Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
'Reading' in a medical context often refers to the act or process of a person interpreting and comprehending written or printed symbols, such as letters or words, for the purpose of deriving information or meaning from them.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The ability to differentiate tones.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Method of nonverbal communication utilizing hand movements as speech equivalents.
The study of hearing and hearing impairment.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.
A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Sounds used in animal communication.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).

Descriptive study of cooperative language in primary care consultations by male and female doctors. (1/1550)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of some of the characteristics of male and female language by male and female primary care practitioners during consultations. DESIGN: Doctors' use of the language of dominance and support was explored by using concordancing software. Three areas were examined: mean number of words per consultation; relative frequency of question tags; and use of mitigated directives. The analysis of language associated with cooperative talk examines relevant words or phrases and their immediate context. SUBJECTS: 26 male and 14 female doctors in general practice, in a total of 373 consecutive consultations. SETTING: West Midlands. RESULTS: Doctors spoke significantly more words than patients, but the number of words spoken by male and female doctors did not differ significantly. Question tags were used far more frequently by doctors (P<0.001) than by patients or companions. Frequency of use was similar in male and female doctors, and the speech styles in consultation were similar. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that male and female doctors use a speech style which is not gender specific, contrary to findings elsewhere; doctors consulted in an overtly non-directive, negotiated style, which is realised through suggestions and affective comments. This mode of communication is the core teaching of communication skills courses. These results suggest that men have more to learn to achieve competence as professional communicators.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (2/1550)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Interarticulator programming in VCV sequences: lip and tongue movements. (3/1550)

This study examined the temporal phasing of tongue and lip movements in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences where the consonant is a bilabial stop consonant /p, b/ and the vowels one of /i, a, u/; only asymmetrical vowel contexts were included in the analysis. Four subjects participated. Articulatory movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. The onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel almost always occurred before the oral closure. Most of the tongue movement trajectory from the first to the second vowel took place during the oral closure for the stop. For all subjects, the onset of the tongue movement occurred earlier with respect to the onset of the lip closing movement as the tongue movement trajectory increased. The influence of consonant voicing and vowel context on interarticulator timing and tongue movement kinematics varied across subjects. Overall, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that there is a temporal window before the oral closure for the stop during which the tongue movement can start. A very early onset of the tongue movement relative to the stop closure together with an extensive movement before the closure would most likely produce an extra vowel sound before the closure.  (+info)

Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (4/1550)

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.  (+info)

Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation. (5/1550)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)

Continuous speech recognition for clinicians. (6/1550)

The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging behind the speaking rate. The authors obtained 97 percent accuracy with just 30 minutes of training when using the latest edition of one of the speech recognition systems supplemented by a commercial medical dictionary. This technology has advanced considerably in recent years and is now a serious contender to replace some or all of the increasingly expensive alternative methods of dictation with human transcription.  (+info)

Language related brain potentials in patients with cortical and subcortical left hemisphere lesions. (7/1550)

The role of the basal ganglia in language processing is currently a matter of discussion. Therefore, patients with left frontal cortical and subcortical lesions involving the basal ganglia as well as normal controls were tested in a language comprehension paradigm. Semantically incorrect, syntactically incorrect and correct sentences were presented auditorily. Subjects were required to listen to the sentences and to judge whether the sentence heard was correct or not. Event-related potentials and reaction times were recorded while subjects heard the sentences. Three different components correlated with different language processes were considered: the so-called N400 assumed to reflect processes of semantic integration; the early left anterior negativity hypothesized to reflect processes of initial syntactic structure building; and a late positivity (P600) taken to reflect second-pass processes including re-analysis and repair. Normal participants showed the expected N400 component for semantically incorrect sentences and an early anterior negativity followed by a P600 for syntactically incorrect sentences. Patients with left frontal cortical lesions displayed an attenuated N400 component in the semantic condition. In the syntactic condition only a late positivity was observed. Patients with lesions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, showed an N400 to semantic violations and an early anterior negativity as well as a P600 to syntactic violations, comparable to normal controls. Under the assumption that the early anterior negativity reflects automatic first-pass parsing processes and the P600 component more controlled second-pass parsing processes, the present results suggest that the left frontal cortex might support early parsing processes, and that specific regions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, may not be crucial for early parsing processes during sentence comprehension.  (+info)

Development of a stroke-specific quality of life scale. (8/1550)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical stroke trials are increasingly measuring patient-centered outcomes such as functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). No stroke-specific HRQOL measure is currently available. This study presents the initial development of a valid, reliable, and responsive stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) measure, for use in stroke trials. METHODS: Domains and items for the SS-QOL were developed from patient interviews. The SS-QOL, Short Form 36, Beck Depression Inventory, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Barthel Index were administered to patients 1 and 3 months after ischemic stroke. Items were eliminated with the use of standard psychometric criteria. Construct validity was assessed by comparing domain scores with similar domains of established measures. Domain responsiveness was assessed with standardized effect sizes. RESULTS: All 12 domains of the SS-QOL were unidimensional. In the final 49-item scale, all domains demonstrated excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha values for each domain >/=0.73). Most domains were moderately correlated with similar domains of established outcome measures (r2 range, 0.3 to 0.5). Most domains were responsive to change (standardized effect sizes >0.4). One- and 3-month SS-QOL scores were associated with patients' self-report of HRQOL compared with before their stroke (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The SS-QOL measures HRQOL, its primary underlying construct, in stroke patients. Preliminary results regarding the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SS-QOL are encouraging. Further studies in diverse stroke populations are needed.  (+info)

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Speech perception is the process by which the brain interprets and understands spoken language. It involves recognizing and discriminating speech sounds (phonemes), organizing them into words, and attaching meaning to those words in order to comprehend spoken language. This process requires the integration of auditory information with prior knowledge and context. Factors such as hearing ability, cognitive function, and language experience can all impact speech perception.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Speech intelligibility is a term used in audiology and speech-language pathology to describe the ability of a listener to correctly understand spoken language. It is a measure of how well speech can be understood by others, and is often assessed through standardized tests that involve the presentation of recorded or live speech at varying levels of loudness and/or background noise.

Speech intelligibility can be affected by various factors, including hearing loss, cognitive impairment, developmental disorders, neurological conditions, and structural abnormalities of the speech production mechanism. Factors related to the speaker, such as speaking rate, clarity, and articulation, as well as factors related to the listener, such as attention, motivation, and familiarity with the speaker or accent, can also influence speech intelligibility.

Poor speech intelligibility can have significant impacts on communication, socialization, education, and employment opportunities, making it an important area of assessment and intervention in clinical practice.

Speech acoustics is a subfield of acoustic phonetics that deals with the physical properties of speech sounds, such as frequency, amplitude, and duration. It involves the study of how these properties are produced by the vocal tract and perceived by the human ear. Speech acousticians use various techniques to analyze and measure the acoustic signals produced during speech, including spectral analysis, formant tracking, and pitch extraction. This information is used in a variety of applications, such as speech recognition, speaker identification, and hearing aid design.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

Speech Audiometry is a hearing test that measures a person's ability to understand and recognize spoken words at different volumes and frequencies. It is used to assess the function of the auditory system, particularly in cases where there is a suspected problem with speech discrimination or understanding spoken language.

The test typically involves presenting lists of words to the patient at varying intensity levels and asking them to repeat what they hear. The examiner may also present sentences with missing words that the patient must fill in. Based on the results, the audiologist can determine the quietest level at which the patient can reliably detect speech and the degree of speech discrimination ability.

Speech Audiometry is often used in conjunction with pure-tone audiometry to provide a more comprehensive assessment of hearing function. It can help identify any specific patterns of hearing loss, such as those caused by nerve damage or cochlear dysfunction, and inform decisions about treatment options, including the need for hearing aids or other assistive devices.

Phonetics is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a branch of linguistics that deals with the sounds of human speech. It involves the study of how these sounds are produced, transmitted, and received, as well as how they are used to convey meaning in different languages. However, there can be some overlap between phonetics and certain areas of medical research, such as speech-language pathology or audiology, which may study the production, perception, and disorders of speech sounds for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.

Speech articulation tests are diagnostic assessments used to determine the presence, nature, and severity of speech sound disorders in individuals. These tests typically involve the assessment of an individual's ability to produce specific speech sounds in words, sentences, and conversational speech. The tests may include measures of sound production, phonological processes, oral-motor function, and speech intelligibility.

The results of a speech articulation test can help identify areas of weakness or error in an individual's speech sound system and inform the development of appropriate intervention strategies to improve speech clarity and accuracy. Speech articulation tests are commonly used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate children and adults with speech sound disorders, including those related to developmental delays, hearing impairment, structural anomalies, neurological conditions, or other factors that may affect speech production.

Speech discrimination tests are a type of audiological assessment used to measure a person's ability to understand and identify spoken words, typically presented in quiet and/or noisy backgrounds. These tests are used to evaluate the function of the peripheral and central auditory system, as well as speech perception abilities.

During the test, the individual is presented with lists of words or sentences at varying intensity levels and/or signal-to-noise ratios. The person's task is to repeat or identify the words or phrases they hear. The results of the test are used to determine the individual's speech recognition threshold (SRT), which is the softest level at which the person can correctly identify spoken words.

Speech discrimination tests can help diagnose hearing loss, central auditory processing disorders, and other communication difficulties. They can also be used to monitor changes in hearing ability over time, assess the effectiveness of hearing aids or other interventions, and develop communication strategies for individuals with hearing impairments.

Speech recognition software, also known as voice recognition software, is a type of technology that converts spoken language into written text. It utilizes sophisticated algorithms and artificial intelligence to identify and transcribe spoken words, enabling users to interact with computers and digital devices using their voice rather than typing or touching the screen. This technology has various applications in healthcare, including medical transcription, patient communication, and hands-free documentation, which can help improve efficiency, accuracy, and accessibility for patients and healthcare professionals alike.

The Speech Reception Threshold (SRT) test is a hearing assessment used to estimate the softest speech level, typically expressed in decibels (dB), at which a person can reliably detect and repeat back spoken words or sentences. It measures the listener's ability to understand speech in quiet environments and serves as an essential component of a comprehensive audiological evaluation.

During the SRT test, the examiner presents a list of phonetically balanced words or sentences at varying intensity levels, usually through headphones or insert earphones. The patient is then asked to repeat each word or sentence back to the examiner. The intensity level is decreased gradually until the patient can no longer accurately identify the presented stimuli. The softest speech level where the patient correctly repeats 50% of the words or sentences is recorded as their SRT.

The SRT test results help audiologists determine the presence and degree of hearing loss, assess the effectiveness of hearing aids, and monitor changes in hearing sensitivity over time. It is often performed alongside other tests, such as pure-tone audiometry and tympanometry, to provide a comprehensive understanding of an individual's hearing abilities.

Sound spectrography, also known as voice spectrography, is a diagnostic procedure in which a person's speech sounds are analyzed and displayed as a visual pattern called a spectrogram. This test is used to evaluate voice disorders, speech disorders, and hearing problems. It can help identify patterns of sound production and reveal any abnormalities in the vocal tract or hearing mechanism.

During the test, a person is asked to produce specific sounds or sentences, which are then recorded and analyzed by a computer program. The program breaks down the sound waves into their individual frequencies and amplitudes, and displays them as a series of horizontal lines on a graph. The resulting spectrogram shows how the frequencies and amplitudes change over time, providing valuable information about the person's speech patterns and any underlying problems.

Sound spectrography is a useful tool for diagnosing and treating voice and speech disorders, as well as for researching the acoustic properties of human speech. It can also be used to evaluate hearing aids and other assistive listening devices, and to assess the effectiveness of various treatments for hearing loss and other auditory disorders.

Acoustic stimulation refers to the use of sound waves or vibrations to elicit a response in an individual, typically for the purpose of assessing or treating hearing, balance, or neurological disorders. In a medical context, acoustic stimulation may involve presenting pure tones, speech sounds, or other types of auditory signals through headphones, speakers, or specialized devices such as bone conduction transducers.

The response to acoustic stimulation can be measured using various techniques, including electrophysiological tests like auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) or otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), behavioral observations, or functional imaging methods like fMRI. Acoustic stimulation is also used in therapeutic settings, such as auditory training programs for hearing impairment or vestibular rehabilitation for balance disorders.

It's important to note that acoustic stimulation should be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Cochlear implants are medical devices that are surgically implanted in the inner ear to help restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. These devices bypass the damaged hair cells in the inner ear and directly stimulate the auditory nerve, allowing the brain to interpret sound signals. Cochlear implants consist of two main components: an external processor that picks up and analyzes sounds from the environment, and an internal receiver/stimulator that receives the processed information and sends electrical impulses to the auditory nerve. The resulting patterns of electrical activity are then perceived as sound by the brain. Cochlear implants can significantly improve communication abilities, language development, and overall quality of life for individuals with profound hearing loss.

In the context of medicine, particularly in audiology and otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat specialty), "noise" is defined as unwanted or disturbing sound in the environment that can interfere with communication, rest, sleep, or cognitive tasks. It can also refer to sounds that are harmful to hearing, such as loud machinery noises or music, which can cause noise-induced hearing loss if exposure is prolonged or at high enough levels.

In some medical contexts, "noise" may also refer to non-specific signals or interfering factors in diagnostic tests and measurements that can make it difficult to interpret results accurately.

Esophageal speech is not a type of "speech" in the traditional sense, but rather a method of producing sounds or words using the esophagus after a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the voice box). Here's a medical definition:

Esophageal Speech: A form of alaryngeal speech produced by swallowing air into the esophagus and releasing it through the upper esophageal sphincter, creating vibrations that are shaped into sounds and words. This method is used by individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy, where the vocal cords are removed, making traditional speech impossible. Mastering esophageal speech requires extensive practice and rehabilitation.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results from damage to the nervous system, particularly the brainstem or cerebellum. It affects the muscles used for speaking, causing slurred, slow, or difficult speech. The specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the extent of nerve damage. Treatment typically involves speech therapy to improve communication abilities.

Alaryngeal speech refers to the various methods of communicating without the use of the vocal folds (cords) in the larynx, which are typically used for producing sounds during normal speech. This type of communication is necessary for individuals who have lost their larynx or have a non-functioning larynx due to conditions such as cancer, trauma, or surgery.

There are several types of alaryngeal speech, including:

1. Esophageal speech: In this method, air is swallowed into the esophagus and then released in short bursts to produce sounds. This technique requires significant practice and training to master.
2. Tracheoesophageal puncture (TEP) speech: A small opening is created between the trachea and the esophagus, allowing air from the lungs to pass directly into the esophagus. A one-way valve is placed in the opening to prevent food and liquids from entering the trachea. The air passing through the esophagus produces sound, which can be modified with articulation and resonance to produce speech.
3. Electrolarynx: This is a small electronic device that is held against the neck or jaw and produces vibrations that are used to create sound for speech. The user then shapes these sounds into words using their articulatory muscles (lips, tongue, teeth, etc.).

Alaryngeal speech can be challenging to learn and may require extensive therapy and practice to achieve proficiency. However, with proper training and support, many individuals are able to communicate effectively using these methods.

Stuttering is a speech disorder characterized by the repetition or prolongation of sounds, syllables, or words, as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks during fluent speech. These disruptions in the normal flow of speech can lead to varying degrees of difficulty in communicating effectively and efficiently. It's important to note that stuttering is not a result of emotional or psychological issues but rather a neurological disorder involving speech motor control systems. The exact cause of stuttering remains unclear, although research suggests it may involve genetic, neurophysiological, and environmental factors. Treatment typically includes various forms of speech therapy to improve fluency and communication strategies to manage the challenges associated with stuttering.

In medical terms, the term "voice" refers to the sound produced by vibration of the vocal cords caused by air passing out from the lungs during speech, singing, or breathing. It is a complex process that involves coordination between respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory systems. Any damage or disorder in these systems can affect the quality, pitch, loudness, and flexibility of the voice.

The medical field dealing with voice disorders is called Phoniatrics or Voice Medicine. Voice disorders can present as hoarseness, breathiness, roughness, strain, weakness, or a complete loss of voice, which can significantly impact communication, social interaction, and quality of life.

Articulation disorders are speech sound disorders that involve difficulties producing sounds correctly and forming clear, understandable speech. These disorders can affect the way sounds are produced, the order in which they're pronounced, or both. Articulation disorders can be developmental, occurring as a child learns to speak, or acquired, resulting from injury, illness, or disease.

People with articulation disorders may have trouble pronouncing specific sounds (e.g., lisping), omitting sounds, substituting one sound for another, or distorting sounds. These issues can make it difficult for others to understand their speech and can lead to frustration, social difficulties, and communication challenges in daily life.

Speech-language pathologists typically diagnose and treat articulation disorders using various techniques, including auditory discrimination exercises, phonetic placement activities, and oral-motor exercises to improve muscle strength and control. Early intervention is essential for optimal treatment outcomes and to minimize the potential impact on a child's academic, social, and emotional development.

Perceptual masking, also known as sensory masking or just masking, is a concept in sensory perception that refers to the interference in the ability to detect or recognize a stimulus (the target) due to the presence of another stimulus (the mask). This phenomenon can occur across different senses, including audition and vision.

In the context of hearing, perceptual masking occurs when one sound (the masker) makes it difficult to hear another sound (the target) because the two sounds are presented simultaneously or in close proximity to each other. The masker can make the target sound less detectable, harder to identify, or even completely inaudible.

There are different types of perceptual masking, including:

1. Simultaneous Masking: When the masker and target sounds occur at the same time.
2. Temporal Masking: When the masker sound precedes or follows the target sound by a short period. This type of masking can be further divided into forward masking (when the masker comes before the target) and backward masking (when the masker comes after the target).
3. Informational Masking: A more complex form of masking that occurs when the listener's cognitive processes, such as attention or memory, are affected by the presence of the masker sound. This type of masking can make it difficult to understand speech in noisy environments, even if the signal-to-noise ratio is favorable.

Perceptual masking has important implications for understanding and addressing hearing difficulties, particularly in situations with background noise or multiple sounds occurring simultaneously.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

Apraxia is a motor disorder characterized by the inability to perform learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability and mental understanding to do so. It is not caused by weakness, paralysis, or sensory loss, and it is not due to poor comprehension or motivation.

There are several types of apraxias, including:

1. Limb-Kinematic Apraxia: This type affects the ability to make precise movements with the limbs, such as using tools or performing complex gestures.
2. Ideomotor Apraxia: In this form, individuals have difficulty executing learned motor actions in response to verbal commands or visual cues, but they can still perform the same action when given the actual object to use.
3. Ideational Apraxia: This type affects the ability to sequence and coordinate multiple steps of a complex action, such as dressing oneself or making coffee.
4. Oral Apraxia: Also known as verbal apraxia, this form affects the ability to plan and execute speech movements, leading to difficulties with articulation and speech production.
5. Constructional Apraxia: This type impairs the ability to draw, copy, or construct geometric forms and shapes, often due to visuospatial processing issues.

Apraxias can result from various neurological conditions, such as stroke, brain injury, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment typically involves rehabilitation and therapy focused on retraining the affected movements and compensating for any residual deficits.

Voice quality, in the context of medicine and particularly in otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine), refers to the characteristic sound of an individual's voice that can be influenced by various factors. These factors include the vocal fold vibration, respiratory support, articulation, and any underlying medical conditions.

A change in voice quality might indicate a problem with the vocal folds or surrounding structures, neurological issues affecting the nerves that control vocal fold movement, or other medical conditions. Examples of terms used to describe voice quality include breathy, hoarse, rough, strained, or tense. A detailed analysis of voice quality is often part of a speech-language pathologist's assessment and can help in diagnosing and managing various voice disorders.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

Auditory perception refers to the process by which the brain interprets and makes sense of the sounds we hear. It involves the recognition and interpretation of different frequencies, intensities, and patterns of sound waves that reach our ears through the process of hearing. This allows us to identify and distinguish various sounds such as speech, music, and environmental noises.

The auditory system includes the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, and the auditory nerve, which transmits electrical signals to the brain's auditory cortex for processing and interpretation. Auditory perception is a complex process that involves multiple areas of the brain working together to identify and make sense of sounds in our environment.

Disorders or impairments in auditory perception can result in difficulties with hearing, understanding speech, and identifying environmental sounds, which can significantly impact communication, learning, and daily functioning.

Cochlear implantation is a surgical procedure in which a device called a cochlear implant is inserted into the inner ear (cochlea) of a person with severe to profound hearing loss. The implant consists of an external component, which includes a microphone, processor, and transmitter, and an internal component, which includes a receiver and electrode array.

The microphone picks up sounds from the environment and sends them to the processor, which analyzes and converts the sounds into electrical signals. These signals are then transmitted to the receiver, which stimulates the electrode array in the cochlea. The electrodes directly stimulate the auditory nerve fibers, bypassing the damaged hair cells in the inner ear that are responsible for normal hearing.

The brain interprets these electrical signals as sound, allowing the person to perceive and understand speech and other sounds. Cochlear implantation is typically recommended for people who do not benefit from traditional hearing aids and can significantly improve communication, quality of life, and social integration for those with severe to profound hearing loss.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "linguistics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lingustics is the scientific study of language and its structure. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.

If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

The auditory threshold is the minimum sound intensity or loudness level that a person can detect 50% of the time, for a given tone frequency. It is typically measured in decibels (dB) and represents the quietest sound that a person can hear. The auditory threshold can be affected by various factors such as age, exposure to noise, and certain medical conditions. Hearing tests, such as pure-tone audiometry, are used to measure an individual's auditory thresholds for different frequencies.

Lipreading, also known as speechreading, is not a medical term per se, but it is a communication strategy often used by individuals with hearing loss. It involves paying close attention to the movements of the lips, facial expressions, and body language of the person who is speaking to help understand spoken words.

While lipreading can be helpful, it should be noted that it is not an entirely accurate way to comprehend speech, as many sounds look similar on the lips, and factors such as lighting and the speaker's articulation can affect its effectiveness. Therefore, lipreading is often used in conjunction with other communication strategies, such as hearing aids, cochlear implants, or American Sign Language (ASL).

Language development refers to the process by which children acquire the ability to understand and communicate through spoken, written, or signed language. This complex process involves various components including phonology (sound system), semantics (meaning of words and sentences), syntax (sentence structure), and pragmatics (social use of language). Language development begins in infancy with cooing and babbling and continues through early childhood and beyond, with most children developing basic conversational skills by the age of 4-5 years. However, language development can continue into adolescence and even adulthood as individuals learn new languages or acquire more advanced linguistic skills. Factors that can influence language development include genetics, environment, cognition, and social interactions.

Deafness is a hearing loss that is so severe that it results in significant difficulty in understanding or comprehending speech, even when using hearing aids. It can be congenital (present at birth) or acquired later in life due to various causes such as disease, injury, infection, exposure to loud noises, or aging. Deafness can range from mild to profound and may affect one ear (unilateral) or both ears (bilateral). In some cases, deafness may be accompanied by tinnitus, which is the perception of ringing or other sounds in the ears.

Deaf individuals often use American Sign Language (ASL) or other forms of sign language to communicate. Some people with less severe hearing loss may benefit from hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive listening devices. Deafness can have significant social, educational, and vocational implications, and early intervention and appropriate support services are critical for optimal development and outcomes.

Psychoacoustics is a branch of psychophysics that deals with the study of the psychological and physiological responses to sound. It involves understanding how people perceive, interpret, and react to different sounds, including speech, music, and environmental noises. This field combines knowledge from various areas such as psychology, acoustics, physics, and engineering to investigate the relationship between physical sound characteristics and human perception. Research in psychoacoustics has applications in fields like hearing aid design, noise control, music perception, and communication systems.

Hearing aids are electronic devices designed to improve hearing and speech comprehension for individuals with hearing loss. They consist of a microphone, an amplifier, a speaker, and a battery. The microphone picks up sounds from the environment, the amplifier increases the volume of these sounds, and the speaker sends the amplified sound into the ear. Modern hearing aids often include additional features such as noise reduction, directional microphones, and wireless connectivity to smartphones or other devices. They are programmed to meet the specific needs of the user's hearing loss and can be adjusted for comfort and effectiveness. Hearing aids are available in various styles, including behind-the-ear (BTE), receiver-in-canal (RIC), in-the-ear (ITE), and completely-in-canal (CIC).

Language development disorders, also known as language impairments or communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand and/or use spoken or written language in a typical manner. These disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, word finding, following directions, and/or conversational skills.

Language development disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty using language to communicate), or mixed (a combination of both). They can occur in isolation or as part of a broader neurodevelopmental disorder, such as autism spectrum disorder or intellectual disability.

The causes of language development disorders are varied and may include genetic factors, environmental influences, neurological conditions, hearing loss, or other medical conditions. It is important to note that language development disorders are not the result of low intelligence or lack of motivation; rather, they reflect a specific impairment in the brain's language processing systems.

Early identification and intervention for language development disorders can significantly improve outcomes and help individuals develop effective communication skills. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy, which may be provided individually or in a group setting, and may involve strategies such as modeling correct language use, practicing targeted language skills, and using visual aids to support comprehension.

Phonation is the process of sound production in speech, singing, or crying. It involves the vibration of the vocal folds (also known as the vocal cords) in the larynx, which is located in the neck. When air from the lungs passes through the vibrating vocal folds, it causes them to vibrate and produce sound waves. These sound waves are then shaped into speech sounds by the articulatory structures of the mouth, nose, and throat.

Phonation is a critical component of human communication and is used in various forms of verbal expression, such as speaking, singing, and shouting. It requires precise control of the muscles that regulate the tension, mass, and length of the vocal folds, as well as the air pressure and flow from the lungs. Dysfunction in phonation can result in voice disorders, such as hoarseness, breathiness, or loss of voice.

The auditory cortex is the region of the brain that is responsible for processing and analyzing sounds, including speech. It is located in the temporal lobe of the cerebral cortex, specifically within the Heschl's gyrus and the surrounding areas. The auditory cortex receives input from the auditory nerve, which carries sound information from the inner ear to the brain.

The auditory cortex is divided into several subregions that are responsible for different aspects of sound processing, such as pitch, volume, and location. These regions work together to help us recognize and interpret sounds in our environment, allowing us to communicate with others and respond appropriately to our surroundings. Damage to the auditory cortex can result in hearing loss or difficulty understanding speech.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "vocabulary" is a term related to language and communication, rather than medicine or healthcare. It refers to the words and phrases that a person knows and uses in their communication. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

Hearing is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations in the air or other mediums and translating them into nerve impulses that are sent to the brain for interpretation. In medical terms, hearing is defined as the sense of sound perception, which is mediated by the ear and interpreted by the brain. It involves a complex series of processes, including the conduction of sound waves through the outer ear to the eardrum, the vibration of the middle ear bones, and the movement of fluid in the inner ear, which stimulates hair cells to send electrical signals to the auditory nerve and ultimately to the brain. Hearing allows us to communicate with others, appreciate music and sounds, and detect danger or important events in our environment.

Psycholinguistics is not a medical term per se, but it is a subfield of both psychology and linguistics that explores how we understand, produce, and process language. It investigates the cognitive processes and mental representations involved in language use, such as word recognition, sentence comprehension, language production, language acquisition, and language disorders.

In medical contexts, psycholinguistic assessments may be used to evaluate individuals with communication difficulties due to neurological or developmental disorders, such as aphasia, dyslexia, or autism spectrum disorder. These assessments can help identify specific areas of impairment and inform treatment planning.

The correction of hearing impairment refers to the various methods and technologies used to improve or restore hearing function in individuals with hearing loss. This can include the use of hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices. Additionally, speech therapy and auditory training may also be used to help individuals with hearing impairment better understand and communicate with others. In some cases, surgical procedures may also be performed to correct physical abnormalities in the ear or improve nerve function. The goal of correction of hearing impairment is to help individuals with hearing loss better interact with their environment and improve their overall quality of life.

Child language refers to the development of linguistic abilities in children, including both receptive and expressive communication. This includes the acquisition of various components of language such as phonology (sound system), morphology (word structure), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social use of language).

Child language development typically follows a predictable sequence, beginning with cooing and babbling in infancy, followed by the use of single words and simple phrases in early childhood. Over time, children acquire more complex linguistic structures and expand their vocabulary to communicate more effectively. However, individual differences in the rate and pace of language development are common.

Clinical professionals such as speech-language pathologists may assess and diagnose children with language disorders or delays in order to provide appropriate interventions and support for typical language development.

A language test is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of speech-language pathology, which is a medical discipline. A language test, in this context, refers to an assessment tool used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate an individual's language abilities. These tests typically measure various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Language tests can be standardized or non-standardized and may be administered individually or in a group setting. The results of these tests help speech-language pathologists diagnose language disorders, develop treatment plans, and monitor progress over time. It is important to note that language testing should be conducted by a qualified professional who has experience in administering and interpreting language assessments.

Pitch perception is the ability to identify and discriminate different frequencies or musical notes. It is the way our auditory system interprets and organizes sounds based on their highness or lowness, which is determined by the frequency of the sound waves. A higher pitch corresponds to a higher frequency, while a lower pitch corresponds to a lower frequency. Pitch perception is an important aspect of hearing and is crucial for understanding speech, enjoying music, and localizing sounds in our environment. It involves complex processing in the inner ear and auditory nervous system.

Pattern recognition in the context of physiology refers to the ability to identify and interpret specific patterns or combinations of physiological variables or signals that are characteristic of certain physiological states, conditions, or functions. This process involves analyzing data from various sources such as vital signs, biomarkers, medical images, or electrophysiological recordings to detect meaningful patterns that can provide insights into the underlying physiology or pathophysiology of a given condition.

Physiological pattern recognition is an essential component of clinical decision-making and diagnosis, as it allows healthcare professionals to identify subtle changes in physiological function that may indicate the presence of a disease or disorder. It can also be used to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, as well as to guide the development of new therapies and medical technologies.

Pattern recognition algorithms and techniques are often used in physiological signal processing and analysis to automate the identification and interpretation of patterns in large datasets. These methods can help to improve the accuracy and efficiency of physiological pattern recognition, enabling more personalized and precise approaches to healthcare.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "hearing impairment" is defined as "hearing loss greater than 40 decibels (dB) in the better ear in adults or greater than 30 dB in children." Therefore, "Persons with hearing impairments" refers to individuals who have a significant degree of hearing loss that affects their ability to communicate and perform daily activities.

Hearing impairment can range from mild to profound and can be categorized as sensorineural (inner ear or nerve damage), conductive (middle ear problems), or mixed (a combination of both). The severity and type of hearing impairment can impact the communication methods, assistive devices, or accommodations that a person may need.

It is important to note that "hearing impairment" and "deafness" are not interchangeable terms. While deafness typically refers to a profound degree of hearing loss that significantly impacts a person's ability to communicate using sound, hearing impairment can refer to any degree of hearing loss that affects a person's ability to hear and understand speech or other sounds.

In medical terms, a "lip" refers to the thin edge or border of an organ or other biological structure. However, when people commonly refer to "the lip," they are usually talking about the lips on the face, which are part of the oral cavity. The lips are a pair of soft, fleshy tissues that surround the mouth and play a crucial role in various functions such as speaking, eating, drinking, and expressing emotions.

The lips are made up of several layers, including skin, muscle, blood vessels, nerves, and mucous membrane. The outer surface of the lips is covered by skin, while the inner surface is lined with a moist mucous membrane. The muscles that make up the lips allow for movements such as pursing, puckering, and smiling.

The lips also contain numerous sensory receptors that help detect touch, temperature, pain, and other stimuli. Additionally, they play a vital role in protecting the oral cavity from external irritants and pathogens, helping to keep the mouth clean and healthy.

Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand or produce spoken, written, or other symbolic language. These disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty producing language), or mixed (a combination of both).

Language disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and coherence in communication. They can also affect social communication skills such as taking turns in conversation, understanding nonverbal cues, and interpreting tone of voice.

Language disorders can be developmental, meaning they are present from birth or early childhood, or acquired, meaning they develop later in life due to injury, illness, or trauma. Examples of acquired language disorders include aphasia, which can result from stroke or brain injury, and dysarthria, which can result from neurological conditions affecting speech muscles.

Language disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's academic, social, and vocational functioning, making it important to diagnose and treat them as early as possible. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals develop and improve their language skills.

Speech-Language Pathology is a branch of healthcare that deals with the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication disorders, speech difficulties, and swallowing problems. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), also known as speech therapists, are professionals trained to assess and help manage these issues. They work with individuals of all ages, from young children who may be delayed in their speech and language development, to adults who have communication or swallowing difficulties due to stroke, brain injury, neurological disorders, or other conditions. Treatment may involve various techniques and technologies to improve communication and swallowing abilities, and may also include counseling and education for patients and their families.

In a medical context, "gestures" are not typically defined as they are a part of communication and behavior rather than specific medical terminology. However, in the field of physical therapy or rehabilitation, gestures may refer to purposeful movements made with the hands, arms, or body to express ideas or commands.

In neurology or neuropsychology, abnormal gestures may be a symptom of certain conditions such as apraxia, where patients have difficulty performing learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability to do so. In this context, "gestures" would refer to specific motor behaviors that are impaired due to brain damage or dysfunction.

Pure-tone audiometry is a hearing test that measures a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. During the test, pure tones are presented to the patient through headphones or ear inserts, and the patient is asked to indicate each time they hear the sound by raising their hand, pressing a button, or responding verbally.

The softest sound that the person can hear at each frequency is recorded as the hearing threshold, and a graph called an audiogram is created to show the results. The audiogram provides information about the type and degree of hearing loss in each ear. Pure-tone audiometry is a standard hearing test used to diagnose and monitor hearing disorders.

Comprehension, in a medical context, usually refers to the ability to understand and interpret spoken or written language, as well as gestures and expressions. It is a key component of communication and cognitive functioning. Difficulties with comprehension can be a symptom of various neurological conditions, such as aphasia (a disorder caused by damage to the language areas of the brain), learning disabilities, or dementia. Assessment of comprehension is often part of neuropsychological evaluations and speech-language pathology assessments.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "music" is not a term that has a medical definition. Music is a form of art that uses sound organized in time. It may include elements such as melody, harmony, rhythm, and dynamics. While music can have various psychological and physiological effects on individuals, it is not considered a medical term with a specific diagnosis or treatment application. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Broca's aphasia, also known as expressive aphasia or nonfluent aphasia, is a type of language disorder that results from damage to the brain's Broca's area, which is located in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left).

Individuals with Broca's aphasia have difficulty producing spoken or written language. They often know what they want to say but have trouble getting the words out, resulting in short and grammatically simplified sentences. Speech may be slow, laborious, and agrammatic, with limited vocabulary and poor sentence structure. Comprehension of language is typically less affected than expression, although individuals with Broca's aphasia may have difficulty understanding complex grammatical structures or following rapid speech.

It's important to note that the severity and specific symptoms of Broca's aphasia can vary depending on the extent and location of the brain damage. Rehabilitation and therapy can help improve language skills in individuals with Broca's aphasia, although recovery may be slow and limited.

Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain in response to sound stimuli. These tests are often used to assess hearing function and neural processing in individuals, particularly those who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests.

There are several types of AEP tests, including:

1. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Response (BAER) or Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the brainstem in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess the integrity of the auditory nerve and brainstem pathways, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory neuropathy and retrocochlear lesions.
2. Middle Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (MLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a click or tone stimulus. It is often used to assess higher-level auditory processing, and can help diagnose conditions such as auditory processing disorders and central auditory dysfunction.
3. Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (LLAEP): This test measures the electrical activity generated by the cortical auditory areas of the brain in response to a complex stimulus, such as speech. It is often used to assess language processing and cognitive function, and can help diagnose conditions such as learning disabilities and dementia.

Overall, AEP tests are valuable tools for assessing hearing and neural function in individuals who cannot perform traditional behavioral hearing tests or who have complex neurological conditions.

Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is a type of hearing impairment that occurs due to damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or to the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. It can be caused by various factors such as aging, exposure to loud noises, genetics, certain medical conditions (like diabetes and heart disease), and ototoxic medications.

SNHL affects the ability of the hair cells in the cochlea to convert sound waves into electrical signals that are sent to the brain via the auditory nerve. As a result, sounds may be perceived as muffled, faint, or distorted, making it difficult to understand speech, especially in noisy environments.

SNHL is typically permanent and cannot be corrected with medication or surgery, but hearing aids or cochlear implants can help improve communication and quality of life for those affected.

Aphasia is a medical condition that affects a person's ability to communicate. It is caused by damage to the language areas of the brain, most commonly as a result of a stroke or head injury. Aphasia can affect both spoken and written language, making it difficult for individuals to express their thoughts, understand speech, read, or write.

There are several types of aphasia, including:

1. Expressive aphasia (also called Broca's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to speak and write clearly. Individuals with expressive aphasia know what they want to say but have difficulty forming the words or sentences to communicate their thoughts.
2. Receptive aphasia (also called Wernicke's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to understand spoken or written language. Individuals with receptive aphasia may struggle to follow conversations, comprehend written texts, or make sense of the words they hear or read.
3. Global aphasia: This is the most severe form of aphasia and results from extensive damage to the language areas of the brain. People with global aphasia have significant impairments in both their ability to express themselves and understand language.
4. Anomic aphasia: This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to recall the names of objects, people, or places. Individuals with anomic aphasia can speak in complete sentences but often struggle to find the right words to convey their thoughts.

Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which aims to help individuals regain as much communication ability as possible. The success of treatment depends on various factors, such as the severity and location of the brain injury, the individual's motivation and effort, and the availability of support from family members and caregivers.

Auditory perceptual disorders, also known as auditory processing disorders (APD), refer to a group of hearing-related problems in which the ears are able to hear sounds normally, but the brain has difficulty interpreting or making sense of those sounds. This means that individuals with APD have difficulty recognizing and discriminating speech sounds, especially in noisy environments. They may also have trouble identifying where sounds are coming from, distinguishing between similar sounds, and understanding spoken language when it is rapid or complex.

APD can lead to difficulties in academic performance, communication, and social interactions. It is important to note that APD is not a hearing loss, but rather a problem with how the brain processes auditory information. Diagnosis of APD typically involves a series of tests administered by an audiologist, and treatment may include specialized therapy and/or assistive listening devices.

Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of sound, its production, transmission, and effects. In a medical context, acoustics may refer to the use of sound waves in medical procedures such as:

1. Diagnostic ultrasound: This technique uses high-frequency sound waves to create images of internal organs and tissues. It is commonly used during pregnancy to monitor fetal development, but it can also be used to diagnose a variety of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, and musculoskeletal injuries.
2. Therapeutic ultrasound: This technique uses low-frequency sound waves to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation in muscles, tendons, and ligaments. It is often used to treat soft tissue injuries, arthritis, and other musculoskeletal conditions.
3. Otology: Acoustics also plays a crucial role in the field of otology, which deals with the study and treatment of hearing and balance disorders. The shape, size, and movement of the outer ear, middle ear, and inner ear all affect how sound waves are transmitted and perceived. Abnormalities in any of these structures can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, or balance problems.

In summary, acoustics is an important field of study in medicine that has applications in diagnosis, therapy, and the understanding of various medical conditions related to sound and hearing.

Hearing loss is a partial or total inability to hear sounds in one or both ears. It can occur due to damage to the structures of the ear, including the outer ear, middle ear, inner ear, or nerve pathways that transmit sound to the brain. The degree of hearing loss can vary from mild (difficulty hearing soft sounds) to severe (inability to hear even loud sounds). Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent and may be caused by factors such as exposure to loud noises, genetics, aging, infections, trauma, or certain medical conditions. It is important to note that hearing loss can have significant impacts on a person's communication abilities, social interactions, and overall quality of life.

In the context of medicine, "cues" generally refer to specific pieces of information or signals that can help healthcare professionals recognize and respond to a particular situation or condition. These cues can come in various forms, such as:

1. Physical examination findings: For example, a patient's abnormal heart rate or blood pressure reading during a physical exam may serve as a cue for the healthcare professional to investigate further.
2. Patient symptoms: A patient reporting chest pain, shortness of breath, or other concerning symptoms can act as a cue for a healthcare provider to consider potential diagnoses and develop an appropriate treatment plan.
3. Laboratory test results: Abnormal findings on laboratory tests, such as elevated blood glucose levels or abnormal liver function tests, may serve as cues for further evaluation and diagnosis.
4. Medical history information: A patient's medical history can provide valuable cues for healthcare professionals when assessing their current health status. For example, a history of smoking may increase the suspicion for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a patient presenting with respiratory symptoms.
5. Behavioral or environmental cues: In some cases, behavioral or environmental factors can serve as cues for healthcare professionals to consider potential health risks. For instance, exposure to secondhand smoke or living in an area with high air pollution levels may increase the risk of developing respiratory conditions.

Overall, "cues" in a medical context are essential pieces of information that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care and treatment.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Voice disorders are conditions that affect the quality, pitch, or volume of a person's voice. These disorders can result from damage to or abnormalities in the vocal cords, which are the small bands of muscle located in the larynx (voice box) that vibrate to produce sound.

There are several types of voice disorders, including:

1. Vocal cord dysfunction: This occurs when the vocal cords do not open and close properly, resulting in a weak or breathy voice.
2. Vocal cord nodules: These are small growths that form on the vocal cords as a result of excessive use or misuse of the voice, such as from shouting or singing too loudly.
3. Vocal cord polyps: These are similar to nodules but are usually larger and can cause more significant changes in the voice.
4. Laryngitis: This is an inflammation of the vocal cords that can result from a viral infection, overuse, or exposure to irritants such as smoke.
5. Muscle tension dysphonia: This occurs when the muscles around the larynx become tense and constricted, leading to voice changes.
6. Paradoxical vocal fold movement: This is a condition in which the vocal cords close when they should be open, causing breathing difficulties and a weak or breathy voice.
7. Spasmodic dysphonia: This is a neurological disorder that causes involuntary spasms of the vocal cords, resulting in voice breaks and difficulty speaking.

Voice disorders can cause significant impairment in communication, social interactions, and quality of life. Treatment may include voice therapy, medication, or surgery, depending on the underlying cause of the disorder.

Velopharyngeal Insufficiency (VPI) is a medical condition that affects the proper functioning of the velopharyngeal valve, which is responsible for closing off the nasal cavity from the mouth during speech. This valve is made up of the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth), the pharynx (the back of the throat), and the muscles that control their movement.

In VPI, the velopharyngeal valve does not close completely or properly during speech, causing air to escape through the nose and resulting in hypernasality, nasal emission, and/or articulation errors. This can lead to difficulties with speech clarity and understanding, as well as social and emotional challenges.

VPI can be present from birth (congenital) or acquired later in life due to factors such as cleft palate, neurological disorders, trauma, or surgery. Treatment for VPI may include speech therapy, surgical intervention, or a combination of both.

Auditory pathways refer to the series of structures and nerves in the body that are involved in processing sound and transmitting it to the brain for interpretation. The process begins when sound waves enter the ear and cause vibrations in the eardrum, which then move the bones in the middle ear. These movements stimulate hair cells in the cochlea, a spiral-shaped structure in the inner ear, causing them to release neurotransmitters that activate auditory nerve fibers.

The auditory nerve carries these signals to the brainstem, where they are relayed through several additional structures before reaching the auditory cortex in the temporal lobe of the brain. Here, the signals are processed and interpreted as sounds, allowing us to hear and understand speech, music, and other environmental noises.

Damage or dysfunction at any point along the auditory pathway can lead to hearing loss or impairment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

Audiometry is the testing of a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is typically conducted using an audiometer, a device that emits tones at varying volumes and frequencies. The person being tested wears headphones and indicates when they can hear the tone by pressing a button or raising their hand.

There are two main types of audiometry: pure-tone audiometry and speech audiometry. Pure-tone audiometry measures a person's ability to hear different frequencies at varying volumes, while speech audiometry measures a person's ability to understand spoken words at different volumes and in the presence of background noise.

The results of an audiometry test are typically plotted on an audiogram, which shows the quietest sounds that a person can hear at different frequencies. This information can be used to diagnose hearing loss, determine its cause, and develop a treatment plan.

In medical terms, the jaw is referred to as the mandible (in humans and some other animals), which is the lower part of the face that holds the lower teeth in place. It's a large, horseshoe-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw and serves as a attachment point for several muscles that are involved in chewing and moving the lower jaw.

In addition to the mandible, the upper jaw is composed of two bones known as the maxillae, which fuse together at the midline of the face to form the upper jaw. The upper jaw holds the upper teeth in place and forms the roof of the mouth, as well as a portion of the eye sockets and nasal cavity.

Together, the mandible and maxillae allow for various functions such as speaking, eating, and breathing.

An artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis or speech aid, is a device used to help individuals who have undergone a laryngectomy (surgical removal of the larynx) or have other conditions that prevent them from speaking normally. The device generates sound mechanically, which can then be shaped into speech by the user.

There are two main types of artificial larynx devices:

1. External: This type of device consists of a small electronic unit that produces sound when the user presses a button or activates it with a breath. The sound is then directed through a tube or hose into a face mask or a mouthpiece, where the user can shape it into speech.
2. Internal: An internal artificial larynx, also known as a voice prosthesis, is implanted in the body during surgery. It works by allowing air to flow from the trachea into the esophagus and then through the voice prosthesis, which creates sound that can be used for speech.

Both types of artificial larynx devices require practice and training to use effectively, but they can significantly improve communication and quality of life for individuals who have lost their natural voice due to laryngeal cancer or other conditions.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Language therapy, also known as speech-language therapy, is a type of treatment aimed at improving an individual's communication and swallowing abilities. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) or therapists provide this therapy to assess, diagnose, and treat a wide range of communication and swallowing disorders that can occur in people of all ages, from infants to the elderly.

Language therapy may involve working on various skills such as:

1. Expressive language: Improving the ability to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas through verbal, written, or other symbolic systems.
2. Receptive language: Enhancing the understanding of spoken or written language, including following directions and comprehending conversations.
3. Pragmatic or social language: Developing appropriate use of language in various social situations, such as turn-taking, topic maintenance, and making inferences.
4. Articulation and phonology: Correcting speech sound errors and improving overall speech clarity.
5. Voice and fluency: Addressing issues related to voice quality, volume, and pitch, as well as stuttering or stammering.
6. Literacy: Improving reading, writing, and spelling skills.
7. Swallowing: Evaluating and treating swallowing disorders (dysphagia) to ensure safe and efficient eating and drinking.

Language therapy often involves a combination of techniques, including exercises, drills, conversation practice, and the use of various therapeutic materials and technology. The goal of language therapy is to help individuals with communication disorders achieve optimal functional communication and swallowing abilities in their daily lives.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

A hearing test is a procedure used to evaluate a person's ability to hear different sounds, pitches, or frequencies. It is performed by a hearing healthcare professional in a sound-treated booth or room with calibrated audiometers. The test measures a person's hearing sensitivity at different frequencies and determines the quietest sounds they can hear, known as their hearing thresholds.

There are several types of hearing tests, including:

1. Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA): This is the most common type of hearing test, where the person is presented with pure tones at different frequencies and volumes through headphones or ear inserts. The person indicates when they hear the sound by pressing a button or raising their hand.
2. Speech Audiometry: This test measures a person's ability to understand speech at different volume levels. The person is asked to repeat words presented to them in quiet and in background noise.
3. Tympanometry: This test measures the function of the middle ear by creating variations in air pressure in the ear canal. It can help identify issues such as fluid buildup or a perforated eardrum.
4. Acoustic Reflex Testing: This test measures the body's natural response to loud sounds and can help identify the location of damage in the hearing system.
5. Otoacoustic Emissions (OAEs): This test measures the sound that is produced by the inner ear when it is stimulated by a sound. It can help identify cochlear damage or abnormalities.

Hearing tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring hearing loss, as well as identifying any underlying medical conditions that may be causing the hearing problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reading" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Reading is the activity or process of deciphering and understanding written words or text. It is a fundamental skill in language acquisition and communication, and is not typically used in a medical context unless there is a concern related to reading difficulties or disorders, such as dyslexia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "multilingualism" is not a medical term. It refers to the ability to communicate in and use two or more languages. Multilingualism can be observed at various levels, such as speaking, reading, and writing, and it can be an innate ability or acquired through education and experience.

Multilingualism is a common phenomenon worldwide, and it has been shown to have cognitive benefits, such as improved problem-solving skills and increased cultural sensitivity. However, it is not a medical concept and does not fall under the purview of medical definitions.

Bilateral hearing loss refers to a type of hearing loss that affects both ears equally or to varying degrees. It can be further categorized into two types: sensorineural and conductive hearing loss. Sensorineural hearing loss occurs due to damage to the inner ear or nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain, while conductive hearing loss happens when sound waves are not properly transmitted through the outer ear canal to the eardrum and middle ear bones. Bilateral hearing loss can result in difficulty understanding speech, localizing sounds, and may impact communication and quality of life. The diagnosis and management of bilateral hearing loss typically involve a comprehensive audiological evaluation and medical assessment to determine the underlying cause and appropriate treatment options.

Computer-assisted signal processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer algorithms and software to analyze, interpret, and extract meaningful information from biological signals. These signals can include physiological data such as electrocardiogram (ECG) waves, electromyography (EMG) signals, electroencephalography (EEG) readings, or medical images.

The goal of computer-assisted signal processing is to automate the analysis of these complex signals and extract relevant features that can be used for diagnostic, monitoring, or therapeutic purposes. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Signal acquisition: Collecting raw data from sensors or medical devices.
2. Preprocessing: Cleaning and filtering the data to remove noise and artifacts.
3. Feature extraction: Identifying and quantifying relevant features in the signal, such as peaks, troughs, or patterns.
4. Analysis: Applying statistical or machine learning algorithms to interpret the extracted features and make predictions about the underlying physiological state.
5. Visualization: Presenting the results in a clear and intuitive way for clinicians to review and use.

Computer-assisted signal processing has numerous applications in healthcare, including:

* Diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias or other heart conditions using ECG signals.
* Assessing muscle activity and function using EMG signals.
* Monitoring brain activity and diagnosing neurological disorders using EEG readings.
* Analyzing medical images to detect abnormalities, such as tumors or fractures.

Overall, computer-assisted signal processing is a powerful tool for improving the accuracy and efficiency of medical diagnosis and monitoring, enabling clinicians to make more informed decisions about patient care.

"Voice training" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the field of otolaryngology (ear, nose, and throat medicine) or speech-language pathology. However, voice training generally refers to the process of developing and improving one's vocal skills through various exercises and techniques. This can include training in breath control, pitch, volume, resonance, articulation, and interpretation, among other aspects of vocal production. Voice training is often used to help individuals with voice disorders or professionals such as singers and actors to optimize their vocal abilities. In a medical context, voice training may be recommended or overseen by a speech-language pathologist as part of the treatment plan for a voice disorder.

Hearing disorders, also known as hearing impairments or auditory impairments, refer to conditions that affect an individual's ability to hear sounds in one or both ears. These disorders can range from mild to profound and may result from genetic factors, aging, exposure to loud noises, infections, trauma, or certain medical conditions.

There are mainly two types of hearing disorders: conductive hearing loss and sensorineural hearing loss. Conductive hearing loss occurs when there is a problem with the outer or middle ear, preventing sound waves from reaching the inner ear. Causes include earwax buildup, fluid in the middle ear, a perforated eardrum, or damage to the ossicles (the bones in the middle ear).

Sensorineural hearing loss, on the other hand, is caused by damage to the inner ear (cochlea) or the nerve pathways from the inner ear to the brain. This type of hearing loss is often permanent and can be due to aging (presbycusis), exposure to loud noises, genetics, viral infections, certain medications, or head injuries.

Mixed hearing loss is a combination of both conductive and sensorineural components. In some cases, hearing disorders can also involve tinnitus (ringing or other sounds in the ears) or vestibular problems that affect balance and equilibrium.

Early identification and intervention for hearing disorders are crucial to prevent further deterioration and to help individuals develop appropriate communication skills and maintain a good quality of life.

Loudness perception refers to the subjective experience of the intensity or volume of a sound, which is a psychological response to the physical property of sound pressure level. It is a measure of how loud or soft a sound seems to an individual, and it can be influenced by various factors such as frequency, duration, and the context in which the sound is heard.

The perception of loudness is closely related to the concept of sound intensity, which is typically measured in decibels (dB). However, while sound intensity is an objective physical measurement, loudness is a subjective experience that can vary between individuals and even for the same individual under different listening conditions.

Loudness perception is a complex process that involves several stages of auditory processing, including mechanical transduction of sound waves by the ear, neural encoding of sound information in the auditory nerve, and higher-level cognitive processes that interpret and modulate the perceived loudness of sounds. Understanding the mechanisms underlying loudness perception is important for developing hearing aids, cochlear implants, and other assistive listening devices, as well as for diagnosing and treating various hearing disorders.

Auditory brainstem evoked potentials (ABEPs or BAEPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the auditory pathway of the brain in response to sound stimulation. The test involves placing electrodes on the scalp and recording the tiny electrical signals generated by the nerve cells in the brainstem as they respond to clicks or tone bursts presented through earphones.

The resulting waveform is analyzed for latency (the time it takes for the signal to travel from the ear to the brain) and amplitude (the strength of the signal). Abnormalities in the waveform can indicate damage to the auditory nerve or brainstem, and are often used in the diagnosis of various neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis, acoustic neuroma, and brainstem tumors.

The test is non-invasive, painless, and takes only a few minutes to perform. It provides valuable information about the functioning of the auditory pathway and can help guide treatment decisions for patients with hearing or balance disorders.

Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in various medical fields, particularly in diagnostic imaging and telemedicine. It is a measure from signal processing that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

In the context of medical imaging (like MRI, CT scans, or ultrasound), a higher SNR means that the useful information (the signal) is stronger relative to the irrelevant and distracting data (the noise). This results in clearer, more detailed, and more accurate images, which can significantly improve diagnostic precision.

In telemedicine and remote patient monitoring, SNR is crucial for ensuring high-quality audio and video communication between healthcare providers and patients. A good SNR ensures that the transmitted data (voice or image) is received with minimal interference or distortion, enabling effective virtual consultations and diagnoses.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Sensory feedback refers to the information that our senses (such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) provide to our nervous system about our body's interaction with its environment. This information is used by our brain and muscles to make adjustments in movement, posture, and other functions to maintain balance, coordination, and stability.

For example, when we walk, our sensory receptors in the skin, muscles, and joints provide feedback to our brain about the position and movement of our limbs. This information is used to adjust our muscle contractions and make small corrections in our gait to maintain balance and avoid falling. Similarly, when we touch a hot object, sensory receptors in our skin send signals to our brain that activate the withdrawal reflex, causing us to quickly pull away our hand.

In summary, sensory feedback is an essential component of our nervous system's ability to monitor and control our body's movements and responses to the environment.

Dyslexia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that impairs an individual's ability to read, write, and spell, despite having normal intelligence and adequate education. It is characterized by difficulties with accurate and fluent word recognition, poor decoding and spelling abilities, and often accompanied by problems with reading comprehension and reduced reading experience. Dyslexia is not a result of low intelligence, lack of motivation, or poor instruction, but rather a specific learning disability that affects the way the brain processes written language. It is typically diagnosed in children, although it can go unnoticed until adulthood, and there are effective interventions and accommodations to help individuals with dyslexia overcome their challenges and achieve academic and professional success.

In psychology, Signal Detection Theory (SDT) is a framework used to understand the ability to detect the presence or absence of a signal (such as a stimulus or event) in the presence of noise or uncertainty. It is often applied in sensory perception research, such as hearing and vision, where it helps to separate an observer's sensitivity to the signal from their response bias.

SDT involves measuring both hits (correct detections of the signal) and false alarms (incorrect detections when no signal is present). These measures are then used to calculate measures such as d', which reflects the observer's ability to discriminate between the signal and noise, and criterion (C), which reflects the observer's response bias.

SDT has been applied in various fields of psychology, including cognitive psychology, clinical psychology, and neuroscience, to study decision-making, memory, attention, and perception. It is a valuable tool for understanding how people make decisions under uncertainty and how they trade off accuracy and caution in their responses.

Dysphonia is a medical term that refers to difficulty or discomfort in producing sounds or speaking, often characterized by hoarseness, roughness, breathiness, strain, or weakness in the voice. It can be caused by various conditions such as vocal fold nodules, polyps, inflammation, neurological disorders, or injuries to the vocal cords. Dysphonia can affect people of all ages and may impact their ability to communicate effectively, causing social, professional, and emotional challenges. Treatment for dysphonia depends on the underlying cause and may include voice therapy, medication, surgery, or lifestyle modifications.

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a non-invasive functional neuroimaging technique used to measure the magnetic fields produced by electrical activity in the brain. These magnetic fields are detected by very sensitive devices called superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs), which are cooled to extremely low temperatures to enhance their sensitivity. MEG provides direct and real-time measurement of neural electrical activity with high temporal resolution, typically on the order of milliseconds, allowing for the investigation of brain function during various cognitive, sensory, and motor tasks. It is often used in conjunction with other neuroimaging techniques, such as fMRI, to provide complementary information about brain structure and function.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

In medical terms, the tongue is a muscular organ in the oral cavity that plays a crucial role in various functions such as taste, swallowing, and speech. It's covered with a mucous membrane and contains papillae, which are tiny projections that contain taste buds to help us perceive different tastes - sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. The tongue also assists in the initial process of digestion by moving food around in the mouth for chewing and mixing with saliva. Additionally, it helps in forming words and speaking clearly by shaping the sounds produced in the mouth.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Presbycusis is an age-related hearing loss, typically characterized by the progressive loss of sensitivity to high-frequency sounds. It's a result of natural aging of the auditory system and is often seen as a type of sensorineural hearing loss. The term comes from the Greek words "presbus" meaning old man and "akousis" meaning hearing.

This condition usually develops slowly over many years and can affect both ears equally. Presbycusis can make understanding speech, especially in noisy environments, quite challenging. It's a common condition, and its prevalence increases with age. While it's not reversible, various assistive devices like hearing aids can help manage the symptoms.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

Sound localization is the ability of the auditory system to identify the location or origin of a sound source in the environment. It is a crucial aspect of hearing and enables us to navigate and interact with our surroundings effectively. The process involves several cues, including time differences in the arrival of sound to each ear (interaural time difference), differences in sound level at each ear (interaural level difference), and spectral information derived from the filtering effects of the head and external ears on incoming sounds. These cues are analyzed by the brain to determine the direction and distance of the sound source, allowing for accurate localization.

Vocal cords, also known as vocal folds, are specialized bands of muscle, membrane, and connective tissue located within the larynx (voice box). They are essential for speech, singing, and other sounds produced by the human voice. The vocal cords vibrate when air from the lungs is passed through them, creating sound waves that vary in pitch and volume based on the tension, length, and mass of the vocal cords. These sound waves are then further modified by the resonance chambers of the throat, nose, and mouth to produce speech and other vocalizations.

Pitch discrimination, in the context of audiology and neuroscience, refers to the ability to perceive and identify the difference in pitch between two or more sounds. It is the measure of how accurately an individual can distinguish between different frequencies or tones. This ability is crucial for various aspects of hearing, such as understanding speech, appreciating music, and localizing sound sources.

Pitch discrimination is typically measured using psychoacoustic tests, where a listener is presented with two sequential tones and asked to determine whether the second tone is higher or lower in pitch than the first one. The smallest detectable difference between the frequencies of these two tones is referred to as the "just noticeable difference" (JND) or the "difference limen." This value can be used to quantify an individual's pitch discrimination abilities and may vary depending on factors such as frequency, intensity, and age.

Deficits in pitch discrimination can have significant consequences for various aspects of daily life, including communication difficulties and reduced enjoyment of music. These deficits can result from damage to the auditory system due to factors like noise exposure, aging, or certain medical conditions, such as hearing loss or neurological disorders.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Communication disorders refer to a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to receive, send, process, and understand concepts or verbal, nonverbal, and written communication. These disorders can be language-based, speech-based, or hearing-based.

Language-based communication disorders include:

1. Aphasia - a disorder that affects a person's ability to understand or produce spoken or written language due to damage to the brain's language centers.
2. Language development disorder - a condition where a child has difficulty developing age-appropriate language skills.
3. Dysarthria - a motor speech disorder that makes it difficult for a person to control the muscles used for speaking, resulting in slurred or slow speech.
4. Stuttering - a speech disorder characterized by repetition of sounds, syllables, or words, prolongation of sounds, and interruptions in speech known as blocks.
5. Voice disorders - problems with the pitch, volume, or quality of the voice that make it difficult to communicate effectively.

Hearing-based communication disorders include:

1. Hearing loss - a partial or complete inability to hear sound in one or both ears.
2. Auditory processing disorder - a hearing problem where the brain has difficulty interpreting the sounds heard, even though the person's hearing is normal.

Communication disorders can significantly impact a person's ability to interact with others and perform daily activities. Early identification and intervention are crucial for improving communication skills and overall quality of life.

Visual perception refers to the ability to interpret and organize information that comes from our eyes to recognize and understand what we are seeing. It involves several cognitive processes such as pattern recognition, size estimation, movement detection, and depth perception. Visual perception allows us to identify objects, navigate through space, and interact with our environment. Deficits in visual perception can lead to learning difficulties and disabilities.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Verbal learning is a type of learning that involves the acquisition, processing, and retrieval of information presented in a verbal or written form. It is often assessed through tasks such as list learning, where an individual is asked to remember a list of words or sentences after a single presentation or multiple repetitions. Verbal learning is an important aspect of cognitive functioning and is commonly evaluated in neuropsychological assessments to help identify any memory or learning impairments.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, learning is often discussed in relation to learning abilities or disabilities that may impact an individual's capacity to acquire, process, retain, and apply new information or skills. Learning can be defined as the process of acquiring knowledge, understanding, behaviors, and skills through experience, instruction, or observation.

Learning disorders, also known as learning disabilities, are a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that affects an individual's ability to learn and process information in one or more areas, such as reading, writing, mathematics, or reasoning. These disorders are not related to intelligence or motivation but rather result from differences in the way the brain processes information.

It is important to note that learning can also be influenced by various factors, including age, cognitive abilities, physical and mental health status, cultural background, and educational experiences. Therefore, a comprehensive assessment of an individual's learning abilities and needs should take into account these various factors to provide appropriate support and interventions.

A laryngectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the larynx, also known as the voice box. This is typically performed in cases of advanced laryngeal cancer or other severe diseases of the larynx. After the surgery, the patient will have a permanent stoma (opening) in the neck to allow for breathing. The ability to speak after a total laryngectomy can be restored through various methods such as esophageal speech, tracheoesophageal puncture with a voice prosthesis, or electronic devices.

Electroencephalography (EEG) is a medical procedure that records electrical activity in the brain. It uses small, metal discs called electrodes, which are attached to the scalp with paste or a specialized cap. These electrodes detect tiny electrical charges that result from the activity of brain cells, and the EEG machine then amplifies and records these signals.

EEG is used to diagnose various conditions related to the brain, such as seizures, sleep disorders, head injuries, infections, and degenerative diseases like Alzheimer's or Parkinson's. It can also be used during surgery to monitor brain activity and ensure that surgical procedures do not interfere with vital functions.

EEG is a safe and non-invasive procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete, although longer recordings may be necessary in some cases. Patients are usually asked to relax and remain still during the test, as movement can affect the quality of the recording.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

In medical terms, the mouth is officially referred to as the oral cavity. It is the first part of the digestive tract and includes several structures: the lips, vestibule (the space enclosed by the lips and teeth), teeth, gingiva (gums), hard and soft palate, tongue, floor of the mouth, and salivary glands. The mouth is responsible for several functions including speaking, swallowing, breathing, and eating, as it is the initial point of ingestion where food is broken down through mechanical and chemical processes, beginning the digestive process.

"Manual communication" is not a term typically used in medical terminology. However, it generally refers to the use of manual signals or gestures to convey meaning or communicate. In a medical context, it may refer to the use of American Sign Language (ASL) or other forms of sign language as a means of communication for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. It can also refer to the use of specific manual gestures or signs used by medical professionals to communicate with patients who have limited verbal communication abilities, such as those with developmental disabilities or speech disorders.

Audiology is a branch of science that deals with the study of hearing, balance disorders, and related conditions. It involves the assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of hearing and balance problems using various tests, techniques, and devices. Audiologists are healthcare professionals who specialize in this field and provide services such as hearing evaluations, fitting of hearing aids, and counseling for people with hearing loss or tinnitus (ringing in the ears). They also work closely with other medical professionals to manage complex cases and provide rehabilitation services.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Sign language is not considered a medical term, but it is a visual-manual means of communication used by individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. It combines hand shapes, orientation, and movement of the hands, arms, or body, along with facial expressions and lip patterns. Different sign languages exist in various countries and communities, such as American Sign Language (ASL) and British Sign Language (BSL).

However, I can provide a definition related to medical terminology that involves the use of gestures for communication purposes:

Gesture (in medical context): A bodily action or movement, often used to convey information or communicate. In some medical situations, healthcare professionals may use simple, predefined gestures to elicit responses from patients who have difficulty with verbal communication due to conditions like aphasia, dysarthria, or being in a coma. These gestures can be part of a more comprehensive system called "gesture-based communication" or "nonverbal communication."

For sign language specifically, you may consult resources related to linguistics, special education, or deaf studies for detailed definitions and descriptions.

"Communication Methods, Total" is not a standard medical term. However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "communication methods" generally refer to the ways in which information is exchanged between healthcare providers, patients, and caregivers. This can include both verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as written communication through medical records and documentation.

"Total" in this context could mean that all relevant communication methods are being considered or evaluated. For example, a healthcare organization might assess their "total communication methods" to ensure that they are using a variety of effective and appropriate strategies to communicate with patients and families, including those with limited English proficiency, hearing impairments, or other communication needs.

Therefore, the term "Communication Methods, Total" could be interpreted as a comprehensive approach to evaluating and improving all aspects of communication within a healthcare setting.

The larynx, also known as the voice box, is a complex structure in the neck that plays a crucial role in protection of the lower respiratory tract and in phonation. It is composed of cartilaginous, muscular, and soft tissue structures. The primary functions of the larynx include:

1. Airway protection: During swallowing, the larynx moves upward and forward to close the opening of the trachea (the glottis) and prevent food or liquids from entering the lungs. This action is known as the swallowing reflex.
2. Phonation: The vocal cords within the larynx vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound that forms the basis of human speech and voice production.
3. Respiration: The larynx serves as a conduit for airflow between the upper and lower respiratory tracts during breathing.

The larynx is located at the level of the C3-C6 vertebrae in the neck, just above the trachea. It consists of several important structures:

1. Cartilages: The laryngeal cartilages include the thyroid, cricoid, and arytenoid cartilages, as well as the corniculate and cuneiform cartilages. These form a framework for the larynx and provide attachment points for various muscles.
2. Vocal cords: The vocal cords are thin bands of mucous membrane that stretch across the glottis (the opening between the arytenoid cartilages). They vibrate when air passes through them, producing sound.
3. Muscles: There are several intrinsic and extrinsic muscles associated with the larynx. The intrinsic muscles control the tension and position of the vocal cords, while the extrinsic muscles adjust the position and movement of the larynx within the neck.
4. Nerves: The larynx is innervated by both sensory and motor nerves. The recurrent laryngeal nerve provides motor innervation to all intrinsic laryngeal muscles, except for one muscle called the cricothyroid, which is innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. Sensory innervation is provided by the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

The larynx plays a crucial role in several essential functions, including breathing, speaking, and protecting the airway during swallowing. Dysfunction or damage to the larynx can result in various symptoms, such as hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, shortness of breath, or stridor (a high-pitched sound heard during inspiration).

In medical terms, imitative behavior is also known as "echopraxia." It refers to the involuntary or unconscious repetition of another person's movements or actions. This copying behavior is usually seen in individuals with certain neurological conditions, such as Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, or after suffering a brain injury. Echopraxia should not be confused with mimicry, which is a voluntary and intentional imitation of someone else's behaviors.

Echolalia is a term used in the field of medicine, specifically in neurology and psychology. It refers to the repetition of words or phrases spoken by another person, mimicking their speech in a near identical manner. This behavior is often observed in individuals with developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Echolalia can be either immediate or delayed. Immediate echolalia occurs when an individual repeats the words or phrases immediately after they are spoken by someone else. Delayed echolalia, on the other hand, involves the repetition of words or phrases that were heard at an earlier time.

Echolalia is not necessarily a pathological symptom and can be a normal part of language development in young children who are learning to speak. However, when it persists beyond the age of 3-4 years or occurs in older individuals with developmental disorders, it may indicate difficulties with initiating spontaneous speech or forming original thoughts and ideas.

In some cases, echolalia can serve as a communication tool for individuals with ASD who have limited verbal abilities. By repeating words or phrases that they have heard before, they may be able to convey their needs or emotions in situations where they are unable to generate appropriate language on their own.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Time perception, in the context of medicine and neuroscience, refers to the subjective experience and cognitive representation of time intervals. It is a complex process that involves the integration of various sensory, attentional, and emotional factors.

Disorders or injuries to certain brain regions, such as the basal ganglia, thalamus, or cerebellum, can affect time perception, leading to symptoms such as time distortion, where time may seem to pass more slowly or quickly than usual. Additionally, some neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and depression, have been associated with altered time perception.

Assessment of time perception is often used in neuropsychological evaluations to help diagnose and monitor the progression of certain neurological disorders. Various tests exist to measure time perception, such as the temporal order judgment task, where individuals are asked to judge which of two stimuli occurred first, or the duration estimation task, where individuals are asked to estimate the duration of a given stimulus.

A palatal obturator is a type of dental prosthesis that is used to close or block a hole or opening in the roof of the mouth, also known as the hard palate. This condition can occur due to various reasons such as cleft palate, cancer, trauma, or surgery. The obturator is designed to fit securely in the patient's mouth and restore normal speech, swallowing, and chewing functions.

The palatal obturator typically consists of a custom-made plate made of acrylic resin or other materials that are compatible with the oral tissues. The plate has an extension that fills the opening in the palate and creates a barrier between the oral and nasal cavities. This helps to prevent food and liquids from entering the nasal cavity during eating and speaking, which can cause discomfort, irritation, and infection.

Palatal obturators may be temporary or permanent, depending on the patient's needs and condition. They are usually fabricated based on an impression of the patient's mouth and fitted by a dental professional to ensure proper function and comfort. Proper care and maintenance of the obturator, including regular cleaning and adjustments, are essential to maintain its effectiveness and prevent complications.

Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia that is characterized by an impairment in the ability to repeat spoken or written words, despite having intact comprehension and production abilities. It is caused by damage to specific areas of the brain, typically in the left hemisphere, that are involved in language repetition and transmission.

Individuals with conduction aphasia may have difficulty repeating sentences or phrases, but they can usually understand spoken and written language and produce speech relatively well. They may also make phonological errors (substituting, adding, or omitting sounds) when speaking, particularly in more complex words or sentences.

Conduction aphasia is often caused by stroke or other types of brain injury, and it can range from mild to severe in terms of its impact on communication abilities. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals improve their language skills and compensate for any remaining deficits.

The cochlear nerve, also known as the auditory nerve, is the sensory nerve that transmits sound signals from the inner ear to the brain. It consists of two parts: the outer spiral ganglion and the inner vestibular portion. The spiral ganglion contains the cell bodies of the bipolar neurons that receive input from hair cells in the cochlea, which is the snail-shaped organ in the inner ear responsible for hearing. These neurons then send their axons to form the cochlear nerve, which travels through the internal auditory meatus and synapses with neurons in the cochlear nuclei located in the brainstem.

Damage to the cochlear nerve can result in hearing loss or deafness, depending on the severity of the injury. Common causes of cochlear nerve damage include acoustic trauma, such as exposure to loud noises, viral infections, meningitis, and tumors affecting the nerve or surrounding structures. In some cases, cochlear nerve damage may be treated with hearing aids, cochlear implants, or other assistive devices to help restore or improve hearing function.

Animal vocalization refers to the production of sound by animals through the use of the vocal organs, such as the larynx in mammals or the syrinx in birds. These sounds can serve various purposes, including communication, expressing emotions, attracting mates, warning others of danger, and establishing territory. The complexity and diversity of animal vocalizations are vast, with some species capable of producing intricate songs or using specific calls to convey different messages. In a broader sense, animal vocalizations can also include sounds produced through other means, such as stridulation in insects.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Dichotic listening tests are a type of psychological and neurological assessment that measures the ability to process two different auditory stimuli presented simultaneously to each ear. In these tests, different speech sounds, tones, or other sounds are played at the same time, one to each ear, through headphones. The participant is then asked to repeat or identify the stimuli heard in each ear.

The test is designed to evaluate the functioning of the brain's hemispheres and their specialization for processing different types of information. Typically, the right ear is more efficient at sending information to the left hemisphere, which is specialized for language processing in most people. Therefore, speech sounds presented to the right ear are often identified more accurately than those presented to the left ear.

Dichotic listening tests can be used in various fields, including neuropsychology, audiology, and cognitive science, to assess brain function, laterality, attention, memory, and language processing abilities. These tests can also help identify any neurological impairments or deficits caused by injuries, diseases, or developmental disorders.

... speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map ... esophageal speech, pharyngeal speech and buccal speech (better known as Donald Duck talk). Speech production is a complex ... Speech-related diseases, disorders, and conditions can be treated by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) or speech therapist. ... Language portal Linguistics portal Freedom of speech portal Society portal FOXP2 Freedom of speech Imagined speech Index of ...
A speech code is any rule or regulation that limits, restricts, or bans speech beyond the strict legal limitations upon freedom ... Critics of speech codes such as the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education (FIRE) allege that speech codes are often not ... Speech codes are often applied for the purpose of suppressing hate speech or forms of social discourse thought to be ... However, opponents of speech codes often maintain that any restriction on speech is a violation of the First Amendment. Because ...
Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1985). "Speech shadowing and speech comprehension". Speech Communication. 4 (1-3): 55-73. doi:10.1016/ ... Cohort model Marslen-Wilson, William D. (1985). "Speech shadowing and speech comprehension". Speech Communication. 4 (1-3): 55- ... functional reality consists only of intent to reproduce speech, active listening and production of speech. Speech perception ... The speech shadowing technique had also been used to research whether it is the action of producing speech or concentration on ...
The speech was reprinted in full in The New York Times, which hailed it as the "greatest speech since President Lincoln's ... The speech was reprinted in full by the New York Times and has since been referred to as one of the most outstanding speeches ... 1972 speeches, 20th-century speeches, April 1972 events, Events in Glasgow, Inaugural addresses, University of Glasgow). ... The Glasgow Herald mentioned the speech in its editorial. The coverage of the speech helped raise Reid's profile to the highest ...
... is more direct than tangential speech in which the speaker wanders and drifts and usually never returns ... Circumstantial speech, also referred to as circumstantiality, is the result of a so-called "non-linear thought pattern" and ... An example of circumstantial speech is that when asked about the age of a person's mother at death, the speaker responds by ... If someone exhibits circumstantial speech during a conversation, they will often seem to "talk the long way around" to their ...
A farewell speech or farewell address is a speech given by an individual leaving a position or place. They are often used by ... the corresponding speech made upon arrival. Many U.S. presidential speeches have been given the moniker "farewell address" ... Douglas MacArthur - farewell speeches before Congress and U.S. Military Academy; "old soldiers never die, they only fade away" ... The speech of Aeneas to Helenus and Andromache, Aeneid, Book III. Napoleon Bonaparte - First abdication, April 6, 1814 (see ...
The SPEECH Act has been endorsed by several U.S. organizations, including the American Library Association, the Association of ... The only examples[as of?] of law journal treatment of the application of the SPEECH Act in the Trout Point Lodge case have ... "If You Don't Have Anything Nice to Say, Say It Anyway: Libel Tourism and the SPEECH Act" (PDF). Roger Williams Law Review. 20 ( ... Two earlier bills had aimed to address the topic of libel tourism, both with the proposed title of the "Free Speech Protection ...
The Speech Manager, in the classic Mac OS, is a part of the operating system used to convert text into sound data to play ... The Speech Manager's interaction with the Sound Manager is transparent to a software application. PlainTalk Apple Developer ... Connection: About the Speech Manager v t e (Classic Mac OS, Macintosh operating systems APIs, All stub articles, Macintosh ...
U+1F5E8 🗨 LEFT SPEECH BUBBLE (":left_speech_bubble:") was added with Unicode 7.0 in 2014. 👁️‍🗨️ EYE IN SPEECH BUBBLE is a ZWJ ... Speech balloons (also speech bubbles, dialogue balloons, or word balloons) are a graphic convention used most commonly in comic ... One of the earliest antecedents to the modern speech bubble were the "speech scrolls", wispy lines that connected first-person ... An early pioneer in experimenting with many different types of speech balloons and lettering for different types of speech was ...
Speaker recognition Speech analytics Speech interface guideline Speech recognition software for Linux Speech synthesis Speech ... It is also known as automatic speech recognition (ASR), computer speech recognition or speech to text (STT). It incorporates ... Speech and Language Processing-after merging with an ACM publication), Computer Speech and Language, and Speech Communication. ... therefore it becomes easier to recognize the speech as well as with isolated speech. With continuous speech naturally spoken ...
The speech was reviewed by several members of the political elite before it was delivered. Hedin showed the speech to the ... The speech sparked the Courtyard Crisis in Swedish government in February 1914. The speech was a part in the organized ... Prime Minister Karl Staaff was not allowed to see the speech on before it was delivered by the King. The speech was read by ... The Courtyard Speech (Swedish: Borggårdstalet) was a speech written by conservative explorer Sven Hedin and Swedish Army ...
A speech corpus (or spoken corpus) is a database of speech audio files and text transcriptions. In speech technology, speech ... A special kind of speech corpora are non-native speech databases that contain speech with foreign accent. Arabic Speech Corpus ... open source speech corpora OLAC: Open Language Archives Community BAS Bavarian Archive for Speech Signals Simmortel Speech ... an online libre tool List of children's speech corpora Non-native speech database Praat Spoken English Corpus The BABEL Speech ...
The speech is the one that is most commented on and his only speech whose main subject was imperialism that has been ... In the speech, Bryan states that America should not use its power to spread its forces. He appeals to the values that he says ... Bryan gave the speech during his campaign for his candidacy for the presidency in the 1900 election, when he ran under the ... In the speech, Bryan, a prominent American politician of the 1890s, warned against the harms and hubris of American imperialism ...
... may refer to: Acceptance Speech (Hip Hop Pantsula album), 2007 Acceptance Speech (Dance Gavin Dance album), ... 2013 Public speaking This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Acceptance Speech. If an internal link ...
... hate speech, and hate speech legislation. The laws of some countries describe hate speech as speech, gestures, conduct, writing ... In other countries, a victim of hate speech may seek redress under civil law, criminal law, or both. Hate speech is generally ... Women are somewhat more likely than men to support censoring hate speech due to greater perceived harm of hate speech, which ... Bennett, John T. "The Harm in Hate Speech: A Critique of the Empirical and Legal Bases of Hate Speech Regulation." Hastings ...
The Tangier Speech (Arabic: خطاب طنجة, French: discours de Tanger) was a momentous speech appealing for the independence and ... then proceeded to Tangier to deliver the historic speech. The Sultan, in his speech, addressed Morocco's future and its ... Eirik Labonne, the French resident général in Morocco at the time, had included a statement at the end of the speech for the ... In the days leading up to the sultan's speech, French colonial forces in Casablanca, specifically Senegalese Tirailleurs ...
The Sportpalast speech (German: Sportpalastrede) or Total War speech was a speech delivered by German Propaganda Minister ... Sportpalast speech Joseph Goebbels's speech in the Sportpalast in 1943. Problems playing this file? See media help. ... which is fit in the context of the speech. Millions of Germans listened to Goebbels on the radio as he delivered this speech ... but also by Goebbels himself in older speeches, including his 6 July 1932 campaign speech before the Nazis took power in ...
The speech scene employed over 500 extras, an unusual occurrence for the series. Much of Dwight's speech is based upon real ... "Dwight's Speech" at "Dwight's Speech" at IMDb (CS1 maint: location, CS1: Julian-Gregorian uncertainty, All articles ... Mussolini and Severino, p. 17 Mussolini, Benito (23 February 1941). Speech Delivered by Premier Benito Mussolini (Speech). Rome ... Much of Dwight's speech is drawn from a variety of sources, including the following: "Dwight's Speech" originally aired on NBC ...
... is a type of ataxic dysarthria in which spoken words are broken up into separate syllables, often separated by ... Scanning speech, like other ataxic dysarthrias, is a symptom of lesions in the cerebellum. It is a typical symptom of multiple ... Scanning speech may be accompanied by other symptoms of cerebellar damage, such as gait, truncal and limb ataxia, intention ... "Scanning Speech". Retrieved 2012-01-04. "Charcot's triad I". Retrieved 2012-01-04. Thomas, Huw. " ...
... refers to the study of production, transmission and perception of speech. Speech science involves anatomy, in ... Speech perception refers to the understanding of speech. The beginning of the process towards understanding speech is first ... Larynx Phonation Respiration (physiology) Speech Speech and language pathology Speech perception Vocal tract Gray's Anatomy of ... Forced inspiration for speech uses accessory muscles to elevate the rib cage and enlarge the thoracic cavity in the vertical ...
However, the speech Botha actually delivered at the time did none of this. The speech is known as the 'Rubicon speech' because ... At the final draft of the original agreed speech, which would be named the "Prog speech" ("Prog" being short for the ... The speech had serious ripple effects to the economy of South Africa and it also caused South Africa to be even more isolated ... The Rubicon speech was delivered by South African President P. W. Botha on the evening of 15 August 1985 in Durban. The world ...
... may refer to: Individual events (speech) Debate This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title ... Speech team. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. ( ...
... speech therapy and computer speech recognition. The idea of the use of a spectrograph to translate speech into a visual ... Visible Speech Manual. Kopp. Visible Speech Manual, Wayne State University Press, Detroit, 1967. ISBN HV 2490 K83+ Potter, Kopp ... Visible Speech. Melville Bell, 1867. Visible Speech: The Science of Universal Alphabetics. Myers and Crowhurst, Phonology case ... Visible Speech, Dover Publications, 1966. ISBN TK 6500 P86 1966. Bell, Alexander Melville. Visible Speech: The Science of ...
... is a measure of the number of speech units of a given type produced within a given amount of time. Speech tempo is ... For this reason, it is usual to distinguish between speech tempo including pauses and hesitations and speech tempo excluding ... Osser, H.; Peng, F. (1964). "A cross-cultural study of speech rate". Language and Speech. 7 (2): 120-125. doi:10.1177/ ... in the study of speech the word is not well defined (being primarily a unit of grammar), and speech is not usually temporally ...
Developmental verbal dyspraxia Infantile speech Origin of speech Speech and language pathology Speech processing Speech ... The 2 primary phases include Non-speech-like vocalizations and Speech-like vocalizations. Non-speech-like vocalizations include ... speech acquisition includes the development of speech perception and speech production over the first years of a child's ... Guenther, Frank H. (1995). "Speech sound acquisition, coarticulation, and rate effects in a neural network model of speech ...
... is an application of data compression to digital audio signals containing speech. Speech coding uses speech- ... In addition, most speech applications require low coding delay, as latency interferes with speech interaction. Speech coders ... Speech coding differs from other forms of audio coding in that speech is a simpler signal than other audio signals, and ... Common applications of speech coding are mobile telephony and voice over IP (VoIP). The most widely used speech coding ...
A maiden speech is the first speech given by a newly elected or appointed member of a legislature or parliament. Traditions ... The first maiden speeches following general elections were: "Maiden speeches: guidance for new Members" (PDF). Commons briefing ... Some countries, notably Australia, no longer formally describe a politician's first speech as a "maiden" speech, referring only ... Another convention in the British House of Commons is that a Member of Parliament will include tribute in a maiden speech to ...
It is distinguished from symbolic speech, which involves conveying an idea or message through behavior. Pure speech is accorded ... Pure speech in United States law is the communication of ideas through spoken or written words or through conduct limited in ...
The speech was delivered to a huge crowd, and came against a backdrop of intense ethnic tension between ethnic Serbs and ... The speech was the climax of the commemoration of the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo. It followed months of ... The speech has since become famous for Milošević's reference to the possibility of "armed battles", in the future of Serbia's ... The speech was attended by a variety of dignitaries from the Serbian and Yugoslav establishment. They included the entire ...
... may refer to: The Speech (fiction), trope among science fiction and fantasy The Speech (Sharpley-Whiting book), 2009 ... "The Speech" (The IT Crowd), a 2008 series 3 episode of the sitcom The IT Crowd The Speech (Atatürk), a six-day speech by ... List of speeches This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title The Speech. If an internal link led you here ... book about Barack Obama The Speech (Sanders book), 2011 book by Bernie Sanders "A Time for Choosing", 1964 speech by Ronald ...
... speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map ... esophageal speech, pharyngeal speech and buccal speech (better known as Donald Duck talk). Speech production is a complex ... Speech-related diseases, disorders, and conditions can be treated by a speech-language pathologist (SLP) or speech therapist. ... Language portal Linguistics portal Freedom of speech portal Society portal FOXP2 Freedom of speech Imagined speech Index of ...
Source for information on scanning speech: A Dictionary of Nursing dictionary. ... scanning speech (skan-ing) n. a disorder of articulation in which the syllables are inappropriately separated and equally ... What is normal in the speech of a… Speech-language Pathology , Speech-Language Pathology Treatment for the improvement or cure ... Speech , Speech Many animals make sounds that might seem to be a form of speech. For example, one may sound an alarm that a ...
... is one of our most importa ... Free speech is the right to say whatever you like about ... Free speech is one of our most important rights and one of the most misunderstood.. Use your freedom of speech to speak out for ... What is freedom of speech?. Freedom of speech is the right to say whatever you like about whatever you like, whenever you like ... We have a right to privacy and free speech, which mass surveillance violates. In the wrong hands, our sensitive information can ...
Feds Push Insane Speech Codes! is the latest offering by Reason TV. Watch above or click on the link below... ... Video: Feds Push Insane Speech Codes!. Anthony Fisher and Matt Welch , 5.15.2013 4:11 PM. ... "Feds Push Insane Speech Codes!" is the latest offering by Reason TV. ...
Two ways to define each speech bubble tooltips markup. There are two ways to define each of your speech bubble tooltip on the ... Description: Speech Bubbles Tooltip lets you add tooltips to links using either the value of the links title. attribute, or ... Compatibility wise Speech Bubbles Tooltip makes use of CSS3 rounded corners and shadows. It looks best in FF3+, Opera 9+, and ... The style of the tooltip is modelled after the iconic speech bubble and uses NO images, thanks to the CSS triangle technique. ...
All the latest speech therapy news, videos, and more from the worlds leading engineering magazine. ... speech therapy News & Articles. Showing 2 posts that have the tag "speech-therapy" ... Weak electrical stimulation to the brains speech regions enhances the benefits of speech therapy for those who stutter. ... Purdue researchers have developed an in-ear device that uses recorded chatter to improve the speech of Parkinsons patients. ...
Statements and speeches. Statements and speeches. Search in: Statements and speeches. All Months. January. February. March. ...
Speech BASF analyst conference Q1 2016 - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... BASF 2 Q2015 speech conference call for investors and analysts. BASF 2 Q2015 speech conference call for investors and analysts ... BASF 2 Q2015 speech conference call for investors and analysts. BASF 2 Q2015 speech conference call for investors and analysts ... Similar to Speech BASF analyst conference Q1 2016. (. 20. ). BASF speech analyst conference call Q3 2017. ...
SBAL later filed a "pre-enforcement" challenge, arguing that its free speech rights were being impeded by the threat of ... is hailing as a key free speech decision, holding in a unanimous 9-0 ruling, that "a credible threat of enforcement" is ... "a critical tool for protecting free speech" because the passage of "an unconstitutional law can have a chilling effect, making ... immense harm that can occur when individuals are required to put their liberty at risk in order to vindicate their free speech ...
Goldie Taylor joins Rev. Al Sharpton to discuss the right-wings reaction to President Barack Obamas remarks on Trayvon Martin.
Content Type(s): Press, Speeches and appearances, Speech summaries Topic(s): Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Expectations, Firm ... Content Type(s): Press, Speeches and appearances, Speech summaries Topic(s): Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Monetary policy ... Speech summary Timothy Lane School of Public Policy, University of Calgary Calgary, Alberta ... Speech summary Tiff Macklem Canadian Chamber of Commerce Canada 360 Summit Ottawa, Ontario ...
Ministers expect Boris Johnson to lose Queens Speech vote Edward Malnick, Sunday Political Editor 5 October 2019 • 9:00pm ... The Prime Minister has said the Queens Speech, which is due to be delivered by the monarch on Monday October 14, is needed for ... Government figures said they expected the Prime Minister to lose a vote that will follow next weeks Queens Speech, after Mr ...
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific serves as the United Nations regional hub promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It is the largest regional intergovernmental platform with 53 Member States and 9 associate members.
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific serves as the United Nations regional hub promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It is the largest regional intergovernmental platform with 53 Member States and 9 associate members.
The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific serves as the United Nations regional hub promoting cooperation among countries to achieve inclusive and sustainable development. It is the largest regional intergovernmental platform with 53 Member States and 9 associate members.
... made an impassioned speech on the ITV breakfast show in favour of the Criminal Bar Associations (CBA) strike over current fees ...
Free speech for racist bigots, free speech for climate denialists. Where will it end? ... George Brandis is now comparing himself to Voltaire in his defence of free speech (Climate change proponents using mediaeval ... Free speech for racist bigots, free speech for climate denialists. Where will it end? Free speech for the tobacco industry to ... So, George Brandis is now comparing himself to Voltaire in his defence of free speech (Climate change proponents using ...
This iframe contains the logic required to handle Ajax powered Gravity Forms ...
Killing free speech. This is not a killing of speech its lesson for you how to behave others. Imposed of this law is a need of ... There is no regulations against free speech but for fake speech and fake news. The citizens have a right to receive correct ... There is no free speech per say. Most if not all speech from some outlets rides a lifafa or two. Responsible criticism, ... Freedom of speech , is a key promise of every political party when out of power and once in power , its the opposite of the ...
On Friday, the Director of a popular alternative Thai news portal Prachatai was arrested by the Thai government. Chiranuch Premchaipoen - popularly known as Jiew - was charged under the intermediary liability provisions of the 2007 Computer Crime Act and for Lèse Majesté, or defamation of the...
... and addressed the rest of the grads with a long speech. ... Then she launched into her speech, which was all about her and ... Taylor Swifts NYU Commencement Speech Subtly Addresses Cancel Culture. Taylor Swift NYU Commencement Speech Subtly Addresses ...
If passed, the law would be a serious violation of basic free speech standards in the Kurdistan Region, Human Rights Watch said ... Iraqi Kurdistan: Free Speech Under Attack Government Critics, Journalists Arbitrarily Detained, Prosecuted for Criticizing ... Human Rights Watch expressed its concern about the crackdown on free speech in meetings in November with officials of the ... "By undermining legal guarantees for free speech, the KRG is undermining one of the basic pillars of a free society." ...
Knowing how speech and language develop can help you figure out if you should be concerned or if your child is right on ... How Does Speech Therapy Help?. The speech therapist will work with your child to improve speech and language skills, and show ... What Causes Speech or Language Delays?. A speech delay might be due to:. *an oral impairment, like problems with the tongue or ... What Are Speech or Language Delays?. Speech and language problems differ, but often overlap. For example:. *A child with a ...
Summation of telepractice and telesupervision requirements for audiologists and/or speech-language pathologists in the state of ... speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech-language pathology assistants; and ... American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 2200 Research Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850. Members: 800-498-2071. Non-Member: 800- ... Audiologists and speech-language pathologists should keep in mind that while a state may have passed telepractice reimbursement ...
... in the text of a 1967 King speech at New Yorks Riverside Baptist Church, counsel that "when the issues at hand seem as ... from the Riverside speech for use on an Army poster soliciting young African-American recruits. ... but to the writings and speeches of the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. ...
ADD Informative Speech. 1308 Words , 6 Pages. We, as a species have a hard time admitting when we are wrong. How do you live ... Informative Speech. 491 Words , 2 Pages. What do you know about the constitution? Well if you do you will understand why i want ... Speech: The Pros And Cons Of Social Media. 745 Words , 3 Pages. Social Media. We usually think of it as Instagram, Facebook, ... Social Media Informative Speech. 887 Words , 4 Pages. A. Attention getter: Everybody use social media these days like twitter, ...
The Department of Speech-Language Pathology offers a Bachelor of Science in Speech-Language Pathology (SLP). This degree ... View the latest video from the California Speech-Language Hearing Association (CSHA) "Why Become a Student of Speech-Language ... Analyze a speech and language sample including acoustic, phonetic, phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and ... Please note: The administration of the Bachelor of Science in Speech-Language Pathology program is contingent upon having the ...
... The Center serves the New York City community offering various speech-language services such as ... You are here: Home → Communication Sciences → SLP & A Clinic → Speech-Language Services ... Speech Clinic Clinic Contact. Email: [email protected]. Phone: 212 481 4464 ... HCCCD serves people of all ages with speech, language or hearing disorders, differences, or delays, including:. *Children with ...
A very brief speech but one that sounded the right note. WaPo has Audio and Video. The full text will presumably be available ...
  • The information below is collected from state licensure boards or regulatory agencies responsible for regulating the professions of audiology and/or speech-language pathology. (
  • The Department of Speech-Language Pathology offers a Bachelor of Science in Speech-Language Pathology (SLP). (
  • Please note: The administration of the Bachelor of Science in Speech-Language Pathology program is contingent upon having the appropriate number of qualified candidates. (
  • They were originally recorded for a course in phonetics for speech and language pathology students at Lund University, but they are freely available to all. (
  • Speech sounds are categorized by manner of articulation and place of articulation. (
  • scanning speech ( skan -ing) n. a disorder of articulation in which the syllables are inappropriately separated and equally stressed. (
  • Speech is the verbal expression of language and includes articulation (the way we form sounds and words). (
  • The complaint was linked to the articulation of speech and difficulty opening the mouth to articulate. (
  • Given this case can conclude that in fact that the periodontal diseases cause damages to the stomatognathic system and, these, cause changes that affect directly the articulation of speech. (
  • By first grade, about 5% of children have noticeable speech disorders. (
  • Speech therapists may also assist in the diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders. (
  • These changes from periodontal diseases lead to significant changes on the functional pattern of the stomatognathic system, damaging some functions, such as: function of speech disorders. (
  • If your child might have a problem, it's important to see a speech-language pathologist (SLP) right away. (
  • You can find a speech-language pathologist on your own, or ask your health care provider to refer you to one. (
  • The pathologist will do standardized tests and look for milestones in speech and language development. (
  • Based on the test results, the speech-language pathologist might recommend speech therapy for your child. (
  • Selection of a method should be based on input from the surgeon, speech pathologist, and patient. (
  • With just the 'title' attribute present in an anchor link, the script will automatically use that attribute's value as its speech bubble tooltip content. (
  • Hearing problems also can affect speech. (
  • So an audiologist should test a child's hearing whenever there's a speech concern. (
  • But as long as there is normal hearing in one ear, speech and language will develop normally. (
  • The assessments include the collection of case history information (medical, educational, psycho-social histories), administration of standardized and non-standardized measurements of communication behaviors, and examinations of the speech and hearing mechanisms. (
  • CDC observes Better Hearing and Speech Month (BHSM), founded in 1927 by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA). (
  • Each May, this annual event provides an opportunity to raise awareness about hearing and speech problems, and to encourage people to think about their own hearing and get their hearing checked. (
  • Speech audiometry has become a fundamental tool in hearing-loss assessment. (
  • In addition, information gained by speech audiometry can help determine proper gain and maximum output of hearing aids and other amplifying devices for patients with significant hearing losses and help assess how well they hear in noise. (
  • For patients with normal hearing or somewhat flat hearing loss, this measure is usually 10-15 dB better than the speech-recognition threshold (SRT) that requires patients to repeat presented words. (
  • Speech is a human vocal communication using language. (
  • Researchers study many different aspects of speech: speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map heard spoken words onto the vocalizations needed to recreate them, which plays a key role in children's enlargement of their vocabulary, and what different areas of the human brain, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area, underlie speech. (
  • Speech compares with written language, which may differ in its vocabulary, syntax, and phonetics from the spoken language, a situation called diglossia. (
  • While animals also communicate using vocalizations, and trained apes such as Washoe and Kanzi can use simple sign language, no animals' vocalizations are articulated phonemically and syntactically, and do not constitute speech. (
  • Although related to the more general problem of the origin of language, the evolution of distinctively human speech capacities has become a distinct and in many ways separate area of scientific research. (
  • Speech is in this sense optional, although it is the default modality for language. (
  • Knowing a bit about speech and language development can help parents figure out if there's cause for concern. (
  • How Do Speech and Language Differ? (
  • What Are Speech or Language Delays? (
  • Speech and language problems differ, but often overlap. (
  • What Are the Signs of a Speech or Language Delay? (
  • But often, it's hard for parents to know if their child is taking a bit longer to reach a speech or language milestone, or if there's a problem. (
  • How Are Speech or Language Delays Diagnosed? (
  • The SLP (or speech therapist) will check your child's speech and language skills. (
  • The speech therapist will work with your child to improve speech and language skills, and show you what to do at home to help your child. (
  • Parents are an important part of helping kids who have a speech or language problem. (
  • To build on your child's speech and language, talk your way through the day. (
  • Audiologists and speech-language pathologists should keep in mind that while a state may have passed telepractice reimbursement laws and/or regulations, this does not guarantee that payers will reimburse for these services. (
  • Learn more about considerations for audiologists and speech-language pathologists . (
  • Speech and language therapy can help. (
  • How Does Speech Therapy Help? (
  • Proficiency in esophageal speech typically requires several months of speech therapy . (
  • Joyner, a prominent physiologist and anesthesiologist who has worked for Mayo Clinic for 36 years, has become a cause célèbre in academic and free-speech circles over the past several months. (
  • Was referred to the speech clinic by a specialist in periodontics. (
  • The Supreme Court today delivered what the Media Coalition (including publishers, booksellers, and librarians) is hailing as a key free speech decision, holding in a unanimous 9-0 ruling , that "a credible threat of enforcement" is sufficient to establish standing in cases with First Amendment implications. (
  • SBAL later filed a "pre-enforcement" challenge, arguing that its free speech rights were being impeded by the threat of litigation made against the billboard space provider. (
  • We are gratified that the Court today recognized the immense harm that can occur when individuals are required to put their liberty at risk in order to vindicate their free speech rights. (
  • In its amicus brief, Media Coalition lawyers argued that pre-enforcement challenges are "a critical tool for protecting free speech" because the passage of "an unconstitutional law can have a chilling effect, making people afraid to exercise their rights. (
  • An affirmance of the Sixth Circuit decision could have resulted in unconstitutional laws going unchallenged causing a substantial chilling effect on free speech. (
  • At that time too, media and civil society organisations had protested the contents of the law and warned that it would be used to curtail the space for free speech. (
  • If passed, the law would be a serious violation of basic free speech standards in the Kurdistan Region, Human Rights Watch said, and could prevent investigative journalism and disclosures about high level corruption in the oil rich region. (
  • Instead of ensuring the justice system investigates high-level corruption, the Kurdistan Regional Government is ignoring its own laws to protect free speech and assembly, and using "laws" that are not in force to silence dissent. (
  • Human Rights Watch expressed its concern about the crackdown on free speech in meetings in November with officials of the regional government's Department of Foreign Relations and the Asayish. (
  • Rather than subjecting journalists and other critics to arrest and other punitive measures for expressing dissent or exposing alleged corruption, the KRG authorities should be upholding free speech," Whitson said. (
  • Inscribing itself in this general context, the organizer speech of childish problems prevention finds in perinatally its abutment. (
  • Many kids with speech delays have oral-motor problems. (
  • Some speech and communication problems may be genetic. (
  • Title : Speech problems of hemiplegics Personal Author(s) : Taylor, Martha;Rusk, Howard A. (
  • Although people ordinarily use speech in dealing with other persons (or animals), when people swear they do not always mean to communicate anything to anyone, and sometimes in expressing urgent emotions or desires they use speech as a quasi-magical cause, as when they encourage a player in a game to do or warn them not to do something. (
  • There are also many situations in which people engage in solitary speech. (
  • The style of the tooltip is modelled after the iconic speech bubble and uses NO images, thanks to the CSS triangle technique . (
  • The Technique section of this article describes speech audiometry for adult patients. (
  • During my PhD-work, I developed what my collaborators and I call Real-time Speech Exchange (RSE): a new technique for feedback manipulation during speech that allows us to investigate the conceptualization process and the use of auditory feedback. (
  • Speech audiometry also facilitates audiological rehabilitation management. (
  • The app uses Androids built-in Speech Recognizer/microphone to turn speech into text and Translate in all languages simultaneously Speech To Text converter app provide user to get their Audio in the form of voice to text converter. (
  • speech to text online voice recognition in all languages. (
  • Speech to Text online app gives you the best user interface and best and easiest speak to translate options to do your tasks Voice to text converter- Audio to Text converter is a simple app and user friendly interface. (
  • voice typing- Audio to Text converter is a Voice typing in all languages Lots of features in Speech to text online app make Audio to Text converter one of the easiest voice to text converter applications than ever before. (
  • Voice to text converter uses speech to text online and text by voice functionality of device. (
  • The best ever voice to text converter and speech to text online recognition app has been made for you. (
  • The 3 basic options for voice restoration after total laryngectomy (TL) are (1) artificial larynx speech, (2) esophageal speech, and (3) tracheoesophageal speech. (
  • Speech audiometer input devices include microphones (for live voice testing), tape recorders, and CDs for recorded testing. (
  • The evolutionary origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation. (
  • Speech production is an unconscious multi-step process by which thoughts are generated into spoken utterances. (
  • Total laryngectomy (TL) significantly alters speech production. (
  • For a speech production system to be functional, the following 3 basic elements are necessary: (1) a power source, (2) a sound source, and (3) a sound modifier. (
  • Principle: Esophageal speech is produced by insufflation of the esophagus and controlled egress of air release that vibrates the pharyngoesophageal (PE) segment for sound production. (
  • This finding that speakers listen to themselves in order to know what they are saying is important and has consequences for the way speech production and self-monitoring should be modelled. (
  • The audiometric equipment room contains the speech audiometer, which is usually part of a diagnostic audiometer. (
  • The speech-testing portion of the diagnostic audiometer usually consists of 2 channels that provide various inputs and outputs. (
  • In linguistics, articulatory phonetics is the study of how the tongue, lips, jaw, vocal cords, and other speech organs are used to make sounds. (
  • This makes it hard to coordinate the lips, tongue, and jaw to make speech sounds. (
  • They range from saying sounds incorrectly to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. (
  • The human species' unprecedented use of the tongue, lips and other moveable parts seems to place speech in a quite separate category, making its evolutionary emergence an intriguing theoretical challenge in the eyes of many scholars. (
  • Using Speech to Translate online, you can share your text file with all the supported application on your phone. (
  • Speech To Text online app provides facility to save the text into your device and next time you just share that file with copied your contacts. (
  • The following line inside the code of Step 1 initializes the script on those links on the page, plus loads the file ' speechdata.txt ' (assumed to be in the same directory as where the current page resides in), which I'm using to define the markup of some of my speech bubble tooltips. (
  • There are two ways to define each of your speech bubble tooltip on the page. (
  • Determining the timeline of human speech evolution is made additionally challenging by the lack of data in the fossil record. (
  • The TV star and qualified lawyer - who rose to fame as the star of reality courtroom show Judge Rinder in 2014 - made an impassioned speech on the ITV breakfast show in favour of the Criminal Bar Association's (CBA) strike over current fees for legal aid advocacy work . (
  • A child with a speech delay might use words and phrases to express ideas but be hard to understand. (
  • Parents and regular caregivers should understand about 50% of a child's speech at 2 years and 75% of it at 3 years. (
  • Solo speech can be used to memorize or to test one's memorization of things, and in prayer or in meditation (e.g., the use of a mantra). (
  • Tests using speech materials can be performed using earphones, with test material presented into 1 or both earphones. (
  • Compatibility wise Speech Bubbles Tooltip makes use of CSS3 rounded corners and shadows. (
  • This clinical case aims identify changes resulting from periodontal diseases in the stomatognathic system and how these changes affect the speech. (
  • it requires patients to merely indicate when speech stimuli are present. (