Agraphia: Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Dyslexia, Acquired: A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)ReadingPhonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Remedial Teaching: Specialized instruction for students deviating from the expected norm.Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Education of Hearing Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with hearing disability or impairment.HandwritingDictionaries, MedicalLinguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Achievement: Success in bringing an effort to the desired end; the degree or level of success attained in some specified area (esp. scholastic) or in general.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Communication Methods, Total: Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Aphasia, Primary Progressive: A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Verbal Behavior: Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Names: Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Education, Special: Education of the individual who markedly deviates intellectually, physically, socially, or emotionally from those considered to be normal, thus requiring special instruction.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Microcomputers: Small computers using LSI (large-scale integration) microprocessor chips as the CPU (central processing unit) and semiconductor memories for compact, inexpensive storage of program instructions and data. They are smaller and less expensive than minicomputers and are usually built into a dedicated system where they are optimized for a particular application. "Microprocessor" may refer to just the CPU or the entire microcomputer.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Intelligence: The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Education of Intellectually Disabled: The teaching or training of those individuals with subnormal intellectual functioning.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mental Processes: Conceptual functions or thinking in all its forms.Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes: A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. (LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis: The Regenstrief Institute; c1995-2001 [cited 2002 Apr 2]. Available from http://www.regenstrief.org/loinc)Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Natural Language Processing: Computer processing of a language with rules that reflect and describe current usage rather than prescribed usage.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Intelligence Tests: Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Siblings: Persons or animals having at least one parent in common. (American College Dictionary, 3d ed)Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.GermanyDiscrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Famous PersonsSpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Flavobacteriaceae: A family of bacteria in the order Sphingobacteriales, class Sphingobacteria. They are gram-negative rods, mostly saprophytic in terrestrial and aquatic habitats.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Diaminopimelic AcidCluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.EponymsStroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Bacillaceae: A family of bacteria which produce endospores. They are mostly saprophytes from soil, but a few are insect or animal parasites or pathogens.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Rhodobacteraceae: A family in the order Rhodobacterales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA.Xanthomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the order Xanthomonadales, pathogenic to plants.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Rods: Rod-shaped bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS and CLOSTRIDIUM.Cytophagaceae: A family of gram-negative, gliding bacteria in the order Cytophagales, class Cytophagia. They are found in SOIL and SEA WATER.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Abstracting and Indexing as Topic: Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.Dictionaries, ChemicalBacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Chryseobacterium: A genus of aerobic, gram-negative bacteria in the family FLAVOBACTERIACEAE. Many of its species were formerly in the genus FLAVOBACTERIUM.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Vocabulary, Controlled: A specified list of terms with a fixed and unalterable meaning, and from which a selection is made when CATALOGING; ABSTRACTING AND INDEXING; or searching BOOKS; JOURNALS AS TOPIC; and other documents. The control is intended to avoid the scattering of related subjects under different headings (SUBJECT HEADINGS). The list may be altered or extended only by the publisher or issuing agency. (From Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed, p163)PaintingsAlteromonadaceae: A family of marine, gram-negative PROTEOBACTERIA including the genera ALTEROMONAS; Colwellia; Idiomarina; MARINOBACTER; MORITELLA; PSEUDOALTEROMONAS; and SHEWANELLA.PhenazinesInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Halobacteriaceae: A family of extremely halophilic archaea found in environments with high salt concentrations, such as salt lakes, evaporated brines, or salted fish. Halobacteriaceae are either obligate aerobes or facultative anaerobes and are divided into at least twenty-six genera including: HALOARCULA; HALOBACTERIUM; HALOCOCCUS; HALOFERAX; HALORUBRUM; NATRONOBACTERIUM; and NATRONOCOCCUS.Sphingomonadaceae: A family of gram-negative, asporogenous rods or ovoid cells, aerobic or facultative anaerobic chemoorganotrophs. They are commonly isolated from SOIL, activated sludge, or marine environments.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Halomonas: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped or pleomorphic bacteria which are halotolerant. Members of this genus are capable of growth in sodium chloride concentrations of up to 20% or more. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Panax: An araliaceous genus of plants that contains a number of pharmacologically active agents used as stimulants, sedatives, and tonics, especially in traditional medicine. Sometimes confused with Siberian ginseng (ELEUTHEROCOCCUS).Abbreviations as Topic: Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.DNA, Archaeal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of archaea.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Rhodospirillaceae: A family of phototrophic bacteria, in the order Rhodospirillales, isolated from stagnant water and mud.Database Management Systems: Software designed to store, manipulate, manage, and control data for specific uses.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Lysobacter: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, gliding bacteria in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. Strongly proteolytic, it is involved in lysing a variety of microorganisms.Desert Climate: A type of climate characterized by insufficient moisture to support appreciable plant life. It is a climate of extreme aridity, usually of extreme heat, and of negligible rainfall. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Betaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised of chemoheterotrophs and chemoautotrophs which derive nutrients from decomposition of organic material.Databases, Bibliographic: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.Flavobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in SOIL and WATER. Its organisms are also found in raw meats, MILK and other FOOD, hospital environments, and human clinical specimens. Some species are pathogenic in humans.Hyphomicrobiaceae: A family in the order Rhizobiales, class ALPHAPROTEOBACTERIA comprised of many genera of budding or appendaged bacteria.PeptidoglycanHistory, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Unified Medical Language System: A research and development program initiated by the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE to build knowledge sources for the purpose of aiding the development of systems that help health professionals retrieve and integrate biomedical information. The knowledge sources can be used to link disparate information systems to overcome retrieval problems caused by differences in terminology and the scattering of relevant information across many databases. The three knowledge sources are the Metathesaurus, the Semantic Network, and the Specialist Lexicon.Gram-Positive Endospore-Forming Bacteria: Bacteria that form endospores and are gram-positive. Representative genera include BACILLUS; CLOSTRIDIUM; MICROMONOSPORA; SACCHAROPOLYSPORA; and STREPTOMYCES.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Spores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Actinobacteria: Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)Caulobacteraceae: A family of stalked bacteria that reproduces by budding. There are four genera: CAULOBACTER, Asticcacaulis, Brevundimonas, and Phenylobacterium.Neisseriaceae: A family of gram-negative, parasitic bacteria including several important pathogens of man.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Comamonadaceae: A family of gram-negative aerobic bacteria in the class BETA PROTEOBACTERIA, encompassing the acidovorans rRNA complex. Some species are pathogenic for PLANTS.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
  • The winner of the 85th Scripps National Spelling Bee gets $30,000 in cash. (csmonitor.com)
  • Rushlow has made it to the Scripps National Spelling Bee every year since 2008, although he's never made the finals. (csmonitor.com)
  • The winner of the 85th Scripps National Spelling Bee gets $30,000 in cash, a trophy, a $2,500 savings bond, a $5,000 scholarship, $2,600 in reference works from the Encyclopedia Britannica and an online language course. (csmonitor.com)
  • The Scripps National Spelling Bee is a competition held annually in the Washington, D.C. area in the United States over a two-day period at the end of May or beginning of June. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, Nihar Janga from Austin, Texas, became the youngest champion in the bee's history when he won the title at the age of 11 The 2016 Scripps National Spelling Bee featured co-champions for the sixth time in the competition's history, the previous occurrences having been in 1950, 1957, 1962, 2014, and 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • A The Scripps National Spelling Bee website lists Dean Lucas's winning word as "luxuriance" and Virginia Hogan's 1929 winning word as "asceticism. (wikipedia.org)
  • E Trinkle, Bailly, Pipkin (married surname Kimble), Giddens, and Thampy are current or former Scripps National Spelling Bee officials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scripps National Spelling Bee. (wikipedia.org)
  • Final Rounds of Scripps National Spelling Bee To Be Broadcast Live on ABC During Primetime" (Press release). (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the high stakes - the pair are competing for a ticket to Washington, D.C. in May for the Scripps National Spelling Bee - and the cutthroat competition of spelling bees portrayed in movies, Thompson says Sophia and Kush were rooting each other on and keeping the energy of the dwindling crowd going strong. (yahoo.com)
  • Earlier this year, on the eve of the Scripps National Spelling Bee, Google released a list of the most-commonly misspelled words in the United States in 2017. (rmmagazine.com)
  • The winner will receive an all expense-paid trip to Washington, D.C. to participate in the Scripps National Spelling Bee the end of May. (nic.edu)
  • Former "Beverly Hills, 90201" stars Jennie Garth and Tori Spelling star in an undated photo. (mercurynews.com)
  • While vacationing in Europe with her family, Tori Spelling threw herself a lavish 43rd birthday party at a Danish castle - and charged local riff-raff $300 to eat, drink and have photos taken with her, according to Us Weekly. (mercurynews.com)
  • Tori Spelling has been hospitalized due to complications stemming from childbirth. (mercurynews.com)
  • Tori Spelling underwent emergency surgery over the weekend due to complications from her C section," Spelling's rep Jill Fritzo said in a statement. (mercurynews.com)
  • Tori Spelling gave birth to a 6 lb 8 oz baby girl they named Stella Doreen McDermott at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center yesterday afternoon. (theblemish.com)
  • If there's one thing we know about Tori Spelling, it's that she is a mother who absolutely loves and cherishes her family time. (hotmomsclub.com)
  • I'm the author/artist and I want to review Zaner-Bloser Spelling Connections Grade 3: Student & Teacher Editions (Homeschool Bundle -- 2016 Edition) . (christianbook.com)
  • If the soundex option is not available for the records you are searching, try to spell the name in as many ways as possible. (familysearch.org)
  • Both practitioners and researchers typically understand spelling competence as ability to spell words accurately. (springer.com)
  • Practice letter recognition and teach your child to spell his/her name! (scholastic.com)
  • You next breather the spread at the face up card and beginning the count with this card you spell out the spectators name applying one card for each letter. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Kids learn to spell their names with ice cream cone puzzles. (pinterest.com)
  • Once your students have attempted to spell the word and before you give the next word, you give them the correct spelling and let them correct their own work immediately. (sonlight.com)
  • In Sequential Spelling 1, students begin with -in on the first day and within five days they can spell beginning all on their own. (sonlight.com)
  • As they recognize more and more patterns and begin to spell words correctly that they've never seen before - all without "studying" - their confidence and spelling skills soar! (sonlight.com)
  • If you have never used Sequential Spelling before, McCabe urges you to begin with Volume 1 because, while your students might be "ready" to spell frightened (Volume 4), they really ought to know the patterns associated with spelling presidential (Volume 1). (sonlight.com)
  • How do you spell a spelling bee that goes 66 rounds in more than four hours and causes the organizers to run out of words? (yahoo.com)
  • There is a reason ESPN broadcasts the National Spelling Bee every year-just as most of us can't dunk a basketball like Lebron James, throw a touchdown pass like Tom Brady or serve a tennis ball like Serena Williams, we also can't hold a candle to some of the pint-size geniuses who can spell words many of us have never even heard of. (rmmagazine.com)
  • Did I spell your name right? (dictionary.com)
  • spell down , to outspell others in a spelling match. (dictionary.com)
  • The variant form 'Ariel' is another name for Jerusalem, and specifically the altar in the Holy Temple (Ezekiel 43:15). (aish.com)
  • The Paris collection offers 13 million names in birth, marriage, and death records from 1700-1907. (ancestry.com)
  • The spelling of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander language group names has been taken from the AIATSIS Thesauri, Pathways . (nla.gov.au)
  • It is essential to consult with the Aboriginal community and obtain its agreement when determining indigenous place names. (sa.gov.au)
  • When assigning or recording a name to a previously unrecorded natural feature, priority will be given to assigning or recording the traditional Aboriginal name for that feature. (sa.gov.au)
  • When assigning or recording a name to a previously unrecorded natural feature that has an unrecorded European name in local usage, every effort will be made to determine if an Aboriginal name exists for that feature and a dual name will be assigned or recorded. (sa.gov.au)
  • If a feature with an assigned or recorded European name is found to have an unrecorded Aboriginal name, the feature will be dual named. (sa.gov.au)
  • Introducing an innovative method of tracing the use of key spelling variants in a corpus of Scots writing, the book discusses the implication of this method for promoting wider literacy in Scots. (oup.com)
  • Oxon Hill, Md. - In his fifth and final National Spelling Bee , Nicholas Rushlow had little reason to be nervous. (csmonitor.com)
  • H Andrews is the author of A Champion's Guide to Success in Spelling Bees: Fundamentals of Spelling Bee Competition and Preparation (ISBN 978-1463689087, ISBN 1-4636-8908-X). I Joint champions were announced after the contestants had exhausted the list of words. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facebook, despite its insistence on users using real names, seems particularly bad at letting people actually use their real names. (techdirt.com)
  • A large part of my family uses a shortened form of our last name because many places, including Facebook, don't think Buckmaster is a real last name. (techdirt.com)
  • Yeah - Facebook won't allow my real name of 'Talks' so had to come up with something else. (techdirt.com)
  • My last name is Player and Facebook still won't let me have that as a last name because it's a "street name. (techdirt.com)
  • The spelling whiskey is common in Ireland and the United States, while whisky is used in all other whisky-producing countries. (rug.nl)
  • Since the 1960s, American writers have increasingly used whiskey as the accepted spelling for aged grain spirits made in the US and whisky for aged grain spirits made outside the US. (rug.nl)
  • Further, the relationship between spelling and morphological awareness seems to be affected by both the developmental level of the child and the phonological structure of the items in the morphological awareness task. (cambridge.org)
  • Alternatively, edit the entire page, copy and paste the content into a word processing document, fix the spelling (being careful not to change any formats in the document, and then paste it back into the wiki. (wikieducator.org)
  • PA and RAN were measured in kindergarten and Grade 1, while word recognition, phonological decoding, and spelling were measured in kindergarten, Grade 1, and Grade 2. (diva-portal.org)
  • Spelling accuracy and time course was investigated in a sample of 100 Norwegian 6th grade students completing a standardized spelling-to-dictation task. (springer.com)
  • Just because grammar and spelling are not always a priority, particularly on social media, does not mean that these grade-school lessons are not still valuable. (rmmagazine.com)
  • Other than the ambiguous term "Chinese cabbage", the most widely used name in North America for the chinensis variety is simply bok choy or siu bok choy (from the Cantonese , literally meaning "small white vegetable" as opposed to dai bok choy meaning "big white vegetable" which refers to the larger Napa cabbage . (wikipedia.org)
  • Confirm that P1 is not in the system (check First Name, Last Name, and AKA). (cdc.gov)
  • My last name Kästner is pronounced [ˈkɛstnɐ] . (cmu.edu)
  • It is a quite common German last name, well known for the author and poet Erich Kästner . (cmu.edu)
  • With the last name 'Dicks', I have to remind people to check their spam folder more often than a Nigerian prince. (techdirt.com)
  • The word Spam is literally in my last name. (techdirt.com)
  • The ancient history of the Bentheim name begins with the ancient Anglo-Saxon tribes of Britain. (houseofnames.com)
  • It may also be related to the name Bilhah, who was the mother of Dan and Naftali, two of the 12 tribes of Israel. (aish.com)
  • The problem was named after an incident in 1996 in which AOL's profanity filter prevented residents of the town of Scunthorpe, North Lincolnshire, England from creating accounts with AOL, because the town's name contains the substring cunt. (techdirt.com)
  • The Social Security website provides a rank of the top 10 most common baby names for males and females. (reference.com)
  • A baby names finder tool is also available. (reference.com)
  • www.momjunction.com/articles/baby- names -inspired-by-colors_00394500/#:~:text=Color%20Baby%20Names%20For%20Boys%3A%201%20Indigo%3A%20Indigo,by%20the%20color%20purple. (yahoo.com)
  • 50 Baby Names That Mean Blue for Girls. (yahoo.com)
  • www.momjunction.com/articles/baby- names -inspired. (yahoo.com)
  • Aug 12, 2020 · Color Baby Names For Boys: 1. (yahoo.com)
  • BabyCenter's first baby names generator! (apple.com)
  • Our baby name creator generates name lists built just for you based on baby names you like…and don't. (apple.com)
  • A swipe lets you quickly vote "yep" or "nope" on each name, providing our app the data needed to offer you more baby names you'll love. (apple.com)
  • If there's another baby names app out there I will try it. (apple.com)
  • Do you prefer popular baby names or unique baby names? (apple.com)
  • Our baby name creator will suggest baby names for you. (apple.com)
  • An easy swipe right or left lets you quickly rate each name, providing our baby name finder the data needed to offer you more baby names you'll like. (apple.com)
  • In Modern Hebrew, as in other languages, it is the name of a flowering bush native to Mexico (spelled 'Dahlia' in English). (aish.com)
  • The results indicated that the better the vocabulary skills, the smaller the number of spelling errors and the better the quality of the written text productions, considering all the analyzed categories. (scielo.br)
  • They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. (familysearch.org)
  • We have a list that was provided by Scripps and we got to the end of that list of words and we had pre-selected words from the dictionary just in case and we got through that list," Mary Olive Thompson, a library outreach manager and co-coordinator of the spelling bee, told GoodMorningAmerica.com . (yahoo.com)
  • When you see a name that's one for your short list, swipe up to save it! (apple.com)
  • Now when you tap on a name in your list, you can see more details on the name and change your rating for it. (apple.com)
  • Many of this distinguished family name Jasmin were prominent in social, cultural, religious and political affairs in France and New France. (houseofnames.com)
  • A Teutonic family name signifies something more than a mere name. (angelfire.com)
  • Changes in Anglo-Saxon names were influenced by the evolution of the English language, as it incorporated elements of French, Latin, and other languages. (houseofnames.com)