The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases of the ear or of hearing disorders or demonstration of hearing acuity or loss.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The ability to differentiate tones.
The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
The study of systems, particularly electronic systems, which function after the manner of, in a manner characteristic of, or resembling living systems. Also, the science of applying biological techniques and principles to the design of electronic systems.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Perception of three-dimensionality.
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Multi-channel hearing devices typically used for patients who have tumors on the COCHLEAR NERVE and are unable to benefit from COCHLEAR IMPLANTS after tumor surgery that severs the cochlear nerve. The device electrically stimulates the nerves of cochlea nucleus in the BRAIN STEM rather than the inner ear as in cochlear implants.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.
The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
Recognition and discrimination of the heaviness of a lifted object.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.

Language processing is strongly left lateralized in both sexes. Evidence from functional MRI. (1/2052)

Functional MRI (fMRI) was used to examine gender effects on brain activation during a language comprehension task. A large number of subjects (50 women and 50 men) was studied to maximize the statistical power to detect subtle differences between the sexes. To estimate the specificity of findings related to sex differences, parallel analyses were performed on two groups of randomly assigned subjects. Men and women showed very similar, strongly left lateralized activation patterns. Voxel-wise tests for group differences in overall activation patterns demonstrated no significant differences between women and men. In further analyses, group differences were examined by region of interest and by hemisphere. No differences were found between the sexes in lateralization of activity in any region of interest or in intrahemispheric cortical activation patterns. These data argue against substantive differences between men and women in the large-scale neural organization of language processes.  (+info)

Effects of talker, rate, and amplitude variation on recognition memory for spoken words. (2/2052)

This study investigated the encoding of the surface form of spoken words using a continuous recognition memory task. The purpose was to compare and contrast three sources of stimulus variability--talker, speaking rate, and overall amplitude--to determine the extent to which each source of variability is retained in episodic memory. In Experiment 1, listeners judged whether each word in a list of spoken words was "old" (had occurred previously in the list) or "new." Listeners were more accurate at recognizing a word as old if it was repeated by the same talker and at the same speaking rate; however, there was no recognition advantage for words repeated at the same overall amplitude. In Experiment 2, listeners were first asked to judge whether each word was old or new, as before, and then they had to explicitly judge whether it was repeated by the same talker, at the same rate, or at the same amplitude. On the first task, listeners again showed an advantage in recognition memory for words repeated by the same talker and at same speaking rate, but no advantage occurred for the amplitude condition. However, in all three conditions, listeners were able to explicitly detect whether an old word was repeated by the same talker, at the same rate, or at the same amplitude. These data suggest that although information about all three properties of spoken words is encoded and retained in memory, each source of stimulus variation differs in the extent to which it affects episodic memory for spoken words.  (+info)

Infants' learning about words and sounds in relation to objects. (3/2052)

In acquiring language, babies learn not only that people can communicate about objects and events, but also that they typically use a particular kind of act as the communicative signal. The current studies asked whether 1-year-olds' learning of names during joint attention is guided by the expectation that names will be in the form of spoken words. In the first study, 13-month-olds were introduced to either a novel word or a novel sound-producing action (using a small noisemaker). Both the word and the sound were produced by a researcher as she showed the baby a new toy during a joint attention episode. The baby's memory for the link between the word or sound and the object was tested in a multiple choice procedure. Thirteen-month-olds learned both the word-object and sound-object correspondences, as evidenced by their choosing the target reliably in response to hearing the word or sound on test trials, but not on control trials when no word or sound was present. In the second study, 13-month-olds, but not 20-month-olds, learned a new sound-object correspondence. These results indicate that infants initially accept a broad range of signals in communicative contexts and narrow the range with development.  (+info)

Isolating the contributions of familiarity and source information to item recognition: a time course analysis. (4/2052)

Recognition memory may be mediated by the retrieval of distinct types of information, notably, a general assessment of familiarity and the recovery of specific source information. A response-signal speed-accuracy trade-off variant of an exclusion procedure was used to isolate the retrieval time course for familiarity and source information. In 2 experiments, participants studied spoken and read lists (with various numbers of presentations) and then performed an exclusion task, judging an item as old only if it was in the heard list. Dual-process fits of the time course data indicated that familiarity information typically is retrieved before source information. The implications that these data have for models of recognition, including dual-process and global memory models, are discussed.  (+info)

PET imaging of cochlear-implant and normal-hearing subjects listening to speech and nonspeech. (5/2052)

Functional neuroimaging with positron emission tomography (PET) was used to compare the brain activation patterns of normal-hearing (NH) with postlingually deaf, cochlear-implant (CI) subjects listening to speech and nonspeech signals. The speech stimuli were derived from test batteries for assessing speech-perception performance of hearing-impaired subjects with different sensory aids. Subjects were scanned while passively listening to monaural (right ear) stimuli in five conditions: Silent Baseline, Word, Sentence, Time-reversed Sentence, and Multitalker Babble. Both groups showed bilateral activation in superior and middle temporal gyri to speech and backward speech. However, group differences were observed in the Sentence compared to Silence condition. CI subjects showed more activated foci in right temporal regions, where lateralized mechanisms for prosodic (pitch) processing have been well established; NH subjects showed a focus in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Brodmann's area 47), where semantic processing has been implicated. Multitalker Babble activated auditory temporal regions in the CI group only. Whereas NH listeners probably habituated to this multitalker babble, the CI listeners may be using a perceptual strategy that emphasizes 'coarse' coding to perceive this stimulus globally as speechlike. The group differences provide the first neuroimaging evidence suggesting that postlingually deaf CI and NH subjects may engage differing perceptual processing strategies under certain speech conditions.  (+info)

Regulation of parkinsonian speech volume: the effect of interlocuter distance. (6/2052)

This study examined the automatic regulation of speech volume over distance in hypophonic patients with Parkinson's disease and age and sex matched controls. There were two speech settings; conversation, and the recitation of sequential material (for example, counting). The perception of interlocuter speech volume by patients with Parkinson's disease and controls over varying distances was also examined, and found to be slightly discrepant. For speech production, it was found that controls significantly increased overall speech volume for conversation relative to that for sequential material. Patients with Parkinson's disease were unable to achieve this overall increase for conversation, and consistently spoke at a softer volume than controls at all distances (intercept reduction). However, patients were still able to increase volume for greater distances in a similar way to controls for conversation and sequential material, thus showing a normal pattern of volume regulation (slope similarity). It is suggested that speech volume regulation is intact in Parkinson's disease, but rather the gain is reduced. These findings are reminiscent of skeletal motor control studies in Parkinson's disease, in which the amplitude of movement is diminished but the relation with another factor is preserved (stride length increases as cadence-that is, stepping rate, increases).  (+info)

Specialization of left auditory cortex for speech perception in man depends on temporal coding. (7/2052)

Speech perception requires cortical mechanisms capable of analysing and encoding successive spectral (frequency) changes in the acoustic signal. To study temporal speech processing in the human auditory cortex, we recorded intracerebral evoked potentials to syllables in right and left human auditory cortices including Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT) and the posterior part of superior temporal gyrus (area 22). Natural voiced /ba/, /da/, /ga/) and voiceless (/pa/, /ta/, /ka/) syllables, spoken by a native French speaker, were used to study the processing of a specific temporally based acoustico-phonetic feature, the voice onset time (VOT). This acoustic feature is present in nearly all languages, and it is the VOT that provides the basis for the perceptual distinction between voiced and voiceless consonants. The present results show a lateralized processing of acoustic elements of syllables. First, processing of voiced and voiceless syllables is distinct in the left, but not in the right HG and PT. Second, only the evoked potentials in the left HG, and to a lesser extent in PT, reflect a sequential processing of the different components of the syllables. Third, we show that this acoustic temporal processing is not limited to speech sounds but applies also to non-verbal sounds mimicking the temporal structure of the syllable. Fourth, there was no difference between responses to voiced and voiceless syllables in either left or right areas 22. Our data suggest that a single mechanism in the auditory cortex, involved in general (not only speech-specific) temporal processing, may underlie the further processing of verbal (and non-verbal) stimuli. This coding, bilaterally localized in auditory cortex in animals, takes place specifically in the left HG in man. A defect of this mechanism could account for hearing discrimination impairments associated with language disorders.  (+info)

Cochlear implantations in Northern Ireland: an overview of the first five years. (8/2052)

During the last few years cochlear implantation (CI) has made remarkable progress, developing from a mere research tool to a viable clinical application. The Centre for CI in the Northern Ireland was established in 1992 and has since been a provider of this new technology for rehabilitation of profoundly deaf patients in the region. Although individual performance with a cochlear implant cannot be predicted accurately, the overall success of CI can no longer be denied. Seventy one patients, 37 adults and 34 children, have received implants over the first five years of the Northern Ireland cochlear implant programme, which is located at the Belfast City Hospital. The complication rates and the post-implantation outcome of this centre compare favourably with other major centres which undertake the procedure. This paper aims to highlight the patient selection criteria, surgery, post-CI outcome, clinical and research developments within our centre, and future prospects of this recent modality of treatment.  (+info)

We investigated the consequences of monitoring an asynchronous audiovisual speech stream on the temporal perception of simultaneously presented vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) audiovisual speech video clips. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. Throughout the experiment, half of the participants also monitored a continuous stream of words presented audiovisually, superimposed over the VCV video clips. The continuous (adapting) speech stream could either be presented in synchrony, or else with the auditory stream lagging by 300 ms. A significant shift (13 ms in the direction of the adapting stimulus in the point of subjective simultaneity) was observed in the TOJ task when participants monitored the asynchronous speech stream. This result suggests that the consequences of adapting to asynchronous speech extends beyond the case of simple
This research topic presents speech as a natural, well-learned, multisensory communication signal, processed by multiple mechanisms. Reflecting the general status of the field, most articles focus on audiovisual speech perception and many utilize the McGurk effect, which arises when discrepant visual and auditory speech stimuli are presented (McGurk and MacDonald, 1976). Tiippana (2014) argues that the McGurk effect can be used as a proxy for multisensory integration provided it is not interpreted too narrowly. Several articles shed new light on audiovisual speech perception in special populations. It is known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, e.g., Saalasti et al., 2012) or language impairment (e.g., Meronen et al., 2013) are generally less influenced by the talking face than peers with typical development. Here Stevenson et al. (2014) propose that a deficit in multisensory integration could be a marker of ASD, and a component of the associated deficit in communication. However,
The motor theory of speech perception is the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by identifying the sound patterns that speech generates. It originally claimed that speech perception is done through a specialized module that is innate and human-specific. Though the idea of a module has been qualified in more recent versions of the theory, the idea remains that the role of the speech motor system is not only to produce speech articulations but also to detect them. The hypothesis has gained more interest outside the field of speech perception than inside. This has increased particularly since the discovery of mirror neurons that link the production and perception of motor movements, including those made by the vocal tract. The theory was initially proposed in the Haskins Laboratories in the 1950s by Alvin Liberman and Franklin S. Cooper, and developed further by Donald Shankweiler, Michael Studdert-Kennedy, ...
Aachen / Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH (2019) [Book, Dissertation / PhD Thesis]. Page(s): 1 Online-Ressource (III, 166 Seiten) : Illustrationen. Abstract. Listeners with hearing impairments have difficulties understanding speech in the presence of background noise. Although prosthetic devices like hearing aids may improve the hearing ability, listeners with hearing impairments still complain about their speech perception in the presence of noise. Pure-tone audiometry gives reliable and stable results, but the degree of difficulties in spoken communication cannot be determined. Therefore, speech-in-noise tests measure the hearing impairment in complex scenes and are an integral part of the audiological assessment. In everyday acoustic environments, listeners often need to resolve speech targets in mixed streams of distracting noise sources. This specific acoustic environment was first described as the cocktail party effect and most research has concentrated on the listeners ability to understand ...
Does the motor system play a role in speech perception? If so, where, how, and when? We conducted a systematic review that addresses these questions using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review of behavioural, computational modelling, non-human animal, brain damage/disorder, electrical stimulation/recording, and neuroimaging research suggests that distributed brain regions involved in producing speech play specific, dynamic, and contextually determined roles in speech perception. The quantitative review employed region and network based neuroimaging meta-analyses and a novel text mining method to describe relative contributions of nodes in distributed brain networks. Supporting the qualitative review, results show a specific functional correspondence between regions involved in non-linguistic movement of the articulators, covertly and overtly producing speech, and the perception of both nonword and word sounds. This distributed set of cortical and subcortical speech
In online crowdfunding, individuals gather information from two primary sources, video pitches and text narratives. However, while the attributes of the attached video may have substantial effects on fundraising, previous literature has largely neglected effects of the video information. Therefore, this study focuses on speech information embedded in videos. Employing the machine learning techniques including speech recognition and linguistic style classifications, we examine the role of speech emotion and speech style in crowdfunding success, compared to that of text narratives. Using Kickstarter dataset in 2016, our preliminary results suggest that speech information -the linguistic styles- is significantly associated with the crowdfunding success, even after controlling for text and other project-specific information. More interestingly, linguistic styles of the speech have a more profound explanatory power than text narratives do. This study contributes to the growing body of crowdfunding research
Most currently available cochlear implant devices are designed to reflect the tonotopic representation of acoustic frequencies within the cochlea. Unfortunately, the electrode array cannot cover the entire cochlea due to physical limitations or patient-related factors. Therefore, CI patients generally listen to spectrally up-shifted and/or distorted speech. Acute studies suggest that speech performance is best when the acoustic input is spectrally matched to the cochlear place of stimulation; performance deteriorates as the spectral mismatch is increased. However, many CI users are able to somewhat adapt to spectrally shifted and distorted speech as they gain experience with their device. Motivated by both the theoretical and clinical implications of CI users perceptual adaptation, the present study explores perceptual adaptation to spectrally shifted vowels using behavioral studies and an acoustic analysis framework. Normal-hearing subjects are tested while listening to acoustic simulations of ...
Speech recognition thresholds are used for several clinical purposes, so it is important that they be accurate reflections of hearing ability. Variations in the acoustic signal may artificially decrease threshold scores, and such variations can result from being tested in a second dialect. Thirty-two native Mandarin-speaking subjects (sixteen from mainland China and sixteen from Taiwan) participated in speech recognition threshold testing in both dialects to see whether using non-native dialect test materials resulted in a significantly lower score. In addition, tests were scored by two interpreters, one from each dialect, to see whether the scorers dialect resulted in a significantly different score. Talker dialect was found to be statistically significant, while scorer dialect was not. Factors explaining these findings, as well as clinical implications, are discussed.
Mitterer and McQueen show for the first time that listeners can tune in to an unfamiliar regional accent in a foreign language. Dutch students showed improvements in their ability to recognise Scottish or Australian English after only 25 minutes of exposure to video material. English subtitling during exposure enhanced this learning effect; Dutch subtitling reduced it. Mitterer and McQueen explain these effects from their groups previous research on perceptual learning in speech perception.. Tune in to accents. Listeners can use their knowledge about how words normally sound to adjust the way they perceive speech that is spoken in an unfamiliar way. This seems to happen with subtitles too. If an English word was spoken with a Scottish accent, English subtitles usually told the perceiver what that word was, and hence what its sounds were. This made it easier for the students to tune in to the accent. In contrast, the Dutch subtitles did not provide this teaching function, and, because they told ...
PurposeSpeech shadowing experiments were conducted to test whether alignment (inadvertent imitation) to voice onset time (VOT) can be influenced by visual speech information.. MethodExperiment 1 examined whether alignment would occur to auditory /pa/ syllables manipulated to have 3 different VOTs. Nineteen female participants were asked to listen to 180 syllables over headphones and to say each syllable out loud quickly and clearly. In Experiment 2, visual speech tokens composed of a face articulating /pa/ syllables at 2 different rates were dubbed onto the audio /pa/ syllables of Experiment 1. Sixteen new female participants were asked to listen to and watch (over a video monitor) 180 syllables and to say each syllable out loud quickly and clearly.. ResultsResults of Experiment 1 showed that the 3 VOTs of the audio /pa/ stimuli influenced the VOTs of the participants produced syllables. Results of Experiment 2 revealed that both the visible syllable rate and audio VOT of the audiovisual /pa/ ...
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda conso-nants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/ɑ/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three conso-nant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were ad-justed over training sessions based on dmeasures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spo-ken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers
The phoneme was certainly a favorite to win the pageant for speechs perceptual unit. Linguists had devoted their lives to phonemes, and phonemes gained particular prominence when they could be distinguished from one another by distinctive features. Trubetzkoy, Jakobson, and other members of the Prague school proposed that phonemes in a language could be distinguished by distinctive features. For example, Jakobson, Fant, and Halle (1961) proposed that a small set of orthogonal, binary properties or features were sufficient to distinguish among the larger set of phonemes of a language. Jakobson et al. were able to classify 28 English phonemes on the basis of only nine distinctive features. While originally intended only to capture linguistic generalities, distinctive feature analysis had been widely adopted as a framework for human speech perception. The attraction of this framework is that since these features are sufficient to distinguish among the different phonemes, it is possible that ...
Objective:The purpose of this investigation is to conduct a systematic review of the long-term speech-recognition outcomes of ABIs in postlingually deafened adults, and to compare outcomes of ABIs in adults with NF2/tumors to adults without NF2. Methods: A comprehensive search utilizing various peer reviewed databases via the City University of New York (CUNY) Graduate Center Library was conducted to identify relevant studies investigating speech-recognition outcomes in ABI patients with postlingual deafness, both with and without tumors. Inclusion criteria included studies that involved at least one adult ABI patient (with or without NF2) with postlingual deafness, who was seen for follow-up auditory performance testing at one-year post-activation or later. Results: Thirteen articles met inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The studies utilized various materials for speech-recognition assessment to evaluate speech-recognition performance. Because of the great diversity among the materials
Visual speech contributes to phonetic learning in 6-month-old infants. Previous research has shown that infants match vowel sounds to facial displays of vowel articulation [Kuhl, P. K., & Meltzoff, A. N. (1982). The bimodal perception of speech in infancy. Science, 218, 1138-1141; Patterson, M. L., & Werker, J. F. (1999). Matching phonetic information in lips and voice is robust in 4.5-month-old infants. Infant Behaviour & Development, 22, 237-2471], and integrate seen and heard speech sounds [Rosenblum, L. D., Schmuckler, M. A., & Johnson,J. A. (1997). The McGurk effect in infants. Perception & Psychophysics, 59, 347-357; Burnham, D., & Dodd, B. (2004). Auditory-visual speech integration by prelinguistic infants: Perception of an emergent consonant in the McGurk effect. Developmental Psychobiology, 45, 204-220]. However, the role of visual speech in language development remains unknown. Our aim was to determine whether seen articulations enhance phoneme discrimination, thereby playing a role in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Speech recognition after implantation of the ossified cochlea. AU - Hodges, Annelle V. AU - Balkany, Thomas J.. AU - Gomez-Marin, Orlando. AU - Butts, Stacy. AU - Ash, Shelly Dolan. AU - Bird, Philip. AU - Lee, David. PY - 1999/7/1. Y1 - 1999/7/1. N2 - Objective: Insertion of complex, multichannel cochlear implant (CI) electrode arrays into ossified cochleas is now performed routinely. This study describes the hearing results obtained in a consecutive series of 21 patients with obstructed cochleas and compares these results to those in patients with open cochleas. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with ossification have speech perception results that are inferior to those of patients with no evidence of cochlear bone formation. Study Design: Retrospective analysis of consecutive clinical series. Methods: CI database review of 191 CI procedures at the University of Miami Ear Institute between 1990 and 1997 showed that 24 (13%) procedures were performed on ...
Binaural Electric-Acoustic Fusion: Speech Perception under Dichotic Stimulation A majority of hearing impaired people suffers from social isolation because they face difficulties understanding speech in noisy environment, for instance in a busy street or in a restaurant full of talkative people. Some people with severe hearing loss can be fitted with a cochlear implant (CI), which allows restoring hearing to some extent. For example, speech transmitted through a CI is very degraded, but (...) ...
The present study aimed to investigate whether focal patterns of fMRI responses to speech input contain information regarding articulatory features when participants are attentively listening to spoken syllables in the absence of task demands that direct their attention to speech production or monitoring. Using high spatial resolution fMRI in combination with an MVPA generalization approach, we were able to identify specific foci of brain activity that discriminate articulatory features of spoken syllables independent of their individual acoustic variation (surface form) across other articulatory dimensions. These results provide compelling evidence for interlinked brain circuitry of speech perception and production within the dorsal speech regions, and in particular, for the availability of articulatory codes during online perception of spoken syllables within premotor and motor, somatosensory, auditory, and/or sensorimotor integration areas.. Our generalization analysis suggests the ...
Infants are born with a preference for listening to speech over non-speech, and with a set of perceptual sensitivities that enable them to discriminate most of...
Question 1: These are especially duration of deafness prior to implantation, age of onset of deafness, age at implantation (such age affects may be related to the ________) and the duration of using an implant. ...
Observing the visual cues from a speaker such as the shape of the lips and facial expression can greatly improve the speech comprehension capabilities of a person with hearing loss. However, concurrent vision loss can lead to a significant loss in speech perception. We propose developing a prototype device that utilizes a video camera in addition to audio input to enhance the speech signal from a target speaker in everyday situations.. ...
Symbols new speech-recognition solution offers customers a multi-function device to support multiple data capture functions including voice-recognition, barcode scanning, imaging and keyboard input, providing flexibility to use whichever data capture technology is most efficient to perform the task at hand ...
Developmental deficits that affect speech perception increase the risk of language and literacy problems, which can lead to lowered academic and occupational accomplishment. Normal development and disorders of speech perception have both been linked to temporospectral auditory processing speed. Unde …
The present results address a long-standing hypothesis for cognitive and perceptual aging by examining brain activity in relation to subsequent performance on a trial-by-trial basis. Middle-aged to older adults were more likely to recognize words in noise after elevated cingulo-opercular activity, an effect that was the most pronounced for participants with better overall word recognition. Although the cingulo-opercular results from the present sample of older adults spatially overlapped with effects previously obtained with younger adults (Vaden et al., 2013), age-group differences in word recognition benefit from cingulo-opercular activity indicate that this normal response to challenging task conditions declines with age. The impact of aging on word recognition was also demonstrated by visual cortex associations with trial-level word recognition that occurred when there was a drop in activity and subsequent performance. The visual cortex results were unique to the older adult sample, ...
This paper provides a review of the current literature on psychophysical properties of low-frequency hearing, both before and after implantation, with a focus on frequency selectivity, nonlinear cochlear processing, and speech perception in temporally modulated maskers for bimodal listeners as...
PS : Asli..sedih banget.. :( Thank you. Im honored to be with you today for your commencement from one of the finest universities in the world. Truth be told, I never graduated from college and this is the closest Ive ever gotten to a college graduation. Today I want to tell you three stories from…
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Amicability and Hospitality between Leaders and Workers I thank nieces/nephews for their hospitality and amicability in every meeting I have
Signs and symptoms of stroke include:. Ø Trouble speaking and understanding what others are saying. You may experience confusion, slur your words or have difficulty understanding speech.. Ø Paralysis or numbness of the face, arm or leg. You may develop sudden numbness, weakness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg. This often affects just one side of your body. Try to raise both your arms over your head at an equivalent time. If one arm begins to fall, youll be having a stroke. Also, one side of your mouth may droop once you attempt to smile.. Ø Problems seeing in one or both eyes. You may suddenly have blurred or blackened vision in one or both eye.. Ø Trouble walking. You may stumble or lose your balance. You may also have sudden dizziness or a loss of coordination.. ...
Face-to-face communication is one of the most natural forms of interaction between humans. Speech perception is an important part of this interaction. While speech could be said to be primarily auditory in nature, visual ...
My boss wants to use this sentence in a biographical profile. I told him the sentence doesnt read well and tried to explain why, but he doesnt understand my explanation. I would appreciate your help, and any suggestions for alternative wording. Thank you! Mr. Smith is a frequent speaker on a variety of tax subjects, including a speech at the Annual Estate Planning Seminar at the Civic Center on the topic of estate planning for the terminally ill.
We research how listeners use sounds in order to learn about, and interact with their surroundings. Our work is based on behavioral methods (psychophysics), eye tracking and functional brain imaging (MEG, EEG and fMRI). We are based at the Ear Institute. MEG and fMRI scanning is conducted at the Wellcome Trust Centre for Neuroimaging. We are also affiliated with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.. By studying how brain responses unfold in time, we explore how representation that are useful for behaviour arise from sensory input and dissociate automatic ,stimulus-driven, processes from those that are affected by the perceptual state, task and goals of the listener. Examples of the questions we address in our experiments are: How do listeners detect the appearance or disappearance of new auditory objects (sound sources) in the environment? What makes certain events pop-out and grab listeners attention even when it is focused elsewhere while the detection of other events requires directed ...
Research with Bernhard Suhn showing that if factor in correction times, speech input may be slower and less natural than typing, etc. ...
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Discover exactly how the hazard perception part of the Theory Test for car drivers works. Learn how to maximise your score and avoid the anti-cheat mechanism
Find out whats involved in the Theory test, how much it costs to book an appointment and recommended study materials to help you pass both the multiple choice and hazard perception parts of the test.
A researcher emailed us and asked if you all might be interested in taking this test. Naturally, Ive already made myself a guinea pig and its an interesting, if a bit long, look at certain perceptions we have based solely on comparisons between candidates. ...
On April 22, former House Speaker Newt Gingrich gave a speech at the American Enterprise Institute, where he is a senior fellow, denouncing the State D ...
PR Week reports on a call to action by the newly-appointed president of the International Communications Consultancy Organization, Fleishman-Hillard executive V-P John Saunders: Following on from an impassioned speech at last weeks Prague global summit, where his presidency was announced,...
Reports on Don Berwicks plenary speech at the 2002 National Forum on Quality, focusing on the argument that theres no excuse for not trying to improve what you can improve in the system.
photo credit: Altus Photo Design Earlier this year, Lawrence Vance gave a speech at the Mises Institutes 2011 Austrian Scholars Conference titled
Our own Cory Doctorow counts the ways in a recent speech at Microsoft. Here, a snippet; below, the whole shebang: Heres what Im here to convince you of: 1. That DRM systems dont work 2. That DRM systems are bad for society 3. That DRM systems are bad for business 4. That DRM systems...
define TRACE using System; using System.IO; using System.Diagnostics; public class TextWriterTraceListenerSample { public static void Main() { TextWriterTraceListener myTextListener = null; // Create a file for output named TestFile.txt. String myFileName = TestFile.txt; StreamWriter myOutputWriter = new StreamWriter(myFileName, true); // Add a TextWriterTraceListener for the file. myTextListener = new TextWriterTraceListener(myOutputWriter); Trace.Listeners.Add(myTextListener); // Write trace output to all trace listeners. Trace.WriteLine(DateTime.Now.ToString() + - Trace output); // Remove and close the file writer/trace listener. myTextListener.Flush(); Trace.Listeners.Remove(myTextListener); myTextListener.Close ...
Hello! Im glad youve found me on 7 Cups of Tea. Im a trained active listener and I like to support people struggling with Anything, for i am happy when i help someone else. I enjoy traveling,loving people, being social, explore, read, etc. Ive overcome a lot in life and would like to help by listening to you. If Im online, then please feel free to start a chat. If Im offline, then send me a message and we can set up a time to connect. Glad you are here ...
I volunteered to become a listener about a day ago to help people as I have been through many rough times myself. We should all be trying to make the world a better place and let everyone know that there is always an ear that will listen ...
A Better Listener - we delve in Motivational Interviewing, which is a conversational technique, rooted in effective listening, that changes behaviors...
Happy Friday, listeners. This weeks episode was made up entirely of your questions, so if its lame, its totally your fault. And if its awesome, then you should pat yourself on the back for being so good at coming up with interesting thi...
Our very own Listener DJ Hour, which puts a different WFMU listener in the drivers seat each week for one hour of Freeform programming any way they choose! ...
Our very own Listener DJ Hour, which puts a different WFMU listener in the drivers seat each week for one hour of Freeform programming any way they choose! ...
Values of the speech intelligibility index (SII) were found to be different for the same speech intelligibility performance measured in an acoustic perception jury test with 35 human subjects and different background noise spectra. Using a novel method for in-vehicle speech intelligibility evaluation, the human subjects were tested using the hearing-in-noise-test (HINT) in a simulated driving environment. A variety of driving and listening conditions were used to obtain 50% speech intelligibility score at the sentence Speech Reception Threshold (sSRT). In previous studies, the band importance function for average speech was used for SII calculations since the band importance function for the HINT is unavailable in the SII ANSI S3.5-1997 standard. In this study, the HINT jury test measurements from a variety of background noise spectra and listening configurations of talker and listener are used in an effort to obtain a band importance function for the HINT, to potentially correlate the ...
This study explored the neural systems underlying the perception of phonetic category structure by investigating the perception of a voice onset time (VOT) continuum in a phonetic categorization task. Stimuli consisted of five synthetic speech stimuli which ranged in VOT from 0 msec ([da]) to 40 msec ([ta]). Results from 12 subjects showed that the neural system is sensitive to VOT differences of 10 msec and that details of phonetic category structure are retained throughout the phonetic processing stream. Both the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and cingulate showed graded activation as a function of category membership with increasing activation as stimuli approached the phonetic category boundary. These results are consistent with the view that the left IFG is involved in phonetic decision processes, with the extent of activation influenced by increased resources devoted to resolving phonetic category membership and/or selecting between competing phonetic categories. Activation patterns in ...
Abstract. Perceptual categorization is fundamental to the brains remarkable ability to process large amounts of sensory information and efficiently recognize objects including speech. Perceptual categorization is the neural bridge between lower-level sensory and higher-level language processing. A long line of research on the physical properties of the speech signal as determined by the anatomy and physiology of the speech production apparatus has led to descriptions of the acoustic information that is used in speech recognition (e.g., stop consonants place and manner of articulation, voice onset time, aspiration). Recent research has also considered what visual cues are relevant to visual speech recognition (i.e., the visual counter-parts used in lipreading or audiovisual speech perception). Much of the theoretical work on speech perception was done in the twentieth century without the benefit of neuroimaging technologies and models of neural representation. Recent progress in understanding ...
A number of measures were evaluated with regard to their ability to predict the speech-recognition benefit of single-channel noise reduction (NR) processing. Three NR algorithms and a reference condition were used in the evaluation. Twenty listeners with impaired hearing and ten listeners with normal hearing participated in a blinded laboratory study. An adaptive speech test was used. The speech test produces results in terms of signal-to-noise ratios that correspond to equal speech recognition performance (in this case 80% correct) with and without the NR algorithms. This facilitates a direct comparison between predicted and experimentally measured effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech recognition. The experimental results were used to evaluate nine different predictive measures, one in two variants. The best predictions were found with the Coherence Speech Intelligibility Index (CSII) [Kates and Arehart (2005), J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 117(4), 2224-2237]. In general, measures using ...
The present invention relates to a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function, and is aimed at providing a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function by using a small amount of memory. The speech processing device of the present invention includes a speech analysis unit for obtaining analysis results by analyzing input speech, a codebook for storing quantization parameters and quantization codes indicating the quantization parameters, a quantizing unit for selecting the quantization parameters and the quantization codes corresponding to the analysis results from the codebook and for outputting selected quantization parameters and selected quantization codes, a coding unit for outputting encoded codes of the input speech including the selected quantization codes, a speech dictionary for storing registered data which represent speech patterns by using the codebook, and
Author: Schwartze, Michael et al.; Genre: Talk; Title: Synchronization in basal ganglia disease: Evidence on speech perception and tapping
Aside from audiometric threshold, perhaps the more definitive component of determining adult implant candidacy involves speech recognition testing. As many of us recognize, individuals with significant hearing loss often report that they are unable to adequately hear someone unless they are looking directly at them. Thus, they are relying heavily-if not entirely-on visual cues such as lip reading and nonverbal signals for communication. In determining cochlear implant candidacy, in order to gain an understanding of an individuals auditory-based speech recognition abilities, speech materials are presented without visual cues.. Just as important as presenting speech stimuli without visual cues is the presentation of recorded materials for the assessment of speech recognition abilities. Roeser and Clark evaluated monosyllabic word recognition using both recorded stimuli as well as monitored live voice (MLV) for 32 ears.9 They reported that word recognition scores for MLV and recorded stimuli ...
Your point about phonology is important and interesting. Yes, neuroscientists who study language need to pay more attention to linguistics! You suggest that data from phonology leads you to believe that gestural information is critical. I dont doubt that. But heres an important point (correct me if Im wrong because Im not a phonologist!): the data that drives phonological theory comes from how people produce speech sounds. It doesnt come from how people hear speech sounds. You are assuming that the phonology uncovered via studies of production, also applies to the phonological processing in speech perception. This may be true, but I dont think so. My guess is that most of speech perception involves recognizing chunks of speech on the syllable scale, not individual segments. In other words, while you clearly need to represent speech at the segmental (and even featural) level for production, you dont need to do this for perception. So it doesnt surprise me that phonologists find gesture ...
The temporal perception of simple auditory and visual stimuli can be modulated by exposure to asynchronous audiovisual speech. For instance, research using the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has shown that exposure to temporally misaligned audiovisual speech signals can induce temporal adaptation that will influence the TOJs of other (simpler) audiovisual events (Navarra et al. (2005) Cognit Brain Res 25:499-507). Given that TOJ and simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks appear to reflect different underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether adaptation to asynchronous speech inputs would also influence SJ task performance. Participants judged whether a light flash and a noise burst, presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, were simultaneous or not, or else they discriminated which of the two sensory events appeared to have occurred first. While performing these tasks, participants monitored a continuous speech stream for target words that were either presented in synchrony, or with the audio
In any speaking engagement, one of the most important factor (and the most neglected, too) is the audience. People are so worried about the speech itself that they tend to forget the real factor that will affect the whole execution of the speech.. There are many kinds of speeches and one of them is the wedding speech. It is that part of the weeding that everybody is so excited to hear.. In a wedding, there are three primary wedding speeches that will be heard. The first one will be coming from the brides father. This is usually the most emotional speech and the most unforgettable one. It becomes so touchy when the father includes in his speech how he is endorsing his daughter to his husband.. The second part of the wedding speech is the grooms speech. Here, he will thank his parents for all the love and care. He will also thank all those who made the celebration possible and memorable.. And last is the best mans speech. Usually, this type of wedding speech is the most enlightening one because ...
A method and apparatus for real time speech recognition with and without speaker dependency which includes the following steps. Converting the speech signals into a series of primitive sound spectrum parameter frames; detecting the beginning and ending of speech according to the primitive sound spectrum parameter frame, to determine the sound spectrum parameter frame series; performing non-linear time domain normalization on the sound spectrum parameter frame series using sound stimuli, to obtain speech characteristic parameter frame series with predefined lengths on the time domain; performing amplitude quantization normalization on the speech characteristic parameter frames; comparing the speech characteristic parameter frame series with the reference samples, to determine the reference sample which most closely matches the speech characteristic parameter frame series; and determining the recognition result according to the most closely matched reference sample.
Contents Examination of perceptual reorganization of nonnative speech contrasts Zulu click discrimination by English-speaking adults and infants Context effects in two-month-old infants perception of labio-dentalinterdental fricative contrasts The phoneme as a perceptuomotor structure Consonant-vowel cohesiveness in speech production as revealed by initial and final consonant exchanges Word-level coarticulation and shortening in Italian and English speech Awareness of phonological segments and reading ability in Italian children Grammatical information effects in auditory word recognition Talkers signaling of new and old words in speech and listeners perception and use of the distinction Word-initial consonant length in Pattani Malay The perception of word-initial consonant length Pattani Malay Perception of the M-N distinction in VC syllables and Orchestrating acoustic cues to linguistic effect.
In article ,49v09q$87e at,, mgrim at (Martin Grim) says: ,Collecting information about the anatomical part isnt such a hard task, ,but less is known about the way the brain computes speech from the signals ,delivered by the ear and the auditory pathway. The ear converts the sound ,waves to a frequency spectrum, which is send to the auditory cortex. Speech ,is known to be build up by phonemes and phonemes can be identified by their ,formants, or even by formant ratios (for speaker independency). The question ,which rises now is does the brain computes speech from the enire frequency ,spectrum, or does it use just the formants? , ,Does somebody know the answer to this question (which is summarized as ,are formants biological plausible), or perhaps a reference of a publication ,with a discussion about this subject? Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in ...
Here are some steps you can go through to get sales speech Speech. Step 1 - Identify the product that you want to sell. The first step in Sale sales speech ideas is to stop and think about what the product you are Speecy to sell is. This might be very clear for you, especially if you only For one product.. There are a lot of options for those who are pursuing an essay for sale. However, they are not always relevant to the instructions in question. To answer the requests and calls of pay for speech and buy speech adequately, you have to redirect the efforts to a specific agency. Top-Rated Speeches for Sale Online. Do you need to come up with a speech but are pressed for time or simply do not feel like writing it? Buy speech online to ...
Adaptor grammars are a framework for expressing and performing inference over a variety of non-parametric linguistic models. These models currently provide state-of-the-art performance on unsuper- vised word segmentation from phonemic representations of child-directed unseg- mented English utterances. This paper in- vestigates the applicability of these mod- els to unsupervised word segmentation of Mandarin. We investigate a wide vari- ety of different segmentation models, and show that the best segmentation accuracy isobtainedfrommodelsthatcaptureinter- word collocational dependencies. Sur- prisingly, enhancing the models to exploit syllable structure regularities and to cap- ture tone information does improve over- all word segmentation accuracy, perhaps because the information the.... ...
On October 6 our YAL members on Fayetteville State University held a free speech event. We provided a free speech ball for students of FSU to freely write on. We discussed with students about signing a petition to switch campus policies over to the Chicago Principle which would allow the whole campus ground to be a free speech zone. Many students agreed that free speech is important as well as a constitutional right and should be upheld on our public campus.. During our demonstration we were approached twice by campus administration. The first man just came out to see what we were discussing and then he left. Then a woman came out and told us to leave from where we were because it was not part of the free speech zone. We asked a list of questions as to why we had to leave and what specific policies inhibited us from being there. She then took us to another administrator. We were explained the free speech zone policies and then we explained our petition. We were told it was good intended, but we ...
A system and method for recognizing an utterance of a speech in which each reference pattern stored in a dictionary is constituted by a series of phonemes of a word to be recognized, each phoneme having a predetermined length of continued time and having a series of frames and a lattice point (i, j) of an i-th number phoneme at an j-th number frame having a discriminating score derived from Neural Networks for the corresponding phoneme. When the series of phonemes recognized by a phoneme recognition block is compared with each reference pattern, one i of the input series of phonemes recognized by the phoneme recognition block being calculated as a matching score as gk(i, j); ##EQU1## wherein ak(i, j) denotes an output score value of the Neural Networks of the j-th number phoneme at the j-th number frame of the reference pattern and p denoted a penalty constant to avoid an extreme shrinkage of the phonemes, a total matching score is calculated as gk (I, J), I denoting the number of frames of the input
The students will get familiar with basic characteristics of speech signal in relation to production and hearing of speech by humans. They will understand basic algorithms of speech analysis common to many applications. They will be given an overview of applications (recognition, synthesis, coding) and be informed about practical aspects of speech algorithms implementation. The students will be able to design a simple system for speech processing (speech activity detector, recognizer of limited number of isolated words), including its implementation into application programs. ...
Speech shadowing is an experimental technique in which subjects repeat speech immediately after hearing it (usually through earphones). The reaction time between hearing a word and pronouncing it can be as short as 254 ms or even 150 ms. This is only the delay duration of a speech syllable. While a person is only asked to repeat words, they also automatically process their syntax and semantics. Words repeated during the practice of shadowing imitate the parlance of the overheard words more than the same words read aloud by that subject. The technique is also used in language learning. Functional imaging finds that the shadowing of nonwords occurs through the dorsal stream that links auditory and motor representations of speech through a pathway that starts in the superior temporal cortex, goes to the inferior parietal cortex and then the posterior inferior frontal cortex (Brocas area). Speech shadowing was first used as a research technique by the Leningrad Group led by Ludmilla Andreevna ...
DiNino, M., Wright, R. A., Winn, M. B., Bierer, J. A., Vowel and consonant confusions from spectrally manipulated stimuli designed to simulate poor cochlear implant electrode-neuron interfaces. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 140(6): 4404-4418, 2016.. Bierer, J.A., Litvak, L. Reducing channel interaction through cochlear implant programming may improve speech perception: Current focusing and channel deactivation. Trends in Hearing. 17; 20, 2016.. Cosentino, S., Carlyon, R.P., Deeks, J.M., Parkinson, W., Bierer, J.A., Rate discrimination, gap detection and ranking of temporal pitch in cochlear implant users. J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol. 17(4):371-82, 2016.. Bierer, J.A., Spindler, E., Bierer, S.M., Wright, R.A. An examination of sources of variability across the Consonant-Nucleus-Consonant test in cochlear implant listeners. Trends in Hearing. 17; 20, 2016.. DeVries, L.A., Scheperle, R.A., Bierer, J.A., Assessing the electrode-neuron interface with the electrically-evoked compound action potential, ...
Purpose Speech intelligibility research typically relies on traditional evidence of reliability and validity. This investigation used Rasch analysis to enhance understanding of the functioning and meaning of scores obtained with 2 commonly used procedures: word identification (WI) and magnitude estimation scaling (MES). Method Narrative samples of children with hearing impairments were used to collect data from listeners with no previous experience listening to or judging intelligibility of speech. WI data were analyzed with the Rasch rating scale model. MES data were examined with Rasch partial credit model when individual scales were unknown, and the Rasch rating scale model was used with reported individual scales. Results Results indicated that both procedures have high reliability and similar discriminatory power. However, reliability and separation were lower for MES when scales were unknown. Both procedures yielded similar speech sample ordering by their difficulty. However, sampling gaps ...
Communication, by means of sound, are innate for animals and requires no experience to be correctly produced. Humans, on the other hand, require extensive postnatal experience to produce and decode speech sounds that are the basis of language. Language acquisition during the critical periods require hearing and practicing abilities in deaf children. While most babies begin producing speechlike sounds at about 7 months(babbling), naturally deaf infants show distinct deficits in their early vocalizations and such individuals fail to develop language if not provided with an alternative form of symbolic expression (Fitzpatrick D. et al, 2001).[11] If these deaf children are exposed to sign language at an early age however, they begin to babble with their hands just as a hearing infant babbles audibly. This suggests that regardless of the modality early experience shapes language behaviour. There are other children who have acquired speech but lost their hearing right before puberty. These children ...
Background Cochlear Implants (CIs) provide near normal speech intelligibility in quiet environments to individuals suffering from sensorineural hearing loss. Perception of speech in situations with competing background noise and especially music appraisal however are still insufficient. Hence, improving speech perception in ambient noise and music intelligibility is a core challenge in CI research. Quantitatively assessing music intelligibility is a demanding task due to its inherently subjective nature. However, previous approaches have related electrophysiological measurements to speech intelligibility, a corresponding relation to music intelligibility, can be assumed. Recent studies have investigated the relation between results obtained from hearing performance tests and Spread of Excitations (SoEs) measurements. SoE functions are acquired by measuring Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials (ECAPs) which represent the electrical response generated in the neural structures of the ...
This video was recorded at MUSCLE Conference joint with VITALAS Conference. Human speech production and perception mechanisms are essentially bimodal. Interesting evidence for this audiovisual nature of speech is provided by the so-called Mc Gurk effect. To properly account for the complementary visual aspect we propose a unified framework to analyse speech and present our related findings in applications such as audiovisual speech inversion and recognition. Speakers face is analysed by means of Active Appearance Modelling and the extracted visual features are integrated with simultaneously extracted acoustic features to recover the underlying articulator properties, e.g., the movement of the speakers tongue tip, or recognize the recorded utterance, e.g. the sequence of the numbers uttered. Possible asynchrony between the audio and visual stream is also taken into account. For the case of recognition we also exploit feature uncertainty as given by the corresponding front-ends, to achieve ...
Technique of Speech - Culture of Speech and Business Communication Technique of Speech - Culture of Speech and Business Communication Speech Technique.
Routledge. The body of the speech is the biggest and is where the majority of information is transferred. When read aloud, your speech should flow smoothly from introduction to body, from main point to main point and then finally into your conclusion. Introduction. Example 2: If youre at your grandmothers anniversary celebration, for which the whole family comes together, there may be people who dont know you. The outline should contain three sections: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. If you feel that a particular fact is vital, you may consider condensing your comments about it and moving the comments to the conclusion of the speech rather than deleting them. Persuasive speech writing guide, tips on introduction, body paragraphs and conclusion on How to write a good persuasive speech Persuasive speech is meant to convince the audience to adopt a particular point of view or influence them to take a particular action. How does genre affect my introduction or ...
This course addresses prominent theories and fundamental issues in the fields of speech perception, spoken word recognition, and speech production. The primary focus will be on accounts of unimpaired cognitive processing involved in the production and perception of single words and phrases, and we will consider a range of interdisciplinary perspectives.
Hearing-impaired listeners are known to experience certain problems in situations with multiple competing speech signals, e.g. cocktail parties. In order to investigate hearing-aid users performance on competing-speech tasks, we developed a Danish multi-talker speech corpus based on the Dantale-II material. Together with researchers from the University of Sydney, we then carried out a study where we fitted twenty hearing-impaired listeners with bilateral completely-in-the-canal hearing aids that had been adjusted to ensure high-frequency speech audibility as well as minimal distortion of spatial acoustic cues. Following an acclimatisation period of about four weeks, we measured the listeners performance on a number of competing-speech tasks that differed in spatial complexity. Furthermore, we measured their working memory and attention skills.. ...
Introduction. English Language Essay James Huang Text A, B and C are all examples of Briony?s speech at 21 months. Text A is a list of single utterances spoken over 12 hours at a family friend?s house. Texts B and C are transcripts of her interactions with her mother at their home. Referring in detail to the transcripts and to relevant ideas from language study, analyse children?s early spoken language development and interactions with caregivers. Briony?s use of one word ?Mok-Mok? when her body language indicates she is trying to reach for the milk confirms this word is her aim. Her phonological use as expanded to the point where she can use proto-words effectively and this shows that she is able to pronounce the open vowel sounds and plosives fluently. However her deletion of the liquid ?l? and the consonant cluster reduction of the would be ?lk? shows that she is still developing the ability to fluently pronounce two different phonological voices, plosives and liquids consecutively. Her ...
Automatic retraining of a speech recognizer during its normal operation in conjunction with an electronic device responsive to the speech recognizer is addressed. In this retraining, stored trained models are retrained on the basis of recognized user utterances. Feature vectors, model state transitions, and tentative recognition results are stored upon processing and evaluation of speech samples of the user utterances. A reliable transcript is determined for later adaptation of a speech model, in dependence upon the users successive behavior when interacting with the speech recognizer and the electronic device. For example, in a name dialing process, such a behavior can be manual or voice re-dialing of the same number or dialing of a different phone number, immediately aborting an established communication, or braking it after a short period of time. In dependence upon such a behavior, a transcript is select in correspondence to a users first utterance or in correspondence to a users second
Many politicians frequently confuse their personal wants with the wants and needs of their audience. The successful politician chooses his speech topics primarily based on the area that hes visiting and the audience that hes addressing. Once you have speech ideas you can use, you can develop a kind of presentation of the subject. Leading the listeners to your viewpoint is often part of the speech to persuade. But , even a speech to inform requires some first lead directly to get your audience to listen attentively and to follow what you are claiming. Making that connection with your audience will most likely make for a great speech. You will sound like a natural speaker if you know your subject and have rehearsed what you mean to say ...
Nath, AR, Fava EE and Beauchamp, MS. Neural Correlates of Interindividual Differences in Childrens Audiovisual Speech Perception. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011 Sept 28;31(39)13963-13971.[[Media:NathFavaBeauchampJNS2011.pdf,Click here to download the PDF.]] [[Beauchamp:McGurkStimuli,Click here to download the stimuli used in this experiment ...
Nath, AR, Fava EE and Beauchamp, MS. Neural Correlates of Interindividual Differences in Childrens Audiovisual Speech Perception. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011 Sept 28;31(39)13963-13971.[[Media:NathFavaBeauchampJNS2011.pdf,Click here to download the PDF.]] [[Beauchamp:McGurkStimuli,Click here to download the stimuli used in this experiment ...
Human perception and brain responses differ between words, in which mouth movements are visible before the voice is heard, and words, for which the reverse is true.
Free speech definition is - speech that is protected by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; also : the right to such speech. How to use free speech in a sentence.
Typically-developing (TD) infants can construct unified cross-modal percepts, such as a speaking face, by integrating auditory-visual (AV) information. This skill is a key building block upon which higher-level skills, such as word learning, are built. Because word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we assessed the hypothesis that this delay partly results from a deficit in integrating AV speech cues. AV speech integration has rarely been investigated in neurodevelopmental disorders, and never previously in infants. We probed for the McGurk effect, which occurs when the auditory component of one sound (/ba/) is paired with the visual component of another sound (/ga/), leading to the perception of an illusory third sound (/da/ or /tha/). We measured AV integration in 95 infants/toddlers with Down, fragile X, or Williams syndrome, whom we matched on Chronological and Mental Age to 25 TD infants. We also assessed a more basic AV perceptual ability: ...
Davis, Matthew H; Johnsrude, Ingrid S; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Taylor, Karen; McGettigan, Carolyn (2005). Lexical Information Drives Perceptual Learning of Distorted Speech: Evidence From the Comprehension of Noise-Vocoded Sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(2):222-241. ...
When large sections of Melania Trumps speech at the Republican National Convention turned out to be lifted from Michelle Obamas 2008 convention speech, the Trump campaign tried to deflect criticism by throwing the speechwriter under the bus (after initially insisting Melania wrote the speech herself). The campaign went so far as to release an apology letter from the writer, Meredith McIver.. But in doing so, the campaign created another problem, because McIver doesnt work for the campaign. Shes an employee of the Trump Organization, Donald Trumps business empire. A basic rule of campaign finance is that if an employee of a corporation does work for a campaign, it counts as a corporate contribution, and corporations are not allowed to donate to campaigns.. To get around that, the campaign had to pay McIver for her work on Melanias speech. In the latest campaign filings, McIver is listed on the payroll of the campaign-for a grand total of $356.01. The payment, which occurred on July 23, five ...
Here is the best resource for homework help with SPEECH 100 : Intro to Speech at Borough Of Manhattan Community College. Find SPEECH100 study guides, notes,
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: On the automatic recognition of continuous speech: Implications from a spectrogram-reading 6 experiment
Dudley Knight is one of the most respected voice and speech teachers in North America and highly regarded internationally. Janet Madelle Feindel, Professor of Voice and Alexander, Carnegie Mellon University, author of The Thought Propels the Sound Actors and other professional voice users need to speak clearly and expressively in order to communicate the ideas and emotions of their characters-and themselves. Whatever the native accent of the speaker, this easy communication to the listener must always happen in every moment, onstage, in film or on television; in real life too. This book, an introduction to Knight-Thompson Speechwork, gives speakers the ownership of a vast variety of speech skills and the ability to explore unlimited varieties of speech actions-without imposing a single, unvarying pattern of good speech. The skills gained through this book enable actors to find the unique way in which a dramatic character embodies the language of the play. They also help any speaker to ...
The term speech processing refers to the scientific discipline concerned with the analysis and processing of speech signals for getting the best benefit in various practical scenarios. These different practical scenarios correspond to a large variety of applications of speech processing research. Examples of some applications include enhancement, coding, synthesis, recognition and speaker recognition. A very rapid growth, particularly during the past ten years, has resulted due to the efforts of many leading scientists. The ideal aim is to develop algorithms for a certain task that maximize performance, are computationally feasible and are robust to a wide class of conditions. The purpose of this book is to provide a cohesive collection of articles that describe recent advances in various branches of speech processing. The main focus is in describing specific research directions through a detailed analysis and review of both the theoretical and practical settings. The intended audience includes ...
Hearing loss can significantly disrupt the ability of children to become mainstreamed in educational environments that emphasize spoken language as a primary means of communication. Similarly, adults who lose their hearing after communicating using spoken language have numerous challenges understanding speech and integrating into social situations. These challenges are particularly significant in noisy situations, where multiple sound sources often arrive at the ears from various directions. Intervention with hearing aids and/or cochlear implants (CIs) has proven to be highly successful for restoring some aspects of communication, including speech understanding and language acquisition. However, there is also typically a notable gap in outcomes relative to normal-hearing listeners. Importantly, auditory abilities operate in the context of how hearing integrates with other senses. Notably, the visual system is tightly couples to the auditory system. Vision is known to impact auditory perception ...
Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) applications for improving the oral skills of low-proficient learners have to cope with non-native speech that is particularly challenging. Since...
The Speech Enhancer is the only SGD with a natural sounding voice - because it uses a persons biometric voice characteristics as one of the input and control mechanisms. This unique SGD augments your existing speech components with new synthesized components that blend naturally, sounding just like you - only louder and clearer, easier to understand. Speech Generating Device (SGD) Synthesizes New Clear Speech Restores Inaudible Voice Tiny, Battery-powered System
and speech perception. With Carol Fowler, Philip Rubin, and Michael Turvey, he introduced the consideration of speech in terms ... Remez, R. E.; Rubin, P. E.; Pisoni, D. B.; Carrell, T. D. (1981). "Speech perception without traditional speech cues". Science ... "On the Perceptual Organization of Speech" (PDF). Yale University. Retrieved July 9, 2018. "The Handbook of Speech Perception". ... The Handbook of Speech Perception. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9780631229278. "Implications for Speech Production of a General ...
Smith, BL; Brown, BL; Strong, WJ; Rencher, AC (1975). "Effects of speech rate on personality perception". Language and Speech. ... If the gesture is abductory and is part of a speech sound, the sound will be called voiceless. However, voiceless speech sounds ... Johar, Swati (22 December 2015). Emotion, Affect and Personality in Speech: The Bias of Language and Paralanguage. ... Thus, a speech sound having an adductory gesture may be referred to as a "glottal stop" even if the vocal fold vibrations do ...
She has also done extensive research on the relationship between speech perception and speech production, and on imitation. ... Fowler, C. A. (2003). Speech production and perception. In A. Healy and R. Proctor (eds.). Handbook of psychology, Vol. 4: ... Galantucci, B; Fowler, C.A.; Turvey, M.T. (2006). "The motor theory of speech perception reviewed". Psychonomic Bulletin and ... She is best known for her direct realist approach to speech perception. ...
See also Speech perception. As mentioned earlier, some researchers feel that the most effective way of teaching phonemic ... Other types of reading and writing, such as pictograms (e.g., a hazard symbol and an emoji), are not based on speech based ... Reading and speech are codependent: reading promotes vocabulary development and a richer vocabulary facilitates skilled reading ... Spoken language is dominant for most of childhood, however, reading ultimately catches up and surpasses speech. By their first ...
Vestibular sensitivity to ultrasonic sounds has also been hypothesized to be involved in the perception of speech presented at ... Lenhardt, M.; Skellett, R; Wang, P; Clarke, A. (1991). "Human ultrasonic speech perception". Science. 253 (5015): 82-85. ...
Psycholinguistic models of speech perception, e.g. TRACE, must be distinguished from computer speech recognition tools. The ... A simulation of speech perception involves presenting the TRACE computer program with mock speech input, running the program, ... Motor theory of speech perception (rival theory) Cohort model (rival theory) McClelland, J.L., & Elman, J.L. (1986) McClelland ... TRACE is a connectionist model of speech perception, proposed by James McClelland and Jeffrey Elman in 1986. It is based on a ...
"Visual speech perception without primary auditory cortex activation". NeuroReport. 13 (3): 311-5. doi:10.1097/00001756- ... Multimodal perception is a scientific term that describes how animals form coherent, valid, and robust perception by processing ... Sep 2010). "Causal inference in perception". Trends Cogn Sci. 14 (9): 425-32. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2010.07.001. PMID 20705502.. ... Visual-size perceptions, alternatively, have to be computed using parameters such as slant and distance. Considering this, ...
"Perception of the Speech Code," that argued for the motor theory of speech perception. This is still among the most cited ... Perception of the speech code. (1967). Psychological Review, 74, 1967, 431-461. Studdert-Kennedy, M., & Shankweiler, D. P. ( ... Donald Shankweiler's research career has spanned a number of areas related speech perception, reading, and cognitive ... Studdert-Kennedy, M., Shankweiler, D., & Pisoni, D. (1972). Auditory and phonetic processes in speech perception: Evidence from ...
"Perception of Speech and Sound". In Jacob Benesty; M. Mohan Sondhi & Yiteng Huang (eds.). Springer Handbook of Speech ... The relative perception of pitch can be fooled, resulting in aural illusions. There are several of these, such as the tritone ... In general, pitch perception theories can be divided into place coding and temporal coding. Place theory holds that the ... In most cases, the pitch of complex sounds such as speech and musical notes corresponds very nearly to the repetition rate of ...
Liberman, A. M.; Cooper, F. S.; Shankweiler, D. P.; Studdert-Kennedy, M. (1967). "Perception of the speech code". Psychological ...
The motor theory of speech perception proposed by Alvin Liberman and colleagues at the Haskins Laboratories argues that the ... Liberman, AM; Mattingly, IG (1985). "The motor theory of speech perception revised". Cognition. 21 (1): 1-36. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... Galantucci, B; Fowler, CA; Turvey, MT (2006). "The motor theory of speech perception reviewed". Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. ... Liberman, AM; Mattingly, IG (1989). "A specialization for speech perception". Science. 243 (4890): 489-94. Bibcode:1989Sci... ...
"Perception of Speech and Sound". In Jacob Benesty; M. Mohan Sondhi; Yiteng Huang (eds.). Springer handbook of speech processing ... JND analysis is frequently occurring in both music and speech, the two being related and overlapping in the analysis of speech ... for both music and speech perception results should not be reported in Hz but either as percentages or in STs (5 Hz between 20 ... When analysing speech melody, rather than musical tones, accuracy decreases. This is not surprising given that speech does not ...
His research on speech perception included:- Speech perception with normal and impaired hearing. The processes by which ... Summerfield has conducted research on speech perception, as well as applied research on the effectiveness and economics of ... Summerfield Q (1992). "Lipreading and audiovisual speech perception". Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 335 (1273): 71-78. doi:10.1098/ ... A taxonomy of models for audio-visual fusion in speech perception.". In Campbell R, Dodd B, Burnham, D (eds.). Hearing by eye ...
... ; Aaron Nolan; Katie Drager (1 January 2006). "From fush to feesh: Exemplar priming in speech perception". The ... She has explored how speech perception and production is influenced by past experiences and current context, including ... Jennifer Hay; Katie Drager (January 2010). "Stuffed toys and speech perception". Linguistics. 48 (4). doi:10.1515/LING.2010.027 ...
Infants as young as 1 month perceive some speech sounds as speech categories (they display categorical perception of speech). ... Kuhl, P. K. (1983). "Perception of auditory equivalence classes for speech in early infancy". Infant Behavior and Development. ... Their measure, monitoring infant sucking-rate, became a major experimental method for studying infant speech perception. ... In fact, both production and perception abilities continue to develop well into the school years, with the perception of some ...
DeCasper, A. J., and Spence, M. J. (1986). Prenatal maternal speech influences newborns' perception of speech sounds. Infant ... Lecaneut, J. P., and Granier-Deferre, C. (1993). "Speech stimuli in the fetal environment", in Developmental Neurocognition: ... Speech and Face Processing in the First Year of Life, eds B. De Boysson-Bardies, S. de Schonen, P. Jusczyk, P. MacNeilage, and ... Does Prenatal Language Experience Shape the Neonate Neural Response to Speech? Frontiers in Psychology, 2. doi:10.3389/fpsyg. ...
Tsur, Reuven (1992). What Makes Sound Patterns Expressive?: The Poetic Mode of Speech Perception. Sound & Meaning: The Roman ...
Other examples of computational modelling are McClelland and Elman's TRACE model of speech perception and Franklin Chang's Dual ... McClelland JL, Elman JL (January 1986). "The TRACE model of speech perception". Cognitive Psychology. 18 (1): 1-86. doi:10.1016 ... Errors of speech, in particular, grant insight into how the mind produces language while a speaker is mid-utterance. Speech ... "Speech Errors and What They Reveal About Language". Retrieved 2017-05-02. Fromkin VA (1973). Speech Errors as ...
A classic example of computational modeling in language research is McClelland and Elman's TRACE model of speech perception. A ... McClelland, J.L.; Elman, J.L. (1986). "The TRACE model of speech perception". Cognitive Psychology. 18 (1): 1-86. doi:10.1016/ ... Abrahams, V. C.; Rose, P. K. (18 July 1975). "Sentence perception as an interactive parallel process". Science. 189 (4198): 226 ... processing Neurolinguistics Prediction in language comprehension Psycholinguistics Reading comprehension Speech perception ...
The Perception of Intonation. In David B. Pisoni & Robert E. Remez (eds.), Handbook of Speech Perception, 236-263. (Blackwell ... The use of prosodic parameters in automatic speech recognition. Computer, Speech and language. Prentice Hall International. ... She joined the Speech Communication Group at MIT (headed by Pr. Ken Stevens), where she acquired a specialization in acoustic ... When the speech processing community moved towards black box models for recognition and synthesis, Jacqueline Vaissiere left ...
"Young People's Perception of Hate Speech". Online Hate Speech in the European Union. SpringerBriefs in Linguistics. pp. 53-85. ... or to describe young adults as anti-free speech, specifically in reference to a practice referred to as deplatforming. It has ...
Hanson, V. L. (1977). "Within category discriminations in speech perception". Perception and Psychophysics. 21 (5): 423-430. ... majoring in psychology along with speech pathology and audiology. In graduate school at the University of Oregon, her scope ...
doi:10.1016/s0163-6383(80)80044-0. Werker, Janet; Tees, Richard C. (1984). "Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for ... underlying perceptions of speech sound) can vary even within languages. For example, speakers of Quebec French often express ... American Speech. 11 (4): 298-301. doi:10.2307/451189. JSTOR 451189. "Research paper: One sound heard as two: The perception of ... Infant speech perception and phonological acquisition. Phonological Development: Models, Research, and Implications. Parkton, ...
Infants' perception of speech is distinct. Between six and ten months of age, infants can discriminate sounds used in the ... Actions and speech are organized in games, such as peekaboo to provide children with information about words and phrases. ... By 10 to 12 months, infants can no longer discriminate between speech sounds that are not used in the language(s) to which they ... Adult speech provides children with grammatical input. Both Mandarin and Cantonese languages have a category of grammatical ...
Back vowel List of phonetics topics Tsur, Reuven (February 1992). The Poetic Mode of Speech Perception. Duke University Press. ...
"Laslab: Language and Speech Laboratory". Retrieved 2019-04-29. "SAP - Speech Acquisition & Perception Group ( ... She is Professor of Psychology at Pompeu Fabra University where she heads the Speech Acquisition and Perception (SAP) Research ... Sebastián Gallés has used electrophysiology to study brain activity associated with speech perception and language processing ... a specific emphasis on how infants raised in monolingual and bilingual families differ in their ability to discriminate speech ...
Front vowel List of phonetics topics Relative articulation Tsur, Reuven (February 1992). The Poetic Mode of Speech Perception. ...
A person with expressive aphasia will exhibit effortful speech. Speech generally includes important content words but leaves ... Wilson Sarah J (2006). "A Case Study of the Efficacy of Melodic Intonation Therapy" (PDF). Music Perception. 24 (1): 23-36. doi ... which is prevalent in the speech of most patients with aphasia. The omission of function words makes the person's speech ... people with expressive aphasia can understand speech and read better than they can produce speech and write. The person's ...
"Spatiotemporal convergence of semantic processing in reading and speech perception". Journal of Neuroscience. 29: 9271-9280. ... A strong correlation has been found between speech-language and the anatomically asymmetric pars triangularis. Foundas, et al. ...
Moore BC (December 2008). "The role of temporal fine structure processing in pitch perception, masking, and speech perception ... Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H. (November 2014). "The Hearing-Aid Speech Perception Index (HASPI)". Speech Communication. ... Plomp R (1983). "Perception of speech as a modulated signal". Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of Phonetic ... This is sufficient to give reasonable perception of speech in quiet, but not in noisy or reverberant conditions. The processing ...
Current models of perception have suggested that the brain performs some form of Bayesian inference and integration of ... Neurocomputational speech processing. *Neuroinformatics. *Neuroplasticity. *Neurophysiology. *Systems neuroscience. * ... different sensory information in generating our perception of the physical world.[25][26] ... processing is divided among a biophysical modelling of different subsystems and a more theoretical modelling of perception. ...
But this perception of steadily falling costs for LNG has been dashed in the last several years.[76] ... Prospects for Development of LNG in Russia Konstantin Simonov's speech at LNG 2008. April 23, 2008. ...
With respect to the external and internal perception of this relation, for instance in past editions of the Encyclopædia ... Corias and Belmonte in middle west of Asturias have shown a huge difference in the medieval speech between both banks of the ... support the idea that differences between Galician and Portuguese speech are not enough to justify considering them as separate ...
In his speech, Hans Christian even addresses the Skjern family, provoking Laura, the only one keeping up appearances, to return ... Mads Skjern, however, changes this perception when he, with Katrine Larsen's aid, buys a major share in the same company. ...
Psychiatric (orientation, mental state, evidence of abnormal perception or thought).. It is to likely focus on areas of ... speech therapists, occupational therapists, radiographers, dietitians, and bioengineers, surgeons, surgeon's assistant, ...
Redcay E.; Haist F.; Courchesne E. (2008). "Paper: Functional neuroimaging of speech perception during a pivotal period in ...
"A pivotal moment for free speech in Britain". The Guardian. April 15, 2010.. ... the perception of chiropractors is generally favourable; two-thirds of American adults agree that chiropractors have their ... "Public Perceptions of Doctors of Chiropractic: Results of a National Survey and Examination of Variation According to ...
Indian speech and hearing association (ISHA) is a professional platform of the audiologist and speech language pathologists ... perception, anatomy, statistics, physics and research methods) or an additional preparatory year prior to entry into the ... The second Audiology & Speech Language Therapy program was started in the same year, at T.N.Medical College and BYL Nair Ch. ... "CICIC::Information for foreign-trained audiologists and speech-language pathologists". Occupational profiles for selected ...
... and poor spatial and visual perception.[citation needed] ... and decreased production of speech (Broca's area).. *Temporal ...
Human perception of the odor may be contrasted by a non-human animal's perception of it; for example, an animal who eats feces ... whereas most belong chiefly to child-directed speech (such as poo or poop) or to crude humor (such as crap, dump, load and turd ...
Speech encoding[edit]. Speech encoding is an important category of audio data compression. The perceptual models used to ... irrelevant to the human visual perception by exploiting perceptual features of human vision. For example, small differences in ... Compression of human speech is often performed with even more specialized techniques; speech coding, or voice coding, is ... The Olympus WS-120 digital speech recorder, according to its manual, can store about 178 hours of speech-quality audio in .WMA ...
One contribution is randomness.[198] While it is established that that randomness is not the only factor in the perception of ... E. Bruce Goldstein (2010). Sensation and Perception (12th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 39. ISBN 0495601497.. ... It is also likely that the associative relationship between level of choice and perception of free will is influentially ... The intellectuality of all perception implied then of course that causality is rooted in the world, precedes and enables ...
Singing training has been found to improve lung, speech clarity, and coordination of speech muscles, thus, accelerating ... They found that music therapy was effective in altering perceptions in the midst of adversity, was a strong component of ... melodic intonation therapy is the practice of communicating with others by singing to enhance speech or increase speech ... It is commonly agreed that while speech is lateralized mostly to the left hemisphere (for right-handed and most left-handed ...
... speeches and interviews "a simple basic pattern never fails to emerge: social change must be comprehensive and revolutionary" ... to desires as well as to perceptions.[93] "When an external object is perceived, consciousness is also conscious of itself, ...
American perceptions of Fascism[edit]. According to D'Agostino, "historians have neglected to consider how Pacelli's visit ... His speech before the National Press Club was broadcast.[16] ... 2.1 American perceptions of Fascism. *2.2 Vatican-US relations ...
Ingold, T. (2000). "Building, dwelling, living: how animals and people make themselves at home in the world". The Perception of ...
The two common perception of Life and Reality Sri Aurobindo finds that there are two extreme views of life, the materialists ... Externalising Mind - the most "external" part of the mind proper, concerned with the expression of ideas in speech, in life, or ... this sense has an assertion on truth perception, giving distorted view. To recognise that we are only a partial movement of ... that which would escape once thought and speech) as inert or a passive, silent Atman, an illusion or a hallucination, this ...
"A Royal Occasion speeches". Journal. Worldhop. 1996. Archived from the original on 12 May 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.. ... This accomplishment was all the more remarkable given Bhumibol's lack of binocular depth perception. On 19 April 1966, Bhumibol ... Bhumibol's speech at Kasetsart University Commencement Ceremony, 19 July 1974.[139]. Bhumibol was involved in many social and ... "HM the King's 26 April speeches". The Nation. Archived from the original on 8 July 2006. Retrieved 5 July 2006.. ...
No light perception : is considered total visual impairment, or total blindness. Blindness is defined by the World Health ... For the blind, there are books in braille, audio-books, and text-to-speech computer programs, machines and e-book readers. Low ... The rest have some vision, from light perception alone to relatively good acuity. Low vision is sometimes used to describe ... OCR scanners can, in conjunction with text-to-speech software, read the contents of books and documents aloud via computer. ...
His features were marred by a drooping left eyelid.] His speech, despite a lisp, was said to be persuasive."[9][10] ... This view of Edward is reflected in the popular perception of the King, as can be seen in the 1995 film Braveheart's portrayal ...
There was a gender gap in perceptions to the case. According to a USA Today/Gallup Poll of 1,010 respondents, about two-thirds ... "figure of speech".[78] ...
Spurred by the perception that women were not treated equitably in many religions, some women turned to a Female Deity as more ... A male or female deity can create through speech or through action, but the metaphor for creation which is uniquely feminine is ... How wonderful to gain access to those feelings and perceptions. ...
PerceptionEdit. The human perception of the intensity of sound and light approximates the logarithm of intensity rather than a ... Harrison, William H. (1931). "Standards for Transmission of Speech". Standards Yearbook. National Bureau of Standards, U. S. ... Sensation and Perception, p. 268, at Google Books *^ Introduction to Understandable Physics, Volume 2, p. SA19-PA9, at Google ... Visual Perception: Physiology, Psychology, and Ecology, p. 356, at Google Books *^ Exercise Psychology, p. 407, at Google Books ...
Free Speech National Right to Life page containing documents opposing excessive regulation of "lobbying" as infringement on " ... Opposes lobbying restrictions on free speech grounds.. *The Citizen's Guide to the U.S. Government - an online tutorial ...
... driven by the perception that they reduce climate gas emissions, and also by factors such as oil price spikes and the need for ... Speech recognition. *Atomtronics. *Carbon nanotube field-effect transistor. *Cybermethodology. *Fourth-generation optical discs ...
Rather than using the formal manner and speech, Maria Theresa spoke (and sometimes wrote) Viennese German, which she picked up ... firm determination and sound perception. Most importantly, she was ready to recognise the mental superiority of some of her ... Her spelling and punctuation were unconventional and she lacked the formal manner and speech which had characterised her ...
Scott, S. K. & Johnsrude, I. S. "The neuroanatomical and functional organization of speech perception. Trends Neurosci. 26, 100 ... The temporal lobe deals with the recognition and perception of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech (Kinser, 2012). ... The parietal lobe also deals with orientation, recognition, and perception. Tonality[edit]. Tonality describes the ... found that TMS applied to the left frontal lobe disturbs speech but not melody supporting the idea that they are subserved by ...
a b Speech by the Dalai Lama. The phrase "core of our being" is Freudian; see Bettina Bock von Wülfingen (2013). "Freud's 'Core ... Compare Altruism (ethics) - perception of altruism as self-sacrifice.. *Compare explanation of alms in various scriptures. ... Using kinship terms in political speeches increased audience agreement with the speaker in one study. This effect was ... speech and action. The degree to which these principles are practiced is different for householders and monks. They are:. *Non- ...
Within London Cockney speech is, to a significant degree, being replaced by Multicultural London English, a form of speech with ... Outside perception[edit]. Society at large viewed the East End with a mixture of suspicion and fascination, with the use of the ... The accent is said to be a remnant of early English London speech, modified by the many immigrants to the area.[83] The Cockney ... the western urban expansion of London must have helped shape the different economic character of the two parts and perceptions ...
Effects of intelligibility on working memory demand for speech perception. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics,71(6), 1360- ... Cristià, A., McGuire, G., Seidl, A., & Francis, A. (2011). Effects of the distribution of cues on infants perception of speech ... Francis, A.L. & Oliver, J. (2018). Psychophysiological measurement of affective responses during speech perception, Hearing ... Francis, A.L., Ciocca, V.C., & Ng, B.K.C. (2003). On the (non)categorical perception of lexical tones. Perception & ...
We are looking at how second language experience affects the effort of listening to speech in the presence of competing speech ... Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research (epub before print).. Wearable Systems for Acquiring Affective Physiological ... of second language proficiency and linguistic uncertainty on recognition of speech in native and nonnative competing speech. ...
... Jeffrey G. Sirianni sirianni at Thu Dec 7 23:40:35 EST 1995 *Previous message ... Speech ,is known to be build up by phonemes and phonemes can be identified by their ,formants, or even by formant ratios (for ... but less is known about the way the brain computes speech from the signals ,delivered by the ear and the auditory pathway. The ... speech and complex waveforms. The information that comes out of neurolinguistics is ever changing, so Im guessing that a ...
... 11.11.2009. Second-language listening ability improvement by watching movies with ... Mitterer and McQueen explain these effects from their groups previous research on perceptual learning in speech perception. ... Dutch landscape »Max Planck Institute »Psycholinguistics »Second-language listening »accents »foreign speech »movies with ... Listeners can use their knowledge about how words normally sound to adjust the way they perceive speech that is spoken in an ...
The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to compare the hierarchy of perceived and produced significant speech pattern ... Development of speech perception and production in children with cochlear implants. *Kishon-Rabin L ... The results show that 1) auditory speech perception performance of children with cochlear implants reaches an asymptote at 76 ... The data also provide additional insight into the interrelated skills of speech perception and production. ...
The Speech Acquisition and Perception Group is part of the Center for Brain and Cognition at Pompeu Fabra University Our ... research focuses on the study of language learning, its perception, and issues related to language processing in general (with ...
Prelinguistic Speech Perception[edit]. Although most children begin producing language, some still cannot produce speech sounds ... 9.0 9.1 Judith C. Goodman&Howard C. Nusbaum(1994). The development of speech perception."The transition from Speech Sounds to ... In child-directed speech, prosodic cues tend to be exaggerated in the kind of speech that is directed toward learning speech ... "Is Categorical perception a fundamental property of speech perception?" Nature Neuroscience, 13: 1428-1432. ...
The primary focus will be on accounts of unimpaired cognitive processing involved in the production and perception of single ... This course addresses prominent theories and fundamental issues in the fields of speech perception, spoken word recognition, ... This course addresses prominent theories and fundamental issues in the fields of speech perception, spoken word recognition, ... The primary focus will be on accounts of unimpaired cognitive processing involved in the production and perception of single ...
Abnormal speech perception in schizophrenia with auditory hallucinations - Volume 16 Issue 3 - Seung-Hwan Lee, Young-Cho Chung ...
... referred to as cross-language speech perception) or second-language speech (second-language speech perception). The latter ... Speech perception has also been analyzed through sinewave speech, a form of synthetic speech where the human voice is replaced ... Speech mode hypothesis is the idea that the perception of speech requires the use of specialized mental processing. The speech ... Speech perception research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, in improving speech ...
... Blomberg, Rina Linköping University, Department of ... EEG, Phase, Synchronisation, Coherence, Multisensory, Face, Speech, Processing, LORETA, Audiovisual, Perception, Oscillations, ... It is a challenging task for researchers to determine how the brain solves multisensory perception, and the neural mechanisms ... Lagged-phase synchronisation measures were computed for conditions of eye-closed rest (REST), speech-only (auditory-only, A), ...
Finally, outside the laboratory, speech perception is not an end in itself, but rather a mean to contribute to a conversation. ... For this special topic, we welcome papers that address any of these ecological aspects of speech perception. ... Listeners do not only need to understand the speech they are hearing, they also need to use this information to plan and time ... First of all, listeners may need to divide their attention between speech comprehension and another task (e.g., driving). ...
Nokia sites use cookies to improve and personalize your experience and to display advertisements. The sites may also include cookies from third parties. By using this site, you consent to the use of cookies. Learn more ...
... responses in 12 younger and 12 older adults during a speech perception task performed in both quiet and noisy listening ... further suggestive of specificity to the speech perception tasks. Global efficiency also correlated positively with mean ... our findings provide evidence of age-related disruptions in cortical functional network organization during speech perception ...
Can video conferencing be a viable method to measure speech perception?. This study aims to develop a speech perception ... Speech Perception Assessment Laboratory Participate SPAL Research Participation. Open participant recruitment for projects:. ... The SPAT: Speech Perception Assessment Transducers. In this study we are examining the influence of different transducers and ... The Effect of Face Masks on Speech Perception Performance. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that different ...
Speech Perception Assessment Laboratory Available Tests Available Tests. Spanish Pediatric Speech Perception Tests (SPSRT/SPPIT ... The Spanish Pediatric Speech Recognition Threshold (SPSRT) Test and the Spanish Pediatric Picture Identification Test (SPPIT) ...
The perception of sentences in noise by 20 implanted or aided D/HH subjects mastering Cued Speech (CS), a system of hand ... This confirms that the combination of lipreading and Cued Speech system remains extremely important for persons with hearing ... Speech perception in noise remains challenging for Deaf/Hard of Hearing people (D/HH), even fitted with hearing aids or ... gestures complementing lip movements, was compared with the perception of 15 typically hearing (TH) controls in three ...
Reflecting the general status of the field, most articles focus on audiovisual speech perception and many utilize the McGurk ... Several articles shed new light on audiovisual speech perception in special populations. It is known that individuals with ... In a study of cued speech, i.e., specific hand-signs for different speech sounds, Bayard et al. (2014) demonstrate that ... affecting audiovisual speech perception, while audiovisual integration per se seemed unimpaired. In a similar vein, adult ...
Speech perception: A foundation for language acquisition. Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology, ed Zelazo P (Oxford Univ ... 2005) Speech perception as a window for understanding plasticity and commitment in language systems of the brain. Dev ... 2005) Infant speech perception bootstraps word learning. Trends Cogn Sci 9:519-527. ... 1984) Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behav Dev ...
Functional changes in inter- and intra-hemispheric cortical processing underlying degraded speech perception.. Bidelman GM1, ... Speech processing; Speech-in-noise (SIN) perception ... Increased right hemisphere involvement during speech-in-noise ( ... To better elucidate the brain basis of SIN perception, we recorded neuroelectric activity in normal hearing listeners to speech ... Behaviorally, listeners obtained superior SIN performance for speech presented to the right compared to the left ear (i.e., ...
... acquisition in infancy involves experimental studies of the infants ability to discriminate various kinds of speech or speech- ... Methods for studying speech perception in infants and children. In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic ... infant speech perception head-turn preference procedure familiarization Portions of this paper were presented at the 2005 ... Shvachkin, N. K. H. (1973). The development of phonemic speech perception in early childhood. In C. A. Ferguson & D. I. Slobin ...
The motor theory of speech perception would predict that speech motor abilities in infants predict their speech perception ... As a result, "speech perception is sometimes interpreted as referring to the perception of speech at the sublexical level. ... Initially, speech perception was assumed to link to speech objects that were both the invariant movements of speech ... The motor theory of speech perception is not widely held in the field of speech perception, though it is more popular in other ...
Interactions across time scales in speech perception Flexibility is a key property of our perceptual system due to the richness ... Lancia, L., Nguyen N., Tuller, B.; Nonlinear dynamics in speech perception: critical fluctuations and critical slowing down; ... Lancia, L. Non linear Dynamics of speech perception and perceptual learning: interaction across nested timescales. Twelfth ... Lancia, L. & Winters B. (2013). The interaction between competition, learning and habituation dynamics in speech perception, ...
Lecturer in Speech Perception/Production. University College London - Division of Psychology and Language Sciences Speech, ...
Native-language subtitles appear to create lexical interference, but foreign-language subtitles assist speech learning by ... to learn how to interpret unusual speech-sounds. We therefore investigated whether subtitles, which provide lexical information ... support perceptual learning about foreign speech. Dutch participants, unfamiliar with Scottish and Australian regional accents ... Understanding foreign speech is difficult, in part because of unusual mappings between sounds and words. It is known that ...
... listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we ... RESEARCH ARTICLE Speech Perception in Older Hearing Impaired Listeners: Benefits of Perceptual Training Cached. * ... title = {RESEARCH ARTICLE Speech Perception in Older Hearing Impaired Listeners: Benefits of Perceptual Training},. year = {}. ... Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, ...
... song and speech share many features which are reflected in a fundamental similarity of brain areas involved in their perception ... hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; and as a control the pure musical or speech ... hummed speech prosody and song melody containing only pitch patterns and rhythm; as well as the pure musical or speech rhythm. ... in processing song and speech. The left IFG was involved in word- and pitch-related processing in speech, the right IFG in ...
... that their audiologists are not doing speech perception testing. WHY? ... In this case we can see that this patient has fair speech perception with the right hearing aid but poor speech perception with ... In addition, the poor speech perception with the left hearing aid is pulling down the binaural speech perception scores. ... Please lets test speech perception. I am hearing from so many speech-language pathologists, listening and spoken language ...
Paper 2 reviews research that has used the sine wave speech paradigm in studies of speech perception. The paper also gives a ... Psychology, Dyslexia, speech perception, phonological representations, reading acquisition, sine wave speech, phonological ... Sine wave speech is a course grained description of natural speech lacking phonetic detail. In Paper 3 sine wave speech varying ... 4. Dyslexics use of spectral cues in speech perception. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,Dyslexics use of spectral ...
Vibrotactile support: Initial effects on visual speech perception.. Lyxell, Björn Linköping University, Department of ...
  • Mitterer and McQueen explain these effects from their group's previous research on perceptual learning in speech perception. (
  • We investigated how flexible behavior can emerge from the interaction between fast perceptual dynamics, which adapt our perception to the environment 'as fast as possible', with slower processes like habituation to the stimuli and learning. (
  • Also we used the model-guided parametrization of perceptual behavior to investigate the relations between perception of sounds without a linguistic content and sounds correspondng to speech events. (
  • Lancia, L. Non linear Dynamics of speech perception and perceptual learning: interaction across nested timescales. (
  • It is difficult to delimit a stretch of speech signal as belonging to a single perceptual unit. (
  • The perceptual goals of speech motions are determined by their acoustic properties typically. (
  • If conversation perceptual teaching manipulates perception from the boundary between got and mind the alteration should therefore impact the quantity of compensation inside a following test of conversation engine learning. (
  • The fundamental frequency (F 0 ) of the target speaker is thought to provide an important cue for the extraction of the speaker's voice from background noise, but little is known about the relationship between speech-in-noise (SIN) perceptual ability and neural encoding of the F 0 . (
  • Infants are born with a preference for listening to speech over non-speech, and with a set of perceptual sensitivities that enable them to discriminate most of the speech sound differences used in the world's languages, thus preparing them to acquire any language. (
  • These interconnected perceptual systems, thus, provide a set of parameters for matching heard, seen, and felt speech at birth. (
  • Importantly, it is argued that these multisensory perceptual foundations are established for language-general perception: they set in place an organization that provides redundancy among the oral-motor gesture, the visible oral-motor movements, and the auditory percept of any speech sound. (
  • Direct" perception means that perceivers are in unmediated contact with their niche (mediated neither by internally generated representations of the environment nor by inferences made on the basis of fragmentary input to the perceptual systems). (
  • Applied to speech perception, the theory begins with the observation that speech perception involves the same perceptual systems that, in a direct-realist theory, enable direct perception of the environment. (
  • Most notably, the auditory system supports speech perception, but also the visual system, and sometimes other perceptual systems. (
  • Six- and nine-month-olds, prior to and in the midst of perceptual attunement, switch their face-scanning patterns in response to incongruent speech, evidence that infants at these ages detect audiovisual incongruence even in non-native speech. (
  • According to one of the most influential speech theories ( Liberman and Mattingly, 1985 ), this perceptual categorization of incoming auditory speech occurs because articulatory gestures serve as the brain's representations of speech sounds, and speech is perceived by mapping continuous auditory signals onto discrete articulatory gestures. (
  • According to a hypothesised cortical model for natural audiovisual stimulation, phase synchronised communications between participating brain regions play a mechanistic role in natural audiovisual perception. (
  • The perception of sentences in noise by 20 implanted or aided D/HH subjects mastering Cued Speech (CS), a system of hand gestures complementing lip movements, was compared with the perception of 15 typically hearing (TH) controls in three conditions: audio only, audiovisual and audiovisual + CS. (
  • Reflecting the general status of the field, most articles focus on audiovisual speech perception and many utilize the McGurk effect, which arises when discrepant visual and auditory speech stimuli are presented (McGurk and MacDonald, 1976). (
  • Several articles shed new light on audiovisual speech perception in special populations. (
  • 2014) report that children with specific language impairment recognized visual and auditory speech less accurately than their controls, affecting audiovisual speech perception, while audiovisual integration per se seemed unimpaired. (
  • In a similar vein, adult patients with aphasia showed unisensory deficits but still integrated audiovisual speech information (Andersen and Starrfelt, 2015). (
  • Altieri and Hudock (2014) report variation in reaction time and accuracy benefits for audiovisual speech in hearing-impaired observers, emphasizing the importance of individual differences in integration. (
  • Audiovisual information is integrated in speech perception. (
  • Andersen, T 2011, Ordinal models of audiovisual speech perception . (
  • Audiovisual speech is composed of visual mouth movements (green line showing visual mouth area) and auditory speech sounds (purple line showing auditory sound pressure level). (
  • Although there is a range in the relative onset of auditory and visual speech, most audiovisual words provide a visual head start. (
  • For instance, in an audiovisual recording of the word 'drive' ( Figure 1B ) the visual onset of the open mouth required to enunciate the initial 'd' of the word preceded auditory vocalization by 400 ms, allowing the observer to rule out incompatible auditory phonemes (and rule in compatible phonemes) well before any auditory speech information is available. (
  • Perception of audiovisual speech synchrony for native and non-native language. (
  • We propose that this modulation of multisensory temporal processing as a function of prior experience is a consequence of the constraining role that visual information plays in the temporal alignment of audiovisual speech signals. (
  • We are currently investigating motor excitability during listening to speech in noise and during audiovisual speech perception. (
  • Abstract Coding of Audiovisual Speech: Beyond Sensory Representation. (
  • Nonetheless, important questions remain regarding the nature of and limits to early audiovisual speech perception. (
  • I familiarize six-month-olds to audiovisual Hindi speech sounds in which the auditory and visual signals of the speech are incongruent in content and, in two conditions, are also temporally asynchronous. (
  • Temporal recalibration during asynchronous audiovisual speech perception. (
  • We investigated the consequences of monitoring an asynchronous audiovisual speech stream on the temporal perception of simultaneously presented vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) audiovisual speech video clips. (
  • This result suggests that the consequences of adapting to asynchronous speech extends beyond the case of simple audiovisual stimuli (as has recently been demonstrated by Navarra et al. (
  • There is strong experimental evidence that this audiovisual integration of speech relies on specific brain mechanisms. (
  • Listeners can use their knowledge about how words normally sound to adjust the way they perceive speech that is spoken in an unfamiliar way. (
  • Our knowledge of speech perception is largely based on experiments conducted with carefully recorded clear speech presented under good listening conditions to undistracted listeners - a near-ideal situation, in other words. (
  • First of all, listeners may need to divide their attention between speech comprehension and another task (e.g., driving). (
  • Moreover, in a globalized world, listeners need to understand speech in more than their native language. (
  • Listeners do not only need to understand the speech they are hearing, they also need to use this information to plan and time their own responses. (
  • To better elucidate the brain basis of SIN perception, we recorded neuroelectric activity in normal hearing listeners to speech sounds presented at various SNRs. (
  • Behaviorally, listeners obtained superior SIN performance for speech presented to the right compared to the left ear (i.e., right ear advantage). (
  • Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. (
  • Research in speech perception seeks to understand how human listeners recognize speech sounds and use this information to understand spoken language. (
  • Speech perception research has applications in building computer systems that can recognize speech, in improving speech recognition for hearing- and language-impaired listeners, and in foreign-language teaching. (
  • It is not easy to identify what acoustic cues listeners are sensitive to when perceiving a particular speech sound: At first glance, the solution to the problem of how we perceive speech seems deceptively simple. (
  • Although listeners perceive speech as a stream of discrete units[citation needed] (phonemes, syllables, and words), this linearity is difficult to see in the physical speech signal (see Figure 2 for an example). (
  • Native English listeners rated the strength of foreign accent and impairment they perceived in speech of the FAS subject, alongside that of two native English speakers and Italian, Greek, and French L2 speakers acting as controls. (
  • Nineteen hearing-impaired and 27 age-matched normal-hearing listeners performed speech reception threshold tests targeting a 50% correct performance level while pupil responses were recorded. (
  • Listeners with hearing impairments have difficulties understanding speech in the presence of background noise. (
  • Although prosthetic devices like hearing aids may improve the hearing ability, listeners with hearing impairments still complain about their speech perception in the presence of noise. (
  • In everyday acoustic environments, listeners often need to resolve speech targets in mixed streams of distracting noise sources. (
  • Recent evidence shows that listeners use abstract prelexical units in speech perception. (
  • This differential exposure affected perception of ambiguous stimuli on the same allophone continuum in a subsequent phonetic-categorization test: Listeners exposed to ambiguous phones in /r/-final words were more likely to perceive test stimuli as /r/ than listeners with exposure in /l/-final words. (
  • These results confirm that listeners use phonological abstraction in speech perception. (
  • We have shown that this disruption impairs listeners' performance in categorical speech perception tasks that involve lip-articulated speech sounds (e.g. /ba/ and /pa/) (Möttönen & Watkins, 2009). (
  • Because TAD and its corollaries are primarily aimed at explaining regularities of speech production rather than of speech perception, they must be supplemented by specific hypotheses that predict how speech sounds are categorized by listeners. (
  • Infants develop language-specific modes of attention to acoustic speech signals (and optical information for speech), and adult listeners attune to novel dialects or foreign accents. (
  • Moreover, listeners make use of lexical knowledge and statistical properties of the language in speech perception. (
  • Specifically, ongoing studies are investigating if speech recognition performance in older hearing-impaired listeners is associated with complex suprathreshold auditory abilities such as spectral shape perception. (
  • A double-blind randomised active-controlled trial aims to assess whether Cogmed RM (adaptive) working memory training results in improvements in untrained measures of cognition, speech perception and self-reported hearing abilities in older adults (50-74 years) with mild-moderate hearing loss who are existing hearing aid users, compared with an active placebo Cogmed (placebo) control. (
  • There is still no consensus about the mechanisms underlying cognition and speech perception problems in the aged. (
  • The objective of this article is to review age-related changes in cognition and speech perception and to investigate their interrelationship. (
  • In addition, this study will provide a current understanding of the mechanism of age-related decline in cognition and speech perception. (
  • Lev Vygotsky ) have maintained is the use in thinking of silent speech in an interior monologue to vivify and organize cognition , sometimes in the momentary adoption of a dual persona as self addressing self as though addressing another person. (
  • Description : Communication and Swallow Changes in Healthy Aging Adults compiles and presents the available research on healthy aging adults' performance and abilities in the following areas: auditory comprehension, reading comprehension, speaking, writing, voice and motor speech abilities, cognition, and swall. (
  • Effects of the distribution of cues on infants' perception of speech sounds. (
  • After processing the initial auditory signal, speech sounds are further processed to extract acoustic cues and phonetic information. (
  • Acoustic cues are sensory cues contained in the speech sound signal which are used in speech perception to differentiate speech sounds belonging to different phonetic categories. (
  • For example, one of the most studied cues in speech is voice onset time or VOT. (
  • The speech system must also combine these cues to determine the category of a specific speech sound. (
  • If a specific aspect of the acoustic waveform indicated one linguistic unit, a series of tests using speech synthesizers would be sufficient to determine such a cue or cues. (
  • Accordingly, they downweight pitch cues during speech perception and instead rely on other dimensions such as duration. (
  • Auditory-visual facilitation was quantified with response time and accuracy measures and the N1/P2 ERP waveform response as a function of changes in audibility (manipulation of the acoustic environment by testing a range of signal-to-noise ratios) and content of optic cue (manipulation of the types of cues available, e.g., speech, nonspeech-static, or non-speech-dynamic cues). (
  • ERP measures showed effects of reduced audibility (slower latency, decreased amplitude) for both types of facial motion, i.e., speech and non-speech dynamic facial optic cues, compared to measures in quiet conditions. (
  • Research and (re)habilitation therapies for speech perception in noise must continue to emphasize the benefit of associating and integrating auditory and visual speech cues. (
  • The localization of the sound source in busy environments prompts individuals to turn their face to the source so as to increase their use of visual cues and as such enhance their speech-in-noise perception. (
  • These spatial cues and spectral data are used for auditory streaming and contribute to improvement in speech perception. (
  • The experiments investigate whether cues from prior context - in particular the speech rate of preceding words - influences how people perceive the critical word. (
  • In addition, although the dyslexic subjects were able to label and discriminate the synthetic speech continua, they did not necessarily use the acoustic cues in the same manner as normal readers, and their overall performance was generally less accurate. (
  • This line of research investigates the role of visual input, particularly facial cues, in speech segmentation. (
  • Speech segmentation research has focused primarily on the nature and availability of auditory word boundary cues (e.g. stress, phonotactics, distributional properties). (
  • Visual speech segmentation: Using facial cues to locate word boundaries in continuous speech. (
  • Optimal active electrode combinations were those that maximized discrimination of speech cues, maintaining 80%-100% of the physical span of the array. (
  • The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to compare the hierarchy of perceived and produced significant speech pattern contrasts in children with cochlear implants, and 2) to compare this hierarchy to developmental data of children with normal hearing. (
  • Speech perception in noise remains challenging for Deaf/Hard of Hearing people (D/HH), even fitted with hearing aids or cochlear implants. (
  • The advantage of dissecting the problem into these 4 crucial questions is that one can develop a systematic approach to understanding speech recognition that applies equally to sensory substitution such as tactile speech aids, advanced bionics such as cochlear implants, or hearing aids. (
  • It is about how we recognize speech sounds and how we use this information to understand spoken language.Researchers have studied how infants learn speech. (
  • It is evident that different languages use different sets of speech sounds and infants must learn which sounds their native language uses, and which ones it does not. (
  • Furthermore, this chapter will explain how infants are able to distinguish more categories of speech sounds than adults. (
  • As they age, there would be a need for different techniques to determine infants' abilities in speech perception. (
  • al in 2004 to show how the changes that occur in speech perception and production in typically developing infants during their first year of life. (
  • When infants are 11 months old, the consonant perception in foreign language declines and there is an increase in their native language consonant perception. (
  • There are different procedures that can be used for testing speech perception capabilities in young infants, and what they can perceive at very young age. (
  • Infants from non-SRI-treated mothers with little or no depression (control), depressed but non-SRI-treated (depressed-only), and depressed and treated with an SRI (SRI-exposed) were studied at 36 wk gestation (while still in utero) on a consonant and vowel discrimination task and at 6 and 10 mo of age on a nonnative speech and visual language discrimination task. (
  • This research has demonstrated that infants are sensitive to many fine-grained differences in the acoustic properties of speech utterances. (
  • Furthermore, these empirical findings have led investigators to theorize about how the infants internally process and represent speech stimuli. (
  • Infants are sensitive to within-category variation in speech perception. (
  • Methods for studying speech perception in infants and children. (
  • Initially, the theory was associationist: infants mimic the speech they hear and that this leads to behavioristic associations between articulation and its sensory consequences. (
  • This aspect of the theory was dropped, however, with the discovery that prelinguistic infants could already detect most of the phonetic contrasts used to separate different speech sounds. (
  • While speech perception is also multisensory in young infants, the genesis of this is debated. (
  • To test this hypothesis against the alternative hypothesis of learned integration, English infants will be tested on non-native, or unfamiliar speech sound contrasts, and will be compared to Hindi infants, for whom these contrasts are native. (
  • Infants will be tested at 6-months, an age at which they can still discriminate non-native speech sounds, and at 10-months, an age after they begin to fail. (
  • If multisensory speech perception is learned, this pattern should be seen only for Hindi infants, for whom the contrasts are familiar and hence already intersensory. (
  • This work is of theoretical import for characterizing speech perception development in typically developing infants, and provides a framework for understanding the roots of possible delay in infants born with a sensory or oral-motor impairment. (
  • The opportunities provided by, and constraints imposed by an initial multi-sensory speech percept allow infants to rapidly acquire knowledge from their language-learning environment, while a deficit in one of the contributing modalities could compromise optimal speech and language development. (
  • Increasing evidence indicates that even young infants are sensitive to the correspondence between these sensory signals, and adding visual information to the auditory speech signal can change infants' perception. (
  • I then probe whether this familiarization, to congruent or incongruent speech, affects infants' perception such that auditory-only phonetic discrimination of the non-native sounds is changed. (
  • I hypothesize that, when presented with temporally synchronous, incongruent stimuli, infants rely on either the auditory or the visual information in the signal and use that information to categorize the speech event. (
  • Further, I predict that the addition of a temporal offset to this incongruent speech changes infants' use of the auditory and visual information. (
  • These tests are available commercially from Auditec Inc . and can be used to assess speech perception abilities of Spanish-speaking children in the United States. (
  • Understanding speech in noise measured both objectively with the HINT and subjectively with the AIAH was inversely related to cognitive abilities despite a normal ability to hear soft sounds determined by audiometry. (
  • This evidence offers support for further investigation into the potential benefits of working memory training to improve speech perception abilities in other hearing impaired populations. (
  • Speech Perception Abilities of Adults With Dyslexia: Is There Any Evidence for a True Deficit? (
  • Cognitive abilities are inherently involved in speech processing. (
  • Among brain functions, cognitive function and speech perception abilities seem to be affected by aging. (
  • Unfortunately, no studies have investigated the speech perception of the severely hearing impaired in order compare their speech perception abilities with those of cochlear implant users. (
  • Research in the Auditory Perception Laboratory is focused on changes in speech perception and basic auditory abilities with aging. (
  • The long term goal of this work is to be able to better understand the factors related to speech understanding abilities of older hearing-impaired individuals. (
  • 2014) show that older adults were more influenced by visual speech than younger adults and correlated this fact to their slower reaction times to auditory stimuli. (
  • A major focus of research on language acquisition in infancy involves experimental studies of the infant's ability to discriminate various kinds of speech or speech-like stimuli. (
  • Song and speech are multi-faceted stimuli which are similar and at the same time different in many features. (
  • It seems that children with phonological dyslexia have a general deficiency in representing and processing speech stimuli. (
  • in Cogn Brain Res 25:499-507, 2005) and can even affect the perception of more complex speech stimuli. (
  • abstract = "The presence of irrelevant auditory information (other talkers, environmental noises) presents a major challenge to listening to speech. (
  • Children affected by dyslexia exhibit a deficit in the categorical perception of speech sounds, characterized by both poorer discrimination of between-category differences and by better discrimination of within-category differences, compared to normal readers. (
  • Möttönen R & Watkins KE (2009) Motor representations of articulators contribute to categorical perception of speech sounds. (
  • Although much effort has been directed toward understanding the neural basis of speech processing, the neural processes involved in the categorical perception of speech have been relatively less studied, and many questions remain open. (
  • Thus, posterior nodes of the dorsal speech pathway involved in spectrotemporal analysis of auditory signals, phonological processing, and sensorimotor interface have been clearly implicated in categorical perception of speech. (
  • Results indicated that cross-communications between the frontal lobes, intraparietal associative areas and primary auditory and occipital cortices are specifically enhanced during natural face-speech perception and that phase synchronisation mediates the functional exchange of information associated with face-speech processing between both sensory and associative regions in both hemispheres. (
  • delsp=yes Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable Dear List Members, I've been trawling over the existing literature on auditory (sensory) =20= versus motor theories of speech perception, and have surprisingly not =20= seen very much in the way of studies on the effect of congenital =20 muteness but preserved hearing and the development of speech =20 perception skills. (
  • Because the bandwidth and dynamic range of speech far exceeds the capacity of the deaf ear, radical recoding of important speech information and sensory substitution schemes have been proposed. (
  • Thus, despite clear behavioural improvements on the working memory task during AV speech presentation, a more direct relationship between facilitation of sensory processing and working memory improvement was not identified. (
  • Some of the age-related decline in speech perception can be accounted for by peripheral sensory problems but cognitive aging can also be a contributing factor. (
  • Here, it is proposed that the earliest developing sensory system - likely somatosensory in the case of speech, including somatosensory feedback from oral-motor movements that are first manifest in the fetus, provides an organization on which auditory speech can build once the peripheral auditory system comes on-line by 22 weeks gestation. (
  • Perception (from the Latin perceptio ) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment. (
  • All perception involves signals that go through the nervous system , which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of the sensory system . (
  • [4] Psychophysics quantitatively describes the relationships between the physical qualities of the sensory input and perception. (
  • [6] Sensory neuroscience studies the neural mechanisms underlying perception. (
  • [4] There is still active debate about the extent to which perception is an active process of hypothesis testing, analogous to science , or whether realistic sensory information is rich enough to make this process unnecessary. (
  • Pitch discrimination scores did not correlate with receptive vocabulary scores in the ASD group and for adults with ASD superior pitch perception was associated with sensory atypicalities and diagnostic measures of symptom severity. (
  • The development of phonemic speech perception in early childhood. (
  • Talking Brains: Phonemic segmentation in speech perception -- what's the evidence? (
  • Using the phenomenon of lexical retuning in speech processing, we ask whether those units are necessarily phonemic. (
  • In perceiving speech human beings detect discrete phonemic categories and ignore much of the acoustic variation in the speech signal. (
  • The motor theory of speech perception is the hypothesis that people perceive spoken words by identifying the vocal tract gestures with which they are pronounced rather than by identifying the sound patterns that speech generates. (
  • The discovery of mirror neurons has led to renewed interest in the motor theory of speech perception, and the theory still has its advocates, although there are also critics. (
  • This suggests that humans identify speech using categorical perception, and thus that a specialized module, such as that proposed by the motor theory of speech perception, may be on the right track. (
  • When confronted with the daunting task of transmitting speech information to deaf individuals, one comes quickly to the conclusion that the solution to this problem requires a full-blown theory of speech perception. (
  • The theory of speech perception as direct derives from a general direct-realist account of perception. (
  • Effects of second language proficiency and linguistic uncertainty on recognition of speech in native and nonnative competing speech. (
  • Increased right hemisphere involvement during speech-in-noise (SIN) processing may reflect the recruitment of additional brain resources to aid speech recognition or alternatively, the progressive loss of involvement from left linguistic brain areas as speech becomes more impoverished (i.e., nonspeech-like). (
  • In W. Strange (Ed.), Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research (pp. 49-89). (
  • Initially, speech perception was assumed to link to speech objects that were both the invariant movements of speech articulators the invariant motor commands sent to muscles to move the vocal tract articulators This was later revised to include the phonetic gestures rather than motor commands, and then the gestures intended by the speaker at a prevocal, linguistic level, rather than actual movements. (
  • The TRT test and the RSpan test measure different nonauditory components of linguistic processing relevant for speech perception in noise. (
  • 6 Pediatric cochlear implantation, however, has provided these profoundly congenitally/prelingually deaf children with greater access to sound, which has promoted an increase in auditory skills, speech understanding, and oral linguistic development. (
  • It is a challenging task for researchers to determine how the brain solves multisensory perception, and the neural mechanisms involved remain subject to theoretical conjecture. (
  • Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to isolate the neural correlates of the word- and pitch-based discrimination between song and speech, corrected for rhythmic differences in both. (
  • Previous research has demonstrated that in quiet acoustic conditions auditory-visual speech perception occurs faster (decreased latency) and with less neural activity (decreased amplitude) than auditory-only speech perception. (
  • Thirdly, although developmental and neurogenic stuttering are suggested to share common neural substrates, both types of stuttering were compared to assess whether this also accounts for speech motor preparatory activity. (
  • These findings confirm that temporal alterations in neural motor activations in stuttering are not restricted to overt speech production. (
  • Single-trial fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses from perception periods were analyzed using multivariate pattern classification and a searchlight approach to reveal neural activation patterns sensitive to the processing of place of articulation (i.e., bilabial/labiodental vs. alveolar). (
  • We hypothesized that frontal articulation areas are involved in categorical speech perception, but that they may be invisible to subtraction-based fMRI analysis if complex articulatory gestures are represented not by different levels of activity within single voxels, but by differential neural activity patterns within a region of cortex. (
  • This course addresses prominent theories and fundamental issues in the fields of speech perception, spoken word recognition, and speech production. (
  • In this series of studies, we have developed a Spanish Speech Recognition Threshold test and Spanish word recognition test to be used with native Spanish speaking children. (
  • The Spanish Pediatric Speech Recognition Threshold (SPSRT) Test and the Spanish Pediatric Picture Identification Test (SPPIT) are now available for purchase from Auditec Inc. These tests can be administered to Spanish-speaking children by clinicians unfamiliar with the Spanish language. (
  • This speech information can then be used for higher-level language processes, such as word recognition. (
  • For this talk, I will present several examples of bimodal and unimodal speech recognition where high levels of intelligibility are achieved with minimal auditory information or by incorporating visual speech information gleaned from lipreading (i.e., spreechreading). (
  • 80%) can be achieved with multimodal inputs where auditory and visual modalities individually fail to transmit enough information to support speech perception and for unimodal inputs composed of combinations of spectral bands where individual bands provide minimal acoustic information may suggest novel approaches to automatic speech recognition. (
  • One of the unique features of the studies conducted in the AVSPL ( is the focus on individual differences in speech recognition capabilities. (
  • 4 of articulatory overlap in speech production, we would like to ask what role articulatory overlap plays in speech perception and word recognition, especially in the presence of reduction phenomena. (
  • This dissertation aims to explore the role of articulatory coproduction in the domains of speech production, spoken word recognition, and second language acquisition, by combining insights and methods from phonetics and psycholinguistics. (
  • Many researchers have shown that speech recognition declines with increasing age. (
  • The potential sources of reduced recognition for rapid speech in the aged are reduction in processing time and reduction of the acoustic information in the signal. (
  • Recent improvements in speech recognition for profoundly deaf, cochlear implant patients have suggested that some people with a severe hearing impairment would be more successful with a cochlear implant than a hearing aid. (
  • Each participant took part in a series of speech perception tests which included 24 consonant recognition, 11 vowel recognition, CNC words, CUNY sentences, and the connected speech test. (
  • There are several reasons for this: Phonetic environment affects the acoustic properties of speech sounds. (
  • Sine wave speech is a course grained description of natural speech lacking phonetic detail. (
  • Evidence is next reviewed that speech perceivers make use of acoustic and cross modal information about the phonetic gestures constituting consonants and vowels to perceive the gestures. (
  • In the second set of experiments, I test how temporal information and phonetic content information may both contribute to an infant's use of auditory and visual information in the perception of speech. (
  • Altogether, song and speech, although similar in many aspects, differ in a number of acoustic parameters that our brains may capture and analyze to determine whether a stimulus is sung or spoken. (
  • I am hearing from so many speech-language pathologists, listening and spoken language specialists, teachers of the deaf and parents that their audiologists are not doing speech perception testing. (
  • The problem is for example seen in tasks where the individual has to manipulate sound segments in the spoken language, read non-words, rapidly name pictures and digits, keep verbal material in short-term memory, and categorize and discriminate sound contrasts in speech perception. (
  • Universal literacy, differences between spoken and written language, models of perception and processing, and implications of natural acquisition of reading. (
  • The McGurk effect shows that seeing the production of a spoken syllable that differs from an auditory cue synchronized with it affects the perception of the auditory one. (
  • The pronunciation of a word in continuous speech is often reduced, different from when it is spoken in isolation. (
  • Speech reduction reflects a fundamental property of spoken language-the movements of articulators can overlap in time, also known as coarticulation. (
  • Motor excitability during visual perception of known and unknown spoken languages. (
  • Speech compares with written language , [1] which may differ in its vocabulary, syntax, and phonetics from the spoken language, a situation called diglossia . (
  • Speech production is a multi-step process by which thoughts are generated into spoken utterances. (
  • Speech perception is the process by which humans are able to interpret and understand the sounds used in language. (
  • Based on these results, they proposed the notion of ________ as a mechanism by which humans are able to identify speech sounds. (
  • This extra processing time is important because humans must understand speech both quickly (as speech is generated rapidly, at rates of ~5 syllables a second) and accurately (as errors in communication are potentially costly). (
  • G. F. Smoorenburg, J. A. P. M. de Laat and R. Plomp, The effect of noise-induced hearing loss on the intelligibility of speech in noise, "Proceeding of the AGARD Specialists' Meeting on Aural Communication in Aviation, AGARD CP-311," National Information Services (NTIS), Springfield, VA (1981). (
  • G. F. Smoorenburg, J. A. P. M. de Laat and R. Plomp, The effect of noise-induced hearing loss on the intelligibility of speech in noise, Scand. (
  • In the bimodal examples, the amount of transmitted auditory speech information is insufficient to support word or sentence intelligibility (zero percent correct), and the average speechreading performance, even for the very best speechreader (who is usually a deaf individual) might be 10-30% word or sentence intelligibility. (
  • Although serviceable, EL speech is plagued by shortcomings in both sound quality and intelligibility. (
  • Listener Perception of Monopitch, Naturalness, and Intelligibility for Speakers With Parkinson's Disease. (
  • Speech reception threshold (SRT) for different spatial positions of the masker(s) as a measure of speech intelligibility has been measured. (
  • Research over time has demonstrated that the early identification of significant hearing loss followed by intervention procedures, including hearing aid usage commencing during the first 6 months of life, significantly increases the level of language development, speech intelligibility, and emotional stability as compared with children with later identification and intervention. (
  • By carefully evaluating speech perception in a variety of test conditions, we can determine what phonemes are not clear and can make some adjusting of technology settings to improve speech perception. (
  • Deactivating cochlear implant electrodes to improve speech perception: A computational approach. (
  • Since foreign subtitles seem to help with adaptation to foreign speech in adults, they should perhaps also be used whenever available (e.g., on a DVD) to boost listening skills during second-language learning. (
  • The general aim of this thesis was to investigate phonological processing skills in dyslexic children and adults and their relation to speech perception. (
  • The perception of speech is notably malleable in adults yet alterations in perception appear to have small effect on speech production. (
  • Right here we provide preliminary evidence that modifications in conversation perception effect adults very much Calcipotriol the same that they effect small children: during conversation learning. (
  • Adding visual speech information (i.e. lip movements) to auditory speech information (i.e. voice) can enhance speech comprehension in younger and older adults while at the same time it reduces electrical brain responses, as measured by event-related potentials (ERPs). (
  • To this end, we measured speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses to /da/ in quiet and two multitalker babble conditions (two-talker and six-talker) in native English-speaking young adults who ranged in their ability to perceive and recall SIN. (
  • Assessing the speech perception difficulty in older adults, cognitive function could be considered in the evaluation and management of speech perception problem. (
  • Whilst enhanced perception has been widely reported in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs), relatively little is known about the developmental trajectory and impact of atypical auditory processing on speech perception in intellectually high-functioning adults with ASD. (
  • Differential cue weighting in perception and production of consonant voicing. (
  • The topics include laryngeal function and speech production, pharyngeal-oral function, theory of consonant acoustics, speech acoustic analysis, and acoustic phonetics data. (
  • Written in a clear, reader-friendly style, Speech Science Primer serves as an introduction to speech science and covers basic information on acoustics, the acoustic analysis of speech, speech anatomy and physiology, and speech perception. (
  • With its reader-friendly content and valuable online resources, Speech Science Primer: Physiology, Acoustics, and Perception of Speech, Sixth Edition is an ideal text for beginning speech pathology and audiology students and faculty. (
  • Hixon (1940-2009), Hoit (both speech, language, and hearing sciences, U. of Arizona), and Weismer (communications sciences and disorders, U. of Wisconsin-Madison) introduce the fundamentals of speech science needed by aspiring and practicing clinicians in a textbook suitable for courses in the anatomy and physiology of speech production and swallowing, and the acoustics and perception of speech. (
  • The study of speech perception is closely linked to the fields of phonology and phonetics in linguistics and cognitive psychology and perception in psychology. (
  • Written by specialists in psycholinguistics, phonetics, speech development, speech perception and speech technology, this volume presents experimental and modeling studies that provide the reader with a deep understanding of interspeaker variability and its role in speech processing, speech development, and interspeaker interactions. (
  • In linguistics ( articulatory phonetics ), articulation refers to how the tongue, lips, jaw, vocal cords, and other speech organs used to produce sounds are used to make sounds. (
  • Lagged-phase synchronisation measures were computed for conditions of eye-closed rest (REST), speech-only (auditory-only, A), face-only (visual-only, V) and face-speech (audio-visual, AV) stimulation. (
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been employed to manipulate brain activity and to establish cortical excitability by eliciting motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in speech processing research. (
  • We suggest that future research may benefit from using TMS in conjunction with neuroimaging methods such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging or electroencephalography, and from the development of new stimulation protocols addressing cortico-cortical inhibition/facilitation and interhemispheric connectivity during speech processing. (
  • The results suggest that speech perception could be improved for CI users by assessment of pitch perception using the PCT and subsequent adjustment of pitch-related stimulation parameters. (
  • However, there is growing evidence that auditory-motor circuits support both speech production and perception.Aims: In this article we provide a review of how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used to investigate the excitability of the motor system during listening to speech and the contribution of the motor system to performance in various speech perception tasks. (
  • Kyoto University Research Information Repository: Left anterior temporal cortex actively engages in speech perception: A direct cortical stimulation study. (
  • We investigated engagement of the left anterior temporal cortex in speech perception by means of direct electrical cortical stimulation. (
  • Systematic contrasts between these balanced conditions following their hierarchical organization showed a great overlap between song and speech at all levels in the bilateral temporal lobe, but suggested a differential role of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) in processing song and speech. (
  • In all the results of the thesis are in line with the phonological deficit hypothesis as revealed by adult data and the performance on task of speech perception. (
  • These categorical perception anomalies might be at the origin of dyslexia, by hampering the set up of grapheme-phoneme correspondences, but they might also be the consequence of poor reading skills, as literacy probably contributes to stabilizing phonological categories. (
  • unit of phonological perception. (
  • We were this 16-year-old book speech to our linguistics and that made in a book of 10 l noses( diverse, Religion, frequent, musical, problem, investment collapse request, British export, request, sample, damage extension structure) to File freedom unofficial path address. (
  • Since this phenomenon is unsatisfactorily explained by existing accounts (which do not consider the extent of articulatory overlap), this part of the dissertation provides additional evidence for the extent to which coproduction of articulation plays a role in speech production and in grammar. (
  • A large number of experimental findings supports the role of articulatory coproduction as the underlying mechanism in speech production (e.g. (
  • However, on the perception side, prior research has not specifically examined the role of articulatory overlap or the nature of the relation between production and perception. (
  • Given the central role of articulatory overlap in speech production, this dissertation set out to address the question of whether we can make use of the notion of articulatory coproduction in order to take steps towards building a unified theory for how reduced speech is both produced and perceived. (
  • Using TMS to study the role of the articulatory motor system in speech perception. (
  • Background: The ability to communicate using speech is a remarkable skill, which requires precise coordination of articulatory movements and decoding of complex acoustic signals. (
  • 2003). This shows that excitability of the articulatory motor cortex is enhanced during speech perception. (
  • Our recent study showed that TMS-induced disruption of the articulatory motor cortex suppresses automatic EEG responses to changes in speech sounds, but not to changes in piano tones (Möttönen et al. (
  • Using TMS, we found that excitability of the articulatory motor cortex was higher during observation of known speech (English) than unknown speech (Hebrew) or non-speech mouth movements in both native and non-native speakers of English (Swaminathan et al. (
  • During speech perception, the acoustic-motoric translations include the recruitment of cortical areas for the representation of speech articulatory features, such as place of articulation. (
  • The consistent MVPA findings from two independent datasets strongly indicate that Broca's area participates in categorical speech perception, with a possible role of translating speech signals into articulatory codes. (
  • For this special topic, we welcome papers that address any of these ecological aspects of speech perception. (
  • One of the core aspects of speech perception is mapping complex time-varying acoustic signals into discrete speech units. (
  • Speech perception, especially in challenging listening conditions, involves cortical and subcortical centers and is a demanding neurological task. (
  • It is a commonly held belief that speech perception involves the recovery of segmental information -- that is, the speech stream is analyzed in such a way that individual phonemes are recovered. (
  • The perception of speech involves the integration of both heard and seen signals. (
  • These fluctuations, known as prosody, add emotion to speech and denote punctuation. (
  • Use of the term apraxia of speech implies a shared core of speech and prosody features, regardless of time of onset, whether congenital or acquired, or specific etiology. (
  • The findings will provide a stronger rationale for implementation of specific parameters when assessing speech perception in clinical and research settings. (
  • Our findings demonstrate changes in the functional asymmetry of cortical speech processing during adverse acoustic conditions and suggest that "cocktail party" listening skills depend on the quality of speech representations in the left cerebral hemisphere rather than compensatory recruitment of right hemisphere mechanisms. (
  • Thirdly, important differences emerged when comparing the findings concerning speech motor preparatory activity of the developmental stuttering group and the case with neurogenic stuttering. (
  • Similar findings have been shown for auditory-only speech inputs for signals composed of disjoint and non-overlapping spectral bands where over 90% of the spectral information has been discarded. (
  • Although age was also an important independent factor affecting speech perception, the age relationship within the speech findings in this study may represent more than just age-related declines in speech in noise understanding. (
  • Our findings suggest that the subcortical representation of the F 0 in noise contributes to the perception of speech in noisy conditions. (
  • Findings concerning the relation between dyslexia and speech perception deficits are inconsistent in the literature. (
  • The studies also show that plasticity in adult conversation perception can possess immediate outcomes for conversation creation in the framework of conversation learning. (
  • Speech Perception in Adult Subjects With Familial Dyslexia Speech perception was investigated in a carefully selected group of adult subjects with familial dyslexia. (
  • Speech perception was investigated in a carefully selected group of adult subjects with familial dyslexia. (
  • In the adult, speech perception is richly multimodal. (
  • This paper presents data on perception of complex tones and speech pitch in adult participants with high-functioning ASD and typical development, and compares these with pre-existing data using the same paradigm with groups of children and adolescents with and without ASD. (
  • This suggested that speech is not heard like an acoustic "alphabet" or "cipher," but as a "code" of overlapping speech gestures. (
  • Speech perception in noise may be facilitated by presenting the concurrent optic stimulus of observable speech gestures. (
  • Results revealed better accuracy and response times with visible speech gestures compared to those for any non-speech cue. (
  • BACKGROUND: Co-speech gestures are part of nonverbal communication during conversations. (
  • In the present study, we investigated the influence of co-speech gestures on the perception of dyadic dialogue in aphasic patients. (
  • In particular, we analysed the impact of co-speech gestures on gaze direction (towards speaker or listener) and fixation of body parts. (
  • CONCLUSION: Co-speech gestures guide the observer's attention towards the speaker, the source of semantic input. (
  • The Specific Aims are to test the influence of: 1) Visual information on Auditory speech perception (Experimental Set 1);2) Oral-Motor gestures on Auditory speech perception (Experimental Set 2);3) Oral- Motor gestures on Auditory-Visual speech perception (Experimental Set 3);and 4) Tactile information on Auditory speech perception (Experimental Set 4). (
  • This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examines shared and distinct cortical areas involved in the auditory perception of song and speech at the level of their underlying constituents: words and pitch patterns. (
  • The difference in results between univariate and multivariate pattern-based analyses of the same data suggest that processes in different cortical areas along the dorsal speech perception stream are distributed on different spatial scales. (
  • We are looking at how second language experience affects the effort of listening to speech in the presence of competing speech in different languages. (
  • Buhr's research on how speech disfluency affects peoples perceptions of candidates during political debates, titled "The Rationality Debate: How Do We Decide Who To Vote For? (
  • The room acoustics is another relevant factor that affects speech perception in noise. (
  • Thus, prenatal depressed maternal mood and SRI exposure were found to shift developmental milestones bidirectionally on infant speech perception tasks. (
  • Some Issues in Infant Speech Perception: Do the Means Justify the Ends? (
  • The head-turn preference procedure for testing auditory perception, Infant Behavior and Development , 18 , 111-116. (
  • There are increasing reports that individual variation in behavioral and neurophysiological measures of infant speech processing predicts later language outcomes, and specifically concurrent or subsequent vocabulary size. (
  • Further exploration of infant speech perception predictors, particularly from a methodological perspective, is recommended. (
  • This grant proposes and tests the hypothesis that infant speech perception is multisensory without specific prior learning experience. (
  • As the Deputy Director of the ASC, Dr Grant has direct supervisory and mission planning responsibilities for the largest Audiology and Speech-Language-Pathology clinic in the DoD. (
  • Celia Hooper, ASHA vice president for professional practices in speech-language pathology (2003-2005), and Brian Shulman, ASHA vice president for professional practices in speech-language pathology (2006-2008), served as the monitoring officers. (
  • and 5) the hierarchy in speech pattern contrast perception and production was similar between the implanted and the normal-hearing children, with the exception of the vowels (possibly because of the interaction between the specific information provided by the implant device and the acoustics of the Hebrew language). (
  • The data also provide additional insight into the interrelated skills of speech perception and production. (
  • At 9 months old, they recognize language specific sound combinations and by 10 months, they produce language specific speech production. (
  • The primary focus will be on accounts of unimpaired cognitive processing involved in the production and perception of single words and phrases, and we will consider a range of interdisciplinary perspectives. (
  • This has increased particularly since the discovery of mirror neurons that link the production and perception of motor movements, including those made by the vocal tract. (
  • My new research in the Aphasia Research Lab investigates how abnormalities in auditory-motor prediction signals may contribute to speech production disorders. (
  • Evidence from speech production. (
  • Secondly, speech motor preparatory activity preceding single word production was measured in real time by evoking a contingent negative variation (CNV) during a picture naming task. (
  • The more frequent and/or the more severe a person stutters, the higher this increase is or must be to enable fluent speech production. (
  • This dissertation aimed at studying the effects of Chinese orthography on the speech production and perception of retroflex sibilants in Mandarin Chinese. (
  • The effect of character variation on speech production was not as straightforward as that in perception. (
  • however, when taking the speaker's attitude towards different varieties of characters into consideration, personal preferences toward the varieties of characters may lead to a stylistic and intentional variation in speech production of retroflex sibilants. (
  • They were also aware of the association between simplified characters and the Beijing Mandarin dialect and this association was activated during the speech perception and production experiments of this dissertation. (
  • This study adds to the finding of research in sociophonetic variations that an asymmetry in speech production and speech perception may be a deliberate choice of the speaker instead of a result of unconscious perception and production of speech. (
  • The second part of the dissertation (Chapter 3) looks at a different domain, and a different language: In that part, we report a series of experiments in English investigating the production and perception of speech at different speech rates. (
  • Let me play devil's advocate and claim that we don't extract or represent phonemes at all in speech perception (production is a different story). (
  • Alternatively, children may be sensitive to functors in perception, but omit them in production. (
  • According to the traditional view, speech production and perception rely on motor and auditory brain areas, respectively. (
  • Seeing and hearing speech excites the motor system involved in speech production. (
  • The article also reviews signatures of a direct mode of speech perception, including that perceivers use cross-modal speech information when it is available and exhibit various indications of perception-production linkages, such as rapid imitation and a disposition to converge in dialect with interlocutors. (
  • Developmentalists therefore make inferences about how preverbal children learn to discriminate speech sounds that they heard in their environments. (
  • Lip and mouth movements (visual speech onset, green bar) occur prior to vocalization (auditory speech onset, purple bar). (
  • This word is classified as 'mouth-leading' as visual mouth movements begin before auditory speech. (
  • visual speech can provide a head start on perception when mouth movements begin before auditory vocalization. (
  • For circular and radial movements, the elderly group showed greater difficulties in understanding speech with moving masker than stationary masker. (
  • One important factor that causes variation is differing speech rate. (
  • Auditory cortex processes variation in our own speech. (
  • Inter-individual variation in speech is a topic of increasing interest both in human sciences and speech technology. (
  • This data provides further evidence for sensorimotor processing of visual signals that are used in speech communication. (
  • Perception is not only the passive receipt of these signals, but it's also shaped by the recipient's learning , memory , expectation , and attention . (
  • Sensorimotor integration, the translation between acoustic signals and motoric programs, may constitute a crucial mechanism for speech. (
  • The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis by investigating oscillatory dynamics from ongoing EEG recordings whilst participants passively viewed ecologically realistic face-speech interactions in film. (
  • The hypothesis has gained more interest outside the field of speech perception than inside. (
  • This suggests that pitch direction perception deficits in amusia (known from previous psychophysical work) can extend to speech. (
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  • Importance: Children with a history of amblyopia, even if resolved, exhibit impaired visual-auditory integration and perceive speech differently. (
  • In general there were no group differences across the training tasks, although the US group showed greater improvement that the BSUT and BS groups on vowel perception. (
  • According to one view, multisensory perception is established through learned integration: seeing and hearing a particular speech sound allows learning of the commonalities in each. (
  • Karin Stromswold of the Department of Psychology & Center for Cognitive Science at Rutgers University has written an interesting paper entitled 'What a mute child tells about language' that discusses some of these issues, although it is not specifically directed to motor speech theory. (
  • Since the rise of experimental psychology in the 19th century, psychology's understanding of perception has progressed by combining a variety of techniques. (
  • We are interested in how the motor and auditory cortex interact during speech perception. (
  • While 3 months, they can produce non-speech and vowel-like sounds. (
  • Although most children begin producing language, some still cannot produce speech sounds when they are just turning one year old. (
  • Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted, and understood. (
  • Speech sounds do not strictly follow one another, rather, they overlap. (
  • The "speech is special" claim has been dropped, as it was found that speech perception could occur for nonspeech sounds (for example, slamming doors for duplex perception). (
  • Using a speech synthesizer, speech sounds can be varied in place of articulation along a continuum from /bɑ/ to /dɑ/ to /ɡɑ/, or in voice onset time on a continuum from /dɑ/ to /tɑ/ (for example). (
  • In speech, we use changes in pitch - how deep or sharp a voice sounds - or in the length of syllables. (
  • Stuttering is a speech disorder in which the smooth succession of speech sounds is interrupted by frequent blocks, prolongations and/or repetitions of sounds or syllables. (
  • The perception of speech sounds has been proven to become flexible highly. (
  • Foreign accent syndrome (FAS) is an acquired neurogenic disorder characterized by altered speech that sounds foreign-accented. (
  • Auditory-motor processing of speech sounds. (
  • The reflections and materials presented provide reason to argue that, up to now, a comprehensible theory of the acoustics of the voice and of voiced speech sounds is lacking, and consequently, no satisfying understanding of vowels as an achievement and particular formal accomplishment of the voice exists. (
  • Our thesis, then, is that while multisensory speech perception has a developmental history (and hence is not akin to an 'innate'starting point), the multisensory sensitivities should be in place without specific experience of specific speech sounds. (
  • Thus multisensory processing should be as evident for non-native, never-before-experienced speech sounds, as it is for native and hence familiar ones. (
  • Speech sounds are categorized by manner of articulation and place of articulation . (
  • In one patient, additional investigation revealed that the functional impairment was restricted to auditory sentence comprehension with preserved visual sentence comprehension and perception of music and environmental sounds. (
  • Paper 2 reviews research that has used the sine wave speech paradigm in studies of speech perception. (
  • Domain General Change Detection Accounts for 'Dishabituation' Effects in Temporal-Parietal Regions in Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies of Speech Perception. (
  • This research topic presents speech as a natural, well-learned, multisensory communication signal, processed by multiple mechanisms. (
  • 2) processing which is connected with a person's concepts and expectations (or knowledge), restorative and selective mechanisms (such as attention ) that influence perception. (
  • Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. (
  • This auditory-motor integration is thought to be achieved along a dorsal stream speech network, running from primary auditory cortex via posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the inferior parietal lobule to the posterior frontal lobe ( Hickok and Poeppel, 2007 ). (
  • As they are 6 months old, they are introduced to statistical learning (distributional frequencies) and they have preference to language-specific perception for vowels. (
  • Perception of language forms (consonants, vowels, word forms) can be direct if the forms lawfully cause specifying patterning in the energy arrays available to perceivers. (
  • Normal human speech is pulmonic, produced with pressure from the lungs , which creates phonation in the glottis in the larynx , which is then modified by the vocal tract and mouth into different vowels and consonants . (
  • Only by testing speech perception can we tell what a person with hearing loss is hearing and what they might be missing. (
  • Here are some examples of cases in which patients met real ear targets but speech perception testing indicated they were not hearing well. (
  • This patient has a symmetrical hearing loss but speech perception is not symmetrical. (
  • In this case we can see that this patient has fair speech perception with the right hearing aid but poor speech perception with the left hearing aid. (
  • In addition, the poor speech perception with the left hearing aid is pulling down the binaural speech perception scores. (
  • It could also help us design bespoke hearing aids or other communication devices, such as computer programs that convert text into speech. (
  • According to a recently published, laboratory-based study, the theoretical advantage of ideal VoIP conditions over conventional telephone quality has translated into improved speech perception by hearing-impaired individuals. (
  • To compare realistic VoIP network conditions, under which digital data packets may be lost, with ideal conventional telephone quality with respect to their impact on speech perception by hearing-impaired individuals. (
  • When speech perception scores were expressed as a function of "hearing age" rather than chronological age, however, there were no significant differences among the 3 groups. (
  • We sought to investigate the reliability of an ITD ENV-based training program in speech-in-noise perception among elderly individuals with normal hearing and speech-in-noise disorder. (
  • Sixteen elderly men between 55 and 65 years of age with the clinical diagnosis of normal hearing up to 2000 Hz and speech-in-noise perception disorder participated in this study. (
  • His own research has been concerned primarily with the integration of eye and ear for speech perception in both normal and hearing-impaired populations using behavioral and neurophysiological measures. (
  • In addition to his research on auditory-visual speech processing, Dr. Grant and colleagues at Walter Reed, and the Electrical Engineering and Neuroscience and Cognitive Science Departments at the University of Maryland, College Park have been applying models of auditory processing to hearing-aid algorithm selection. (
  • Applications of biologically inspired models of auditory processing to issues of hearing rehabilitation are being explored by the Walter Reed team of auditory scientists and Engineers in order to address one of the central problems in communication sciences: the limited success of hearing aids to improve speech communication in noise and reverberation. (
  • We measured cognitive performance (Mandarin Montreal Cognitive Assessment [MoCA]) and speech in noise perception (Mandarin hearing-in-noise test [HINT]) in 166 normal-hearing HIV+ individuals (158 men, 8 women, average age 36 years) at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center in Shanghai, China. (
  • Therefore, speech-in-noise tests measure the hearing impairment in complex scenes and are an integral part of the audiological assessment. (
  • This technical report was developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Apraxia of Speech in Children. (
  • EHF hearing may also provide a boost to speech perception in challenging conditions and its loss, conversely, might help explain difficulty with the same task. (
  • To better understand the full contribution of EHF to human hearing, clinicians and researchers can contribute by including its measurement, along with measures of speech in noise and self-report of hearing difficulties and tinnitus in clinical evaluations and studies. (
  • The objective of this study is to investigate how pregnant women seen at the Prenatal Obstetric Clinic of the University Hospital in Santa Maria perceive dental, speech and hearing care. (
  • There should be a focus on teeth, speech and hearing so as to provide a holistic care for the mother-child dyad. (
  • The hearing ear is always found close to the speaking tongue: Review of the role of the motor system in speech perception. (
  • Subtitles in one's native language, the default in some European countries, are harmful to learning to understand foreign speech. (
  • Our research focuses on the study of language learning, its perception, and issues related to language processing in general (with a special emphasis on bilingual populations). (
  • Reliable constant relations between a phoneme of a language and its acoustic manifestation in speech are difficult to find. (
  • If she cannot hear soft speech she will not be able to overhear conversation, which will significantly reduce language exposure. (
  • A large amount of research studies focus on how users of a language perceive foreign speech (referred to as cross-language speech perception) or ________ speech (second-language speech perception). (
  • Within one's 1st language however adjustments in conversation perception appear to possess a negligible effect on conversation creation (Kraljic et al. (
  • Evidence has shown that subtle implicit information of a speaker's characteristics or social identity inferred by the listener can influence how language varieties are perceived, and can cause significant effects on the result of speech perception (e.g. (
  • Is Language a Factor in the Perception of Foreign Accent Syndrome? (
  • Clearly this is a challenge for the standard notion of the syllable, but does it argue that the individual segments in such a language are extracted during perception. (
  • The goal of this technical report on childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) was to assemble information about this challenging disorder that would be useful for caregivers, speech-language pathologists, and a variety of other health care professionals. (
  • All children had full insertions of the electrode array without surgical complications and are developing age-appropriate auditory perception and oral language skills. (
  • Characteristically, pediatric cochlear implant recipients already have significant language and speech delays at the time of implantation considering that, historically, the majority of children were receiving implants at age 2 years and older. (
  • The results revealed that the visual speech stream had to lead the auditory speech stream by a significantly larger interval in the participants' native language than in the non-native language for simultaneity to be perceived. (
  • Speech is human vocal communication using language . (
  • While animals also communicate using vocalizations, and trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi can use simple sign language , no animals' vocalizations are articulated phonemically and syntactically, and do not constitute speech. (
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  • The present combined anatomo-functional case study, for the first time, demonstrated that aSTS/STG in the language dominant hemisphere actively engages in speech perception. (
  • Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in particular, speech and complex waveforms. (
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the effect that different face masks have on listening effort and speech perception performance. (
  • In this study we are examining the influence of different transducers and listening conditions on speech perception. (
  • This study aims to develop a speech perception protocol to measure speech understanding using virtual meeting applications (zoom). (
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate this issue by comparing categorical perception performances of illiterate and literate people. (
  • Conclusion: The present study showed the reliability of an ITD ENV-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder. (
  • In the word-identification tasks of the perception study, a statistically significant relationship between the identification of retroflex phonemes and the variety of written Chinese characters was found for all participants with a Person's chi-square test of association. (
  • Conclusions and Relevance: This pilot study suggests that children with a history of amblyopia have impaired visual-auditory speech perception. (
  • This study sought to better quantify the relative contributions of previously identified acoustic abnormalities to the perception of degraded quality in EL speech. (
  • Researchers study the perception of /ba/ and /da/ and think of it as an investigation of phoneme perception, but in fact, as you point out, these are two different syllables. (
  • The present study demonstrates the potential for further improving CI users' speech scores with appropriate selection of active electrodes. (
  • In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we probed the cortical regions mediating categorical speech perception using an advanced brain-mapping technique, whole-brain multivariate pattern-based analysis (MVPA). (
  • Outside the laboratory, the speech signal is often slurred by less than careful pronunciation and the listener has to deal with background noise. (
  • Finally, outside the laboratory, speech perception is not an end in itself, but rather a mean to contribute to a conversation. (
  • The interaction between competition, learning and habituation dynamics in speech perception, Journal of Laboratory Phonology, 4.1 (2013): 221-257. (
  • VoIP offers a speech perception benefit over conventional telephone quality, even when mild or moderate packet loss scenarios are created in the laboratory. (
  • Ken W. Grant is the Deputy Director of the Audiology and Speech Center (ASC), Chief of the Scientific and Clinical Studies Section (SCSS), Audiology and Speech Center, and the Director of the Auditory-Visual Speech Perception Laboratory (AVSPL) at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. (