Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
The anterior portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that contains mainly the nucleus with highly compact CHROMATIN material.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
The posterior filiform portion of the spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) that provides sperm motility.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
The maturing process of SPERMATOZOA after leaving the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. Maturation in SPERM MOTILITY and FERTILITY takes place in the EPIDIDYMIS as the sperm migrate from caput epididymis to cauda epididymis.
The cap-like structure covering the anterior portion of SPERM HEAD. Acrosome, derived from LYSOSOMES, is a membrane-bound organelle that contains the required hydrolytic and proteolytic enzymes necessary for sperm penetration of the egg in FERTILIZATION.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
The middle piece of the spermatozoon is a highly organized segment consisting of MITOCHONDRIA, the outer dense fibers and the core microtubular structure.
Changes that occur to liberate the enzymes of the ACROSOME of a sperm (SPERMATOZOA). Acrosome reaction allows the sperm to penetrate the ZONA PELLUCIDA and enter the OVUM during FERTILIZATION.
The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
Centers for acquiring and storing semen.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.
Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Chemical substances with sperm immobilizing activity used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
A genus of long-legged, swift-moving felines (FELIDAE) from Africa (and formerly Asia) about the size of a small leopard.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
A chlorinated PROPANEDIOL with antifertility activity in males used as a chemosterilant in rodents.
Sexual stimulation or gratification of the self.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
Surgical removal of the ductus deferens, or a portion of it. It is done in association with prostatectomy, or to induce infertility. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
A METHYLXANTHINE derivative that inhibits phosphodiesterase and affects blood rheology. It improves blood flow by increasing erythrocyte and leukocyte flexibility. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. Pentoxifylline modulates immunologic activity by stimulating cytokine production.
A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
A structurally-diverse family of intracellular-signaling adaptor proteins that selectively tether specific protein kinase A subtypes to distinct subcellular sites. They play a role in focusing the PROTEIN KINASE A activity toward relevant substrates. Over fifty members of this family exist, most of which bind specifically to regulatory subunits of CYCLIC AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE TYPE II such as CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA or CAMP PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, found in South America.
Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.
Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).
'Poisonous fishes' are aquatic organisms belonging to the Phylum Chordata and Class Pisces, that contain toxic substances either in their tissues or secretions, which can cause harmful or lethal effects when ingested, touched, or coming into contact with their released toxins.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The species Physeter catodon (also called Physeter macrocephalus), in the family Physeteridae. The common name is derived from the milky wax substance in its head (spermaceti). The species also produces an intestinal secretion AMBERGRIS, which was previously used in perfumes. The sperm whale is the largest toothed MAMMAL in the world.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A technique that uses LASERS to trap, image, and manipulate small objects (biomolecules, supramolecular assembles, DENDRIMERS) in three dimensional space. (From Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology Terms, 4th ed.)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A plant genus of the family Caricaceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is the source of edible fruit and PAPAIN.
An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.
A family of anadromous fish comprising SALMON; TROUT; whitefish; and graylings. They are the most important food and game fishes. Their habitat is the northern Atlantic and Pacific, both marine and inland, and the Great Lakes. (Nelson: Fishes of the World, 1976, p97)
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE.
The application of LUBRICANTS to diminish FRICTION between two surfaces.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
Chemical agents that increase the permeability of biological or artificial lipid membranes to specific ions. Most ionophores are relatively small organic molecules that act as mobile carriers within membranes or coalesce to form ion permeable channels across membranes. Many are antibiotics, and many act as uncoupling agents by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A drug formerly used in the treatment of angina pectoris but superseded by less hazardous drugs. Prenylamine depletes myocardial catecholamine stores and has some calcium channel blocking activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1406)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Sexual activities of animals.
A cutaneous pouch of skin containing the testicles and spermatic cords.
A species of PERCIFORMES commonly used in saline aquaculture.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Splitting the DNA into shorter pieces by endonucleolytic DNA CLEAVAGE at multiple sites. It includes the internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, which along with chromatin condensation, are considered to be the hallmarks of APOPTOSIS.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
'Zoo animals' are various species of captive wild animals, housed and displayed in a facility for the purpose of public education, conservation, research, and recreation.
The convoluted tubules in the TESTIS where sperm are produced (SPERMATOGENESIS) and conveyed to the RETE TESTIS. Spermatogenic tubules are composed of developing germ cells and the supporting SERTOLI CELLS.
Agents, either mechanical or chemical, which destroy spermatozoa in the male genitalia and block spermatogenesis.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase found in the cytosol of eucaryotes. It catalyses the dehydrogenation and phosphorylation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE to 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate, which is an important step in the GLYCOLYSIS pathway.
Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.
Lectin purified from peanuts (ARACHIS HYPOGAEA). It binds to poorly differentiated cells and terminally differentiated cells and is used in cell separation techniques.
N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3',5'-(hydrogen phosphate)-2'-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Proteins found in the microtubules.
Male germ cells derived from the haploid secondary SPERMATOCYTES. Without further division, spermatids undergo structural changes and give rise to SPERMATOZOA.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.

Maintenance of motility in mouse sperm permeabilized with streptolysin O. (1/2575)

One approach to studying the mechanisms governing sperm motility is to permeabilize sperm and examine the regulation of motility by manipulating the intracellular milieu of the cell. The most common method of sperm permeabilization, detergent treatment, has the disadvantage that the membranes and many proteins are extracted from the cell. To avoid this problem, we have developed a method that uses streptolysin O to create stable pores within the plasma membrane while leaving internal membranes intact. Sperm were permeabilized, preincubated, and then treated with 0.6 U/ml of streptolysin O. Permeabilization was assessed by fluorescent dye technologies and endogenous protein phosphorylation using exogenously added [gamma-32P]ATP. Streptolysin O-induced permeabilization rendered the sperm immotile, and the effect was Ca2+-dependent. When the cells were treated simultaneously with a medium containing ATP, streptolysin O-treated sperm maintained flagellar movement. These results demonstrate that the streptolysin O permeabilization model system is a useful experimental method for studying the mechanisms that regulate sperm motility since it allows the flagellar apparatus to be exposed to various exogenously added molecules.  (+info)

A sialoglycoprotein, gp20, of the human capacitated sperm surface is a homologue of the leukocyte CD52 antigen: analysis of the effect of anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody (CAMPATH-1) on capacitated spermatozoa. (2/2575)

In this study we performed N-terminal sequence analysis of gp20, a 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein on the human sperm surface previously identified by radiolabelling of the sialic acid residues of sperm surface. We found 100% identity with the N-terminus of CD52, an antigen expressed on almost all human leukocytes. We also show that, like CD52, gp20 behaves as a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein and that anti-gp20 antiserum reacts with an antigen on leukocytes of the same molecular weight as CD52. Using CAMPATH-1, the monoclonal antibody against CD52, in fluorescent staining of capacitated spermatozoa, Western blot analysis and the zona-free hamster egg penetration test, we found that the effect of this antibody was different from that of our anti-gp20. Western blot analysis revealed a well-defined 20 kDa band with anti-gp20, whereas a 14-20 kDa band was detected with CAMPATH-1. Anti-gp20 stained the equatorial region of the sperm head, whereas CAMPATH-1 stained the tail in immunofluorescence analysis of capacitated spermatozoa. A dose-dependent inhibitory effect was seen with CAMPATH-1, similar to that previously detected with anti-gp20, in a zona-free hamster egg penetration test. However, with CAMPATH-1 agglutination of motile spermatozoa was detected, and this was not present with anti-gp20. This suggests that the epitopes recognized by the two antibodies are different.  (+info)

Binding of annexin V to plasma membranes of human spermatozoa: a rapid assay for detection of membrane changes after cryostorage. (3/2575)

When the cell membrane is disturbed, phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. This is one of the earliest signs of apoptosis and can be monitored by the calcium-dependent binding of annexin V. Therefore, annexin V-binding, in conjunction with flow cytometry, was used to evaluate the integrity of the sperm plasma membrane after different cryostorage protocols: i.e. 10% (v/v) glycerol; sperm maintenance medium (MM); freezing medium TEST yolk buffer (TYB); or cryostorage without protection (cryoshock). Using a combination of two fluorescent dyes, annexin V and propidium iodide (PI), led to three groups of spermatozoa being identified: (i) viable spermatozoa (annexin V-negative and PI-negative); (ii) dead spermatozoa (annexin V-positive and PI-positive); and (iii) cells with impaired but integer plasma membrane (annexin V-positive and PI-negative). The percentage of vital annexin V-negative spermatozoa increased significantly (P < 0.05) from spermatozoa treated by cryoshock (15.0+/-1.2%) to spermatozoa cryopreserved by TYB (26.6+/-2.2%) via cryopreservation by 10% (v/v) glycerol (19.9+/-1.6%) and by MM (22.2 1.8%) and was associated with the percentage of motile spermatozoa (17.6+/-3.4% by glycerol; 19.6+/-3.7% by MM and 22.6+/-3.9% by TYB; P = 0.0001). Of the spermatozoa, 12-22% were annexin V-positive even though they did not bind to PI, indicating viability before as well as after cryostorage. The percentage of vital annexin V-positive spermatozoa was significantly correlated with different sperm motility parameters (velocity straight linear, r = 0.601, P = 0.018; percentage of linearly motile spermatozoa: r = 0.549, P = 0.034). We, therefore, concluded that annexin V-binding is more sensitive in detecting a deterioration of membrane functions than PI staining, and that a considerable percentage of spermatozoa might have dysfunctional plasma membranes besides dead or moribund cells. Of the cryopreservation protocols tested, TYB yielded the most viable spermatozoa. Therefore, we advocate the use of the annexin V-binding assay for the evaluation of the quality and integrity of spermatozoa.  (+info)

Effects of taurine on the motility and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration of fowl spermatozoa in vitro. (4/2575)

The effects of taurine on the motility and intracellular free Ca2+ concentration of fowl spermatozoa were investigated in vitro. The addition of taurine, within the range of 0-5 mmol l(-1), did not appreciably affect the motility of intact fowl spermatozoa. Motility remained almost negligible at 40 degrees C, while vigorous movement was observed at 25 degrees C. Even with the addition of Ca2+ before the addition of taurine, neither stimulation nor inhibition of motility was observed compared with the control (no addition of taurine). Similar results were obtained by the addition of taurine and calyculin A, a specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases. There were no changes in intracellular free Ca2+ concentrations, measured by a fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, fura-2, in taurine-treated spermatozoa. These results suggest that taurine is not involved in the regulation of fowl sperm motility and metabolism by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in vitro.  (+info)

Occurrence of prostasome-like membrane vesicles in equine seminal plasma. (5/2575)

Equine seminal plasma was shown to contain membrane vesicles that are similar to the well characterized prostasomes in human seminal plasma. Determination of nucleoside and nucleotide concentrations of these particles have shown that ATP, ADP and adenosine are the main components of the nucleotidic pool. 5' nucleotidase, endopeptidase and dipeptidyl peptidase i.v. activities have been found on the surface of the particles. The interaction between these prostasome-like vesicles and spermatozoa was demonstrated by electron micrograph scans which revealed the steps of a fusion-like process leading to mixing of the membranes. In addition, endopeptidase activity, a marker enzyme of these seminal vesicles that is normally absent from equine spermatozoa, was shown to be acquired by these cells after interaction with the vesicles. The addition of these vesicles to equine spermatozoa resulted in the modification of adenylate catabolism. Therefore, a role in stabilizing the energy charge of the spermatozoa thus allowing longer viability is proposed for these organelles.  (+info)

Sperm abnormalities and histopathological changes in the testes in Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats. (6/2575)

In this study, morphological examination and computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of epididymal spermatozoa in non-treated Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats were performed, and the relationship between the data obtained and the retention of step 19 spermatids in Stage IX to XI seminiferous tubules was examined. Retention of step 19 spermatids in Stage IX to XI seminiferous tubules was observed in all 50 untreated males, and the incidence ranged from 3.3% to 100%. Eighteen animals showed a high incidence of retention (74.7 +/- 14.2%, HIR for short), and the others showed a low incidence (24.9 +/- 11.0%, LIR for short). Although the incidence of retention in Stage X and XI seminiferous tubules was very low in LIR males, it was high in HIR males (1.8 +/- 3.0% vs 58.6 +/- 23.2%). Morphological abnormalities of sperms in the caudal region of the epididymis, mainly amorphous head and no head, were more frequently observed in HIR males than in LIR males (36.2 +/- 28.5% vs 1.8 +/- 1.2%). Sperm analysis also revealed some differences between HIR and LIR males: sperm motility in HIR males was severely lower than that in LIR males, and sperm velocity, beat/cross frequency and amplitude of lateral head displacement in HIR males were lower than the corresponding values in LIR males. In summation, retention of step 19 spermatids frequently occurred in the non-treated Crj:CD(SD)IGS males, and a relationship between the retention of these spermatids and sperm abnormalities, such as morphologically abnormal sperms, low motility and other items revealed by sperm analysis (CASA), was suggested.  (+info)

Inhibition of human sperm motility by specific herbs used in alternative medicine. (7/2575)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to analyze sperm motility parameters in the presence of herbs. METHODS: Washed sperm were incubated in either saw-palmetto (Serenoa repens, Permixon Sabal serrulatum), echinacea purpura, ginkgo biloba, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), or control medium. Parameters were measured on a Hamilton-Thorn analyzer after 1, 4, 24, and 48 hr at 37 degrees C. RESULTS: Sperm motility was inhibited at the high concentration (0.6 mg/mL) of St. John's wort. Curvilinear velocities and beat cross frequencies also decreased, but not hyperactivation. High-concentration saw-palmetto, echinacea, or gikgo inhibited motility at 24 and 48 hr. CONCLUSIONS: A potent inhibition of sperm motility was seen in St. John's wort unrelated to changes in pH. Furthermore, sperm viability was compromised in St. John's wort, suggesting a spermicidal effect. Metabolic changes were observed in saw-palmetto-treated sperm. High-concentration echinacea purpura interfered with sperm enzymes. Ginkgo did not have an antioxidant effect on sperm motility.  (+info)

Hyperactivated motility of human spermatozoa: a review of physiological function and application in assisted reproduction. (8/2575)

Hyperactivated motility is a specific movement pattern which has been recognized in mammalian spermatozoa for over 25 years. During this time, it has been established that hyperactivation is part of the complex process of sperm capacitation, which is necessary before fertilization can occur. The recent introduction of computed sperm motility analysis has allowed detailed studies of sperm movement characteristics to be undertaken, and evidence is accumulating that hyperactivated motility may correlate with fertility. In this review, the physiological consequences of hyperactivated motility, methods of measurement and their application in assisted reproduction are discussed.  (+info)

Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move actively and effectively through the female reproductive tract towards the egg for fertilization. It is typically measured as the percentage of moving sperm in a sample, and their progressiveness or velocity. Normal human sperm motility is generally defined as forward progression of at least 25 micrometers per second, with at least 50% of sperm showing progressive motility. Reduced sperm motility, also known as asthenozoospermia, can negatively impact fertility and reproductive outcomes.

Sperm count, also known as sperm concentration, is the number of sperm present in a given volume of semen. The World Health Organization (WHO) previously defined a normal sperm count as at least 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen. However, more recent studies suggest that fertility may be affected even when sperm counts are slightly lower than this threshold. It's important to note that sperm count is just one factor among many that can influence male fertility. Other factors, such as sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move properly) and morphology (the shape of the sperm), also play crucial roles in successful conception.

Spermatozoa are the male reproductive cells, or gametes, that are produced in the testes. They are microscopic, flagellated (tail-equipped) cells that are highly specialized for fertilization. A spermatozoon consists of a head, neck, and tail. The head contains the genetic material within the nucleus, covered by a cap-like structure called the acrosome which contains enzymes to help the sperm penetrate the female's egg (ovum). The long, thin tail propels the sperm forward through fluid, such as semen, enabling its journey towards the egg for fertilization.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

Sperm capacitation is a complex process that occurs in the female reproductive tract and prepares sperm for fertilization. It involves a series of biochemical modifications to the sperm's membrane and motility, which enable it to undergo the acrosome reaction and penetrate the zona pellucida surrounding the egg.

The capacitation process typically takes several hours and requires the sperm to be exposed to specific factors in the female reproductive tract, including bicarbonate ions, calcium ions, and certain proteins. During capacitation, cholesterol is removed from the sperm's plasma membrane, which leads to an increase in membrane fluidity and the exposure of receptors that are necessary for binding to the egg.

Capacitation is a critical step in the fertilization process, as it ensures that only sperm that have undergone this process can successfully fertilize the egg. Abnormalities in sperm capacitation have been linked to infertility and other reproductive disorders.

A sperm head is the anterior (front) part of a spermatozoon, which contains the genetic material (DNA). It is covered by a protein layer called the acrosome, which plays a crucial role in fertilization. The sperm head is followed by the midpiece and the tail, which provide mobility to the sperm for its journey towards the egg.

Semen preservation is the process of collecting, liquefying, testing, and storing semen samples for future use in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as artificial insemination (AI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). The semen sample is usually collected through masturbation, and then it is mixed with a cryoprotectant solution to prevent damage during the freezing and thawing process. After that, the sample is divided into straws or vials and frozen in liquid nitrogen tanks at temperatures below -196°C. Properly preserved semen can be stored for many years without significant loss of quality or fertility potential. Semen preservation is often recommended for men who are about to undergo medical treatments that may affect their sperm production or fertility, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or for those who wish to postpone fatherhood for personal or medical reasons.

Male infertility is a condition characterized by the inability to cause pregnancy in a fertile female. It is typically defined as the failure to achieve a pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.

The causes of male infertility can be varied and include issues with sperm production, such as low sperm count or poor sperm quality, problems with sperm delivery, such as obstructions in the reproductive tract, or hormonal imbalances that affect sperm production. Other factors that may contribute to male infertility include genetic disorders, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions or treatments.

It is important to note that male infertility can often be treated or managed with medical interventions, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A healthcare provider can help diagnose the underlying cause of male infertility and recommend appropriate treatment options.

Asthenozoospermia is a term used in the field of andrology, which is the study of male reproductive health. It refers to a condition where the majority of sperm in a semen sample have reduced motility, meaning they do not move normally or efficiently. This can make it more difficult for the sperm to reach and fertilize an egg, potentially leading to infertility issues.

To be more specific, asthenozoospermia is defined as having less than 40% of sperm with progressive motility, which means they move forward in a straight line or in a large circle. The condition can be caused by various factors, including genetic abnormalities, environmental toxins, infections, and structural issues with the sperm themselves.

It's worth noting that asthenozoospermia is often diagnosed through a semen analysis, which is a routine test used to assess male fertility. If you or someone you know has been diagnosed with this condition, it may be helpful to consult with a reproductive endocrinologist or andrologist who can provide more information and guidance on potential treatment options.

The "sperm tail" is also known as the flagellum, which is a whip-like structure that enables the sperm to move or swim through fluid. The human sperm tail is made up of nine microtubule doublets and a central pair of microtubules, which are surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath that provides energy for its movement. This complex structure allows the sperm to navigate through the female reproductive tract in order to reach and fertilize an egg.

Semen analysis is a laboratory test that evaluates various characteristics of semen, the fluid that is released during ejaculation. These characteristics include:

1. Volume: The amount of semen produced in one ejaculation.
2. Liquefaction time: The time it takes for the semen to change from a gel-like consistency to a liquid state.
3. pH: The acidity or alkalinity of the semen.
4. Sperm concentration: The number of sperm present in each milliliter of semen.
5. Total sperm count: The total number of sperm in the entire ejaculate.
6. Motility: The percentage of sperm that are moving and their forward progression.
7. Morphology: The shape and size of the sperm.
8. Vitality: The percentage of live sperm in the sample.
9. White blood cell count: The presence of white blood cells, which can indicate an infection.

Semen analysis is often used to help diagnose male infertility, as well as to monitor the effectiveness of treatments for infertility. It may also be used to detect abnormalities in the reproductive system or to evaluate the effects of certain medications on sperm production and quality.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

Sperm maturation is the process by which spermatids, immature sperm cells produced in meiosis, transform into fully developed spermatozoa capable of fertilization. This complex process occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and includes several stages:

1. **Golfi formation:** The first step involves the spermatids reorganizing their cytoplasm and forming a cap-like structure called the acrosome, which contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the egg's outer layers during fertilization.
2. **Flagellum development:** The spermatid also develops a tail (flagellum), enabling it to move independently. This is achieved through the assembly of microtubules and other associated proteins.
3. **Nuclear condensation and elongation:** The sperm's DNA undergoes significant compaction, making the nucleus smaller and more compact. Concurrently, the nucleus elongates and aligns with the flagellum.
4. **Mitochondrial positioning:** Mitochondria, which provide energy for sperm motility, migrate to the midpiece of the sperm, close to the base of the flagellum.
5. **Chromatin packaging:** Histones, proteins that help package DNA in non-sperm cells, are replaced by transition proteins and then protamines, which further compact and protect the sperm's DNA.
6. **Sperm release (spermiation):** The mature sperm is finally released from the supporting Sertoli cells into the lumen of the seminiferous tubule, where it mixes with fluid secreted by the testicular tissue to form seminal plasma.

This entire process takes approximately 64 days in humans.

The acrosome is a specialized structure located on the anterior part of the sperm head in many species of animals, including humans. It contains enzymes that help the sperm penetrate the outer covering of the egg (zona pellucida) during fertilization. The acrosome reaction is the process by which the acrosome releases its enzymes, allowing the sperm to digest a path through the zona pellucida and reach the egg plasma membrane for fusion and fertilization.

The acrosome is formed during spermatogenesis, the process of sperm production in the testis, from the Golgi apparatus, a cellular organelle involved in protein trafficking and modification. The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes such as hyaluronidase, acrosin, and proteases that are activated during the acrosome reaction to facilitate sperm-egg fusion.

Abnormalities in acrosome formation or function can lead to infertility in males.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Sperm-ovum interactions, also known as sperm-egg interactions, refer to the specific series of events that occur between a spermatozoon (sperm) and an oocyte (egg or ovum) during fertilization in sexual reproduction.

The process begins with the sperm's attachment to the zona pellucida, a glycoprotein layer surrounding the oocyte. This interaction is mediated by specific proteins on the surface of both the sperm and the zona pellucida. Following attachment, the sperm undergoes the acrosome reaction, during which enzymes are released from the sperm's head to help digest and penetrate the zona pellucida.

Once the sperm has successfully traversed the zona pellucida, it makes contact with the oocyte's plasma membrane, triggering the fusion of the sperm and egg membranes. This results in the release of the sperm's genetic material into the oocyte's cytoplasm and the initiation of a series of intracellular signaling events within the oocyte that ultimately lead to its completion of meiosis II and formation of a zygote, marking the beginning of embryonic development.

Proper sperm-ovum interactions are crucial for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development, and any disruptions in these processes can result in infertility or early pregnancy loss.

Sperm transport refers to the series of events that occur from the production of sperm in the testes to their release into the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. This process involves several stages:

1. Spermatogenesis: The production of sperm cells (spermatozoa) takes place in the seminiferous tubules within the testes.
2. Maturation: The newly produced sperm are immature and incapable of fertilization. They undergo a maturation process as they move through the epididymis, where they acquire motility and the ability to fertilize an egg.
3. Ejaculation: During sexual arousal, sperm are mixed with seminal fluid produced by the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands to form semen. This mixture is propelled through the urethra during orgasm (ejaculation) and released from the penis into the female reproductive tract.
4. Transport within the female reproductive tract: Once inside the female reproductive tract, sperm must travel through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes to reach the site of fertilization, the ampullary-isthmic junction of the fallopian tube. This journey can take several hours to a few days.
5. Capacitation: During their transport within the female reproductive tract, sperm undergo further changes called capacitation, which prepares them for fertilization by increasing their motility and making them more responsive to the egg's chemical signals.
6. Acrosome reaction: The final step in sperm transport is the acrosome reaction, where the sperm releases enzymes from the acrosome (a cap-like structure on the head of the sperm) to penetrate and fertilize the egg.

Gastrointestinal motility refers to the coordinated muscular contractions and relaxations that propel food, digestive enzymes, and waste products through the gastrointestinal tract. This process involves the movement of food from the mouth through the esophagus into the stomach, where it is mixed with digestive enzymes and acids to break down food particles.

The contents are then emptied into the small intestine, where nutrients are absorbed, and the remaining waste products are moved into the large intestine for further absorption of water and electrolytes and eventual elimination through the rectum and anus.

Gastrointestinal motility is controlled by a complex interplay between the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and local reflexes. Abnormalities in gastrointestinal motility can lead to various symptoms such as bloating, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or constipation.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

Cryopreservation is a medical procedure that involves the preservation of cells, tissues, or organs by cooling them to very low temperatures, typically below -150°C. This is usually achieved using liquid nitrogen. The low temperature slows down or stops biological activity, including chemical reactions and cellular metabolism, which helps to prevent damage and decay.

The cells, tissues, or organs that are being cryopreserved must be treated with a cryoprotectant solution before cooling to prevent the formation of ice crystals, which can cause significant damage. Once cooled, the samples are stored in specialized containers or tanks until they are needed for use.

Cryopreservation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies, such as the preservation of sperm, eggs, and embryos for fertility treatments. It is also used in research, including the storage of cell lines and stem cells, and in clinical settings, such as the preservation of skin grafts and corneas for transplantation.

The testis, also known as the testicle, is a male reproductive organ that is part of the endocrine system. It is located in the scrotum, outside of the abdominal cavity. The main function of the testis is to produce sperm and testosterone, the primary male sex hormone.

The testis is composed of many tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules, where sperm are produced. These tubules are surrounded by a network of blood vessels, nerves, and supportive tissues. The sperm then travel through a series of ducts to the epididymis, where they mature and become capable of fertilization.

Testosterone is produced in the Leydig cells, which are located in the interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules. Testosterone plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also supports sperm production and sexual function.

Abnormalities in testicular function can lead to infertility, hormonal imbalances, and other health problems. Regular self-examinations and medical check-ups are recommended for early detection and treatment of any potential issues.

The sperm midpiece is a part of the sperm flagellum, which is the tail-like structure that enables sperm motility. The midpiece is located between the sperm head and the principal piece, which is the longest part of the flagellum.

The midpiece is characterized by the presence of mitochondria, which provide the energy required for sperm movement through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The midpiece also contains a ring of nine outer dense fibers that surround the axoneme, which is the core structure of the flagellum. These fibers help to maintain the structural integrity and flexibility of the sperm tail.

Damage or abnormalities in the sperm midpiece can affect sperm motility and fertility.

The acrosome reaction is a crucial event in the fertilization process of many species, including humans. It occurs when the sperm makes contact with and binds to the zona pellucida, the glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix that surrounds the egg. This interaction triggers a series of molecular events leading to the exocytosis of the acrosome, a membrane-bound organelle located at the tip of the sperm head.

The acrosome contains hydrolytic enzymes that help the sperm to penetrate the zona pellucida and reach the egg's plasma membrane. During the acrosome reaction, the outer acrosomal membrane fuses with the sperm plasma membrane, releasing these enzymes and causing the release of the inner acrosomal membrane, which then reorganizes to form a structure called the acrosomal cap.

The acrosome reaction exposes new proteins on the sperm surface that can interact with the egg's plasma membrane, allowing for the fusion of the two membranes and the entry of the sperm into the egg. This event is essential for successful fertilization and subsequent embryonic development.

Seminal vesicle secretory proteins are a group of proteins that are produced and released by the seminal vesicles, which are accessory glands of the male reproductive system in many mammals. These proteins make up a significant portion of the fluid contributed by the seminal vesicles to the ejaculate during sexual activity.

The seminal vesicle secretions contain several types of proteins, including various enzymes, structural proteins, and immunomodulatory proteins. Some of the key proteins found in seminal vesicle secretions include:

1. Semenogelins: These are large, structural proteins that contribute to the formation of a gel-like substance in semen, which helps to prolong the lifespan of sperm and protect them from the acidic environment of the vagina.
2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA): Although primarily produced by the prostate gland, PSA is also present in seminal vesicle secretions. It is a protease enzyme that helps to liquefy the gel-like substance in semen and facilitate sperm motility.
3. Prostaglandins: These are hormone-like substances that play a role in regulating inflammation, blood flow, and muscle contractions. In the male reproductive system, prostaglandins help to promote sperm motility and capacitation (a process that prepares sperm for fertilization).
4. Immunomodulatory proteins: Seminal vesicle secretions contain several proteins that can modulate the immune response, helping to prevent rejection of sperm by the female's immune system during fertilization.

These proteins play important roles in maintaining the health and function of sperm, as well as facilitating their movement through the female reproductive tract for successful fertilization.

Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) is a specialized form of assisted reproductive technology (ART), specifically used in the context of in vitro fertilization (IVF). It involves the direct injection of a single sperm into the cytoplasm of a mature egg (oocyte) to facilitate fertilization. This technique is often used when there are issues with male infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, to increase the chances of successful fertilization. The resulting embryos can then be transferred to the uterus in hopes of achieving a pregnancy.

Zona pellucida is a term used in the field of reproductive biology and it refers to the glycoprotein membrane that surrounds mammalian oocytes (immature egg cells). This membrane plays a crucial role in the fertilization process. It has receptors for sperm, and upon binding with the sperm, it undergoes changes that prevent other sperm from entering, a process known as the zona reaction. This membrane is also involved in the early development of the embryo.

A sperm bank is a facility that collects, stores, and distributes semen from donors for the purpose of artificial insemination. The sperm samples are typically collected through masturbation and then frozen in liquid nitrogen to preserve them for long-term storage. Potential donors undergo rigorous screening processes, including medical examinations, genetic testing, and background checks, to ensure that their sperm is healthy and free from infectious diseases.

Sperm banks may be used by individuals or couples who are unable to conceive naturally due to male infertility, same-sex female couples, single women, or those with genetic disorders who wish to avoid passing on certain genetic conditions to their offspring. Recipients can choose a donor based on various factors such as physical characteristics, ethnicity, education level, and personality traits.

It is important to note that the regulations governing sperm banks vary by country and even by state or province within countries. Therefore, it is essential to research and understand the specific laws and guidelines that apply in your location before using a sperm bank.

Oligospermia is a medical term used to describe a condition in which the semen contains a lower than normal number of sperm. Generally, a sperm count of less than 15 million sperm per milliliter (ml) of semen is considered to be below the normal range.

Oligospermia can make it more difficult for a couple to conceive naturally and may require medical intervention such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF). The condition can result from various factors, including hormonal imbalances, genetic abnormalities, varicocele, environmental factors, and certain medications.

It's important to note that oligospermia is not the same as azoospermia, which is a condition where there is no sperm present in the semen at all.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Seminal plasma proteins are a group of proteins that are present in the seminal fluid, which is the liquid component of semen. These proteins originate primarily from the accessory sex glands, including the prostate, seminal vesicles, and bulbourethral glands, and play various roles in the maintenance of sperm function and fertility.

Some of the key functions of seminal plasma proteins include:

1. Nutrition: Seminal plasma proteins provide energy sources and essential nutrients to support sperm survival and motility during their journey through the female reproductive tract.
2. Protection: These proteins help protect sperm from oxidative stress, immune attack, and other environmental factors that could negatively impact sperm function or viability.
3. Lubrication: Seminal plasma proteins contribute to the formation of a fluid medium that facilitates the ejaculation and transport of sperm through the female reproductive tract.
4. Coagulation and liquefaction: Some seminal plasma proteins are involved in the initial coagulation and subsequent liquefaction of semen, which helps ensure proper sperm release and distribution during ejaculation.
5. Interaction with female reproductive system: Seminal plasma proteins can interact with components of the female reproductive tract to modulate immune responses, promote implantation, and support early embryonic development.

Examples of seminal plasma proteins include prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate-specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), and semenogelins. Abnormal levels or dysfunctions in these proteins have been associated with various reproductive disorders, such as infertility, prostatitis, and prostate cancer.

Cryoprotective agents are substances that are used to protect biological material from damage during freezing and thawing. These agents work by reducing the amount of ice that forms in the cells, which can help to prevent the formation of damaging ice crystals. Commonly used cryoprotective agents include dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), glycerol, and ethylene glycol.

When biological material, such as cells or tissues, is cooled to very low temperatures for storage or transportation, the water in the cells can freeze and form ice crystals. These ice crystals can damage the cell membranes and other structures within the cell, leading to cell death. Cryoprotective agents help to prevent this by lowering the freezing point of the solution that the cells are stored in, which reduces the amount of ice that forms.

Cryoprotective agents are often used in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to protect sperm, eggs, and embryos during freezing and thawing. They are also used in research settings to preserve cells and tissues for later use. It is important to note that while cryoprotective agents can help to reduce the amount of damage that occurs during freezing and thawing, they cannot completely prevent it. Therefore, it is important to carefully control the freezing and thawing process to minimize any potential harm to the biological material.

Flagella are long, thin, whip-like structures that some types of cells use to move themselves around. They are made up of a protein called tubulin and are surrounded by a membrane. In bacteria, flagella rotate like a propeller to push the cell through its environment. In eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus), such as sperm cells or certain types of algae, flagella move in a wave-like motion to achieve locomotion. The ability to produce flagella is called flagellation.

Spermatogenesis is the process by which sperm cells, or spermatozoa, are produced in male organisms. It occurs in the seminiferous tubules of the testes and involves several stages:

1. Spermatocytogenesis: This is the initial stage where diploid spermatogonial stem cells divide mitotically to produce more spermatogonia, some of which will differentiate into primary spermatocytes.
2. Meiosis: The primary spermatocytes undergo meiotic division to form haploid secondary spermatocytes, which then divide again to form haploid spermatids. This process results in the reduction of chromosome number from 46 (diploid) to 23 (haploid).
3. Spermiogenesis: The spermatids differentiate into spermatozoa, undergoing morphological changes such as the formation of a head and tail. During this stage, most of the cytoplasm is discarded, resulting in highly compacted and streamlined sperm cells.
4. Spermation: The final stage where mature sperm are released from the seminiferous tubules into the epididymis for further maturation and storage.

The entire process takes approximately 72-74 days in humans, with continuous production throughout adulthood.

Contraceptive agents for males are substances or methods that are used to prevent pregnancy by reducing the likelihood of fertilization. These can include:

1. Barrier methods: Condoms, diaphragms, and spermicides create a physical barrier that prevents sperm from reaching the egg.
2. Hormonal methods: Testosterone and progestin hormone therapies can decrease sperm production and reduce fertility.
3. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) for men: These are still in the experimental stage, but they involve placing a device in the male reproductive tract to prevent sperm from reaching the female reproductive system.
4. Withdrawal method: This involves the man withdrawing his penis from the vagina before ejaculation, although this is not a highly reliable form of contraception.
5. Fertility awareness methods: These involve tracking the woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile period.
6. Sterilization: Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that blocks or cuts the vas deferens, preventing sperm from leaving the body. It is a permanent form of contraception for men.

It's important to note that no contraceptive method is 100% effective, and individuals should consult with their healthcare provider to determine which option is best for them based on their personal needs, lifestyle, and medical history.

Sperm immobilizing agents are substances or chemicals that are capable of reducing the mobility or motility of sperm, thereby preventing their ability to fertilize an egg. These agents are often used in reproductive medicine for various purposes such as in semen analysis, assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and contraception.

Examples of sperm immobilizing agents include:

1. Cryoprotectants: These are substances that protect sperm from damage during freezing and thawing processes used in ART. They can also temporarily immobilize sperm by altering their membrane properties.

2. Spermicides: These are chemicals commonly found in contraceptive products like foams, creams, gels, films, or suppositories. They work by disrupting the sperm's plasma membrane and inhibiting its metabolic activity, ultimately leading to immobilization or death.

3. Lidocaine: A local anesthetic that can reversibly impair sperm motility at concentrations used for dental procedures.

4. Chlorhexidine: An antiseptic agent that has been shown to have spermicidal properties by disrupting the sperm's membrane and inhibiting its metabolic activity.

5. Glutaraldehyde: A fixative agent used in research settings to immobilize sperm for microscopic examination or other laboratory procedures.

6. Formaldehyde: Another fixative agent with similar uses as glutaraldehyde, although its use is less common due to safety concerns.

It's important to note that some of these agents may have potential side effects or risks associated with their use, and they should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Cell movement, also known as cell motility, refers to the ability of cells to move independently and change their location within tissue or inside the body. This process is essential for various biological functions, including embryonic development, wound healing, immune responses, and cancer metastasis.

There are several types of cell movement, including:

1. **Crawling or mesenchymal migration:** Cells move by extending and retracting protrusions called pseudopodia or filopodia, which contain actin filaments. This type of movement is common in fibroblasts, immune cells, and cancer cells during tissue invasion and metastasis.
2. **Amoeboid migration:** Cells move by changing their shape and squeezing through tight spaces without forming protrusions. This type of movement is often observed in white blood cells (leukocytes) as they migrate through the body to fight infections.
3. **Pseudopodial extension:** Cells extend pseudopodia, which are temporary cytoplasmic projections containing actin filaments. These protrusions help the cell explore its environment and move forward.
4. **Bacterial flagellar motion:** Bacteria use a whip-like structure called a flagellum to propel themselves through their environment. The rotation of the flagellum is driven by a molecular motor in the bacterial cell membrane.
5. **Ciliary and ependymal movement:** Ciliated cells, such as those lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tubes, have hair-like structures called cilia that beat in coordinated waves to move fluids or mucus across the cell surface.

Cell movement is regulated by a complex interplay of signaling pathways, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and adhesion molecules, which enable cells to respond to environmental cues and navigate through tissues.

"Male genitalia" refers to the reproductive and sexual organs that are typically present in male individuals. These structures include:

1. Testes: A pair of oval-shaped glands located in the scrotum that produce sperm and testosterone.
2. Epididymis: A long, coiled tube that lies on the surface of each testicle where sperm matures and is stored.
3. Vas deferens: A pair of muscular tubes that transport sperm from the epididymis to the urethra.
4. Seminal vesicles: Glands that produce a fluid that mixes with sperm to create semen.
5. Prostate gland: A small gland that surrounds the urethra and produces a fluid that also mixes with sperm to create semen.
6. Bulbourethral glands (Cowper's glands): Two pea-sized glands that produce a lubricating fluid that is released into the urethra during sexual arousal.
7. Urethra: A tube that runs through the penis and carries urine from the bladder out of the body, as well as semen during ejaculation.
8. Penis: The external organ that serves as both a reproductive and excretory organ, expelling both semen and urine.

"Acinonyx" is a genus name that refers to a single species of big cat, the cheetah. The correct medical definition of "Acinonyx" is:

* Acinonyx jubatus: a large, slender wild cat that is known for its incredible speed and unique adaptations for running. It is the fastest land animal, capable of reaching speeds up to 60-70 miles per hour. The cheetah's body is built for speed, with long legs, a flexible spine, and a non-retractable claw that provides traction while running.

The cheetah's habitat ranges from the savannas of Africa to the deserts of Iran. It primarily hunts medium-sized ungulates, such as gazelles and wildebeest. The cheetah's population has been declining due to habitat loss, human-wildlife conflict, and illegal wildlife trade. Conservation efforts are underway to protect this iconic species and its habitat.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "antelopes" is a common name that refers to a group of hoofed mammals in the family Bovidae. They are not a medical term or concept. Antelopes are known for their speed and agility, and they are found primarily in Africa, with a few species in Asia.

If you have any questions related to biology, veterinary medicine, or any other scientific field, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

I'm happy to help! However, it seems there might be a bit of confusion here. "Sea urchins" is a common name that refers to a type of marine invertebrate animal, typically characterized by their round, spiny shells. They belong to the class Echinoidea within the phylum Echinodermata.

Medically speaking, there isn't a specific definition for "sea urchins." However, if you come into contact with sea urchins while swimming or diving and accidentally step on them, their spines can puncture your skin and potentially cause an infection. In this case, medical attention may be necessary to remove the embedded spines and treat any resulting infection.

If you were referring to a specific medical term related to sea urchins, could you please clarify? I'm here to help!

Artificial insemination, homologous is a medical procedure where sperm from a woman's partner (the husband or male partner in a heterosexual relationship) is collected, processed and then inserted into the woman's reproductive tract through various methods to achieve fertilization and pregnancy. This method is often used when the male partner has issues with infertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or when there are physical barriers that prevent natural conception from occurring. It is a type of artificial insemination that utilizes sperm from a genetically related source, as opposed to artificial insemination with donor (AID) sperm, which uses sperm from an anonymous or known donor.

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

The seminal vesicles are a pair of glands located in the male reproductive system, posterior to the urinary bladder and superior to the prostate gland. They are approximately 5 cm long and have a convoluted structure with many finger-like projections called infoldings. The primary function of seminal vesicles is to produce and secrete a significant portion of the seminal fluid, which makes up the bulk of semen along with spermatozoa from the testes and fluids from the prostate gland and bulbourethral glands.

The secretion of the seminal vesicles is rich in fructose, which serves as an energy source for sperm, as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals that contribute to maintaining the optimal environment for sperm survival, nourishment, and transport. During sexual arousal and ejaculation, the smooth muscles in the walls of the seminal vesicles contract, forcing the stored secretion into the urethra, where it mixes with other fluids before being expelled from the body as semen.

An ovum is the female reproductive cell, or gamete, produced in the ovaries. It is also known as an egg cell and is released from the ovary during ovulation. When fertilized by a sperm, it becomes a zygote, which can develop into a fetus. The ovum contains half the genetic material necessary to create a new individual.

Fertilization in vitro, also known as in-vitro fertilization (IVF), is a medical procedure where an egg (oocyte) and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish to facilitate fertilization. The fertilized egg (embryo) is then transferred to a uterus with the hope of establishing a successful pregnancy. This procedure is often used when other assisted reproductive technologies have been unsuccessful or are not applicable, such as in cases of blocked fallopian tubes, severe male factor infertility, and unexplained infertility. The process involves ovarian stimulation, egg retrieval, fertilization, embryo culture, and embryo transfer. In some cases, additional techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) or preimplantation genetic testing (PGT) may be used to increase the chances of success.

Alpha-chlorohydrin is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with the formula HOCH2CHClNH2. It is primarily used in the production of other chemicals and has been used as a reagent in laboratory settings.

Ingestion or exposure to alpha-chlorohydrin can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, dizziness, and difficulty breathing. It is classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Medical professionals may encounter alpha-chlorohydrin in cases of accidental or intentional ingestion or exposure, or in the context of occupational health and safety for workers who may be exposed to it in industrial settings.

Masturbation is the self-stimulation of the genitals to achieve sexual pleasure or orgasm. It's a normal and healthy sexual behavior that is commonly practiced by people of all ages, gender identities, and sexual orientations. Masturbation is generally considered safe and has few, if any, negative physical side effects.

It's important to note that masturbation is a personal choice, and individuals should feel comfortable and unpressured in their decision to engage in this behavior or not. Some people may choose not to masturbate due to personal, cultural, or religious beliefs, while others may find it to be a valuable way to explore their bodies, learn about their sexual responses, and relieve sexual tension.

If you have any concerns or questions about masturbation, it's always a good idea to speak with a healthcare provider who can provide you with accurate information and address any concerns you may have.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or oviducts, are a pair of slender tubular structures in the female reproductive system. They play a crucial role in human reproduction by providing a passageway for the egg (ovum) from the ovary to the uterus (womb).

Each Fallopian tube is typically around 7.6 to 10 centimeters long and consists of four parts: the interstitial part, the isthmus, the ampulla, and the infundibulum. The fimbriated end of the infundibulum, which resembles a fringe or frill, surrounds and captures the released egg from the ovary during ovulation.

Fertilization usually occurs in the ampulla when sperm meets the egg after sexual intercourse. Once fertilized, the zygote (fertilized egg) travels through the Fallopian tube toward the uterus for implantation and further development. The cilia lining the inner surface of the Fallopian tubes help propel the egg and the zygote along their journey.

In some cases, abnormalities or blockages in the Fallopian tubes can lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancies, which are pregnancies that develop outside the uterus, typically within the Fallopian tube itself.

A varicocele is defined as an abnormal dilation and tortuosity (twisting or coiling) of the pampiniform plexus, which is a network of veins that surrounds the spermatic cord in the scrotum. This condition is most commonly found on the left side, and it's more prevalent in men of reproductive age.

The dilation of these veins can cause a decrease in the temperature around the testicle, leading to impaired sperm production, reduced sperm quality, and, in some cases, pain or discomfort. Varicoceles are often asymptomatic but may present as a scrotal mass, discomfort, or infertility issues. In severe cases or when accompanied by symptoms, treatment options include surgical ligation (tying off) or embolization of the affected veins to improve testicular function and alleviate symptoms.

A vasectomy is a surgical procedure for male sterilization or permanent contraception. It involves cutting and sealing the vas deferens, the tubes that carry sperm from the testicles to the prostate gland, to prevent the release of sperm during ejaculation. This procedure is typically performed in an outpatient setting, using local anesthesia, and takes about 20-30 minutes. It is considered a highly effective form of birth control with a low risk of complications. However, it does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), so additional protection such as condoms may still be necessary.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

"Comb" and "wattles" are terms used to describe fleshy appendages found in some animals, particularly birds. They are composed of skin and connective tissue, and are often brightly colored. While they don't have a direct medical definition, I can provide you with their general definitions:

1. Comb: In animals such as chickens, roosters, and other fowl, the comb is the fleshy, usually red, crown-like structure on top of the head. It varies in size and shape among different breeds and serves as a secondary sexual characteristic in males. The comb helps regulate body temperature and plays a role in courtship displays.

2. Wattles: These are the long, fleshy appendages that hang from either side of an animal's face or throat, often seen in conjunction with combs. Like combs, wattles are more prominent in males than females and serve as secondary sexual characteristics. They also play a role in thermoregulation and courtship displays.

While these structures are not typically associated with medical definitions, they can be subject to various health issues, such as frostbite, injuries, or infections. In those cases, veterinary medicine would address the specific health concerns related to combs and wattles.

Povidone, also known as PVP or polyvinylpyrrolidone, is not a medication itself but rather a pharmaceutical ingredient used in various medical and healthcare products. It is a water-soluble synthetic polymer that has the ability to bind to and carry other substances, such as drugs or iodine.

In medical applications, povidone is often used as a binder or coating agent in pharmaceutical tablets and capsules. It can also be found in some topical antiseptic solutions, such as those containing iodine, where it helps to stabilize and control the release of the active ingredient.

It's important to note that while povidone is a widely used pharmaceutical ingredient, it is not typically considered a medication on its own.

Pentoxifylline is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs known as xanthines. Medically, it is defined as a methylxanthine derivative that acts as a vasodilator and improves blood flow by reducing the viscosity of blood. It is used in the treatment of intermittent claudication (pain in the legs due to poor circulation) and may also be used for other conditions that benefit from improved blood flow, such as preventing kidney damage in people with diabetes.

Pentoxifylline works by increasing the flexibility of red blood cells, allowing them to move more easily through narrowed blood vessels, improving oxygen supply to tissues and organs. It also has anti-inflammatory effects that may contribute to its therapeutic benefits.

Common side effects of pentoxifylline include gastrointestinal symptoms like nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Less commonly, it can cause dizziness, headache, or skin rashes. Rare but serious side effects include decreased blood pressure, irregular heartbeat, and liver damage. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking pentoxifylline and report any unusual symptoms promptly.

Protamines are small, arginine-rich proteins that are found in the sperm cells of many organisms. They play a crucial role in the process of sperm maturation, also known as spermiogenesis. During this process, the DNA in the sperm cell is tightly packed and compacted by the protamines, which helps to protect the genetic material during its journey to fertilize an egg.

Protamines are typically composed of around 50-100 amino acids and have a high proportion of positively charged arginine residues, which allow them to interact strongly with the negatively charged DNA molecule. This interaction results in the formation of highly condensed chromatin structures that are resistant to enzymatic digestion and other forms of damage.

In addition to their role in sperm maturation, protamines have also been studied for their potential use in drug delivery and gene therapy applications. Their ability to bind strongly to DNA makes them attractive candidates for delivering drugs or genetic material directly to the nucleus of a cell. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks associated with these applications.

"Freezing" is a term used in the medical field to describe a phenomenon that can occur in certain neurological conditions, most notably in Parkinson's disease. It refers to a sudden and temporary inability to move or initiate movement, often triggered by environmental factors such as narrow spaces, turning, or approaching a destination. This can increase the risk of falls and make daily activities challenging for affected individuals.

Freezing is also known as "freezing of gait" (FOG) when it specifically affects a person's ability to walk. During FOG episodes, the person may feel like their feet are glued to the ground, making it difficult to take steps forward. This can be very distressing and debilitating for those affected.

It is important to note that "freezing" has different meanings in different medical contexts, such as in the field of orthopedics, where it may refer to a loss of joint motion due to stiffness or inflammation. Always consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your specific situation.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

A kinase anchor protein (AKAP) is a type of scaffolding protein that plays a role in organizing and targeting various signaling molecules within cells. AKAPs are so named because they can bind to and anchor protein kinases, enzymes that add phosphate groups to other proteins, thereby modulating their activity. This allows for the localized regulation of signaling pathways and helps ensure that specific cellular responses occur in the correct location and at the right time. AKAPs can also bind to other signaling molecules, such as phosphatases, ion channels, and second messenger systems, forming large complexes that facilitate efficient communication between different parts of the cell.

There are many different AKAPs identified in various organisms, and they play crucial roles in a wide range of cellular processes, including cell division, signal transduction, and gene expression. Mutations or dysregulation of AKAPs have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the structure, function, and regulation of AKAPs is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

'Bufo arenarum' is the scientific name for a species of toad that is native to Argentina. This toad, also known as the Argentine Toad or the Sand Toad, produces a toxic secretion from its skin as a defense against predators. The toxicity of this secretion can be harmful or even fatal if ingested or absorbed through the mucous membranes, making handling this toad with care important.

The medical definition of 'Bufo arenarum' would typically refer to the physical characteristics and behaviors of this species, as well as any potential medical implications of its toxic secretions. It is worth noting that some people have used the dried secretion of this toad, known as "toad licks" or "toad venom," as a recreational drug, despite the significant health risks associated with its use. This practice is strongly discouraged due to the potential for serious harm or even death.

The egg yolk is the nutrient-rich, inner portion of an egg that is surrounded by a protective layer of egg white. It is typically yellowish-orange and has a creamy consistency. The egg yolk contains various essential nutrients such as proteins, fats, vitamins (like A, D, E, and K), minerals (such as calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and iron), and antioxidants (like lutein and zeaxanthin). It is also a significant source of cholesterol. The egg yolk plays an essential role in the development of embryos in birds and reptiles, providing them with necessary nutrients for growth and energy. In culinary applications, egg yolks are often used as emulsifiers, thickeners, and leavening agents in various dishes.

Esophageal motility disorders are a group of conditions that affect the normal movement (motility) of the muscles in the esophagus, which is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The esophageal muscles normally contract and relax in a coordinated manner to help move food from the mouth to the stomach.

In esophageal motility disorders, this muscle movement is impaired, leading to difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), chest pain, heartburn, or regurgitation of food. Some common examples of esophageal motility disorders include:

1. Achalasia: a condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter muscle fails to relax properly, preventing food from passing into the stomach.
2. Diffuse esophageal spasm: a disorder characterized by uncoordinated contractions of the esophageal muscles, leading to difficulty swallowing and chest pain.
3. Nutcracker esophagus: a condition in which the esophageal muscles contract too forcefully, causing pain and difficulty swallowing.
4. Hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter: a disorder in which the lower esophageal sphincter muscle is too tight, making it difficult to swallow and leading to symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation.
5. Ineffective esophageal motility: a condition in which the esophageal muscles have weak or disorganized contractions, leading to difficulty swallowing and other symptoms.

Esophageal motility disorders can be diagnosed through tests such as manometry, which measures the pressure and coordination of esophageal muscle contractions, or barium swallow studies, which use X-rays to visualize the movement of food through the esophagus. Treatment may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

'Poisonous fishes' are species of fish that contain toxic substances in their bodies, which can cause harm or injury to other organisms, including humans. These toxins can be present in various parts of the fish, such as the flesh, skin, organs, or even in the form of venomous spines.

There are several types of poisonous fishes, including:

1. Pufferfish (Fugu): These fish contain a potent neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin (TTX) in their organs, especially the liver and ovaries. TTX is highly toxic and can cause paralysis and death if ingested in even small amounts.
2. Stonefish: Stonefishes are venomous fishes that have sharp, spiny dorsal fins that can inject a painful toxin into the skin when stepped on or touched. The venom can cause severe pain, swelling, and tissue damage, and in some cases, it can lead to respiratory failure and death.
3. Blue-ringed octopuses: While not technically fish, blue-ringed octopuses are often included in discussions of poisonous marine life. They have venom glands that produce a powerful neurotoxin called tetrodotoxin (TTX), which can cause paralysis and death if it enters the bloodstream.
4. Cone snails: Cone snails are predatory mollusks that use a harpoon-like tooth to inject venom into their prey. Some species of cone snail have venom that contains powerful neurotoxins, which can cause paralysis and death in humans.
5. Lionfish: Lionfish are venomous fishes that have spines on their dorsal, pelvic, and anal fins that can inject a painful toxin into the skin when touched or stepped on. The venom can cause pain, swelling, and other symptoms, but it is rarely fatal to humans.

It's important to note that many species of fish can become toxic if they consume harmful algae blooms (HABs) or other contaminants in their environment. These "toxic fishes" are not considered poisonous by definition, as their toxicity is not inherent to their biology.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

I'm sorry for the confusion, but "Sperm Whale" is not a medical term. It is a species of whale, scientifically known as Physeter macrocephalus. Sperm whales are the largest toothed whales and have distinctive square-shaped heads that can make up to one-third of their body length. They are named for the waxy substance called spermaceti found in their heads, which was once mistakenly thought to be sperm.

If you're looking for a medical definition or information related to human health, please provide more details so I can assist you better.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Optical tweezers, also known as optical traps or laser tweezers, refer to a scientific instrument that uses highly focused laser beams to manipulate and trap microscopic particles, typically smaller than a micron in diameter. The principle behind optical tweezers is the transfer of momentum between photons (light particles) and the particle being manipulated. When a laser beam is focused through a high numerical aperture objective lens, it creates an intense gradient force that attracts and holds the particle at the focus point, allowing researchers to precisely move and apply forces to the particle in three dimensions.

Optical tweezers have become an essential tool in various fields of biology, physics, and engineering due to their ability to manipulate and measure microscopic objects with high precision and non-invasively. In the medical field, optical tweezers are used for studying cell mechanics, molecular motors, DNA manipulation, protein folding, and other biological processes at the single-molecule level. Additionally, they have potential applications in diagnostics, therapeutics, and drug development by enabling the analysis of individual cells or biomolecules with unprecedented accuracy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

"Carica" is a genus name that refers to a group of plants commonly known as papayas. The most widely cultivated and well-known species in this genus is Carica papaya, which is native to Central America and southern Mexico. This plant produces large, edible fruits that are rich in nutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin A, and potassium.

The fruit of the Carica papaya tree is often used for its medicinal properties, including its anti-inflammatory and digestive benefits. The leaves, stems, and roots of the plant also have various traditional uses in different cultures, such as treating wounds, reducing fever, and alleviating symptoms of digestive disorders.

It's worth noting that while Carica papaya has been studied for its potential health benefits, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile. As with any treatment or supplement, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before using Carica papaya for medicinal purposes.

Choline dehydrogenase is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of choline, a nutrient that is essential for the normal functioning of cells. Specifically, choline dehydrogenase helps to catalyze the oxidation of choline to betaine aldehyde, which is then further metabolized to betaine. This reaction is an important step in the conversion of choline to a molecule called glycine betaine, which helps to regulate cell volume and protect cells from osmotic stress. Choline dehydrogenase is found in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidneys, and brain. Deficiencies in choline or dysfunction of choline dehydrogenase can lead to a variety of health problems, including fatty liver disease, muscle damage, and neurological disorders.

"Salmonidae" is not a medical term. It is a biological term that refers to a family of fish which includes salmon, trout, char, grayling, and whitefish. These fish are often anadromous, meaning they are born in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, then return to fresh water to reproduce. They are important both commercially and recreationally as a source of food and sport fishing.

A hypotonic solution is a type of fluid that has a lower osmotic pressure than another fluid. In the context of medical and physiological terms, it typically refers to a solution that has a lower solute concentration (and therefore lower osmolarity) than the fluids found in the body's cells.

When a hypotonic solution is introduced into the body or comes into contact with body tissues, water molecules tend to move from the area of lower solute concentration (the hypotonic solution) to the area of higher solute concentration (the body's fluids), in an attempt to equalize the osmotic pressure. This movement of water can cause cells to swell and potentially burst if the difference in osmolarity is significant or if the exposure is prolonged.

Hypotonic solutions are sometimes used medically for specific purposes, such as in irrigation solutions or in certain types of intravenous fluids, where careful control of osmotic pressure is required. However, it's important to use them appropriately and under medical supervision to avoid potential adverse effects.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

Dichlorvos is a type of organophosphate insecticide that is used to control a wide variety of pests in agricultural, residential, and industrial settings. Its chemical formula is (2,2-dichlorovinyl) dimethyl phosphate. It works by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which leads to an accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synaptic clefts of nerve cells, causing overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately death of the pest.

Dichlorvos is highly toxic to both insects and mammals, including humans. Exposure to this chemical can cause a range of symptoms, including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, and in severe cases, respiratory failure and death. It is classified as a Category I acute toxicant by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and is listed as a hazardous substance under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA).

Due to its high toxicity and potential for environmental persistence, dichlorvos is subject to strict regulations in many countries. It is banned or restricted for use in several jurisdictions, including the European Union, Canada, and some states in the United States. Where it is still allowed, it is typically used only under specific conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

In medical terms, lubrication refers to the application of a slippery substance or fluid to reduce friction and facilitate smooth movement between two surfaces. This is particularly relevant in the context of human anatomy, where lubrication plays a crucial role in various bodily functions. For instance, the mucous membranes that line body cavities such as the mouth, vagina, and rectum secrete fluids to provide lubrication for easy movement of tissues and foreign substances (like food or during sexual intercourse). Similarly, synovial fluid, a viscous substance found in joints, provides lubrication that enables smooth articulation between bones. Artificial lubricants may also be used in medical procedures to facilitate the insertion and movement of medical devices such as catheters or endoscopes.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Ionophores are compounds that have the ability to form complexes with ions and facilitate their transportation across biological membranes. They can be either organic or inorganic molecules, and they play important roles in various physiological processes, including ion homeostasis, signal transduction, and antibiotic activity. In medicine and research, ionophores are used as tools to study ion transport, modulate cellular functions, and as therapeutic agents, especially in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Prenylamine is not a medical term in and of itself, but it is the chemical name for a medication that is sometimes used in the medical field. The drug is known as Phenelzine sulfate in its brand name form, with trade names including Nardil.

Phenelzine sulfate (Prenylamine) is a type of medication called a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It works by blocking the action of an enzyme called monoamine oxidase, which helps break down certain chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. By blocking this enzyme's action, phenelzine sulfate increases the levels of these neurotransmitters in the brain, which can help to improve mood and alleviate symptoms of depression.

Phenelzine sulfate is used primarily to treat depression that has not responded to other treatments. It may also be used off-label for other conditions, such as anxiety disorders or panic attacks. However, it is important to note that phenelzine sulfate can have serious side effects and interactions with certain foods and medications, so it should only be taken under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Sexual behavior in animals refers to a variety of behaviors related to reproduction and mating that occur between members of the same species. These behaviors can include courtship displays, mating rituals, and various physical acts. The specific forms of sexual behavior displayed by a given species are influenced by a combination of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

In some animals, sexual behavior is closely tied to reproductive cycles and may only occur during certain times of the year or under specific conditions. In other species, sexual behavior may be more frequent and less closely tied to reproduction, serving instead as a means of social bonding or communication.

It's important to note that while humans are animals, the term "sexual behavior" is often used in a more specific sense to refer to sexual activities between human beings. The study of sexual behavior in animals is an important area of research within the field of animal behavior and can provide insights into the evolutionary origins of human sexual behavior as well as the underlying mechanisms that drive it.

Medical definitions typically come from authoritative sources such as medical textbooks or professional organizations. Here is a definition from the World Health Organization (WHO):

"Sexual abstinence is the act of refraining from sexual activity, which may be chosen for a variety of reasons, including personal, health, religious, or other reasons."

It's important to note that sexual abstinence can have different meanings for different people. For some, it may mean avoiding all forms of sexual contact, while for others, it may refer only to vaginal or anal intercourse. It's a personal decision and can be interpreted differently based on cultural, religious, and individual beliefs.

The scrotum is a part of the external male genitalia. It's a sac-like structure made up of several layers of skin and smooth muscle, which hangs down behind and beneath the penis. The primary function of the scrotum is to maintain the testicles at a temperature slightly lower than the core body temperature, which is optimal for sperm production.

The scrotum contains two compartments, each one housing a testicle. It's located in the pubic region and is usually visible externally. The skin of the scrotum is thin and wrinkled, which allows it to expand and contract depending on the temperature, accommodating the shrinking or swelling of the testicles.

Please note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition is intended to be a general overview and should not replace professional medical advice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sea Bream" is a common name for several species of fish that are often consumed as food, particularly in coastal regions where they are found. It is not a medical term or concept.

Sea breams belong to the family Sparidae and are marine fish that inhabit temperate and tropical waters worldwide. They are characterized by their laterally compressed bodies and large scales. Some common examples of sea bream include the red seabream (Pagrus major), black seabream (Spondyliosoma cantharus), and the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

While there may be medical studies examining the health benefits or risks associated with consuming sea bream, the term itself does not have a specific medical definition.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

DNA fragmentation is the breaking of DNA strands into smaller pieces. This process can occur naturally during apoptosis, or programmed cell death, where the DNA is broken down and packaged into apoptotic bodies to be safely eliminated from the body. However, excessive or abnormal DNA fragmentation can also occur due to various factors such as oxidative stress, exposure to genotoxic agents, or certain medical conditions. This can lead to genetic instability, cellular dysfunction, and increased risk of diseases such as cancer. In the context of reproductive medicine, high levels of DNA fragmentation in sperm cells have been linked to male infertility and poor assisted reproductive technology outcomes.

Dyneins are a type of motor protein that play an essential role in the movement of cellular components and structures within eukaryotic cells. They are responsible for generating force and motion along microtubules, which are critical components of the cell's cytoskeleton. Dyneins are involved in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, organelle positioning, and cell division.

There are several types of dyneins, but the two main categories are cytoplasmic dyneins and axonemal dyneins. Cytoplasmic dyneins are responsible for moving various cargoes, such as vesicles, organelles, and mRNA complexes, toward the minus-end of microtubules, which is usually located near the cell center. Axonemal dyneins, on the other hand, are found in cilia and flagella and are responsible for their movement by sliding adjacent microtubules past each other.

Dyneins consist of multiple subunits, including heavy chains, intermediate chains, light-intermediate chains, and light chains. The heavy chains contain the motor domain that binds to microtubules and hydrolyzes ATP to generate force. Dysfunction in dynein proteins has been linked to various human diseases, such as neurodevelopmental disorders, ciliopathies, and cancer.

Aphrodisiacs are substances that are believed to stimulate sexual desire or increase sexual pleasure. They can come in various forms, including foods, drinks, and medications. Some claimed aphrodisiacs include oysters, chocolate, certain herbs like ginseng and gingko biloba, as well as drugs such as Viagra. However, it's important to note that the effectiveness of most aphrodisiacs is not supported by scientific evidence, and some may even have harmful side effects if misused or taken in large quantities.

It's always recommended to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any substances for sexual purposes.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

"Animals, Zoo" is not a medical term. However, it generally refers to a collection of various species of wild animals kept in enclosures or exhibits for the public to view and learn about. These animals are usually obtained from different parts of the world and live in environments that attempt to simulate their natural habitats. Zoos play an essential role in conservation efforts, education, and research. They provide a unique opportunity for people to connect with wildlife and understand the importance of preserving and protecting endangered species and their ecosystems.

Seminiferous tubules are the long, convoluted tubes within the testicles that are responsible for producing sperm in males. They are lined with specialized epithelial cells called Sertoli cells, which provide structural support and nourishment to developing sperm cells. The seminiferous tubules also contain germ cells, which divide and differentiate into spermatozoa (sperm) through the process of spermatogenesis.

The seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a thin layer of smooth muscle called the tunica albuginea, which helps to maintain the structure and integrity of the testicle. The tubules are connected to the rete testis, a network of channels that transport sperm to the epididymis for further maturation and storage before ejaculation.

Damage or dysfunction of the seminiferous tubules can lead to male infertility, as well as other reproductive health issues.

Antispermatogenic agents are substances or drugs that inhibit or prevent the production of sperm in the testes. These agents can work by various mechanisms, such as interfering with the formation and maturation of sperm cells, damaging sperm DNA, or suppressing the hormones responsible for sperm production.

Examples of antispermatogenic agents include chemotherapy drugs, radiation therapy, and certain medications used to treat prostate cancer or other conditions. Prolonged use of these agents can lead to infertility, so they are often used with caution and only when necessary. It is important to note that the use of antispermatogenic agents should be under the guidance and supervision of a medical professional.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Centrifugation is a laboratory technique that involves the use of a machine called a centrifuge to separate mixtures based on their differing densities or sizes. The mixture is placed in a rotor and spun at high speeds, causing the denser components to move away from the center of rotation and the less dense components to remain nearer the center. This separation allows for the recovery and analysis of specific particles, such as cells, viruses, or subcellular organelles, from complex mixtures.

The force exerted on the mixture during centrifugation is described in terms of relative centrifugal force (RCF) or g-force, which represents the number of times greater the acceleration due to centrifugation is than the acceleration due to gravity. The RCF is determined by the speed of rotation (revolutions per minute, or RPM), the radius of rotation, and the duration of centrifugation.

Centrifugation has numerous applications in various fields, including clinical laboratories, biochemistry, molecular biology, and virology. It is a fundamental technique for isolating and concentrating particles from solutions, enabling further analysis and characterization.

Specimen handling is a set of procedures and practices followed in the collection, storage, transportation, and processing of medical samples or specimens (e.g., blood, tissue, urine, etc.) for laboratory analysis. Proper specimen handling ensures accurate test results, patient safety, and data integrity. It includes:

1. Correct labeling of the specimen container with required patient information.
2. Using appropriate containers and materials to collect, store, and transport the specimen.
3. Following proper collection techniques to avoid contamination or damage to the specimen.
4. Adhering to specific storage conditions (temperature, time, etc.) before testing.
5. Ensuring secure and timely transportation of the specimen to the laboratory.
6. Properly documenting all steps in the handling process for traceability and quality assurance.

Peanut agglutinin (PNA) is a lectin, a type of carbohydrate-binding protein, found in peanuts. It is known to bind specifically to Galβ1-3GalNAc, a disaccharide present on glycoproteins and glycolipids of various cells. PNA has been used in research as a tool for identifying and isolating specific cell types, such as immature red blood cells (reticulocytes) and certain types of cancer cells, due to its affinity for these structures. However, it's important to note that peanut agglutinin may also have potential implications in the development of allergies to peanuts.

Dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a chemically modified form of the second messenger molecule, cyclic GMP (guanosine monophosphate). The addition of butyryl groups to the cyclic GMP molecule makes it more lipid-soluble and allows for easier passage through cell membranes. This compound is often used in research to activate protein kinases and study the effects of increased intracellular levels of cyclic GMP, which plays a role in various cellular processes such as smooth muscle relaxation, regulation of ion channels, and inhibition of platelet aggregation.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Tuberculosis (TB) of the male genital system, also known as genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB), is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis that affects the urinary and genital organs. It is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which typically enters the body through inhalation and spreads to other parts of the body via the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

In males, GUTB can affect the epididymis, testes, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and urethra. The most common site of infection is the epididymis, followed by the prostate gland. Symptoms may include pain or swelling in the affected area, discharge from the urethra, blood in the urine, fever, fatigue, and weight loss.

Diagnosis of GUTB typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies (such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI), and laboratory tests (such as urinalysis, culture, or biopsy). Treatment usually involves a prolonged course of multiple antibiotics that are effective against TB, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. Surgery may be necessary in some cases to drain abscesses or remove infected tissue.

GUTB can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including infertility, chronic pain, and spread of the infection to other parts of the body. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms suggestive of GUTB.

An endangered species is a species of animal, plant, or other organism that is at risk of becoming extinct because its population is declining or threatened by changing environmental or demographic factors. This term is defined and used in the context of conservation biology and wildlife management to identify species that need protection and preservation efforts.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) maintains a "Red List" of species, categorizing them based on their extinction risk. The categories include "Critically Endangered," "Endangered," "Vulnerable," and "Near Threatened." A species is considered endangered if it meets certain criteria indicating that it faces a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

The primary causes for species to become endangered include habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, pollution, climate change, overexploitation, and introduction of invasive species. Conservation efforts often focus on protecting habitats, managing threats, and implementing recovery programs to help endangered species recover their populations and reduce the risk of extinction.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Microtubule proteins are a class of structural proteins that make up the microtubules, which are key components of the cytoskeleton in eukaryotic cells. The main microtubule protein is tubulin, which exists in two forms: alpha-tubulin and beta-tubulin. These tubulins polymerize to form heterodimers, which then assemble into protofilaments, which in turn aggregate to form hollow microtubules. Microtubules are dynamic structures that undergo continuous assembly and disassembly, and they play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including intracellular transport, cell division, and maintenance of cell shape. Other microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) also bind to microtubules and regulate their stability, dynamics, and interactions with other cellular structures.

Spermatids are immature sperm cells that are produced during the process of spermatogenesis in the male testes. They are the product of the final stage of meiosis, where a diploid spermatocyte divides into four haploid spermatids. Each spermatid then undergoes a series of changes, including the development of a tail for motility and the condensation of its nucleus to form a head containing the genetic material. Once this process is complete, the spermatids are considered mature spermatozoa and are capable of fertilizing an egg.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Sperm DNA damage is common in infertile men. About 31% of men with sperm motility defects have high levels of sperm DNA ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sperm motility. Sperm motility, Colorado State University Semen analysis - how to ... Sperm motility can also be thought of as the quality, which is a factor in successful conception; sperm that do not "swim" ... Sperm motility in mammals also facilitates the passage of the sperm through the cumulus oophorus (a layer of cells) and the ...
Lindemann C (4 April 2008). "Mechanisms of sperm motility". Oakland University. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. ... ISBN 978-1-904455-48-6. Malo AF, Gomendio M, Garde J, Lang-Lenton B, Soler AJ, Roldan ER (June 2006). "Sperm design and sperm ... These provide swarming motility on surfaces or in viscous fluids. Bundling is an event that can happen in multi-flagellated ... For instance, a number of mutations have been found that increase the motility of E. coli. Additional evidence for the ...
Umpierre, S. A; Hill, J. A; Anderson, D. J (1985). "Effect of Coke on Sperm Motility". New England Journal of Medicine. 313 (21 ... Cecil Jacobson, relentlessly generous sperm donor, and prolific patriarch of sperm banking, for devising a simple, single- ... Mikkelson, Barbara (16 March 2007). "Killer Sperm: Coca-Cola Spermicide". Snopes. Retrieved 3 October 2008. Nakagaki, T.; ... a sperm bank that accepts donations only from Nobellians and Olympians. Chemistry - Jacques Benveniste, prolific proselytizer ...
Cosson, M.P. (1990) Sperm chemotaxis. In: Controls of Sperm Motility: Biological and Clinical Aspects (Gagnon, C., ed.) pp. 103 ... Sperm chemotaxis is a form of sperm guidance, in which sperm cells (spermatozoa) follow a concentration gradient of a ... Since the discovery of sperm attraction to the female gametes in ferns over a century ago, sperm guidance in the form of sperm ... Morisawa, M. (1994). Cell signaling mechanisms for sperm motility. Zool. Sci. 11, 647-662. Macnab, R.M. and Koshland, D.E. ( ...
"Sperm Motility - Mechanisms of Male Contraception". Male Contraceptive Initiative. Retrieved 2023-10-12. Kim YC, Park JH, ... O'Rand, Michael G.; Hamil, Katherine G.; Adevai, Tiffany; Zelinski, Mary (2018). "Inhibition of sperm motility in male macaques ... Increases in testicular temperature of as little as 2°C are associated with decreased sperm count and decreased sperm quality, ... has been shown to reduce sperm motility sufficiently for effective contraception in rats. YCT529, a Vitamin A receptor ...
Preventing sperm motility will inhibit the sperm from travelling towards the egg moving down the fallopian tubes to the uterus ... Laboratory testing of substances to see if they inhibited sperm motility began in the 1800s. Modern spermicides nonoxynol-9 and ... Umpierre, Sharee A.; Hill, Joseph A.; Anderson, Deborah J. (21 November 1985). "Effect of 'Coke' on sperm motility". The New ... The deep proper insertion of spermicide should effectively block the cervix so that sperm cannot make it past the cervix to the ...
Her research topic was sperm motility. Nass is married to Shlomo Nass, an accountant specializing in liquidations and ...
Movement of sperm is called sperm motility. The middle of the mammalian spermatozoon contains mitochondria that power the ... Certain organisms such as bacteria and animal sperm have flagellum which have developed a way to move in liquid environments. A ... Mortimer, Sharon T. (1997). "A critical review of the physiological importance and analysis of sperm movement in mammals". ... sperm and microanimals. Ciliates use small flagella called cilia to move through the water. One ciliate will generally have ...
Curtis-Prior, PB; Gadd, AL (1990). "Beta-adrenoceptor antagonists and human sperm motility". The Journal of Pharmacy and ...
Morphologic changes and influences on sperm motility]. Archiv Fur Gynakologie (in German). 219 (1-4): 581-582. doi:10.1007/ ... At a dosage of 200 mg/day, CPA has been found to produce azoospermia (sperm count of less than 1 million/mL) in men within 8 to ... Meriggiola MC, Costantino A, Bremner WJ, Morselli-Labate AM (2002). "Higher testosterone dose impairs sperm suppression induced ...
... is a type of sperm motility. Hyperactivated sperm motility is characterised by a high amplitude, asymmetrical ... Mammalian sperm cells become more active when they approach an egg cell in a process called sperm activation. Sperm activation ... Suarez, SS (21 March 2003). "Hyperactivated motility in sperm". Reproduction in Domestic Animals. 38 (2): 119-24. doi:10.1046/j ... beating pattern of the sperm tail (flagellum). This type of motility may aid in sperm penetration of the zona pellucida, which ...
Nicotine is negatively associated with total sperm motility. Nicotine causes dysfunction of NO synthesis. This may result in ... Cadmium that have been found in the e-cigarette vapor is linked to low sperm density. E-cigarettes resembling cigarettes ...
This hyperosmotic environment facilitates sperm activation and motility. The fertilization is therefore regarded as being ... It is believed that this protected form of fertilization reduces sperm competition among males. Within the Syngnathidae ( ... "Dimorphic sperm and the unlikely route to fertilisation in the yellow seahorse". Journal of Experimental Biology. 210 (3): 432- ... size to body size suggests that pipefishes may also have evolved mechanisms for more efficient fertilization with reduced sperm ...
Anderson, M. J.; Dixson, A. F. (2002). "Sperm competition: motility and the midpiece in primates". Nature. 416 (6880): 496. ... Other scientific arguments for monogamy prior to 2003 were based on characteristics of reproductive physiology, such as sperm ...
"Role of Sperm Surface Molecules in Motility Regulation". Mammalian Endocrinology and Male Reproductive Biology. CRC Press. pp. ... "Role of Sperm Surface Molecules in Motility Regulation". Mammalian Endocrinology and Male Reproductive Biology. CRC Press. pp. ... as a research fellow for his doctoral studies and submitted his thesis Biochemical regulation of sperm motility, which earned ... Aakash Gautam Mukhopadhyay, Chinmoy Sankar Dey (2016). "Reactivation of flagellar motility in demembranated Leishmania reveals ...
"Motility of human sperm without outer dynein arms". J. Submicrosc. Cytol. 15 (1): 67-71. PMID 6221120. Vaughan KT, Mikami A, ... 1997). "Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility". Genomics. 36 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0422. PMID ...
"Prenatal testosterone excess reduces sperm count and motility". Endocrinology. 149 (12): 6444-8. doi:10.1210/en.2008-0785. PMID ... These disruptions can cause numerous adverse human health outcomes including, alterations in sperm quality and fertility, ... so if by chance there is sperm in the ovaries later on through the testing it can then be pinned to the chemical without the ... decreased sperm count, reproductive problems, early puberty, obesity, and neurological problems.To expand on the reproductive ...
... these men also experienced a decreased sperm motility. However, one of the patients in the group successfully impregnated his ... Of the eighteen men in the test group only one experienced an increase in sperm count, while others saw no improvement; ... Oligospermia is when extremely low concentrations of fertile sperm are found in semen or ejaculate, while azoospermia is when ... that using long-term gonadotropin therapy on infertile men can improve sperm production quantitatively and increase sperm ...
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: University of Pittsburgh Press Anderson, M. J.; Dixson, A. F. (2002). "Sperm competition: motility ... male sperm precedence in polyandrous wool-carder bees and the evolution of male resource defence in Hymenoptera". Animal ...
... appear to improve sperm motility and protect against attacks from the female immune defense during the passage to ... Stegmayr B, Ronquist G (1982). "Stimulation of sperm progressive motility by organelles in human seminal plasma". Scandinavian ... Stegmayr B, Ronquist G (1982). "Promotive effect on human sperm progressive motility by prostasomes". Urological Research. 10 ( ... "Distribution of cyclic AMP in human seminal plasma and its relation to sperm progressive motility". Scandinavian Journal of ...
In males, relaxin enhances motility of sperm in semen. Also, relaxin is found in higher than normal concentrations in the ...
His sperm were abnormally formed and had reduced motility. c = colt, f = filly, g = gelding Morris, Simon; Tesio Power 2000 - ...
However, Mastotermitidae termites have multiflagellate sperm with limited motility. The genitals in females are also simplified ... ISBN 978-0-521-48526-5. Morrow, E.H. (2004). "How the sperm lost its tail: the evolution of aflagellate sperm". Biological ... For example, the intromittent organ is not present in male alates, and the sperm is either immotile or aflagellate. ... As the queen and king are monogamous, sperm competition does not occur. Termites going through incomplete metamorphosis on the ...
Thangaraj, K. (2003). "Sperm mitochondrial mutations as a cause of low sperm motility". J. Androl. 24 (3): 388⎯392. doi:10.1002 ... while more recent analysis of the same sequence led to a conclusion that sperm mtDNA has mutations that cause low sperm ... mature sperms are incapable of DSB repair. Additionally, DSB can also be repaired by homologous recombination (HR), which is ...
... which is reduced sperm morphology and motility. Low sperm counts are often associated with decreased sperm motility and ... motility, morphology, and seminal volume. Males from India had a 30.3% decline in sperm count, 22.9% decline in sperm motility ... increase in sperm with abnormal morphology Asthenozoospermia - reduced sperm motility Necrozoospermia - all sperm in the ... which is associated with sperm DNA damage and reduced sperm motility. A hormone-antioxidant combination may improve sperm count ...
The tails of normal sperm will swell when exposed to this solution, whereas damaged sperm with low motility will not swell ... The effects of dietary selenium on sperm motility in healthy men. J. Androl. 22: 764-771, 2001 , Mahadevan U, Terdiman J, Aron ... In early research in this area, Turek tried to understand more about how sperm "viability" relates to "motility." Subsequently ... In men with no sperm count (azoospermia), it soon became clear that sperm could be found in the testes and used with ICSI, but ...
Sperm DNA fragmentation level is higher in men with sperm motility defects (asthenozoospermia) than in men with oligozoospermia ... Furthermore, the supplementation with DHA in humans has been reported to increase sperm motility. But also, DHA supplementation ... Asthenozoospermia (or asthenospermia) is the medical term for reduced sperm motility. Complete asthenozoospermia, that is, 100 ... found a correlation between the composition of the sperm lipid membrane and the odds of having asthenozoospermia. The sperm ...
The encoded protein is localized to the sperm flagellum and may be involved in the regulation of sperm motility. Alternative ... In the conclusion, they state that AKAP4 plays a pivotal role in the fibrous sheath and effect on the motility of sperm, in the ... "Localization of AKAP4 and tubulin proteins in sperm with reduced motility". Asian Journal of Andrology. 9 (5): 641-9. doi: ... "Targeted disruption of the Akap4 gene causes defects in sperm flagellum and motility". Developmental Biology. 248 (2): 331-42. ...
It is the key player in the motility machinery of nematodes that propels the crawling movement/motility of nematode sperm. It ... "A Ser/Thr kinase required for membrane-associated assembly of the major sperm protein motility apparatus in the amoeboid sperm ... which corresponds to the crawling locomotion of nematode sperm. Nematode sperm motility is based on a push-pull mechanism which ... "Dissection of the Ascaris sperm motility machinery identifies key proteins involved in major sperm protein-based amoeboid ...
Her early work looked at mechanisms of sperm motility following intercourse. She also published findings about sexual ... Fordney-Settlage DS (1981). A review of cervical mucus and sperm interactions in humans. Int J Fertil. 1981;26(3):161-9. Lief ... Fordney Settlage DS, Motoshima M, Tredway, DR (1973). Sperm transport from the external cervical os to the Fallopian tubes in ... Effect of intrauterine devices on sperm transport in the human being: preliminary report. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1975 Dec 1;123(7 ...
Sperm DNA damage is common in infertile men. About 31% of men with sperm motility defects have high levels of sperm DNA ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sperm motility. Sperm motility, Colorado State University Semen analysis - how to ... Sperm motility can also be thought of as the quality, which is a factor in successful conception; sperm that do not "swim" ... Sperm motility in mammals also facilitates the passage of the sperm through the cumulus oophorus (a layer of cells) and the ...
The goal of sperm is to fertilize the oocyte. To achieve that purpose, it must acquire motility in the epididymis and ... Motility is only achieved when the sperm presents a fully functional flagellum, is capable of producing energy to fuel the ... Since sperm is a transcriptionally silent cell, motility depends on the activation and/or inhibitions of key signaling pathways ... Sperm motility depends on energy availability, intact flagellum and the crosstalk of several signaling pathways that lead to an ...
... Forum. Zincum Metallicum, Selenium are mentioned. 1 reply to 2005-10-08. ... Less sperm motility. I am having 50 million of sperm count but my sperm motility is in 10% only.How to improve this?Not yet ... Low Sperm count and less motility 3Low Sperm count and less motility 1. ... for a remedy suggestion you will have to tell us more about yourself and not just about your sperm.....what is your personality ...
... cannabis does seem to affect the overall health of your sperm. Heres what you need to know. ... Sperm motility is the ability of the sperm to "swim." For fertilization to actually take place, sperm needs to be able to move ... Does pineapple change how your sperm tastes? How does sperm count change by age? Heres 12 facts about sperm that you need to ... The 2019 review mentioned above found that theres an "extensive body of evidence" that suggests cannabis harms sperm motility ...
Most of the time, male infertility is due to low sperm count, low sperm motility, or abnormal sperm. In some cases, men have ... If youve had trouble making a baby with your partner, your doctor will want to assess your sperm motility. The sperm motility ... "low sperm motility" and if they have, they have no idea of how to tackle the problem. In short, sperm motility refers to the ... The percentage signifies the number of sperm that are motile, or able to move in a forward direction. Normal sperm motility ...
Pre-Seed does not cause a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility or chromatin integrity in contrast to other ... Main outcome measure(s): Sperm motility and percent DNA fragmentation index. Results: Percent motility did not differ ... Effect of vaginal lubricants on sperm motility and chromatin integrity: a prospective comparative study Fertil Steril. 2008 Feb ... Conclusion: Pre-Seed does not cause a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility or chromatin integrity in contrast to ...
... progressive sperm motility and sperm vitality. Many of the other lubricants in the study either impaired sperm motility or ... Motility is the most important predictor of sperm transport and subsequent fertilization. Sperm treated with Pre-Seed showed ... The study, titled "The effects of vaginal lubricants on sperm function: an in vitro analysis," examined sperm motility and ... Trying to Get Pregnant? Clinical Research Study Shows That Pre-Seed is the Best Lubricant for Preserving Sperm Motility and ...
Low Sperm Motility is a growing problem worldwide. It has an emotional impact about one in every six couples, and researchers ... Several factors cause low sperm motility. This condition not only deprives a mans ability to get a pregnant woman, but the man ... Normally functioning testicles make millions of sperm every day. A regular ejaculate should hold more than 40 million sperm, ... Azoospermia, also known as zero sperm count, sperm means that are not present in the ejaculate. ...
Increase sperm motility with this key blend of vitamins, antioxidants, and herbs. Includes L-carnitine, vitamin B12, and ... Decrease quantity for MotilityBoost Sperm Motility Supplement Increase quantity for MotilityBoost Sperm Motility Supplement ... About MotilityBoost Sperm Motility Supplement With the Nutrients Most Well-Known to Support Sperm Motility. Designed to be ... MotilityBoost helps to support sperm motility, while CountBoost helps to support sperm count! ...
CIFTCI, H.B. and ZULKADIR, U.. The effect of oestradiol-17β on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm. ... A small dose of E2 (2 µg/mL) had a beneficial effect on the motility and acrosome integrity of bull sperm in vitro. Higher dose ... The number of sperm cells possessing proximal and distal cytoplasmic droplets and the number of sperm cells bearing coiled ... During the incubation, the number of motile, viable sperm and the number of sperm possessing lost/damaged acrosomes, ...
Conclusions: Our exploratory study revealed that sperm motility and viability are negatively impacted by smartphones that use ... Effect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Modern Cellphones on Sperm Motility and Viability: An In Vitro ...
Here, we provide the first test for plasticity in sperm-motility activation in response to osmotic environment in an anuran ... osmolality of the fertilization medium is known to play a critical role in activating sperm motility, but evidence for osmotic- ... there was no detectable shift in the optimal osmolality for sperm-motility activation after approximately 13 weeks of ... the optimal osmolality for sperm-motility activation mirrored the osmolality at the natural breeding site, indicating a ...
Keeping that lineage galloping across the finish line takes healthy sperm motility. Thats where omega-3s can help deliver a ... In a study of miniature Caspian stallions, fish oil supplementation improved sperm motility and viability, acrosomal ... In humans, higher omega-3s levels are associated with improved sperm count, morphology, and motility. ... Cooling or freezing the sperm can hurt its integrity, which is why protecting the sperm is important for a successful pregnancy ...
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... motility is initiated; and when exposed to egg jelly, an acrosome re ... When sperm of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus or Lytechinus pictus are diluted into seawater, ... increase the sperm pHi and reverse the chelator inhibition of sperm motility and acrosome reactions. The results of this study ... Involvement of zinc in the regulation of pHi, motility, and acrosome reactions in sea urchin sperm. D L Clapper, D L Clapper ...
Changes of sperm morphology, volume, density and motility and seminal plasma composition in Barbus barbus (Teleostei: ... Study of the composition of seminal fluid and of sperm motility along the genital tract, during a spawning season, in the ... Characteristics of stripped and testicular Northern pike (Esox lucius) sperm: spermatozoa motility and velocity Aquat. Living ... ultrastructure and motility, ionic composition and osmolality of the seminal plasma, and sperm volume and density) during the ...
"Sperm Motility" by people in this website by year, and whether "Sperm Motility" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Sperm Motility" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Sperm Motility" by people in Profiles. ... It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion ...
Formulated to provide the nutrients most well-known to positively impact sperm motility ... Motility Boost is designed specifically for men with low sperm motility, which along with low sperm count represents a leading ... Mucuna Pruriens: Mucuna pruriens has been shown to improve sperm quality, including sperm count, sperm viability and motility, ... Additionally, CoQ10 treatment duration was associated with sperm motility, sperm count, and sperm morphology. ...
regulation of amoeboid sperm motility (GO:1905416) positive regulation of amoeboid sperm motility is_a positive regulation of ... amoeboid sperm motility (GO:0097723) positive regulation of amoeboid sperm motility is_a positive regulation of reproductive ... activation of ameboid sperm motility, activation of ameboid sperm movement, activation of amoeboid sperm motility, activation ... upregulation of ameboid sperm motility, upregulation of ameboid sperm movement, upregulation of amoeboid sperm motility, ...
When couples have trouble conceiving a child, it may be due to a male infertility issue related to sperm rather than a female ... Following are some basic facts about semen and sperm:. The odds of natural conception can be increased by improving the total ... Semen is a thick fluid produced in the testicles which contains male sperm. ...
... they have also shown to increase the sperm motility in men. Our Industrial lifestyle and he ... they have also shown to increase the sperm motility in men. Our Industrial lifestyle and hectic schedules mean that our sperm ... There are a number of studies that indicate this phenomenon as the quality of sperm and motility is decreasing in men every ... The study had a test group of men aged 20 to 35 all of them smokers with poor sperm quality. These men were divided into three ...
Low Sperm Motility How To Get Pregnant With Low Sperm Motility - Your Path to Parenthood. October 24, 2023. October 24, 2023. ... Low sperm motility, often referred to as asthenozoospermia, is one of the common challenges many couples face when trying to ... How To Get Pregnant With Low Sperm Motility - Your Path to Parenthood ... It refers to the percentage of sperm that can move forward in a straight line. A lower percentage can make it difficult for ...
ekotracks Priapism,Urethra Increase Sperm Motility (Without Overcoming Impotence) Increase Sperm Motility (Without Overcoming ... However, there is a drastic opportunity to have more sperm motility and higher levels may be made available for gamete to ... Spermographer based on the Factors Affecting Sperm Count has found an hypothesis that changes sperm prime. ... Dorsal sperm is not white at the tip of the male organ and there can be no proof at all that it is motile. Either way, its ...
SPERM MOTILITY RED/INFRARED LIGHT THERAPY. Sperm motility is an important parameter of male fertility and depends on energy ... was to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with LED on sperm motility in infertile men with impaired sperm motility- ... This finding confirmed that photobiomodulation using LED improved the sperm motility in asthenozoospermia regardless of the ... In the non-treated semen samples, the average ratio of rapidly progressive sperms was 12 % and of immotile sperm 73 %. Treating ...
Asthenozoospermia is a sperm disorder characterized by problems in sperm motility. The World Health Organization (WHO) ... Asthenozoospermia is a sperm disorder characterized by problems in sperm motility. The World Health Organization (WHO) ... HomeMale InfertilityMale Infertility TreatmentsIn Vitro Fertilization (IVF)Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: What is ICSI and ... Since in ICSI it is the specialist who introduces the sperm into the interior of the egg, it is not necessary for the egg to ...
Sperm health and motility can be influenced by exercise. Click here to learn more about sperm, testosterone and which exercises ... The faster the sperm moves, the better the chances of fertilization.. The Importance of Sperm Motility. Sperm motility is an ... Exercise and Sperm Motility. Exercise improves sperm motility, which is the ability of sperm to migrate. However, not all ... Sperm motility is regulated by a complex set of signaling pathways. In addition, sperm motility is controlled by a number of ...
Sperm must therefore be sufficiently mobile to reach the ovum. Low sperm motility causes the sperm to have poor swimming ... Nonprogressiive Motility. This kind of motility describes sperm that are moving but not moving forward, such as sperm that ... The likelihood of fertilization is greatest in sperm with progressive motility. Sperm motility is just the rate of movement ... Progressive Motility. Sperm that exhibit this sort of motility typically swim in big circles or a straight line. ...
It is a crucial factor in male fertility as sperm need to move at a fixed face to reach a womens reproductive tract to ... Sperm Motility is used to describe the efficient movement of sperm. ... Low Sperm Count vs Low Sperm Motility. No motility, sluggish or slow motility or non-progressive motility sums up the sperm ... the patient is considered to be suffering from sperm motility.. Sperm Motility Treatment. Sperm motility is a curable ...
It consists of the quantity of sperm in semen (sperm concentration), the form of sperm (sperm morphology) and also sperms ... sperm count and also sperm motility (spontaneous movement). It likewise supplies a few wellness benefits unassociated to sex- ... How To Increase The Amount Of Sperm, how to increase the volume of sperm, How To Produce More Sperm Supplements What Vitamin ... Ways To Increase Sperm Motility. If youre concerned about your semen volume, its a good idea to seek advice from a healthcare ...
  • The morphology of a sperm cell refers to its size and shape. (
  • Abnormal morphology of sperm cells can make it difficult for pregnancy to take place. (
  • It noted that some studies - both in animal models and in humans - suggest that cannabis can cause abnormal morphology in sperm, which can in turn affect fertility. (
  • In humans, higher omega-3s levels are associated with improved sperm count, morphology, and motility . (
  • Eighteen spermiating males were randomly selected from a hatchery-reared stock and electronically tagged to record changes in their sperm quality parameters (spermatozoa morphology, ultrastructure and motility, ionic composition and osmolality of the seminal plasma, and sperm volume and density) during the spawning season. (
  • FertilAid for Men is a comprehensive male fertility enhancing supplement, designed to help increase sperm count and improve sperm motility and morphology. (
  • Additionally, CoQ10 treatment duration was associated with sperm motility, sperm count, and sperm morphology. (
  • Issues with sperm motility could be linked to problems with overall sperm quality, including the anatomy and morphology of the sperm. (
  • It consists of the quantity of sperm in semen (sperm concentration), the form of sperm (sperm morphology) and also sperm's capacity to swim to an egg (sperm mobility). (
  • Sperm motility is a prerequisite for achieving pregnancy, and alterations in sperm motility, along with sperm count and morphology, are commonly observed in subfertile men. (
  • Introduction The main three fertility problems experienced by men are sperm count, sperm morphology, and sperm motility. (
  • Sperm morphology differed from the longitudinal study for all but CO and TX. (
  • The study, titled "The effects of vaginal lubricants on sperm function: an in vitro analysis," examined sperm motility and vitality, the major semen parameters characterized when assessing male fertility. (
  • Insufficient sperm motility is a common cause of subfertility or infertility. (
  • Understanding the signaling pathways behind sperm motility can help pinpoint the cause of male infertility and uncover targets for male contraception. (
  • In assessing male factor infertility, there are three main issues to consider and all of them have to do with sperm. (
  • Most of the time, male infertility is due to low sperm count , low sperm motility , or abnormal sperm. (
  • Motility Boost is designed specifically for men with low sperm motility, which along with low sperm count represents a leading cause of male infertility. (
  • When couples have trouble conceiving a child, it may be due to a male infertility issue related to sperm rather than a female reproductive issue. (
  • Thirty consecutive men with asthenozoospermia and normal sperm count who visited the infertility clinic of University Medial Centre Ljubljana between September 2011 and February 2012 were included in the study. (
  • Sperm motility, one of the main factors contributing to male infertility, is a crucial factor in determining the likelihood of conception. (
  • One of the most frequent causes of male factor infertility is low sperm motility. (
  • Please read the blog as we guide you through the details of sperm motility, treatments, and causes to get a clear view of the infertility issue. (
  • Several studies indicate that sperm motility and male infertility are linked to Deletions in Mitochondrial DNA. (
  • Decreased sperm motility is one of the leading causes of male infertility , but there's a noteworthy treatment option that may make a difference. (
  • It can help address both male and female infertility problems, including poor sperm motility. (
  • Poor sperm motility can be a reason for male infertility. (
  • It is said that nearly 90 percent of male infertility is due to low sperm count, besides poor sperm motility is also an important factor. (
  • Male infertility is inability of a man to produce healthy sperms to cause pregnancy in a fertile female partner. (
  • Because sperm motility is one of the most important features for the fertility in human and animals, percentage of motility and the kinetic parameters for swimming and the guidance to eggs (taxis) are well focused in the field of reproductive biology to evaluate and improve the male infertility. (
  • Infertility in men can result from deficiencies in sperm formation, concentration, or transportation. (
  • Indications for performing a postcoital test include semen hyperviscosity, increased or decreased semen volume with good sperm density, or unexplained infertility. (
  • Testicular biopsy is indicated in azoospermic men with a normal-sized testis and normal findings on hormonal studies to evaluate for ductal obstruction, to further evaluate idiopathic infertility, and to retrieve sperm. (
  • The loss of another gene, CATSPER2 , in the same region of chromosome 15 is responsible for the sperm abnormalities and infertility in affected males. (
  • Anti-sperm any medication with potentially negative antibody (ASA) may also play a different effects on the rheological characteristics role in female infertility by interfering with of the mucus were stopped in the previous sperm migration through the female genital cycle. (
  • Another rare mechanism of infertility is destruction or inactivation of sperm by sperm antibodies, which are usually produced by the man. (
  • The study aimed to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection and its association with sperm quality parameters among a symptomatic men that present for infertility treatment in a Nigeria facility. (
  • In species with external fertilization, osmolality of the fertilization medium is known to play a critical role in activating sperm motility, but evidence for osmotic-induced sperm plasticity is limited to euryhaline fish and marine invertebrates. (
  • CIFTCI, H.B. and ZULKADIR, U. . The effect of oestradiol-17 β on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm . (
  • The aim of this study was to test the effect of oestradiol-17β (E 2 ) on the motility, viability and the acrosomal status of bull sperm in vitro . (
  • Lower doses of E 2 (2 and 4 µg/mL) did not affect viability of sperm, but a high dose of E 2 (8 µg/mL) caused reductions in viability at 4 and 24 h of incubation. (
  • Our exploratory study revealed that sperm motility and viability are negatively impacted by smartphones that use the WiFi spectrum for data transmission. (
  • In a study of miniature Caspian stallions, fish oil supplementation improved sperm motility and viability, acrosomal conformation, and plasma membrane integrity . (
  • Mobile phones negatively affect male fertility by decreasing sperm motility and viability. (
  • Studies indicate that treatment with quercetin for 14 days results in a significant increase in sperm motility, viability and concentration. (
  • 0.05) decreased sperm motility, viability, mitochondrial activity and acrosome integrity but had no detrimental effect at lower doses. (
  • and sperm viability and acrosome integrity at ≥ 100 µg/mL GLY-equivalent concentration as early as 1 h of incubation. (
  • Sperm viability, sperm count, and sperm motility were determined. (
  • Addition of 2 µg E 2 /mL at 18 h of incubation increased the total motility over the control. (
  • The percentage of sperm that exhibit any type of movement is referred to as total motility, which is another term that is occasionally used. (
  • There are several factors that can cause poor sperm motility. (
  • The study had a test group of men aged 20 to 35 all of them smokers with poor sperm quality. (
  • Poor sperm motility is a sign of Male Fertility Problems. (
  • ASAs are an autoimmune condition caused by poor sperm motility that severely impacts male fertility. (
  • When a man suffers from poor sperm motility or low sperm motility, this means that fertilization through natural conception is much more difficult. (
  • Poor sperm motility or also known as asthenozoospermia is diagnosed when less than 32 percent of the sperm are able to move efficiently. (
  • CoQ10 has been found to improve sperm count and motility on asthenozoospermia. (
  • Low sperm motility, often referred to as asthenozoospermia, is one of the common challenges many couples face when trying to conceive. (
  • The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of photobiomodulation with LED on sperm motility in infertile men with impaired sperm motility-asthenozoospermia. (
  • This finding confirmed that photobiomodulation using LED improved the sperm motility in asthenozoospermia regardless of the wavelength. (
  • Asthenozoospermia is a sperm disorder characterized by problems in sperm motility . (
  • If the test sample ranks only 25-30% of the sperms in A grade, this reflects low sperm motility, referred to as asthenozoospermia or asthenospermia. (
  • In one study, infertile men with reduced sperm motility were supplemented with CoQ10 for 6 months. (
  • L-arginine supplementation has been shown to increase sperm motility and sperm count in infertile men with oligospermia and asthenospermia. (
  • Studies have found that supplements of CoQ10 can help improve sperm movement in infertile men. (
  • A 2004 study in the journal Fertility & Sterility looked at the effects of a 200 mg daily CoQ10 supplement on the sperm counts of 22 infertile men with low sperm motility. (
  • that have decreased movement (motility), causing affected males to be infertile. (
  • ABSTRACT Anti-zona-pellucida autoantibodies (AZP-Ab) and anti-sperm isoantibodies (ASA) were as- sessed in the cervical secretions from 73 infertile Jordanian women and 41 fertile control women using latex agglutination. (
  • When couples are infertile, the man should always be evaluated for sperm disorders. (
  • To achieve that purpose, it must acquire motility in the epididymis and hyperactivated motility in the female reproductive tract. (
  • In aquatic habitats, gametes are released into the water where sperm acquire motility and navigate to the egg. (
  • Sperm movement is activated by changes in intracellular ion concentration. (
  • The changes in ion concentration that provoke motility are different among species. (
  • The change in cell volume which alters intracellular ion concentration can also contribute to the activation of sperm motility. (
  • It found that regular cannabis smoking - defined as more than once a week - was associated with 28 percent lower sperm concentration and a 29 percent lower total sperm count. (
  • Those who used cannabis more than once a week alongside other recreational substances had a 52 percent lower sperm concentration and 55 percent lower total sperm count. (
  • Looking at 662 penis-having folks who attended a fertility center, researchers found that people who had smoked cannabis in the past had a higher sperm concentration than those who had never smoked cannabis. (
  • According to research, lifestyle choices have a significant impact on sperm concentration. (
  • erm Concentration and Motility in Roosters Dietary RU exposure had no significant effect on sperm HDAC2 Inhibitor site concentrations, irrespective on the exposure time (Figure 3A), whereas it considerably decreased the percentage of motility COX-3 Inhibitor web following 5, 13 or 25 days of dietary exposure (p 0.05, Figure 3B) inside the RU group. (
  • A) Measurement with the sperm concentration at distinctive instances of your experiment (billion/mL). (
  • A) Measurement from the sperm concentration correspond to thetimes on the experiment(p 0.05), p 0.01. (
  • Alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs can affect the quality of sperm. (
  • There are a number of studies that indicate this phenomenon as the quality of sperm and motility is decreasing in men every year. (
  • Thirty sperm samples obtained from fertile men which had high quality of sperm motility were washed and collected by Percoll gradient. (
  • Percent motility did not differ significantly between HTF controls and Pre-Seed, whereas FemGlide, Replens, and Astroglide lubricants demonstrated a significant decrease in motility. (
  • However, a recently released study has shown that Pre-Seed® Fertility-Friendly personal lubricant is not only safe for use when trying to conceive, sperm actually performs significantly better with Pre-Seed than other lubricants on important fertility measures. (
  • Of the nine different commercial lubricants tested, Pre-Seed Fertility-Friendly personal lubricant had significantly better results for measures like progressive sperm motility and sperm vitality. (
  • Sperm treated with Pre-Seed showed significantly higher progressive motility than all the other lubricants. (
  • Sperm treated with Pre-Seed had a significantly higher percentage of live cells compared with other lubricants. (
  • The number of sperm cells with lost acrosomes was significantly high in control group at 24 h of incubation. (
  • Within one stripping, velocity and percentage motility decreased significantly with time post activation. (
  • The results of the study showed that sperm density and motility significantly improved with CoQ10 treatment. (
  • After a month the daily vitamin c takers significantly improved their sperm quality and the 1000 mg takers had the greatest change among the group. (
  • Treating with LED significantly increased the proportion of rapidly progressive sperm (mean differences were as follows: 2.83 (1.39-4.28), 3.33 (1.61-5.05), 4.50 (3.00-5.99) and 3.83 (2.31-5.36) for groups 1-4, respectively) and significantly decreased the ratio of immotile sperm (the mean differences and 95 % CI were as follows: 3.50 (1.30-5.70), 4.33 (2.15-6.51), 5.83 (3.81-7.86) and 5.50 (2.98-8.02) for groups 1-4, respectively). (
  • Oral supplementation of antioxidants, synthetic drugs and natural compounds have significantly improved the sperm's motility rate. (
  • Testicular torsion-detorsion significantly decreased the amount of sperm, inhibited the motility, declined the F-actin expression, and reduced the content of ATP in sperm. (
  • MSCs significantly reversed the imbalance of glycolysis in sperm and testis induced by testicular torsion-detorsion, as evidenced by increasing the expression of phosphoglycerate kinase 2 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-spermatogenic, activating Akt, and increasing glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), which led to the increase in glycolysis cascades and ATP production. (
  • An MS analysis of sperm from an independent cohort of healthy and subfertile men identified 692 differentially expressed proteins, of which 512 were significantly lower and 180 were significantly higher in oligoasthenozoospermic men compared to those of the normozoospermic controls. (
  • Sperm hypoosmotic swelling and pH did not differ significantly from the longitudinal study. (
  • These data indicate an epididymal origin of FMP and suggest a physiological role for this protein in the acquisition of sperm motility. (
  • To evaluate the effect of vaginal lubricants Pre-Seed, FemGlide, Astroglide, and Replens on human sperm motility and chromatin integrity. (
  • This study was aimed to examine the effect of polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum to human sperm motility. (
  • What do we know about its impact on sperm count? (
  • Anything that cause damage or puts stress on testicles can also have a negative impact on sperm motility. (
  • these deleterious effects ceased at Day 50 (Table 2).Dietary RU exposure had no substantial impact on sperm concentrations, irrespective of the exposure time (Figure 3A), whereas it drastically reduced the percentage of motility soon after 5, 13 or 25 days of dietary exposure (p 0.05, Figure 3B) within the RU group. (
  • Sperm motility in mammals also facilitates the passage of the sperm through the cumulus oophorus (a layer of cells) and the zona pellucida (a layer of extracellular matrix), which surround the mammalian oocyte. (
  • Maria João Freitas , Srinivasan Vijayaraghavan , and Margarida Fardilha "Signaling mechanisms in mammalian sperm motility," Biology of Reproduction 96(1), 2-12, (20 December 2016). (
  • The omega-3 fatty acid DHA is essential for all mammalian sperm. (
  • Does Weed Affect Sperm Count, Shape, Motility? (
  • Even just having a lengthy session of sex may affect sperm motility. (
  • Unfortunately, the use of a personal lubricant is often discouraged by fertility experts because leading lubricants like K-Y are known to adversely affect sperm. (
  • Researchers suggest that quercetin may affect sperm quality through the stimulation of the sex organs, depending on the dose and the duration of treatment. (
  • Females with two chromosome 15 deletions in each cell have sensorineural deafness as their only symptom because the CATSPER2 gene deletions affect sperm function, and women do not produce sperm. (
  • This ability to move forward is meant to propel them through a woman's reproductive tract toward her fallopian tubes where the sperm can fertilize the waiting egg. (
  • In order to reach the egg for fertilization, sperm have to survive a long and arduous journey through cervical mucus and the cervix, and then up into the fallopian tubes. (
  • Sperm motility is just the rate of movement that it would be able to swim through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes for fertilization to occur. (
  • Sperm that cannot swim normally may never reach an egg waiting to be fertilized in the fallopian tubes. (
  • Sperm motility describes the ability of sperm to move properly through the female reproductive tract (internal fertilization) or through water (external fertilization) to reach the egg. (
  • In the wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus, sperms aggregate in 'trains' that are better able to fertilize eggs because they are more capable of navigating the viscous environment of the female reproductive tract. (
  • The testicles are the male reproductive organs that are primarily responsible for sperm production and testosterone. (
  • Obstructive azoospermia means produced sperm, but there is an obstruction or blockage of the reproductive tract. (
  • In conclusion, changes observed in B. barbus sperm parameters during the reproductive season, suggest there is association between such changes and spermatozoa aging processes. (
  • Sperm motility is a vital fertility factor because it is needed for sperm to travel through women's reproductive organs and fertilize the egg. (
  • Motility refers to the movement of sperm, its ability to swim appropriately through water, or women's reproductive tract to fertilize the eggs. (
  • A sperm is the reproductive cell of a male. (
  • male fertility supplement is a supplement planned to increase semen volume, sperm health and wellness, as well as, therefore, enhanced reproductive feature as well as an increased chance of fertility. (
  • For fertility, it plays a vital role because sperm need to move through the woman's reproductive tract and reach to the egg to fertilize it. (
  • Sperm motility is the ability of sperm to move or swim efficiently through the female reproductive system as to fertilize an egg. (
  • The epididymal norepinephrine depletion exerted by sibutramine, connected with reduces in sperm transit period, amount and quality, resulting in reduced fertility with this experimental model, reinforces the worries about the feasible effect on fertility of guy taking sibutramine and also other nonselective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, specifically taking into consideration the lower reproductive effectiveness of humans in comparison to men of Saikosaponin C manufacture other varieties. (
  • Intro The epididymis can be an organ from the man reproductive system formed by extremely convoluted duct that links the efferent ducts towards the vas deferens and performs a Saikosaponin C manufacture number of features, including sperm transportation, maturation, protection, focus and storage space [1]. (
  • This accessories organ from the male reproductive system gets the function to create an alkaline secretion that composes the ejaculate, enhancing sperm fertility potential and motility. (
  • Comprehensive reproductive health and fertility supplement with a blend of antioxidants, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals to support sperm health. (
  • A regular ejaculate should hold more than 40 million sperm, even though semen parameters generally shift among people and fruitful may likewise contrast altogether between of a similar man. (
  • Quercetin is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to have beneficial affects on several sperm parameters. (
  • The percentage of motile sperm and kinematic parameters were measured using a Sperm Class Analyser system following the WHO recommendations. (
  • The researchers found that, "There is no evidence in the literature that CoQ10 increases either live birth or pregnancy rates, but there is a global improvement in sperm parameters. (
  • Time-dependent changes in kinetic parameters of Marchantia sperm motility from high to low motility states suggested that amplitude of lateral head displacement, rather than its frequency play key roles in the speed and distance of swimming at high motility state. (
  • Sperm parameters in CT and RU roosters. (
  • Sperm parameters in of and RU roosters. (
  • Effects of dietary Roundup exposure on sperm parameters in fresh rooster semen. (
  • Sperm have the egg as their target and must be able to move toward that precious object in order for pregnancy to occur. (
  • Cooling or freezing the sperm can hurt its integrity, which is why protecting the sperm is important for a successful pregnancy. (
  • Everyone is made aware that for a pregnancy to occur, the sperm must contact the ovum and bond with it. (
  • Healthy sperm with good motility can swim well, which increases the chances of successful pregnancy. (
  • This simple matter of proximity can boost the chances of successful pregnancy and live birth for couples who've struggled due to problems with sperm quality. (
  • Fertility specialists may also recommend sperm washing and other techniques to increase the chances of a successful pregnancy during an INVOcell cycle. (
  • What Should be the Sperm Motility Percentage for Pregnancy? (
  • In some mammals, sperm motility is activated by increase in pH, calcium ion and cAMP, yet it is suppressed by low pH in the epididymis. (
  • Three days after the surgery, orchiectomy was executed and the testis, epididymis, and sperm were separated to each other. (
  • Human sperm cell is a flagellate cell consisting of a disc-shaped head and a long tail released from the seminiferous tubule and mature in the epididymis. (
  • Therefore, the purpose of the present function was to help expand evaluate sibutramine results, a serotonin-NE reuptake inhibitor, over the contractility from the epididymis and prostate, and its own effect on sperm quality and fertility of adult male rats. (
  • I am having 50 million of sperm count but my sperm motility is in 10% only.How to improve this?Not yet having baby? (
  • Studies have suggested that cannabis use decreases sperm count . (
  • As the researchers pointed out, this contradicts most of the studies on fertility and cannabis, most of which suggest that cannabis decreases sperm count. (
  • What this suggests is that we need to study cannabis and sperm count further. (
  • To date, CBD hasn't been associated with lower sperm count. (
  • It's easy to understand low sperm count, but most men have never heard of the term "low sperm motility" and if they have, they have no idea of how to tackle the problem. (
  • Is your sperm count worrying you? (
  • Azoospermia, also known as zero sperm count, sperm means that are not present in the ejaculate. (
  • Sometimes you will need an extra boost in your sperm count or motility or both. (
  • The odds of natural conception can be increased by improving the total motile sperm count to 80 million. (
  • Spermographer based on the Factors Affecting Sperm Count has found an hypothesis that changes sperm prime. (
  • It helps improve sperm count and its ability to swim (motility). (
  • The inability to become pregnant is the primary and most obvious indication of low sperm count. (
  • Some tests must be performed by the doctor to determine low sperm count. (
  • According to some research, the amount of CoQ10 in the seminal fluid of men has a correlation to their sperm count and sperm motility. (
  • What are the effects of CoQ10 on sperm count and sperm motility? (
  • Ultimately, issues with sperm motility can have just as serious effects on male fertility as a low sperm count. (
  • As well as a sperm had an orgasm today initially began creating about 3 months ago?scientifically verified herbal/nutritional mix that supports male fertility vitamins for men by aiding boost sperm top quality, sperm count and also sperm motility (spontaneous movement). (
  • It likewise supplies a few wellness benefits unassociated to sex-related function.In most instances, a male's sperm wellness- including his sperm count as well as sperm mobility- is not connected to the amount of semen volume increase he creates. (
  • And also instead of trying to find wonder drugs to boost your sex life and also sex-related feature, it's a far better strategy to remember that all aspects of your sexual wellness will be much better when you are healthy sperm count. (
  • The maker claims that by targeting the DNA of the sperm, the oxidative tensions may cause a decrease in sperm count along with sperm volume. (
  • For anyone who has been experiencing low sperm count or a low motility rate, then this video is for you! (
  • Other factors contributing to low sperm count and sperm motility are smoking, cannabis, opiates, cocaine, use of certain herbal medicines, and long term use of anabolic steroids. (
  • What does High Sperm Count but Low Motility Mean? (
  • Texts of Ayurveda recommend various, herbs, treatments, diet and lifestyles to be followed to boost healthy sperm count. (
  • The mean sperm count for all samples was 47.43 million sperm per milliliter. (
  • The average sperm count per ejaculation was lower for the longitudinal study than for all control groups. (
  • However, data indicate that daily ejaculation does not reduce the sperm count in men unless there is a problem. (
  • There were no statistically significant differences in sperm count and percent motility between serologically positive and negative men. (
  • The results suggest that PCBs influence the final phase of reproduction in fish affecting spermatozoa motility. (
  • In other words, using cannabis seems to reduce sperm cells' ability to move. (
  • Reactive oxygen species have been shown to reduce sperm motility. (
  • A small dose of E 2 (2 µg/mL) had a beneficial effect on the motility and acrosome integrity of bull sperm in vitro . (
  • For this reason, ICSI is the way to perform in vitro fertilization in cases of severe motility. (
  • We found also that sperm velocity decreased signifi cantly after giving anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 0 minute, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with pre-immunee serum (control). (
  • The most effective treatment is usually in vitro fertilization via intracytoplasmic sperm injection. (
  • Besides the sperm-motility-associated proteins, the unbiased proteomics approach uncovered several novel proteins whose expression levels were specifically altered in abnormal sperm samples. (
  • After 30 minutes, progressive sperm motility was assessed by light microscopy. (
  • Pre-Seed does not cause a significant decrease in progressive sperm motility or chromatin integrity in contrast to other lubricants used by couples. (
  • For fertilization to actually take place, sperm needs to be able to move to the egg, which is why motility is important. (
  • Motility is the most important predictor of sperm transport and subsequent fertilization. (
  • Evolutionary theory predicts that selection will favor phenotypic plasticity in sperm traits that maximize fertilization success in dynamic fertilization environments. (
  • The likelihood of fertilization is greatest in sperm with progressive motility. (
  • It means the overall health of the sperm is fine but it has low motility so it cannot swim properly and reach the egg for fertilization. (
  • suspect that this unusual swimming behaviour guides sperm through a small hole in the protective coating of fish eggs, which eventually leads to fertilization. (
  • Hyperactivated sperm motility driven by CatSper2 is required for fertilization. (
  • Although more research on cannabis and sperm health is needed, it seems that using cannabis frequently can decrease the health of your sperm, making you less fertile. (
  • Many of the other lubricants in the study either impaired sperm motility or damaged sperm vitality, which could decrease the chance of successful conception. (
  • VDAC3 antiserum can decrease motility of human sperm. (
  • Both unilateral and bilateral cryptorchidism are associated with a decrease in sperm production and semen quality, regardless of the timing of orchidopexy. (
  • The decrease in sperm production may not be realized until 1-3 months later. (
  • The 2019 review mentioned above found that there's an "extensive body of evidence" that suggests cannabis harms sperm motility. (
  • In short, sperm motility refers to the way sperm move in a forward pattern. (
  • It refers to the percentage of sperm that can move forward in a straight line. (
  • Sperm motility refers to the ability for a man's sperm to swim properly. (
  • Progressive Motility: It refers to sperm that swims in a mostly straight line or large circles. (
  • Non-progressive Motility: It refers to sperm that do not move in straight lines or that swim in very tight circles. (
  • Sperm motility is the ability of the sperm to "swim. (
  • Sperm motility is known as the ability of the sperm to move efficiently. (
  • sperm that do not "swim" properly will not reach the egg in order to fertilize it. (
  • This allows the sperm to move towards an ovum in order to fertilize it. (
  • Without technological intervention, a non-motile or abnormally-motile sperm is not going to fertilize. (
  • The goal of sperm is to fertilize the oocyte. (
  • The "tadpole" shape of sperm, which includes a round head and a tail, enables it to travel to the egg and dissolve on the egg to fertilize it. (
  • Motile sperm are able to fertilize female eggs, whereas immotile but viable sperm are not. (
  • A lower percentage can make it difficult for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg. (
  • Since the egg and sperm are combined as part of INVOcell treatment, that means that the sperm does not have the travel far in order to attempt to fertilize an egg. (
  • In order to successfully fertilize and egg, sperm must have progressive motility wherein they move at least 25 micromoters per second, through the cervical mucus to fertilize an egg. (
  • For sperm to travel through the cervical mucus to fertilize an egg, it is necessary for them to have progressive motility of at least 25 micrometers a second. (
  • When you and your partner are trying to get pregnant, it is not enough for you to have lots of sperm - you also need sperm that can swim powerfully to meet the egg. (
  • Progressive motility is the term used to describe how some sperm move in small circles while others swim in straight lines or big circles. (
  • Sperm that exhibit this sort of motility typically swim in big circles or a straight line. (
  • This is because they bypass the need for the sperm to swim on their own. (
  • It improves semen quality by preventing cellular oxidative stress, supporting sperm production, and maintaining healthy semen balance. (
  • In a similar fashion, GLY and Roundup did not inflict any detrimental effect on sperm DNA integrity. (
  • B) AssessmentCTthe percentage of sperm motility at distinctive occasions on the experiment. (
  • RU: the percentage of sperm motil-ity at distinctive instances with the experiment. (
  • Sometimes, it becomes difficult to pinpoint the cause of low sperm motility. (
  • The new study also found that Pre-Seed did not impact DNA integrity of sperm. (
  • In another study of the same breed, fish oil plus thyme increased motility and improved the quality and plasma membrane integrity of cooled semen. (
  • Nourishing the acrosome's integrity until that final burst is integral to sperm health. (
  • Among these deregulated proteins, there was a clear overrepresentation of annotation terms related to sperm integrity, the cytoskeleton, and energy-related metabolism, as well as human phenotypes related to spermatogenesis and sperm-related abnormalities. (
  • Intracytoplasmic sperm injection: What is ICSI and how much is it? (
  • Dr. Joanna Ellington, an internationally recognized scientist in the area of Sperm Physiology, developed Pre-Seed during her National Institute of Health-funded research into what makes healthy sperm. (
  • Keeping that lineage galloping across the finish line takes healthy sperm motility. (
  • We recommend FertilAid to all trying-to-conceive men to help ensure that the "raw materials" for healthy sperm production are available to the body, and specific antioxidants are present to help prevent oxidative stress. (
  • Level Level of testosterone values below normally healthy levels mean you will have less sperm cell available for conception and the ability to enjoy sexually. (
  • The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression level of genes annotated with the Gene Ontology (GO) term 'sperm motility' differed in sperm collected from healthy men and men diagnosed with oligoasthenozoospermia. (
  • This is the total amount of sperm cells that are actively migrating. (
  • It seems that men who ejaculate after a long session of sex have lowered sperm motility. (
  • Sometimes small tubes inside the testicles are blocked so that sperm cannot make it into the ejaculate. (
  • The typical motility inducing profile seen in the semen of the normal monkey was not observed in the ejaculate of the vasectomized animal. (
  • Normally functioning testicles make millions of sperm every day. (
  • Semen is a thick fluid produced in the testicles which contains male sperm. (
  • There is a triple problem and it includes: blood supply to the testicles and sperm apical shape. (
  • Involvement of zinc in the regulation of pHi, motility, and acrosome reactions in sea urchin sperm. (
  • The results of this study are consistent with the involvement of a trace metal (probably zinc) in the pHi regulation of sea urchin sperm and indicate a likely mechanism for the previously observed effects of chelators on sperm motility and acrosome reactions. (
  • In sea urchin sperm, a cyclic nucleotide-gated K + channel (CNGK) mediates a cGMP-induced hyperpolarization that evokes Ca 2+ influx. (
  • The studies in CO, HA, OR , and CT had higher sperm counts than the longitudinal study. (
  • The velocity of a sperm in fluid medium is usually 1-4 mm/min. (
  • Sperm motility was assessed by means of evaluation of sperm velocity (seconds per 0.1 mm distance) and the number of unmoved sperm (million per ml) which were observed 0 minute, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after addition of VDAC3 antiserum and preimmunserum as a control. (
  • When sperm are diluted into media that contain chelators, both NH4Cl and monensin (a Na+/H+ ionophore) increase the sperm pHi and reverse the chelator inhibition of sperm motility and acrosome reactions. (
  • Fruits are a great way to give your body energy, they have also shown to increase the sperm motility in men. (
  • Outer and inner arm plays different roles in the production and regulation of flagellar motility: the outer arm increase the beat frequency, the inner arm is involved in the propulsion and propagation of flagellar bending. (
  • Link to all annotated objects annotated to positive regulation of amoeboid sperm motility. (
  • Link to all direct and indirect annotations to positive regulation of amoeboid sperm motility. (