Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
A group of muscles attached to the SOFT PALATE (or velum) and the PHARYNX. They include the superior constrictor, the PALATOPHARYNGEUS, the levator veli palatini muscle, and the muscularis uvulae. This sphincter is situated between the oral and nasal cavities. A competent velopharyngeal sphincter is essential for normal speech and swallowing.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
Impairment in the comprehension of speech and meaning of words, both spoken and written, and of the meanings conveyed by their grammatical relationships in sentences. It is caused by lesions that primarily affect Wernicke's area, which lies in the posterior perisylvian region of the temporal lobe of the dominant hemisphere. (From Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p141; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p846)
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.

Interarticulator programming in VCV sequences: lip and tongue movements. (1/422)

This study examined the temporal phasing of tongue and lip movements in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences where the consonant is a bilabial stop consonant /p, b/ and the vowels one of /i, a, u/; only asymmetrical vowel contexts were included in the analysis. Four subjects participated. Articulatory movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. The onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel almost always occurred before the oral closure. Most of the tongue movement trajectory from the first to the second vowel took place during the oral closure for the stop. For all subjects, the onset of the tongue movement occurred earlier with respect to the onset of the lip closing movement as the tongue movement trajectory increased. The influence of consonant voicing and vowel context on interarticulator timing and tongue movement kinematics varied across subjects. Overall, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that there is a temporal window before the oral closure for the stop during which the tongue movement can start. A very early onset of the tongue movement relative to the stop closure together with an extensive movement before the closure would most likely produce an extra vowel sound before the closure.  (+info)

Training Japanese listeners to identify English /r/ and /l/: long-term retention of learning in perception and production. (2/422)

Previous work from our laboratories has shown that monolingual Japanese adults who were given intensive high-variability perceptual training improved in both perception and production of English /r/-/l/ minimal pairs. In this study, we extended those findings by investigating the long-term retention of learning in both perception and production of this difficult non-native contrast. Results showed that 3 months after completion of the perceptual training procedure, the Japanese trainees maintained their improved levels of performance of the perceptual identification task. Furthermore, perceptual evaluations by native American English listeners of the Japanese trainees' pretest, posttest, and 3-month follow-up speech productions showed that the trainees retained their long-term improvements in the general quality, identifiability, and overall intelligibility of their English/r/-/l/ word productions. Taken together, the results provide further support for the efficacy of high-variability laboratory speech sound training procedures, and suggest an optimistic outlook for the application of such procedures for a wide range of "special populations."  (+info)

Interarticulator phasing, locus equations, and degree of coarticulation. (3/422)

A locus equation plots the frequency of the second formant at vowel onset against the target frequency of the same formant for the vowel in a consonant-vowel sequence, across different vowel contexts. It has generally been assumed that the slope of the locus equation reflects the degree of coarticulation between the consonant and the vowel, with a steeper slope showing more coarticulation. This study examined the articulatory basis for this assumption. Four subjects participated and produced VCV sequences of the consonants /b, d, g/ and the vowels /i, a, u/. The movements of the tongue and the lips were recorded using a magnetometer system. One articulatory measure was the temporal phasing between the onset of the lip closing movement for the bilabial consonant and the onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel in a VCV sequence. A second measure was the magnitude of the tongue movement during the oral stop closure, averaged across four receivers on the tongue. A third measure was the magnitude of the tongue movement from the onset of the second vowel to the tongue position for that vowel. When compared with the corresponding locus equations, no measure showed any support for the assumption that the slope serves as an index of the degree of coarticulation between the consonant and the vowel.  (+info)

The physiologic development of speech motor control: lip and jaw coordination. (4/422)

This investigation was designed to describe the development of lip and jaw coordination during speech and to evaluate the potential influence of speech motor development on phonologic development. Productions of syllables containing bilabial consonants were observed from speakers in four age groups (i.e., 1-year-olds, 2-year-olds, 6-year-olds, and young adults). A video-based movement tracking system was used to transduce movement of the upper lip, lower lip, and jaw. The coordinative organization of these articulatory gestures was shown to change dramatically during the first several years of life and to continue to undergo refinement past age 6. The present results are consistent with three primary phases in the development of lip and jaw coordination for speech: integration, differentiation, and refinement. Each of these developmental processes entails the existence of distinct coordinative constraints on early articulatory movement. It is suggested that these constraints will have predictable consequences for the sequence of phonologic development.  (+info)

Phonological grouping is specifically affected in cerebellar patients: a verbal fluency study. (5/422)

OBJECTIVES: Recent clinical and functional neuroimaging evidence points towards a cerebellar role in verbal production. At present it is not clear how the cerebellum participates in language production. The aim was to investigate the influence of cerebellar lesions on verbal fluency abilities with specific focus on the verbal searching strategies employed by patients with cerebellar damage. METHODS: Twenty five patients with focal or degenerative cerebellar disease and 14 control subjects were tested in a timed verbal fluency task requiring word production under forced (phonemic or semantic) conditions. To analyse the verbal searching strategy employed, semantic and phonemic cluster analyses were also performed. RESULTS: Performances of cerebellar patients were comparable with those of controls in the semantic task; conversely their performances were significantly impaired when tested in the letter task. Cluster analysis results showed that the verbal fluency impairment is linked to specific damage of phonemically related retrieval strategies. CONCLUSION: Cerebellar damage impairs verbal fluency by specifically affecting phonemic rule performances while sparing semantic rule ones. These findings underline the importance of the cerebellar computing properties in strategy development in the linguistic domain.  (+info)

Modeling and perception of 'gesture reduction'. (6/422)

The phenomenon of vowel reduction is investigated by modeling 'gesture reduction' with the use of the Distinctive Region Model (DRM). First, a definition is proposed for the term gesture, i.e. an acoustically efficient command aimed at deforming, in the time domain, the area function of the vocal tract. Second, tests are reported on the perception of vowel-to-vowel transitions obtained with reduced gestures. These tests show that a dual representation of formant transitions is required to explain the reduction phenomenon: the trajectory in the F(1)-F(2) plane and the time course of the formant changes. The results also suggest that time-domain integration of the trajectories constitutes an integral part of the auditory processing of transitions. Perceptual results are also discussed in terms of the acoustic traces of DRM gestures.  (+info)

The influence of phonological similarity neighborhoods on speech production. (7/422)

The influence of phonological similarity neighborhoods on the speed and accuracy of speech production was investigated with speech-error elicitation and picture-naming tasks. The results from 2 speech-error elicitation techniques-the spoonerisms of laboratory induced predisposition technique (B. J. Baars, 1992; B. J. Baars & M. T. Motley, 1974; M. T. Motley & B. J. Baars, 1976) and tongue twisters-showed that more errors were elicited for words with few similar sounding words (i.e., a sparse neighborhood) than for words with many similar sounding words (i.e., a dense neighborhood). The results from 3 picture-naming tasks showed that words with sparse neighborhoods were also named more slowly than words with dense neighborhoods. These findings demonstrate that multiple word forms are activated simultaneously and influence the speed and accuracy of speech production. The implications of these findings for current models of speech production are discussed.  (+info)

Central bottleneck influences on the processing stages of word production. (8/422)

Does producing a word slow performance of a concurrent, unrelated task? In 2 experiments, 108 participants named pictures and discriminated tones. In Experiment 1, pictures were named after cloze sentences; the durations of the word-production stages of lemma and phonological word-form selection were manipulated with high- and low-constraint cloze sentences and high- and low-frequency-name pictures, respectively. In Experiment 2, pictures were presented with simultaneous distractor words; the durations of lemma and phoneme selection were manipulated with conceptually and phonologically related distractors. All manipulations, except the phoneme-selection manipulation, delayed tone-discrimination responses as much as picture-naming responses. These results suggest that early word-production stages--lemma and phonological word-form selection--are subject to a central processing bottleneck, whereas the later stage--phoneme selection--is not.  (+info)

1. Articulation Disorders: Difficulty articulating sounds or words due to poor pronunciation, misplaced sounds, or distortion of sounds.
2. Stuttering: A disorder characterized by the repetition or prolongation of sounds, syllables, or words, as well as the interruption or blocking of speech.
3. Voice Disorders: Abnormalities in voice quality, pitch, or volume due to overuse, misuse, or structural changes in the vocal cords.
4. Language Disorders: Difficulty with understanding, using, or interpreting spoken language, including grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure.
5. Apraxia of Speech: A neurological disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute voluntary movements of the articulatory organs for speech production.
6. Dysarthria: A condition characterized by slurred or distorted speech due to weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the articulatory muscles.
7. Cerebral Palsy: A group of disorders that affect movement, balance, and posture, often including speech and language difficulties.
8. Aphasia: A condition that results from brain damage and affects an individual's ability to understand, speak, read, and write language.
9. Dyslexia: A learning disorder that affects an individual's ability to read and spell words correctly.
10. Hearing Loss: Loss of hearing in one or both ears can impact speech development and language acquisition.

Speech disorders can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) through a comprehensive evaluation, including speech and language samples, medical history, and behavioral observations. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disorder and may include therapy exercises, technology assistance, and counseling. With appropriate support and intervention, individuals with speech disorders can improve their communication skills and lead fulfilling lives.

Broca's aphasia is characterized by difficulty speaking in complete sentences, using correct grammar, and articulating words clearly. Individuals with Broca's aphasia may also experience difficulty understanding spoken language, although comprehension of written language may be relatively preserved.

Common symptoms of Broca's aphasia include:

1. Difficulty speaking in complete sentences or using correct grammar.
2. Slurred or slow speech.
3. Difficulty articulating words clearly.
4. Difficulty understanding spoken language.
5. Preservation of comprehension of written language.
6. Word-finding difficulties.
7. Difficulty with naming objects.
8. Difficulty with sentence construction.

Broca's aphasia is often caused by damage to the brain due to stroke, traumatic brain injury, or neurodegenerative diseases such as primary progressive aphasia. Treatment for Broca's aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy to improve communication skills and cognitive rehabilitation to improve language processing abilities.

Stuttering can be classified into three main types:

1. Developmental stuttering: This type of stuttering usually begins in childhood and may persist throughout life. It is more common in boys than girls.
2. Neurogenic stuttering: This type of stuttering is caused by a brain injury or a neurological disorder such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, or cerebral palsy.
3. Psychogenic stuttering: This type of stuttering is caused by psychological factors such as anxiety, stress, or trauma.

The exact cause of stuttering is not fully understood, but research suggests that it may be related to differences in brain structure and function, particularly in areas responsible for language processing and speech production. There are several theories about the underlying mechanisms of stuttering, including:

1. Neurophysiological theory: This theory proposes that stuttering is caused by irregularities in the timing and coordination of neural activity in the brain.
2. Speech motor theory: This theory suggests that stuttering is caused by difficulties with speech articulation and the coordination of speech movements.
3. Auditory feedback theory: This theory proposes that stuttering is caused by a disruption in the normal auditory feedback loop, leading to an over-reliance on visual feedback for speech production.

There are several treatments available for stuttering, including:

1. Speech therapy: This type of therapy can help individuals with stuttering improve their speaking skills and reduce their stuttering severity. Techniques used in speech therapy may include slowing down speech, using relaxation techniques, and practicing fluency-enhancing strategies such as easy onset and smooth flow.
2. Stuttering modification therapy: This type of therapy focuses on teaching individuals with stuttering to speak more slowly and smoothly, while reducing the occurrence of stuttering.
3. Fluency shaping therapy: This type of therapy aims to improve fluency by teaching individuals to speak more slowly and smoothly, using techniques such as gentle onset and gradual release of sounds.
4. Electronic devices: There are several electronic devices available that can help reduce stuttering, such as speech-output devices that speak for the individual, or devices that provide auditory feedback to help individuals speak more fluently.
5. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be recommended to treat stuttering. For example, surgery may be used to correct physical abnormalities in the brain or speech mechanisms that are contributing to the stuttering.

It is important to note that no single treatment is effective for everyone who stutters, and the most effective treatment approach will depend on the individual's specific needs and circumstances. A healthcare professional, such as a speech-language pathologist, should be consulted to determine the best course of treatment for each individual.

Dysarthria can affect both children and adults, and the symptoms can vary in severity depending on the underlying cause of the condition. Some common symptoms of dysarthria include:

* Slurred or slow speech
* Difficulty articulating words
* Poor enunciation
* Stuttering or hesitation while speaking
* Difficulty with word-finding and language processing
* Limited range of speech sounds
* Difficulty with loudness and volume control

Dysarthria can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), who will typically conduct a comprehensive evaluation of the individual's speech and language abilities. This may include a series of tests to assess the individual's articulation, fluency, voice quality, and other aspects of their speech.

There are several types of dysarthria, including:

* Hypokinetic dysarthria: characterized by reduced muscle tone and slow movement of the articulatory organs, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
* Hyperkinetic dysarthria: characterized by increased muscle tone and rapid movement of the articulatory organs, resulting in fast but imprecise speech.
* Mixed dysarthria: a combination of hypokinetic and hyperkinetic features.
* Dystonic dysarthria: characterized by involuntary movements and postures of the tongue and lips, resulting in distorted speech.

Treatment for dysarthria typically involves speech therapy with an SLP, who will work with the individual to improve their speech clarity, fluency, and overall communication skills. Treatment may include exercises to strengthen the muscles used in speech production, as well as strategies to improve articulation, pronunciation, and language processing. In some cases, technology such as speech-generating devices may be used to support communication.

In addition to speech therapy, treatment for dysarthria may also involve other healthcare professionals, such as neurologists, physical therapists, or occupational therapists, depending on the underlying cause of the condition.

Overall, dysarthria is a speech disorder that can significantly impact an individual's ability to communicate effectively. However, with the right treatment and support from healthcare professionals and SLPs, many people with dysarthria are able to improve their communication skills and lead fulfilling lives.

Articulation disorders can be classified into different types based on the severity and nature of the speech difficulties. Some common types of articulation disorders include:

1. Articulation errors: These occur when individuals produce speech sounds differently than the expected norm, such as pronouncing "k" and "s" sounds as "t" or "z."
2. Speech sound distortions: This type of disorder involves the exaggeration or alteration of speech sounds, such as speaking with a lisp or a nasal tone.
3. Speech articulation anomalies: These are abnormalities in the production of speech sounds that do not fit into any specific category, such as difficulty pronouncing certain words or sounds.
4. Apraxia of speech: This is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to plan and execute voluntary movements of the articulators (lips, tongue, jaw), resulting in distorted or slurred speech.
5. Dysarthria: This is a speech disorder characterized by weakness, slowness, or incoordination of the muscles used for speaking, often caused by a neurological condition such as a stroke or cerebral palsy.

Articulation disorders can be diagnosed by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) through a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's speech and language skills. The SLP may use standardized assessments, clinical observations, and interviews with the individual and their family to determine the nature and severity of the articulation disorder.

Treatment for articulation disorders typically involves speech therapy with an SLP, who will work with the individual to improve their speech skills through a series of exercises and activities tailored to their specific needs. Treatment may focus on improving the accuracy and clarity of speech sounds, increasing speech rate and fluency, and enhancing communication skills.

In addition to speech therapy, other interventions that may be helpful for individuals with articulation disorders include:

1. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems: For individuals with severe articulation disorders or those who have difficulty using speech to communicate, AAC systems such as picture communication symbols or electronic devices can provide an alternative means of communication.
2. Supportive technology: Assistive devices such as speech-generating devices, text-to-speech software, and other technology can help individuals with articulation disorders to communicate more effectively.
3. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT): This type of therapy focuses on improving the communication skills of young children with articulation disorders by training parents to use play-based activities and strategies to enhance their child's speech and language development.
4. Social skills training: For individuals with articulation disorders who also have difficulty with social interactions, social skills training can help them develop better communication and social skills.
5. Cognitive communication therapy: This type of therapy focuses on improving the cognitive processes that underlie communication, such as attention, memory, and problem-solving skills.
6. Articulation therapy: This type of therapy focuses specifically on improving articulation skills, and may involve exercises and activities to strengthen the muscles used for speech production.
7. Stuttering modification therapy: For individuals who stutter, this type of therapy can help them learn to speak more fluently and with less effort.
8. Voice therapy: This type of therapy can help individuals with voice disorders to improve their vocal quality and communication skills.
9. Counseling and psychotherapy: For individuals with articulation disorders who are experiencing emotional or psychological distress, counseling and psychotherapy can be helpful in addressing these issues and improving overall well-being.

It's important to note that the most effective treatment approach will depend on the specific needs and goals of the individual with an articulation disorder, as well as their age, severity of symptoms, and other factors. A speech-language pathologist can work with the individual and their family to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their unique needs and helps them achieve their communication goals.

There are several types of deafness, including:

1. Conductive hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by problems with the middle ear, including the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear. It can be treated with hearing aids or surgery.
2. Sensorineural hearing loss: This type of deafness is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory nerve. It is typically permanent and cannot be treated with medication or surgery.
3. Mixed hearing loss: This type of deafness is a combination of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss.
4. Auditory processing disorder (APD): This is a condition in which the brain has difficulty processing sounds, even though the ears are functioning normally.
5. Tinnitus: This is a condition characterized by ringing or other sounds in the ears when there is no external source of sound. It can be a symptom of deafness or a separate condition.

There are several ways to diagnose deafness, including:

1. Hearing tests: These can be done in a doctor's office or at a hearing aid center. They involve listening to sounds through headphones and responding to them.
2. Imaging tests: These can include X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans to look for any physical abnormalities in the ear or brain.
3. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) testing: This is a test that measures the electrical activity of the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.
4. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) testing: This is a test that measures the sounds produced by the inner ear in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children.

There are several ways to treat deafness, including:

1. Hearing aids: These are devices that amplify sound and can be worn in or behind the ear. They can help improve hearing for people with mild to severe hearing loss.
2. Cochlear implants: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can bypass damaged hair cells to directly stimulate the auditory nerve. They can help restore hearing for people with severe to profound hearing loss.
3. Speech therapy: This can help people with hearing loss improve their communication skills, such as speaking and listening.
4. Assistive technology: This can include devices such as captioned phones, alerting systems, and assistive listening devices that can help people with hearing loss communicate more effectively.
5. Medications: There are several medications available that can help treat deafness, such as antibiotics for bacterial infections or steroids to reduce inflammation.
6. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat deafness, such as when there is a blockage in the ear or when a tumor is present.
7. Stem cell therapy: This is a relatively new area of research that involves using stem cells to repair damaged hair cells in the inner ear. It has shown promising results in some studies.
8. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to repair or replace damaged or missing genes that can cause deafness. It is still an experimental area of research, but it has shown promise in some studies.
9. Implantable devices: These are devices that are implanted in the inner ear and can help restore hearing by bypassing damaged hair cells. Examples include cochlear implants and auditory brainstem implants.
10. Binaural hearing: This involves using a combination of hearing aids and technology to improve hearing in both ears, which can help improve speech recognition and reduce the risk of falls.

It's important to note that the best treatment for deafness will depend on the underlying cause of the condition, as well as the individual's age, overall health, and personal preferences. It's important to work with a healthcare professional to determine the best course of treatment.

There are several types of aphasia, including:

1. Broca's aphasia: Characterized by difficulty speaking in complete sentences and using correct grammar.
2. Wernicke's aphasia: Characterized by difficulty understanding spoken language and speaking in complete sentences.
3. Global aphasia: Characterized by a severe impairment of all language abilities.
4. Primary progressive aphasia: A rare form of aphasia that is caused by neurodegeneration and worsens over time.

Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which can help individuals with aphasia improve their communication skills and regain some of their language abilities. Other forms of therapy, such as cognitive training and physical therapy, may also be helpful.

It's important to note that while aphasia can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, it does not affect their intelligence or cognitive abilities. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with aphasia can continue to lead fulfilling lives and communicate effectively with others.

The main features of Wernicke's aphasia include:

1. Difficulty comprehending spoken language: Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia may have difficulty understanding the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences when spoken to them. They may also struggle to follow conversations or understand complex sentences.
2. Impaired speech production: People with Wernicke's aphasia may experience difficulty speaking in complete sentences or using correct grammar. Their speech may be slow, halting, or contain made-up words (neologisms). They may also have trouble initiating conversations or responding to questions.
3. Preservation of literacy skills: In contrast to other types of aphasia, individuals with Wernicke's aphasia typically retain their ability to read and write, as these skills are mediated by different areas of the brain.
4. Right hemisphere involvement: Wernicke's aphasia is often associated with damage to the right hemisphere of the brain, particularly in the area known as the anterior superior temporal gyrus (Tanenhaus et al., 2010). This can lead to difficulties with speech production and comprehension, as well as other cognitive and behavioral changes.
5. Sensory deficits: Some individuals with Wernicke's aphasia may also experience sensory deficits, such as difficulty with hearing or vision (Kertesz, 1994).

Wernicke's aphasia is often seen in individuals who have suffered a stroke or other brain injury, particularly in the left hemisphere of the brain. It is important for clinicians to recognize and diagnose Wernicke's aphasia accurately, as it can help guide treatment and rehabilitation efforts.


Kertesz, A. (1994). Wernicke's aphasia: A review of the clinical and neuroanatomical features. Cortex, 30(2), 267-285.

Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey, M. J., Eberhard, K. M., & Sedivy, J. C. (1999). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 283(5408), 1323-1326.

Tanenhaus, M. K., Bienkowski, M., & Levitan, C. A. (2010). Language and the brain: Anatomical and functional bases of Wernicke's aphasia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1204, 235-257.

The significance and measurement of head position during speech production experiments using the x-ray microbeam system. ... X-ray Microbeam Speech Production Database User's Handbook, 4-7.University of Wisconsin. The Electromagnetic Articulograph (EMA ... n.p.. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. n.d.. Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS). Web: American Speech- ... The coils are about 3mm in size and are not considered to be a particularly large source of error for measurements. Some ...
The nature of the representations assembled during speech production are investigated experimentally, including measurement of ... researchers to replicate MRI images of actual speakers and has been used to study the relation between speech production and ... The theoretical approach is incorporated in a computational model that generates speech from a gesturally-specified lexicon. ... Speech perception researchers, Brandeis University alumni, University of California, Los Angeles alumni, Yale University ...
S.E. Blumstein; K.N. Stevens (1979). ""Acoustic invariance in speech production: Evidence from measurements of the spectral ... Stevens is best known for his contributions to the fields of Phonology, speech perception, and speech production. Stevens' most ... "The Speech Chain" by Denes P. and Pinson E., where one is given a broad overview of the production and transmission of speech. ... and evidence from real speech can also help refine the original model, and give better insight to the production of speech ...
2009) on the basis of modeling speech production, speech perception, as well as speech acquisition. Moreover, fMRI measurements ... Phonetotopy within a neurocomputational model of speech production and speech acquisition. In: Fuchs S, Loevenbruck H, Pape D, ... It is assumed that a phonetotopic ordering of speech sounds as well as of syllables can be found at a supramodal speech ... Phonetotopy is the concept that articulatory features as well as perceptual features of speech sounds are ordered in the brain ...
Oral fluency or speaking fluency is a measurement both of production and reception of speech, as a fluent speaker must be able ... Pre-production OR Silent/receptive Early production Speech emergence Intermediate fluency Advanced fluency. The process of ... Both disorders have breaks in the fluidity of speech, and both have the fluency breakdown of repetition of parts of speech. ... Linguistics Phonics Precision teaching Speech and language pathology Speech disfluencies Synthetic phonics Eye movement in ...
His other research interests included experimental phonetics, the production and perception of speech, laryngeal control in ... Lisker, L.; Abramson, A.S. (1964). "A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: Acoustical measurements". Word. 20 (3 ... Abramson, A.S. (1962) The Vowels and Tones of Standard Thai: Acoustical Measurements and Experiments. Bloomington: Indiana U. ... Arthur Seymour Abramson (January 26, 1925 - December 15, 2017) was an American linguist, phonetician, and speech scientist. ...
Insights into the cognitive architecture of speech production". Cognition. 149: 31-39. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2016.01.002. PMC ... Morgan Sonderegger and Joseph Keshet, Automatic Measurement of Voice Onset Time using Discriminative Structured Prediction, ... His work on speech and language concentrates on speech processing, speech recognition, acoustic phonetics, and pathological ... Joseph Keshet, Automatic speech recognition: A primer for speech-language pathology researchers, International Journal of ...
This view of voiced speech production is often referred to as the source-filter model. A technique for obtaining an estimate of ... and scientific measurements. For example, with a filter g, an inverse filter h is one such that the sequence of applying g then ... In all proposed models for the production of human speech, an important variable is the waveform of the airflow, or volume ... little speech distortion, and a response time of under approximately 1/2 ms. A pneumotachograph having these properties was ...
Such measurements are rarely used in production switching systems, in particular due to the necessity of voice samples at both ... Another, more sophisticated way of measuring the call quality is Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ). ...
Tatham, Mark; Morton, Katherine (2006), "Speech Perception: Production for Perception", Speech Production and Perception, ... When the tongue moved to begin pronunciation and touched the palate, the measurement of reaction time began. The experiment ... functional reality consists only of intent to reproduce speech, active listening and production of speech. Speech perception ... During a shadowing task, the process of perceiving speech and a subsequent response by the production of speech does not occur ...
Koenig, L.L; Lucero, J.C.; Perlman, E. (2008). "Speech production variability in fricatives of children and adults: Results of ... Löfqvist, A.; Koenig, L. L.; McGowan, R. S. (1995). "Vocal tract aerodynamics in /aCa/ utterances: Measurements". Speech ... Koenig, L. L. (2000). "Laryngeal factors in voiceless consonant production in men, women, and 5-year-olds". Journal of Speech, ... and on the development of speech production in children. Web of Science reports 20 papers in peer-reviewed journals, with over ...
Objective measurement of vocal fatigue in classical singers: a vocal dosimetry pilot study. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006 ... Titze, I.R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3. Titze IR et al. Populations in the U ... Effects of an extended version of the Lee Silverman Voice Treatment on voice and speech in Parkinson's disease. Am J Speech ... J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2007 Aug;50(4):899-912. PMID 17675595. Spielman JL et al. The effects of intensive voice treatment on ...
Newman, D. "The Physiology of Speech Production" (PDF). Retrieved 31 March 2012. Heman-Ackah, Yolanda D. (2005). "Physiology of ... Thurlbeck, W. M. (1967). "Internal surface area and other measurements in emphysema". Thorax. 22 (6): 483-96. doi:10.1136/thx. ... Phonic respiration (speech generation) is a type of controlled expiration that is used every day. Speech generation is ... Exhaled air is 4% carbon dioxide, a waste product of cellular respiration during the production of energy, which is stored as ...
Contemporary standards for measurement of loudness are based on the summation of energy in critical bands. When sensorineural ... Relative loudness monitoring in production is measured in accordance with ITU-R BS.1770 in units of LKFS. Work began on ITU-R ... A-weighting follows human sensitivity to sound and describes relative perceived loudness for at quiet to moderate speech levels ... The ITU-R BS.1770 measurement system was improved for made multi-channel applications (monaural to 5.1 surround sound). To make ...
Spatial planning and movement, speech production, and complex motor movements are all aspects of action. Consciousness is the ... Lewandowski & Strohmetz (2009) reviewed a collection of innovative uses of behavioral measurement in psychology including ... ranging from speech production to auditory processing and visual perception. It has made progress in understanding how damage ... In any event, if speech is indeed governed by rules, they appear to be opaque to any conscious consideration. Learning and ...
188), ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3. Baken, R. J. (1987). Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice. London: Taylor and Francis Ltd. ( ... Titze, I.R. (1994). Principles of Voice Production, Prentice Hall (currently published by (pp. ... The voiced speech of a typical adult male will have a fundamental frequency from 85 to 180 Hz (10,200 to 21,000 movements per ...
Speech Communication, 41, 303-329. Fant, C. Gunnar M. (1960). Acoustic theory of speech production. The Hague, Mouton. Gariel, ... Engwall, O. (2003). Combining MRI, EMA & EPG measurements in a three-dimensional tongue model. ... In W. J. Hardcastle and A. Marchal (Eds.), Speech Production and Speech Modelling, Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 131-149. Matsui ... Proceedings of the 1st ESCA Tutorial and Research Workshop on Speech Producing Modeling - 4th Speech Production Seminar, 125- ...
Stuart, A; Kalinowski, J (2015). "Effect of Delayed Auditory Feedback, Speech Rate, and Sex on Speech Production". Perceptual ... ISBN 978-0-89859-131-6. Orlikoff, R. F.; Baken, R. J. (2000). Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice. Singular. p. 109. ISBN ... Hashimoto, Y; Kuniyoshi, SL (2003). "Brain activations during conscious self-monitoring of speech production with delayed ... experiments in order to demonstrate the importance of auditory feedback in speech perception as well as in speech production. ...
Basically, a normal, relaxed way of speech is the optimal method for voice production, in both speech and singing. Any excess ... Objective evaluation or measurement of vocal loading is very difficult due to the tight coupling of the experienced ... These changes in pressure form the waves called (voiced) speech. The fundamental frequency of speech for an average male is ... Voiced speech is produced by air streaming from the lungs through the vocal cords, setting them into an oscillating movement. ...
Speech is a major area of study for acoustical engineering, including the production, processing and perception of speech. This ... including measurement, analysis and control. This might include: ground vibrations from railways and construction; vibration ... Speech recognition and speech synthesis are two important aspects of the machine processing of speech. Ensuring speech is ... Speech Communication Technical Committee. "Speech Communication". Acoustical Society of America. Retrieved 22 May 2013. ...
During production, the crew visited Rio de Janeiro and also consulted with an expert on macaws at the Bronx Zoo to study their ... Jemaine Clement was approached to do the film after seeing test shots of his character Nigel doing a speech from Flight of the ... Saldanha showed the animators maps and books with geographic landmarks and measurements, from which they built a digital ... Production Document Fisher, Jacob (October 25, 2019). "Ice Age and Rio spinoffs in early development for Disney+". Discussing ...
Much of his research is considered to be authoritative, and his books, Speech and Hearing and Speech and Hearing in ... In 1924 he was awarded the Louis E. Levy Medal by the Franklin Institute for physical measurements of audition. He was ... Some of his other accomplishments include the production of the first functional hearing aid, the 2-A audiometer, and the ... Fletcher's contributions to of speech perception are among his best-known work. He showed that speech features are usually ...
Acousticians study the production, processing and perception of speech. Speech recognition and Speech synthesis are two ... Experimental measurements of the speed of sound in air were carried out successfully between 1630 and 1680 by a number of ... It typically involves the study of speech intelligibility, speech privacy, music quality, and vibration reduction in the built ... Sound measurement and analysis reached new levels of accuracy and sophistication through the use of electronics and computing. ...
In 1970, production effectively peaked in the United States. In June 2006, former U.S. president Bill Clinton said in a speech ... focuses on creating a more sound measurement of and index, building off of Colgan and Weeks indices respectfully. Hendrix ... Dick Cheney's speech at the IP Autumn lunch (Speech). Institute of Petroleum. 1999. Archived from the original on 14 April 2000 ... Estimates of Venezuelan oil production vary. Venezuela claims its oil production is over 3 million barrels per day (480,000 m3/ ...
Although most smartphone sound measurement apps are not accurate enough to be used for legally required measurements, the NIOSH ... speech intelligibility, security from acoustic detection and recognition, and community annoyance. It covers tests for steady- ... describes procedures for measuring the sound levels transmitted through air of developmental and production materiel as a means ... measurement capabilities. Measurements can be done using the integrated impulse response or interrupted noise methods. Such ...
normal singing - acoustical measurements and explanation Scientific American: The Throat Singers of Tuva Types of Throat ... While overtone techniques are not a defining feature of yoik, individuals sometimes utilize overtones in the production of yoik ... ISBN 978-0-13-717893-3 Reprinted Iowa City: National Center for Voice and Speech, 2000. ( ISBN 978-0-87414-122-1 . ... Principles of Voice Production. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ...
... was a German physiologist and speech scientist who used the Edison phonograph to test theories of vowel production, ... Most of these problems depended for their solution on the accurate measurement of physical quantities." Hermann is probably ... In his analysis of voice and speech, he made use of photographic registration and magnification of the surface features of a ... phonograph record's grooves to visually display the sounds of speech. Through his work, he determined that the passage of air ...
... a language disability affecting the comprehension and production of speech as well as reading and writing abilities). A ... or direct measurement of intracranial pressure through invasive techniques such as lumbar puncture. Further, the spasticity ... leading to muscle stiffness which can interfere with normal movement and speech. In three of the major phenotypes (except HSAS ... the ability to understand speech but otherwise having very limited communication skills; the ability to learn daily routines ...
Lise Menn proposes that there are five levels of processing in speech production, each with its own possible error that could ... This is a commonly applied measurement of syntax for first and second language learners, with samples gathered from both ... The following are examples of errors in English speaking children's productions. "I goed" "He runned" In an elicited production ... Dysarthria is a defect in the neuromuscular connection that involves speech movement. The speech organs involved can be ...
Ward, EC; Hancock K; Lawson N; van As-Brooks CJ (2011). "Perceptual characteristics of tracheoesophageal speech production ... Kress, P; Schafer P; Schwerdtfeger FP; Roesler S (2007). "Measurement and comparison of in vitro air-flow characteristics of ... "Speech smples". Retrieved 2017-03-11. Balle, VH; Rindso L; Thomsen JC (2000). "Primary speech restoration at laryngectomy by ... It is recommended that the patient cleans the voice prosthesis regularly to keeps it open for speech and improve the device ...
... which combined production facilities. Serial production of computers was carried out at the Kazan Computer Plant, the Baku ... Optical character recognition and text-to-speech systems The Institute of Mathematical Machines in Yerevan was founded on the ... Measurement and control system for various utility distribution networks, such as electrical, natural gas, water, and thermal ... By the beginning of the 1990s, the staff of the institute, taking into account the pilot production, reached 7,000 people. For ...
However, the measurements had been made under duress during a protest occupation of the platform, since Shell had refused ... Acknowledging that mass production of palm oil may be disastrous on biodiversity of forests, Greenpeace is actively campaigning ... "Clearcutting Free Speech". Greenpeace USA. Archived from the original on 28 February 2020. Retrieved 6 May 2020. Georgina ... One of the positive results of the campaign was GAR (Golden Agri-Resources), the world's second largest palm oil production ...
The protective measurements for small-scale banana farmers mirrored former colonial relationships, as for the United Kingdom ... State visit to Morocco - Speech by M. Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic (excerpts) Archived 2014-04-05 at the Wayback ... should endeavor to speed up and increase the production of scarce material - OEEC 1951 The Hague Congress (1948) laid the ...
In speech, RoHS is often spelled out, or pronounced[citation needed] /rɒs/, /rɒʃ/, /roʊz/, or /ˈroʊhɒz/, and refers to the EU ... "IBM launches production of lead-free packaging technology". Archived from the original on 12 October 2008. Retrieved 5 March ... There are a number of analytical techniques for the rapid measurement of BFR concentrations. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy ... Not being able to show compliance in sufficiently detailed files, and not ensuring it is implemented in production is now a ...
Major TV manufacturers have announced production of Smart TVs only, for their middle-end to high-end TVs in 2015. Smart TVs ... and even for speech recognition for natural language user interface. Smart TV develops new features to satisfy consumers and ... and audience measurement solutions for ad campaign effectiveness. The marketing and trading possibilities offered by Smart TVs ...
A 400,000-year-old hyoid bone (which supports the tongue and thus humanlike speech production) from Castel di Guido, Italy, ... This maximum measurement is similar to that of H. erectus from Sangiran and longer than the Sima de los Huesos (SH) hominins ( ... which is associated with speech production in modern humans), but in 2004 he admitted "this was pure speculation." Evidence ... possible implications for the origin of the human capability for speech". Collegium Anthropologicum. 32 (4): 1007-1011. PMID ...
The concept of the "Internet of things" and the term itself, first appeared in a speech by Peter T. Lewis, to the Congressional ... Measurements, automated controls, plant optimization, health and safety management, and other functions are provided by ... "World Economic Forum: The Next Economic Growth Engine - Scaling Fourth Industrial Revolution Technologies in Production" (PDF ... IoT can also be applied to asset management via predictive maintenance, statistical evaluation, and measurements to maximize ...
In 1934, Burns wrote Production Trends in the United States Since 1870 his first major publication in the field. Often, he ... Beginning in 1933, the academic part of Burns's career focused on the measurement of business cycles, including questions such ... Burns, Arthur F. Reflections of an Economic Policy Maker: Speeches and Congressional Statements: 1969-1978 (AEI Studies no. 217 ... he advocated-both in his speeches and his policies-for thrift and fiscal responsibility. Burns, Arthur Frank; Mitchell, Wesley ...
In vernacular speech, the bow is occasionally called a fiddlestick. Bows for particular instruments are often designated as ... Mastering New Materials: Commissioning an Amber Bow, no.65 Production of a carbon fiber bow Archived 2012-11-17 at the Wayback ... A Methodology for Investigation of Bowed String Performance Through Measurement of Violin Bowing Technique. PhD Thesis. M.I.T ... Baroque music today: music as speech. Amadeus Press, c. 1988. Saint-George, Henry (1866-1917). The Bow (London, 1896; 2: 1909 ...
It was not a big step from this notion of "reified speech-act" to that "of the speech-act being looked at implicitly and ... Those who eat meat seek Jhatka (quick death) method of meat production, and dislike Halal (slow bled death) method, believing ... ISBN 978-0-300-06217-5. B. Richmond (1956). Time Measurement and Calendar Construction. Brill Archive. pp. 80-82. Retrieved 18 ... Brass, Paul R. (1 May 2011). The Production of Hindu-Muslim Violence in Contemporary India. University of Washington Press. ...
... cocoa cultivators tripled their production to 312,000 tonnes and coffee production rose by nearly 50%, from 185,500 to 275,000 ... Speech Delivered by Mister Houphouet-Boigny, Minister of State at the Geo-Andre Stadium in Abidjan on 7 September 1958 (in ... according to the Institute for the Measurement of Worth. Nandjui, p. 91. Nandjui, p. 45. Nandjui, p. 130. Segal, p. 287. ... Even the production of the offshore oil drilling and petrochemical industries, developed to supply the Caistab, was affected by ...
In particular, the noun had to be at the beginning and the verb had to be at the end of the production, or else the trainer ... They write: "We now know that someone who comprehends speech must know language, even if he or she cannot produce it." David ... suggesting a similar process for the cognition of measurement of conservation of liquid and solid, between ape and human. Sarah ... Human children were then tested with the same protocols, using speech. Young children passed the tests on number, but failed on ...
Clinical measurement of speech and voice. Boston: College Hill Press, 1987. Rothenberg, M. A Multichannel Electroglottograph, ... device used for the noninvasive measurement of the degree of contact between the vibrating vocal folds during voice production ... Rothenberg, M; Mahshie, JJ (1988). "Monitoring vocal fold abduction through vocal fold contact area" (PDF). J Speech Hear Res. ... and providing a quantitative measure of vertical movements of the larynx during voice production. Electroglottograph signals ...
Although their production was marked by government regulations and prohibitions, the production of this type of works continued ... Characterized by naturalism and the use of reason in measurements and proportions, and with an aesthetic sense inspired by ... or Jusepe Martínez's Practicable speeches. In this context, the nude human figure is only found in the religious sphere, ... Some of his works among his extensive production are: Nude young woman with her arms on her chest (1910), Nude lying down with ...
Before the July speech, LeMay lobbied to modify Johnson's speech to read "SR-71" instead of "RS-71". The media transcript given ... Production of the SR-71 totaled 32 aircraft with 29 SR-71As, two SR-71Bs, and the single SR-71C. The SR-71 was designed for ... Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment Measurement and signature intelligence Related development Lockheed ... SR-71A was the main production variant. SR-71B was a trainer variant. SR-71C was a hybrid trainer aircraft composed of the rear ...
The speech was well received by Khrushchev, who later called it "the greatest speech by any American President since Roosevelt ... Accordingly, it pushed the US to demand that the production cut-off be closely timed with the testing moratorium, betting that ... There were four techniques examined: measurement of acoustic waves, seismic signals, radio waves, and inspection of radioactive ... Khrushchev, Nikita (2 July 1963). Excerpt from Chairman Khrushchev's Speech (Speech). East Berlin. Jersild, Austin (8 October ...
Developmental aspects of text production in writing and speech. Department of Linguistics and Phonetics, Centre for Languages ... Lexical density measurements may vary for the same composition depending on how a "lexical item" is defined and which items are ... Victoria Johansson (2008). "Lexical diversity and lexical density in speech and writing: a developmental perspective". ... American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 15 (4): 362-373. Michael Halliday (1985). Spoken and Written Language. Deakin ...
Since the turn of the millennium, Boston and the greater New England region have been home to the production of numerous films ... "State Area Measurements and Internal Point Coordinates". Geography Division, U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved May 13, 2021. " ... Another source was 17th century speech in East Anglia and Lincolnshire, where many of the Puritan immigrants had originated.[ ... Some New England states, however, are ranked highly among U.S. states for particular areas of production. Maine is ranked ninth ...
The 'materiality' of spice connects its symbolic and social roles with its capacity for desire production. Morton cites the " ... Our Beautiful Speech Bubbles (Interview with Doug Lain, Diet Soap Podcast #115, 12 August 2011) Rethinking Ecology (Interview ... rather than an object that predates its own measurement. According to Morton, hyperobjects not only become visible during an ...
He is an all-round handsome man with excellent speech, manners, and a good sense of humor. He is always the first to be invited ... Kyung Soo-jin as Choi Hong-ju, a talented production director of a reality TV program known as "Sherlock Hong-ju" at channel ... Audience measurement performed nationwide by Nielsen Korea. The episode on April 7, was not aired due to broadcast of re- ... Major U.S. networks and production companies like Warner Bros., HBO Max and Lionsgate, as well as producers and directors in ...
For services to Measurement Science. Angela Hesketh, Executive Officer, Jobcentre Plus. For public and voluntary service. ... For voluntary service to People with Speech and Language Disabilities. Norman George Jacobs, Founder and Managing Director, ... Anthony William Lilley, Chief Creative Officer, Magic Lantern Productions. For services to Media and Creative Industries. Brian ...
In Bihar, however, indigo production continued well into the 20th century; the centre of indigo production there, Champaran ... Although Burke's speeches at the trial drew applause and focused attention on India, Hastings was eventually acquitted, due in ... Mill advocated ryotwari settlements which consisted of government measurement and assessment of each plot (valid for 20 or 30 ... The peasant discontent in Bengal eventually led to the Indigo rebellion in 1859-60 and to the end of indigo production there. ...
In 2018, worldwide production of iridium totaled 7,300 kilograms (16,100 lb). In mid April 2021, iridium reached a price of US$ ... These allowed for the measurement of high temperatures in air up to 2,000 °C (3,630 °F). In Munich, Germany in 1957 Rudolf ... Waller, I. (1964). "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961: presentation speech". Nobel Lectures, Physics 1942-1962. Elsevier. " ... Iridium is one of the rarest elements in Earth's crust, with annual production and consumption of only 3 tonnes (6.6 thousand ...
She frequently referred to her work as "scientific pedagogy", arguing for the need to go beyond observation and measurement of ... 1/2, 1994, p. 37-48 "Collected works of Pádraic H. Pearse; political writings and speeches". Dublin Phoenix. 1916. A critical ... learning resources Emphasis on lifelong learning and social skills Assessment by evaluation of child's projects and productions ...
German tank and aircraft production, though reached new records in production levels in 1944, was in particular one-third lower ... In a public speech in Berlin on 4 September 1940, Hitler announced that: The other night the English had bombed Berlin. So be ... and partly because its baroque street plan presented a perfect geometric grid for calculations and measurements." In his book, ... war production, it is evident that, as the (bombing) offensive progressed ... the effect on war production became progressively ...
Within the central nervous system production of cytokines has been detected as a result of brain injury, during viral and ... 2008). "Light optical precision measurements of the active and inactive Prader-Willi syndrome imprinted regions in human cell ... Examples of these disorders include Asperger syndrome, traumatic brain injury, communication, speech and language disorders, ... Multiple groups have produced experimental evidence that support proinflammatory cytokine production being the central element ...
Production soon began thereafter at the Nash Engineering Company. Nash filed U.S. patent #1,091,529 on February 24, 1910 and ... It is intentionally a "slow" measurement, averaging out peaks and troughs of short duration to reflect the perceived loudness ... mostly used for speech. In the encoder, the input is passed through a multiband filter, each band is passed through an envelope ... The first commercial production of fiberglass was in 1936. In 1938, fiberglass was invented by Russell Games Slayter of Owens- ...
fMRI measurements of haemodynamic responses in real time have also been used to control robot arms with a seven-second delay ... Recent work published by Edward Chang and Joseph Makin from UCSF revealed that ECoG signals could be used to decode speech from ... shedding light on the distinct mechanisms associated with production of vowels and consonants, and could provide the basis for ... Makin JG, Moses DA, Chang EF (2021). "Speech Decoding as Machine Translation". In Guger C, Allison BZ, Gunduz A (eds.). Brain- ...
For a decade, the electronic workshop expanded, adding a production line for mobile television relays, and a workshop for ... Speech of greeting to the personalities for 2007, by Philippe Duron, President of the Lower Normandy region, Caen, 11 January ... and another part is converted into an underground laboratory for measurement of radioactivity for the school of military ... In 2002, it also offloaded the Tourlaville unit to Sanmina-SCI, which relocated its production six years later. Codifur resumed ...
Topics: measurement of articulatory movements; measurements of pressures and airflows in speech production; computer-aided ... 6.542J / 24.966J / HST.712J Laboratory on the Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception of Speech, Fall 2001  Stevens, Kenneth N ... Introduces concepts and techniques relevant to the production of large software systems. Students taught a programming method ...
Speech production and language control in bilinguals with neurodegenerative diseases *Memory for faces and names in patients ... We are interested in the cognitive and brain basis of the speech production process, with a special emphasis on bilingual ...
In W. Hulstijn, H.F.M. Peters, P. van Lieshout (Eds.), Speech production: Motor control, brain research, and fluency disorders ... Riley, J. & Riley, G. (1998, April). The measurement of cognitive factors. A paper presented at a meeting of the American ... In W. Hulstijn, H.F.M. Peters, P. van Lieshout (Eds.), Speech production: Motor control, brain research, and fluency disorders ... language production and speech motor programming. Smith and Kelly describe this perspective in more detail. The results of ...
However, the need to actually produce speech may influence earlier processing and qualitatively change speech production ... 2014). Whats to be learned from speaking aloud? - Advances in the neurophysiological measurement of overt language production ... Researchers have long avoided neurophysiological experiments of overt speech production due to the suspicion that artifacts ... Recently, however, overt speech has been successfully investigated using EEG, MEG, and fMRI. The aim of this Research Topic is ...
Modeling speech production in noise to code the vocal effort for use with communication headsets ». Communication during a ... On the Use of Mobile Phone and Wearable Microphones for Noise Exposure Measurements : Calibration and Measurement Accuracy, by ... Modeling speech production in noise for the assessment of vocal effort for use with communication headsets ». Euronoise 2015, ... Modeling speech production in noise to code vocal effort for use with communication headsets ». Communication during a ...
Speech Production Measurement. Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice ... Speech TherapyLanguage TherapyElectrocardiographyMagnetic Resonance ImagingSpeech Production MeasurementCardiac Pacing, ... Mesulam M ( ... Anomic aphasia Aphasiology Apraxia of speech Speech-language pathology Speech disorder Transcortical sensory ... AcquiredMedian NerveMagnetic Resonance ImagingSpeech Production MeasurementLinguisticsCardiac Pacing, ArtificialStrokeApraxia, ...
Their speech productions were analyzed from six acoustic measurements. To further examine the perceptual consequences, an ... We also propose that ankyloglossia should not be a purely appearance-based diagnosis and that speech production is a crucial ... In vitro, PPM reduced the production of interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß), IL-18, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), IL-6 and ROS in LPS- ... The L3 vertebral level muscle area was measured using computer-assisted measurement techniques, and the skeletal muscle index( ...
Measurements, Speech Production Production Measurement, Speech Production Measurements, Speech Speech Production Measurements ... Speech Production. Measurements, Speech Production. Production Measurement, Speech. Production Measurements, Speech. Speech ... Speech Production Measurement Entry term(s). Measurement, Speech Production ... Speech Production Measurement - Preferred Concept UI. M0020255. Scope note. Measurement of parameters of the speech product ...
Further information on the WLTP and NEDC measurement procedures is also available at For further details of the ... The BMW Group production network comprises over 30 production sites worldwide; the company has a global sales network in more ... Fresh off the production line, they will drive themselves to a parking area, ready for their onward journey by train or truck. ... Further information on the WLTP and NEDC measurement procedures is also available at For further details of the ...
Levelt, W.J.M.; Roelofs, A.; Meyer, A.S. A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behav. Brain. Sci. 1991, 22, 1-75. [ ... required the study of language in conversational contexts and could not be easily combined with the on-line measurement ... Pechmann, T. Incremental speech production and referential overspecification. Linguistics 1989, 27, 89-110. [Google Scholar] ... This last hypothesis is relevant to debates about planning scope in production. While some aspects of production are ...
Speech perception, psychoacoustics, speech production, stuttering. Moore, C. L., BA, PhD (Cantab). The development of ... Pediatric pain (measurement and management), audible alarm signals, perioperative anxiety, awareness and memory. Good, K., BSc ... Auditory electrophysiology, brainstem and cortical responses to speech, psychoacoustics, otoacoustic emissions, speech ... Functional neuroimaging for the purposes of clinical diagnosis and treatment, measurement of small- and long-range neural ...
Expanding Sustainable Palm Oil Production The 3rd International Conference on Oil Palm and the Environment (ICOPE) organized by ... Opening Speech by Minister of Agriculture of The Republic of Indonesia. *Keynote Speech by Minister of Forest of The Republic ... High carbon stock forest : definition, identification & measurement, conservation and management.. *Enhancing bio diversity : ... Opening Speech & Opening by Minister of Agriculture of the Republic of Indonesia, Keynotes speech by Minister of Forestry of ...
... production of speech, processing language, expansion of vocabulary, stress relief, self-expression and creativity. Music ... Assessments for music therapy vary based on client goals and can include measurements of attention, memory, motor function, ...
Department of Speech-Language Sciences. All India Institute of Speech and Hearing. Mysore - 570 006, India. arockia_cath@yahoo. ... It is important to investigate and document these changes which would enlighten the perception- production relationship and to ... In a seminal study, Lisker & Abramson, (1964) made acoustical measurements of voicing in initial stops in 11 languages. They ... Department of Speech-Language Sciences. All India Institute of Speech and Hearing. Mysore - 570 006, India ...
With so many phonemes in English requiring oral airflow, oral resonance is important to production of intelligible speech. ... Gina Rocha-Worley, MS, CCC/SLP Speech Pathologist, Department of Speech Pathology, Harlem Hospital Center. Gina Rocha-Worley, ... Effects of VPD on a patients speech include: hypernasality; decreased speech intelligibility; and nasal emissions (ie, air ... leading to inappropriate nasal resonance during speech production. Pharyngeal closure patterns are shown below. ...
Third, the data were acquired using a rich audiovisual stimulus, for which we provide detailed speech and video annotations. ... A multispeaker dataset of raw and reconstructed speech production real-time MRI video and 3D volumetric images. 20 July 2021 ... including units of measurement, sampling frequency, channel status and others. Channel status indicates which electrodes are ... We calculated signed r-squared values for three comparisons: speech vs music, speech vs task rest and speech vs natural rest, ...
Predicting midsagittal pharynx shape from tongue position during vowel production. J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 1999 Jun; 42(3): ... Measurement of T1 of human arterial and venous blood at 7T. Magn Reson Imaging [print-electronic]. 2013 Apr; 31(3): 477-9. PMID ... Simultaneous measurement of D and T2 using the distant dipolar field. J. Magn. Reson [print-electronic]. 2006 Jan; 178(1): 166- ... Measurement of the point spread function in MRI using constant time imaging. Magn Reson Med. 1997 Nov; 38(5): 733-40. PMID: ...
In the oil and gas industry, depth in a well is the measurement, for any point in that well, of the distance between a ... It is the most common method of reference for locations in the well, and therefore, in oil industry speech, "depth" also refers ... Many wellbore depth measurements are taken from the Kelly Bushing. The Kelly bushing elevation is calculated by adding the ... Drillers depth is the first depth measurement of a wellbore and is taken from the rotary table level on the rig floor. In most ...
New Study Engineers Antidepressant Production in Yeast. 4:02 am AEST. Brain Mechanisms Identified for Speech Perception. 4:02 ... ACS Measurement Science: New Papers Published. 3:56 am AEST. Transcatheter Heart Valve Repair Benefits Severe Tricuspid ... 11 productions and co-productions in lineup. Works that explore todays issues, telling stories both personal and universal. ...
Leveraging repeated objective measurements, this study longitudinally examined child and teacher speech-related vocalizations ... However, there are little data on the effect of face-masks on childrens language input and production in educational contexts ... Children and adolescents were met virtually for semi-directed interviews about their well-being at three measurement time (T1: ...
late) and amount of first language (L1) use determined the extent to which speech production of English was influenced (vowels ... and measurement at The University of Texas at Austin. She can be reached at [email protected]. Dr. Roanne G. Brice is the ... As bilingual speech-language pathologists, one of the more complex issues to convey to others is that bilingualism is a unique ... Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 27, 68-81.. Bullock, B., E., Toribio, A., J., González, V, & Dalola, A. ( ...
Speech Production Measurement. *Surgical Clearance. *Symptom Assessment. *Traditional Pulse Diagnosis. *Visual Analog Scale ...
This data included frequency-specific thresholds and speech awareness or speech reception thresholds (SAT/SRT). Pure tone ... Early measurements such as brain imaging findings, head circumference, and IQ/DQ may allow for more accurate counseling of ... The authors have implicated the cerebellum to be involved in temporal processing, language production and comprehension, ... speech perception and speech intelligibility outcomes," Otology and Neurotology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 479-482, 2004. ...
This characteristic of speech production is defined by Arbuckle and Gold (1993) as extended speech that lacks coherence. The ... Gold, D., Andres, D., Arbuckle, T., & Schwartzman, A. (1988). Measurement and correlates of verbosity in elderly people. ... production, associated to an inhibitory deficit, and the other which argues that age-related changes in narrative production ... Lenisa Brandão. Speech-Language Pathologist. Masters and Doctoral degree in Psychology at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do ...
AGY 1100 - General Crop Production. Focuses on production and adaptation of cultivated crops, principles affecting growth, ... Combines the basic theories of communication with public speech performance skills. Emphasis is on speech preparation, ... Includes the study of measurements, atomic theory, chemical bonding, nomenclature, stoichiometry, solutions, acid and base, gas ... In both degree programs, youll learn about the optimal growing conditions that underlie all agricultural production and that ...
speech. -plasia, -plastic. growth. -plegia. paralysis. -pnea. breathing. -poiesis. production. -praxia. movement. ... measurement of -opsy. visual examination. -ostomy. opening. -otomy. Incision. -pexy. surgical fixation. ...
Visual detection measurements in ultrasonography. Insana, M. F., Hall, T. J., Stevenson, M. E., McFadden, M. A. & Cox, G. G., ... Tye-Murray, N. & Kirk, K. I., 1993, In: Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 36, 3, p. 488-502 15 p.. Research output: ... Vowel and diphthong production by young users of cochlear implants and the relationship between the phonetic level evaluation ... Sutton, A. E. & Gallagher, T. M., 1993, In: Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 36, 6, p. 1216-1226 11 p.. Research output ...
TI codecs are free, come with production licensing and are available for download now. All are production-tested for easy ... The measurements were performed on the TMS320C6678 Evaluation Module with the C66x DSP Cores running at 1.25GHz and the DDR3 ... C66XCODECSPCH - C66x Speech Codecs - Software and Documentation Supported products & hardware. Supported products & hardware. ... The measurements were performed on the Advantech DSP-8681 (Half-length PCIe card with 4 TMS320C6678 DSPs) and DSP-8682 (Full ...
  • In addition, the fact that stuttering, like most childhood speech and learning disorders, occurs in three times as many boys as girls implies that something in addition to environment is part of the etiology. (
  • We examined the relationship between MeHg exposure and development of articulatory-phonologic speech skills in children whose mothers consumed a diet high in fish during pregnancy to determine whether any adverse associations could be detected. (
  • No adverse associations between articulatory- phonologic speech skills and prenatal MeHg exposure were detected. (
  • Applications related to the motoric/articulatory contribution to speech and voice production and disorders such as dysfluency, articulation disorders, stuttering, and dysphonia will be assigned to MFSR. (
  • Cognitive neuroscience experiments are concerned with the neural mechanisms of cognitive processes including speech, sensory perception, memory, social interactions and others. (
  • Speech Production and Perception. (
  • Production and perception of English stops by native Spanish speakers. (
  • applications related to linguistics, language characteristics (perception, production, development) and non-motoric language disorders will be assigned to LCOM. (
  • Methods include but are not limited to behavioral experiments, physiological measurement, acoustic analysis, structural and functional imaging, functional stimulation, and computational modeling. (
  • Researchers have long avoided neurophysiological experiments of overt speech production due to the suspicion that artifacts caused by muscle activity may lead to a bad signal-to-noise ratio in the measurements. (
  • Event-related paradigms have been used increasingly in the past few would benefit from having the subject vocalize a response since years for the localization of function in tasks involving overt speech. (
  • Each of these techniques has its limitations in studies involving overt speech. (
  • We are interested in the cognitive and brain basis of the speech production process, with a special emphasis on bilingual speech production. (
  • As bilingual speech-language pathologists, one of the more complex issues to convey to others is that bilingualism is a unique experience and that bilingual or multilingual speakers are not the sum of their two languages. (
  • This applies to evaluation and treatment of bilingual speech and language. (
  • Children were given four goals based on their initial speech and language results (e.g., phonetic inventory, sound classes affected). (
  • The intervention included auditory awareness activities (such as listening to word lists and books that frequently used a targeted sound), conceptual activities (contrasting and classifying sounds), production practice (drills and imitation of phonetic placement), and phonological awareness activities (rhyme, sound identification). (
  • Dominance varies across speech and language domains (phonetics, phonology, morphology, semantics, pragmatics, etc.) and also seems to vary within each speech domain. (
  • A total of 544 children from the Republic of Seychelles were given a speech assessment when they were 66 months of age. (
  • Experimental investigations of speech processes. (
  • However, the need to actually produce speech may influence earlier processing and qualitatively change speech production processes and what we can infer from neurophysiological measures thereof. (
  • By bringing together electrophysiological and neuroimaging evidence on language production mechanisms, a more complete picture of the locus of language production processes and their temporal and neurophysiological signatures will emerge. (
  • Assessments for music therapy vary based on client goals and can include measurements of attention, memory, motor function, communication and other domains. (
  • Speech therapy improves velopharyngeal function when VPD is minimal or due to articulation errors and in postoperative patients. (
  • Compensatory articulation techniques secondary to VPD also can be corrected with speech therapy. (
  • However, in patients with a specific anatomic deficiency that precludes adequate closure of the velopharynx, speech therapy cannot replace surgery. (
  • Both playing and listening to music engages many parts of the brain and body, while simultaneously teaching skills in social communication/interaction, production of speech, processing language, expansion of vocabulary, stress relief, self-expression and creativity. (
  • Children and adolescents were met virtually for semi-directed interviews about their well-being at three measurement time (T1: May 2020 lockdown, T2: July 2020 progressive reopening, and T3: beginning of the second wave). (
  • These propositions have been studied by investigations that examine discourse production from different theoretical and methodological bases. (
  • Advances in the neurophysiological measurement of overt language production. (
  • The aim of this Research Topic is to draw together recent research on the neurophysiological basis of language production, with the aim of developing and extending theoretical accounts of the language production process. (
  • Inadequate velopharyngeal closure (VPC) allows air to escape through the nose during the generation of consonants requiring high oral pressure, leading to inappropriate nasal resonance during speech production. (
  • The nasal phonemes (/m/, /n/, /ng/) are produced with nasal resonance, requiring that the velopharynx be open during their production. (
  • With so many phonemes in English requiring oral airflow, oral resonance is important to production of intelligible speech. (
  • Age of arrival to the country (e.g., early vs. late) and amount of first language (L1) use determined the extent to which speech production of English was influenced (vowels in this study). (
  • Third, the data were acquired using a rich audiovisual stimulus, for which we provide detailed speech and video annotations. (
  • In this Research Topic of Frontiers in Language Sciences, we invite both experimental and review papers, as well as those about the latest methods in acquisition and analysis of overt language production data. (
  • Speech Communication. (
  • Speech Communication, 40 , 467-491. (
  • An alternative account about the discourse production of older adults has been provided by the Pragmatic Change Hypothesis, which considers the impact of the speaker's intentions on communication. (
  • Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits. (
  • The Development of Motor Synergies in Children: Ultrasound and Acoustic Measurements. (
  • Also included are the development and evaluation of behavioral preventive and therapeutic interventions for movement, speech, voice, and related disorders. (
  • In addition to the study of brain systems subserving the speaking out loud may not be psychologically or behaviorally production of speech and processing of language, many studies appropriate for the particular task being studied, for example, if the task requires the subject to receive feedback from the vocalization of the words or when it is necessary to record the subject's verbal response. (
  • Rapid measurement of brain macromolecular proton fraction with transient saturation transfer MRI. (
  • The purpose of this noninvasive imaging method, such as functional MRI, to assess study is to investigate various design and analysis strategies for language production is clear. (
  • Literature of the last decades demonstrates the controversy between research on language production of older adults, particularly in studies that investigate the presence of "off-topic verbosity" (OTV). (
  • In addition to applied research, the Branch also developed and maintains operational systems for production of bibliographic records for NLM's flagship database, MEDLINE. (
  • The Motor Function, Speech and Rehabilitation Study Section reviews applications on normal and disordered motor function, including speech and voice production. (
  • A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory. (
  • High carbon stock forest : definition, identification & measurement, conservation and management. (
  • A number of solutions have been proposed to overcome this images acquired during the speech can help recover function in areas problem. (
  • Focus should be placed on using the neurophysiological data to inform questions about the processing stages of language production. (
  • The optimization of these designs and the best way to analyze represent the complex task of language production, the need for a the acquired data has not yet been fully explored. (
  • The Morphogenesis of Speech Gestures: From Local Computations to Global Patterns. (
  • The measured length of each joint of drillpipe or tubing is added to provide a total depth or measurement to the point of interest. (
  • We view stuttering as a multi-dimensional, multiple risks disorder that includes such aspects as social interactions, emotional reactions, auditory processing, language production and speech motor programming. (
  • All aspects of language production are welcome: i.e., from conceptualization to articulation during native as well as multilingual language production. (
  • Evidence supported the pragmatic change hypotheses concerning the discourse production of older adults. (
  • This study investigated the possible pragmatic change concerning the narrative production of older adults. (
  • There is a current lack of measures of speech and language services that would reflect quality. (
  • In the oil and gas industry, depth in a well is the measurement, for any point in that well, of the distance between a reference point or elevation, and that point. (
  • It is the most common method of reference for locations in the well, and therefore, in oil industry speech, "depth" also refers to the location itself. (
  • Introduces concepts and techniques relevant to the production of large software systems. (
  • In describing the problem of hypernasal speech, differentiation between velopharyngeal mislearning, velopharyngeal incompetency, and velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is important. (
  • Essentially, the technology can be used from the moment the cars are capable of driving independently in production - just after the first ignition of the engine, in other words. (
  • The BMW Group is launching a unique project that will see cars manoeuvre around production without requiring a driver. (