genetics . (medicalxpress.com)
- They then harvested these cells by culturing human embryonic stem cells for five days. (worldtruth.tv)
- LONDON - A scientific journal has retracted a controversial paper claiming to have created the first human sperm from embryonic stem cells. (nbcnews.com)
- This is the first study to characterize the changes human sperm stem cells undergo as they mature. (huntsmancancer.org)
- But this first study of developing human sperm stem cells revealed this process was much more complex in humans than had been previously understood. (huntsmancancer.org)
- Using single cell RNA sequencing analysis, the Cairns lab profiled cells individually, establishing the gene expression profile in human sperm stem cells. (huntsmancancer.org)
- These cells, which can develop into any kind of human cell, are then nudged to become egg or sperm cells. (statnews.com)
- The ethical, social, and legal conundrums surrounding stem-cell derived human gametes are vast and require close and careful consideration, not only by experts and scholars but by the public as well. (statnews.com)
- Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death. (the-scientist.com)
- Two studies demonstrate the first direct, chemical reprogramming of mouse and human skin cells into heart muscle and neural cells. (the-scientist.com)
- They have recently managed a similar feat of biological engineering, using stem cells from human adult bone marrow. (thenakedscientists.com)
- A human donor's stem cell candidates-fibroblasts, typically-may be too set in their epigenetic ways to serve as the basis of new tissues and organs. (genengnews.com)
- 1999 - The National Bioethics Advisory Commission recommends that the government allow federal funds to be used to support research on human embryonic stem cells. (cnn.com)
- The stem cells described in this paper are the first human cells that are known to be capable of cell division with just one copy of the parent cell's genome. (phys.org)
- Defined sets of factors can reprogram human cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. (phys.org)
- However, many types of human cells are not easily accessible to minimally invasive procedures. (phys.org)
- Pledging that his administration will "make scientific decisions based on facts, not ideology," President Obama on Monday lifted the Bush administration's strict limits on human embryonic stem cell research. (scienceblogs.com)
- In making his announcement, Mr. Obama drew a strict line against human cloning, an issue that over the years has become entangled with the debate over human embryonic stem cell research. (scienceblogs.com)
- Basically, the ability to reprogram the cells of any individual to a totipotent state - one in which the cells may make any cell-type or tissue in the human body. (scienceblogs.com)
- Not only are ES cells inferior compared to iPSC for human therapies, but wouldn't it be easier not to upset the fundamentalists that would equate the value of our lives to that of a ball of undifferentiated cells? (scienceblogs.com)
- But certainly you wouldn't equate the value of human life to that of sperm or eggs, and I don't see any rational reason why the fusion of the two is that much more special than the two on their own. (scienceblogs.com)
- For instance, I was reading about research into how ES are extremely resistant to retroviral replication , who knows what other clues about human physiology and evolution we can learn from these cells that may or may not be present in iPSC. (scienceblogs.com)
- Whereas recent studies demonstrated a well-defined nuclear architecture in human sperm nuclei, little is known about the mode of DNA compaction above the elementary structural unit of nucleoprotamine toroids. (biologists.org)
- We propose a unified comprehensive model of chromosomal and nuclear architecture in human sperm that, as we suggest, is important for successful fertilization and early development. (biologists.org)
- In this context, specific and well-organized nuclear organization recently demonstrated for human sperm cells may be of special interest. (biologists.org)
- This study partially fills the noticeable gaps between our knowledge of the elementary DNA-protamine structure and the higher-order chromosome packing in human sperm cells. (biologists.org)
- Human sperm cells were obtained from the semen of 10 healthy, fertile donors. (biologists.org)
- There are a number of cell types present within the acinar or alveolar structures in the human. (yahoo.com)
- The study, reported on line (Thursday 13 October) in Europe s leading reproductive medicine journal Human Reproduction, also looked at dichlorodiphenyldichlorethylene (DDE) - a breakdown product of DDT - but found that it did not appear to damage sperm DNA. (innovations-report.com)
- They also identified five growth factors produced by testicular endothelial cells to keep human and mouse cells cultures alive for a long time. (upi.com)
- After years of animal trials, the first human has been injected with cells from human embryonic stem cells, according to Geron Corporation, the company which is sponsoring the controversial study. (cnn.com)
- This is the first human embryonic stem cell trial in the world,' Geron CEO Dr. Thomas Okarma tells CNN. (cnn.com)
- Geron is releasing very few details about the patient, but will say that the first person to receive cells derived from human embryonic stem cells was enrolled in the FDA-approved clinical trial at the Shepherd Center, a spinal cord and brain injury rehabilitation hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. (cnn.com)
- But the cells that the patient receives aren't pure human embryonic stem cells anymore. (cnn.com)
- However, Okarma has previously told CNN that 'zero federal funds' were used for their human embryonic stem cell product. (cnn.com)
- Much of the research supported by the Foundation cannot be funded by federal grants-in-aid because of the U.S. moratorium on funding research on human eggs activated either artificially or by sperm. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the lab-grown sperm didn't appear exactly like normal sperm, and they weren't able to swim. (gizmodo.com.au)
- The IVD sperm, like normal sperm, grew tails and were highly mobile. (bionews.org.uk)
- They have suggested that the data, published in the journal Stem Cells and Development, is insufficient to prove the IVD sperm are equivalent to normal sperm. (bionews.org.uk)
- Only one mutation was also found in a control group of men with normal sperm concentrations. (medicalxpress.com)
Germline stem cells2
- The high expression levels observed may indicate an important role for sAC in generating cAMP in spermatozoa required for either sperm maturation, initiation of motility, hypermotility, and/or the acrosome reaction. (pnas.org)
- It has, therefore, been postulated that the activation of sAC protein results in an increase of the intracellular concentration of cAMP and the induction of the signaling cascade, leading to the completion of the sperm maturation. (pnas.org)
- In the most optimistic scenario our research suggests a man could have his own stem cells transplanted, giving him the opportunity to have children via natural intercourse," Orwig says. (newscientist.com)
- But having the potential to become any type of cell is not the end game -- research groups around the world are trying to figure out the precise recipe for turning those stem cells into specific types of cells that would be useful for studying or treating various diseases. (latimes.com)
- Interestingly, the dynamics of stem cells can be described using mathematics similar to that for ecosystem - a fruit of my beloved interdisciplinary research team! (medindia.net)
- The Stem Cells Portal is a shared platform for the STEM CELLS and STEM CELLS Translational Medicine sister journals, providing up-to-the-minute coverage of the latest research from bench science and developments to clinical applications. (stemcellsportal.com)
- The BBC website reports that research using stem cells to treat strokes "is set to. (nationalarchives.gov.uk)
- A major focus of Dr. Karp's research is the development of stem cell based therapeutics to address tissue and organ replacement. (news-medical.net)
- The BioFlux 1000 system provides our lab with high experimental throughput and reproducibility, allowing us to focus on the critical aspects of our translational research and on making targeted stem cell therapies a reality. (news-medical.net)
- It's exciting to see the adoption of the BioFlux 1000 system at a world class research institution, and its use in the development of a novel application for stem cell research,' said Jeff Jensen, Chief Executive Officer at Fluxion Biosciences. (news-medical.net)
- Phil Jones, MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison-MRC Research centre. (cam.ac.uk)
- Stem cell research focuses on embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells. (cnn.com)
- The goal of therapeutic cloning research is not to make babies, but to make embryonic stem cells, which can be harvested and used for cell-based therapies. (cnn.com)
- 1998 - President Bill Clinton requests a National Bioethics Advisory Commission to study the question of stem cell research. (cnn.com)
- Through some scientific detective work, Wilkinson and his research team have zeroed in on a gene called RhoX10 that plays an essential role in the development of adult stem cells which give rise to sperm production. (ca.gov)
- Medical News Today recently reported on research suggesting that as men age, their sperm contains more disease-causing mutations . (basilita.com)
- Stem cell research: Natural Born Killers? (metafilter.com)
- An interesting argument on why Bush's policy on stem cell research doesn't make sense. (metafilter.com)
- Bush's policy on embryonic stem cell research is that he doesn't want it to happen. (metafilter.com)
- The argument that ifs Bush truly thought stem cell research was morally wrong then why hasn't he banned it is an interesting one that slipped by me. (metafilter.com)
- The consistent position would be to ban their destruction and halt current stem cell research. (metafilter.com)
- The research, supported by The New York Stem Cell Foundation, the New York State Stem Cell Science Program, and by the Azrieli Foundation, underscores the importance of private philanthropy in advancing cutting-edge science. (phys.org)
- The jury emphasised the exciting new vistas these cells open up for both basic and clinical research, with personalised therapies and more precisely targeted drugs," it added. (phys.org)
- That is what inspired me to start my project," said Yamanaka, 48, the director of the Centre for iPS Cell Research and Application at Japan's Kyoto University. (phys.org)
- Perhaps no single scientist has had a greater impact on stem cell research than Dr. Shinya Yamanaka. (phys.org)
- President Obama has lifted the ban on embryonic stem cell research enacted by Bush, but I'm left feeling that this intervention came many years too late. (scienceblogs.com)
- There actually is no real need for embryonic stem cell research to be extensively invested unless for some reason the iPSC don't pan out (entirely possible) or if the turn out to be different from real ES cells in some fundamental way that makes them less valuable for basic research. (scienceblogs.com)
- Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, as well as to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes and heart disease . (wikipedia.org)
- In order to be used for research or treatment applications, large numbers of high-quality stem cells are needed. (wikipedia.org)
- A study published today in Cell Systems highlights a new research method using the recently developed CRISPR technique. (huntsmancancer.org)
- Although the hype around stem cell research has calmed down a bit in the past few years due to the economic crisis and expanded ( though contested ) federal funding, its remnants still resonate. (geneticsandsociety.org)
- In 2004, Californians approved a $3 bllion bond to fund stem cell research. (geneticsandsociety.org)
- The findings are published in the latest issue of the journal Cell Research . (cas.cn)
- Research across the world has been trying to grow sufficient numbers of stem cells but faces problems in coaxing the cells to divide under lab conditions. (cas.cn)
- In the case of muscle cells, past research has shown that the gene Pax-3 is essential in pointing stem cells down the path of muscle formation. (technologyreview.com)
- The story is based on research that tested the DNA of men with unexplained low sperm counts. (www.nhs.uk)
- Bedford Research Foundation is a non-profit Institute that conducts stem cell research for diseases and conditions that currently have no known cure. (wikipedia.org)
- The Foundation conducts research within its own laboratories (Stem Cell, Prostate, Infectious disease) as well as in collaboration with other laboratories and raises money to award research grants to qualified investigators seeking to improve the safety and success of assisted reproduction to mothers and babies. (wikipedia.org)
- However, centres in the US and Europe are already banking testicular tissue for boys in the hope that new stem-cell-based therapies will become available. (newscientist.com)
- Understanding mesenchymal stem cell homing is critical to our efforts toward development of programmable stem cell therapies, but the manual approaches previously available in the lab were too slow for the large number of experiments required. (news-medical.net)
- In contrast, he claims, using monoclonal antibodies to target endogenous stem cells "not only provides methods of activating stem cells but also allows for the development of stem cell adjuvant therapies that could be used to resurrect stem cell candidates that failed in clinical trials. (genengnews.com)
- Our opinion is that the barriers to entry for monoclonal antibody-based therapies modulating endogenous stem cells is lower than stem cell-based therapeutics," adds Jiong Wu, Superview's CEO. (genengnews.com)
- Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition to the functions of the cells themselves, paracrine soluble factors produced by stem cells, known as the stem cell secretome , has been found to be another mechanism by which stem cell-based therapies mediate their effects in degenerative , auto-immune and inflammatory diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- In addition, the authors consider the potential of stem-cell-based therapies in the clinic (e.g., for treating retinal diseases and skin disorders) and the innovations that are facilitating the development of those therapies, including various lineage reprogramming strategies and new biomaterials that modulate stem cell properties. (cshlpress.com)
- Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has shown a wide application in the generation of transgenic animals, protection of endangered animals, and therapeutic cloning. (biomedcentral.com)
- Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has shown great advantages and application prospects in the generation of transgenic animals, protection of endangered animals, and stem cell therapy [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- In SCNT, a somatic cell nucleus from the patient is injected into an enucleated oocyte, and the resulting ESCs are then isolated from cloned blastocysts. (biomedcentral.com)
- From their work I learned that we should be able to convert somatic cells back into their embryonic state. (phys.org)
- Orwig says there are some concerns that implanting stem cells could reintroduce cancer cells that may have been present in the original tissue. (newscientist.com)
- These are the cells taken from skin or another adult tissue and rewound to an early state where they are flexible enough to -- say it with me -- become any type of cell in the body. (latimes.com)
- To ensure a balance between the loss of differentiated cells and their replacement in long-lived multicellular organisms, it is critically important to keep the number of tissue stem cells constant. (medindia.net)
- Prof. Simons said, "As a general and robust mechanism of stem cell density control, these findings may have important implications for the regulation of stem cell density in other tissue types. (medindia.net)
- IVG works like this: Cells from almost any tissue or organ are reverse engineered into becoming induced pluripotent stem cells . (statnews.com)
- Asymmetric division of adult stem cells generates one self-renewing stem cell and one differentiating cell, thereby maintaining tissue homeostasis. (nature.com)
- A decline in stem cell function has been proposed to contribute to tissue ageing, although the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. (nature.com)
- The BioFlux 1000 system can be used to study cellular interactions that are important to understanding processes such as chemotaxis, cell migration, and tissue regeneration. (news-medical.net)
- As the field of personalized medicine continues to grow, this evidence necessitates further exploration into the epigenetic patterns in stem cells used for new tissue and organ generation. (genengnews.com)
- One gram of tissue was used to grow about a million stem cells with the biological characteristics of beta islet cells. (blogspot.com)
- The firm claims this stem cell type can differentiate into nine tissue types, produces large quantities of growth factors, and exhibits a large proliferative capacity. (genengnews.com)
- Multipotent stem cells can give rise to multiple types of cells, but all within a particular tissue, organ, or physiological system. (cnn.com)
- Adult stem cells are already designated for a certain organ or tissue. (cnn.com)
- Some adult stem cells can be coaxed into or be reprogrammed into turning into a different type of specialized cell within the tissue type - for example, a heart stem cell can give rise to a functional heart muscle cell, but it is still unclear whether they can give rise to all different cell types of the body. (cnn.com)
- The primary role of adult stem cells is to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. (cnn.com)
- Two hundred and ten eggs were injected with the artificially-derived sperm, 65 began to undergo cell division and seven live births resulted, with six of the animals achieving adulthood. (ivf.net)
- Sperm are made from cells that undergo many stages. (medicalxpress.com)
- If you want to undergo Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) and start a happy family life, here are the best and most reliable Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) clinics in Ljubljana, Slovenia to choose from. (placidway.com)
- Couples and singles travel here to undergo Microdissection TESE (Testicular Sperm Extraction) and finally start their own family. (placidway.com)
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- Stem cells have been seen to undergo mutations that could lead to tumours. (cas.cn)
- The nem-1 strain contains egg-restricted and multipotent stem cells, which are both capable of differentiating into eggs but not into sperms. (readabstracts.com)
- Adult stem cells are known as multipotent stem cells but they are not as flexible as embryonic stem cells do, though they can be coaxed to differentiate into lots of useful cell types. (cas.cn)
Testicular Sperm Extr9
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- Here, we established cell culture systems for production of functional sperm from self-renewing spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), using zebrafish testicular hyperplasias that accumulate SSCs. (nig.ac.jp)
- No stem cells, adult or embryonic, have been induced to secrete enough insulin yet to cure diabetes in humans, but we know SSCs have the potential to do what we want them to do, and we know how to improve their yield," said Dr Gallicano. (blogspot.com)
Functional sperm and egg cells1
- These "spermatid-like cells" were used to successfully fertilise mouse egg cells and produce healthy fertile offspring. (theconversation.com)
- One of the major concerns about lab-made sperm is whether or not they are genetically the same as healthy sperm produced in the body. (sciencemediacentre.co.nz)
- a donor's healthy bone marrow reintroduces functional stem cells to replace the cells lost in the host's body during treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- Even though the cells can be extracted from healthy muscles fairly easily, big wounds require large numbers to be removed from healthy parts of the patient's body, posing a risk. (cas.cn)
- In this stem cell from bone marrow are injected into a recipient after treating them with growth factor. (medindia.net)
- It takes time for stem cells to make their way to the bone marrow and start making new blood cells (called engraftment). (cancer.ca)
- The risk of infection for all types of transplant is high until the bone marrow starts to make white blood cells. (cancer.ca)
- The new study, co-led by Jiahao Sha and Qi Zhou, is the first to demonstrate that it's possible to push embryonic stem cells through meiosis (cell division) to produce a functional gamete, with apparently correct nuclear DNA and chromosomal content, and the ability to produce viable offspring. (gizmodo.com.au)