Speech: Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.Speech Perception: The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).Speech Disorders: Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.Speech Intelligibility: Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.Speech Acoustics: The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.Speech Production Measurement: Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.Speech Therapy: Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.Audiometry, Speech: Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.Phonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Speech Articulation Tests: Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.Speech Discrimination Tests: Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.Speech Recognition Software: Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.Speech Reception Threshold Test: A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.Sound Spectrography: The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Cochlear Implants: Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.Noise: Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.Speech, Esophageal: A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)Dysarthria: Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)Speech, Alaryngeal: Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.Stuttering: A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Voice: The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.Articulation Disorders: Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Apraxias: A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)Voice Quality: That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Cochlear Implantation: Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Auditory Threshold: The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.Lipreading: The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.Language Development: The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.Deafness: A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.Psychoacoustics: The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.Hearing Aids: Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)Language Development Disorders: Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.Phonation: The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Vocabulary: The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)Hearing: The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.Psycholinguistics: A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.Correction of Hearing Impairment: Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.Child Language: The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.Language Tests: Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.Pitch Perception: A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.Pattern Recognition, Physiological: The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.Persons With Hearing Impairments: Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Language Disorders: Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.Speech-Language Pathology: The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.Psychology, Applied: The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.Audiometry, Pure-Tone: Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.Comprehension: The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Aphasia, Broca: An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Hearing Loss, Sensorineural: Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.Aphasia: A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.Auditory Perceptual Disorders: Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.Acoustics: The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequiviridae: A family of monopartite RNA plant viruses resembling picornaviruses and containing two genera: SEQUIVIRUS and WAIKAVIRUS. Transmission is by aphids or leafhoppers and requires a helper protein.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Voice Disorders: Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.Velopharyngeal Insufficiency: Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.Auditory Pathways: NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.Semantics: The relationships between symbols and their meanings.Audiometry: The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Larynx, Artificial: A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Language Therapy: Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.ReadingMultilingualism: The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Voice Training: A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Loudness Perception: The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dyslexia: A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Dysphonia: Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Presbycusis: Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Sound Localization: Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.Vocal Cords: A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.Pitch Discrimination: The ability to differentiate tones.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Communication Disorders: Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Laryngectomy: Total or partial excision of the larynx.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Manual Communication: Method of nonverbal communication utilizing hand movements as speech equivalents.Audiology: The study of hearing and hearing impairment.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Sign Language: A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.Communication Methods, Total: Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.Larynx: A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.Imitative Behavior: The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.Echolalia: Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Time Perception: The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.Palatal Obturators: Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.Aphasia, Conduction: A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)Cochlear Nerve: The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Dichotic Listening Tests: Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).

Descriptive study of cooperative language in primary care consultations by male and female doctors. (1/1550)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of some of the characteristics of male and female language by male and female primary care practitioners during consultations. DESIGN: Doctors' use of the language of dominance and support was explored by using concordancing software. Three areas were examined: mean number of words per consultation; relative frequency of question tags; and use of mitigated directives. The analysis of language associated with cooperative talk examines relevant words or phrases and their immediate context. SUBJECTS: 26 male and 14 female doctors in general practice, in a total of 373 consecutive consultations. SETTING: West Midlands. RESULTS: Doctors spoke significantly more words than patients, but the number of words spoken by male and female doctors did not differ significantly. Question tags were used far more frequently by doctors (P<0.001) than by patients or companions. Frequency of use was similar in male and female doctors, and the speech styles in consultation were similar. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that male and female doctors use a speech style which is not gender specific, contrary to findings elsewhere; doctors consulted in an overtly non-directive, negotiated style, which is realised through suggestions and affective comments. This mode of communication is the core teaching of communication skills courses. These results suggest that men have more to learn to achieve competence as professional communicators.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (2/1550)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Interarticulator programming in VCV sequences: lip and tongue movements. (3/1550)

This study examined the temporal phasing of tongue and lip movements in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences where the consonant is a bilabial stop consonant /p, b/ and the vowels one of /i, a, u/; only asymmetrical vowel contexts were included in the analysis. Four subjects participated. Articulatory movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. The onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel almost always occurred before the oral closure. Most of the tongue movement trajectory from the first to the second vowel took place during the oral closure for the stop. For all subjects, the onset of the tongue movement occurred earlier with respect to the onset of the lip closing movement as the tongue movement trajectory increased. The influence of consonant voicing and vowel context on interarticulator timing and tongue movement kinematics varied across subjects. Overall, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that there is a temporal window before the oral closure for the stop during which the tongue movement can start. A very early onset of the tongue movement relative to the stop closure together with an extensive movement before the closure would most likely produce an extra vowel sound before the closure.  (+info)

Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (4/1550)

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.  (+info)

Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation. (5/1550)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)

Continuous speech recognition for clinicians. (6/1550)

The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging behind the speaking rate. The authors obtained 97 percent accuracy with just 30 minutes of training when using the latest edition of one of the speech recognition systems supplemented by a commercial medical dictionary. This technology has advanced considerably in recent years and is now a serious contender to replace some or all of the increasingly expensive alternative methods of dictation with human transcription.  (+info)

Language related brain potentials in patients with cortical and subcortical left hemisphere lesions. (7/1550)

The role of the basal ganglia in language processing is currently a matter of discussion. Therefore, patients with left frontal cortical and subcortical lesions involving the basal ganglia as well as normal controls were tested in a language comprehension paradigm. Semantically incorrect, syntactically incorrect and correct sentences were presented auditorily. Subjects were required to listen to the sentences and to judge whether the sentence heard was correct or not. Event-related potentials and reaction times were recorded while subjects heard the sentences. Three different components correlated with different language processes were considered: the so-called N400 assumed to reflect processes of semantic integration; the early left anterior negativity hypothesized to reflect processes of initial syntactic structure building; and a late positivity (P600) taken to reflect second-pass processes including re-analysis and repair. Normal participants showed the expected N400 component for semantically incorrect sentences and an early anterior negativity followed by a P600 for syntactically incorrect sentences. Patients with left frontal cortical lesions displayed an attenuated N400 component in the semantic condition. In the syntactic condition only a late positivity was observed. Patients with lesions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, showed an N400 to semantic violations and an early anterior negativity as well as a P600 to syntactic violations, comparable to normal controls. Under the assumption that the early anterior negativity reflects automatic first-pass parsing processes and the P600 component more controlled second-pass parsing processes, the present results suggest that the left frontal cortex might support early parsing processes, and that specific regions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, may not be crucial for early parsing processes during sentence comprehension.  (+info)

Development of a stroke-specific quality of life scale. (8/1550)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical stroke trials are increasingly measuring patient-centered outcomes such as functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). No stroke-specific HRQOL measure is currently available. This study presents the initial development of a valid, reliable, and responsive stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) measure, for use in stroke trials. METHODS: Domains and items for the SS-QOL were developed from patient interviews. The SS-QOL, Short Form 36, Beck Depression Inventory, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Barthel Index were administered to patients 1 and 3 months after ischemic stroke. Items were eliminated with the use of standard psychometric criteria. Construct validity was assessed by comparing domain scores with similar domains of established measures. Domain responsiveness was assessed with standardized effect sizes. RESULTS: All 12 domains of the SS-QOL were unidimensional. In the final 49-item scale, all domains demonstrated excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha values for each domain >/=0.73). Most domains were moderately correlated with similar domains of established outcome measures (r2 range, 0.3 to 0.5). Most domains were responsive to change (standardized effect sizes >0.4). One- and 3-month SS-QOL scores were associated with patients' self-report of HRQOL compared with before their stroke (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The SS-QOL measures HRQOL, its primary underlying construct, in stroke patients. Preliminary results regarding the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SS-QOL are encouraging. Further studies in diverse stroke populations are needed.  (+info)

Hardbound. Based of the 3rd International Nijmegen conference on Speech Motor Production Fluency Disorders, this book contains a reviewed selection of papers on the topics of speech production as it relates to motor control, brain processes and fluency disorders. It represents a unique collection of theoretical and experimental work, bringing otherwise widespread information together in a comprehensive way. This quality makes this book unlike any other book published in the area of speech motor production and fluency disorders.Topics that are covered include models in speech production, motor control in speech production and fluency disorders, brain research in speech production, methods and measurements in pathological speech, developmental aspects of speech production and fluency disorders. Scientists, clinicians and students as well as anybody interested in the field of speech motor production and fluency disorders, will find useful information in t
Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability todetect an error in ones own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can beexplained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representationsinduced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g. conceptual, word,or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and haltparadigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) isfollowed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current studyseeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing abiologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the NeuralEngineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the firstexperiment we induce
The present invention relates to a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function, and is aimed at providing a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function by using a small amount of memory. The speech processing device of the present invention includes a speech analysis unit for obtaining analysis results by analyzing input speech, a codebook for storing quantization parameters and quantization codes indicating the quantization parameters, a quantizing unit for selecting the quantization parameters and the quantization codes corresponding to the analysis results from the codebook and for outputting selected quantization parameters and selected quantization codes, a coding unit for outputting encoded codes of the input speech including the selected quantization codes, a speech dictionary for storing registered data which represent speech patterns by using the codebook, and
Speech production is the process by which thoughts are translated into speech. This includes the selection of words, the organization of relevant grammatical forms, and then the articulation of the resulting sounds by the motor system using the vocal apparatus. Speech production can be spontaneous such as when a person creates the words of a conversation, reactive such as when they name a picture or read aloud a written word, or imitative, such as in speech repetition. Speech production is not the same as language production since language can also be produced manually by signs. In ordinary fluent conversation people pronounce roughly four syllables, ten or twelve phonemes and two to three words out of their vocabulary (that can contain 10 to 100 thousand words) each second. Errors in speech production are relatively rare occurring at a rate of about once in every 900 words in spontaneous speech. Words that are commonly spoken or learned early in life or easily imagined are quicker to say than ...
Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual. This requires the ability in the person making the copy to map the sensory input they hear from the other persons vocal pronunciation into a similar motor output with their own vocal tract. Such speech input output imitation often occurs independently of speech comprehension such as in speech shadowing when a person automatically says words heard in earphones, and the pathological condition of echolalia in which people reflexively repeat overheard words. This links to speech repetition of words being separate in the brain to speech perception. Speech repetition occurs in the dorsal speech processing stream while speech perception occurs in the ventral speech processing stream. Repetitions are often incorporated unawares by this route into spontaneous novel sentences immediately or after delay following storage in phonological memory. In humans, the ability to map heard input vocalizations ...
A speech transmission adapter and a respirator mask comprising a speech transmission adapter. The respirator mask comprises an inhalation port, an exhalation port, and a speech transmission adapter in detachably sealed engagement with the inhalation port. The adapter comprises a peripheral housing, a speech reception means supported by the peripheral housing, and a speech transmission means operably coupled to the speech reception means. The speech reception means receives sound pressure generated by a wearer of the respirator mask, and the speech transmission means conveys signals representative of such sound pressure to an external speech transducer. The adapter mates to the inhalation port of a respirator mask and expands the clean air envelope defined within the mask to include the speech reception means within the clean air envelope without requiring structural modification of the respirator mask. The speech transmission adapter comprises a central aperture which is adapted to accommodate the
A method and apparatus for real time speech recognition with and without speaker dependency which includes the following steps. Converting the speech signals into a series of primitive sound spectrum parameter frames; detecting the beginning and ending of speech according to the primitive sound spectrum parameter frame, to determine the sound spectrum parameter frame series; performing non-linear time domain normalization on the sound spectrum parameter frame series using sound stimuli, to obtain speech characteristic parameter frame series with predefined lengths on the time domain; performing amplitude quantization normalization on the speech characteristic parameter frames; comparing the speech characteristic parameter frame series with the reference samples, to determine the reference sample which most closely matches the speech characteristic parameter frame series; and determining the recognition result according to the most closely matched reference sample.
Understanding speech in the presence of noise can be difficult, especially when suffering from a hearing loss. This thesis examined behavioural and electrophysiological measures of speech processing with the aim of establishing how they were influenced by hearing loss (internal degradation) and listening condition (external degradation). The hypothesis that more internal and external degradation of a speech signal would result in higher working memory (WM) involvement was investigated in four studies. The behavioural measure of speech recognition consistently decreased with worse hearing, whereas lower WM capacity only resulted in poorer speech recognition when sound were spatially co-located. Electrophysiological data (EEG) recorded during speech processing, revealed that worse hearing was associated with an increase in inhibitory alpha activity (~10 Hz). This indicates that listeners with worse hearing experienced a higher degree of WM involvement during the listening task. When increasing the ...
Speech problems are common in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). At an early stage, patients may find it hard to project their voice. As the disease progresses, patients start to have difficulty starting their speech even though they know the words they want to say. They experience freezing of the jaw, tongue and lips. When they eventually get their speech started, they have a hard time moving it forward. They keep on saying the same words or phrases over and over again while their voice gets softer and softer. Many words also run together or are slurred. These symptoms make patients speech very hard to understand and directly affect their care and quality of life. Unfortunately, these symptoms have not responded to medication or surgery like other non-speech motor symptoms do. In fact, some surgical treatment could even make speech worse while other motor function such as walking improves. Traditional behavior therapy for these speech symptoms has not been successful either because ...
Speech Production 2 Paper 9: Foundations of Speech Communication Lent Term: Week 4 Katharine Barden Today s lecture Prosodic-segmental interdependencies Models of speech production Articulatory phonology
bedahr writes The first version of the open source speech recognition suite simon was released. It uses the Julius large vocabulary continuous speech recognition to do the actual recognition and the HTK toolkit to maintain the language model. These components are united under an easy-to-use grap...
Introduction. Bothaina El Kahhal The British International School of Cairo Examine closely Katherines speech in Act 5 Scene 2 lines 136-179. What is your view of this speech as the climax of this story? How have Kates opinions and language changed since the early acts of the play? Why do you think that she has changed so much? What is your view of this speech as the climax of this story? In The Taming of the Shrew, Katherina gives a final speech in Act 5, Scene 2, which many people consider sexist, in terms of the content and the language used. As George Bernard Shaw said, the play is Altogether disgusting to modern sensibility. It can be maintained that Petruchio is a rather challenging type, who sees their relationship as a game. Consequently, he knows he will win, thus winning a beautiful bride as well as the dowry. The final speech is proof that he has changed Katherina from an independent male to the woman that she is. He only plays the game to obtain the ideal marriage. Eventually ...
Developmental apraxia of speech is a diagnosis that is used clinically, usually to describe children with multiple and severe difficulties with speech sound acquisition. The precise criteria for this diagnostic label have been the source of debate in the research and clinical literature. Most treatment protocols have not withstood controlled investigations of their efficacy. The goal of this seminar is to define developmental apraxia of speech, determine how it can be differentiated from other speech acquisition problems, and become familiar with treatment protocols that appear to be efficacious. These goals will be met by investigating models of speech production and its development, becoming familiar with the experimental literature that has focused on differential diagnosis of developmental apraxia, and evaluating different regimens that have been recommended for treatment of this disorder ...
The temporal perception of simple auditory and visual stimuli can be modulated by exposure to asynchronous audiovisual speech. For instance, research using the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has shown that exposure to temporally misaligned audiovisual speech signals can induce temporal adaptation that will influence the TOJs of other (simpler) audiovisual events (Navarra et al. (2005) Cognit Brain Res 25:499-507). Given that TOJ and simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks appear to reflect different underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether adaptation to asynchronous speech inputs would also influence SJ task performance. Participants judged whether a light flash and a noise burst, presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, were simultaneous or not, or else they discriminated which of the two sensory events appeared to have occurred first. While performing these tasks, participants monitored a continuous speech stream for target words that were either presented in synchrony, or with the audio
Automatic retraining of a speech recognizer during its normal operation in conjunction with an electronic device responsive to the speech recognizer is addressed. In this retraining, stored trained models are retrained on the basis of recognized user utterances. Feature vectors, model state transitions, and tentative recognition results are stored upon processing and evaluation of speech samples of the user utterances. A reliable transcript is determined for later adaptation of a speech model, in dependence upon the users successive behavior when interacting with the speech recognizer and the electronic device. For example, in a name dialing process, such a behavior can be manual or voice re-dialing of the same number or dialing of a different phone number, immediately aborting an established communication, or braking it after a short period of time. In dependence upon such a behavior, a transcript is select in correspondence to a users first utterance or in correspondence to a users second
This video was recorded at MUSCLE Conference joint with VITALAS Conference. Human speech production and perception mechanisms are essentially bimodal. Interesting evidence for this audiovisual nature of speech is provided by the so-called Mc Gurk effect. To properly account for the complementary visual aspect we propose a unified framework to analyse speech and present our related findings in applications such as audiovisual speech inversion and recognition. Speakers face is analysed by means of Active Appearance Modelling and the extracted visual features are integrated with simultaneously extracted acoustic features to recover the underlying articulator properties, e.g., the movement of the speakers tongue tip, or recognize the recorded utterance, e.g. the sequence of the numbers uttered. Possible asynchrony between the audio and visual stream is also taken into account. For the case of recognition we also exploit feature uncertainty as given by the corresponding front-ends, to achieve ...
I use a systematic combination of speech treatment approaches in my own "oral placement" work. I generally begin with a "bottom-up" method where we work on vowel sounds, then consonant-vowel words, then vowel-consonant words, etc. I also capitalize on the speech sounds a child can already make. If the child can say "ah," "ee," "m," or "h," then we can work on words or word approximations containing these sounds. I use a hands-on approach where I gently move the childs jaw, lips, and tongue to specific locations for sounds and words (if the child allows touch). Imitation is usually very difficult for children with autism, so I begin saying/facilitating speech sounds and words in unison with the child. We then work systematically from unison, to imitation, to using words in phrases and sentences. This often requires weekly speech therapy sessions with daily practice at home and several years of treatment ...
To further quantify the observed speech-related high-gamma modulation in the STN and the sensorimotor cortex, we investigated whether the two structures showed encoding specific to speech articulators. For the sensorimotor cortex, we found that 30% of recording sites revealed either lip-preferred or tongue-preferred activity, which had a topographic distribution: the electrodes located more dorsally on the sensorimotor cortex produced a greater high-gamma power during the articulation of lip consonants, whereas the electrodes that were located more ventrally yielded a greater high-gamma power for tongue consonants. Therefore, our results appear to recapitulate the dorsal-ventral layout for lips and tongue representations within the sensorimotor cortex (Penfield and Boldrey, 1937; Bouchard et al., 2013; Breshears et al., 2015; Chartier et al., 2018; Conant et al., 2018). We found that articulatory encoding is closely aligned with the consonant onset in acoustic speech production. This ...
On this page: How do speech and language develop? What are the milestones for speech and language development? What is the difference between a speech disorder and a language disorder? What should I do if my childs speech or language appears to be delayed? What research is being conducted on developmental speech and language problems? Your babys hearing and communicative
Many politicians frequently confuse their personal wants with the wants and needs of their audience. The successful politician chooses his speech topics primarily based on the area that hes visiting and the audience that hes addressing. Once you have speech ideas you can use, you can develop a kind of presentation of the subject. Leading the listeners to your viewpoint is often part of the speech to persuade. But , even a speech to inform requires some first lead directly to get your audience to listen attentively and to follow what you are claiming. Making that connection with your audience will most likely make for a great speech. You will sound like a natural speaker if you know your subject and have rehearsed what you mean to say ...
ROCHA, Caroline Nunes et al. Brainstem auditory evoked potential with speech stimulus. Pró-Fono R. Atual. Cient. [online]. 2010, vol.22, n.4, pp.479-484. ISSN 0104-5687. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-56872010000400020.. BACKGROUND: although clinical use of the click stimulus for the evaluation of brainstem auditory function is widespread, and despite the fact that several researchers use such stimulus in studies involving human hearing, little is known about the auditory processing of complex stimuli such as speech. AIM: to characterize the findings of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) performed with speech stimuli in adults with typical development. METHOD: fifty subjects, 22 males and 28 females, with typical development, were assessed for ABR using both click and speech stimuli. RESULTS: the latencies and amplitudes of the response components onset (V, A and complex VA), the area and slope that occur before 10 ms were identified and analyzed. These measurements were identified in all ...
July 1, 2014 By James Taranto at The Wall Street Journal. FIRE is attempting to light one. The Philadelphia-based Schools: Ohio University Chicago State University Citrus College Iowa State University Cases: Citrus College - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit Chicago State University - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit Iowa State University - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit Ohio University - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit ...
Somebody should let the mayor know that if you dont believe in protecting speech that you disagree with, you fundamentally dont believe in free speech. You believe in an echo chamber.. And on the subject of "free" speech, it should be noted that just to get the proper permits for their event, the Berkeley Patriots were forced to pay a $15,000 "security fee" to the university. Which seems like a lot for a student group to pay, particularly when all they are likely to get for that money is a bunch of uniformed security who will stand around and watch free speech advocates get beaten with clubs and pepper-sprayed by antifa.. Had the university shopped around, Im sure they could have found some company who would be willing to stand around and watch it happen for half that price!. Things have gotten so bad that Berkeley leftists have even lost House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi. On Tuesday, the San Francisco Democrat issued the following statement: "Our democracy has no room for inciting violence ...
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: On the automatic recognition of continuous speech: Implications from a spectrogram-reading 6 experiment
Dudley Knight is one of the most respected voice and speech teachers in North America and highly regarded internationally. Janet Madelle Feindel, Professor of Voice and Alexander, Carnegie Mellon University, author of The Thought Propels the Sound Actors and other professional voice users need to speak clearly and expressively in order to communicate the ideas and emotions of their characters-and themselves. Whatever the native accent of the speaker, this easy communication to the listener must always happen in every moment, onstage, in film or on television; in real life too. This book, an introduction to Knight-Thompson Speechwork, gives speakers the ownership of a vast variety of speech skills and the ability to explore unlimited varieties of speech actions-without imposing a single, unvarying pattern of "good speech." The skills gained through this book enable actors to find the unique way in which a dramatic character embodies the language of the play. They also help any speaker to ...
Other names: rapid speech, tachylalie, tachyfrazie Language is the main means of expression of humanity. Every single person gives her typical accentand form that is unique to her. Speech disorder can occur for various reasons. Speech is through the autonomic nervous system affect our psyche, and therefore it can happen that, for example stutters and bloopers or nervousness. Acceleration of speech can be caused by psychological uncertainty as inner need an unpleasant conversation time
Speech pathologists have expertise in diagnosing, assessing and treating language, communication and swallowing disorders. They can treat people with difficulties with speech, listening, understanding language, reading, writing, social skills, stuttering and using voice. People who benefit from speech therapy treatment may have developmental delays, or have suffered from a stroke, brain injuries, learning disability, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, and dementia or hearing loss. In addition, speech pathologists can assist those people who have difficulties swallowing food or drink safely ...
In article ,49v09q$87e at utrhcs.cs.utwente.nl,, mgrim at cs.utwente.nl (Martin Grim) says: ,Collecting information about the anatomical part isnt such a hard task, ,but less is known about the way the brain computes speech from the signals ,delivered by the ear and the auditory pathway. The ear converts the sound ,waves to a frequency spectrum, which is send to the auditory cortex. Speech ,is known to be build up by phonemes and phonemes can be identified by their ,formants, or even by formant ratios (for speaker independency). The question ,which rises now is does the brain computes speech from the enire frequency ,spectrum, or does it use just the formants? , ,Does somebody know the answer to this question (which is summarized as ,are formants biological plausible), or perhaps a reference of a publication ,with a discussion about this subject? Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in ...
Looking for speech device? Find out information about speech device. see language language, systematic communication by vocal symbols. It is a universal characteristic of the human species. Nothing is known of its origin,... Explanation of speech device
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The work of Penfield and collaborators was based predominantly on patients undergoing surgical treatment of epilepsy. The goal of surgery for epilepsy continues to be the excision of epileptogenic tissue in its entirety without resection of normal tissue or tissue essential for speech, language, and memory. Some neurosurgeons have suggested using anatomical landmarks to spare language cortex with dominant hemisphere surgery, such as the superior temporal gyrus and beyond 4 cm from the temporal tip. There is, however, considerable variability in cortical organization across individuals, and resections in anatomically "safe" areas have been associated with post-operative aphasias (Ojemann, 1993). Thus, reliance on anatomical landmarks may put language at risk in some patients. The surest method to exclude speech and language cortex from resection is to methodically map the cortical area housing the epileptogenic focus ...
When large sections of Melania Trumps speech at the Republican National Convention turned out to be lifted from Michelle Obamas 2008 convention speech, the Trump campaign tried to deflect criticism by throwing the speechwriter under the bus (after initially insisting Melania wrote the speech herself). The campaign went so far as to release an apology letter from the writer, Meredith McIver.. But in doing so, the campaign created another problem, because McIver doesnt work for the campaign. Shes an employee of the Trump Organization, Donald Trumps business empire. A basic rule of campaign finance is that if an employee of a corporation does work for a campaign, it counts as a corporate contribution, and corporations are not allowed to donate to campaigns.. To get around that, the campaign had to pay McIver for her work on Melanias speech. In the latest campaign filings, McIver is listed on the payroll of the campaign-for a grand total of $356.01. The payment, which occurred on July 23, five ...
Speech standards include terminology, languages and protocols specified by committees of speech experts for widespread use in the speech industry. Speech standards have both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include the following: developers can create applications using the standard languages that are portable across a variety of platforms; products from different vendors are able to interact with each other; and a community of experts evolves around the standard and is available to develop products and services based on the standard.
Here is the best resource for homework help with SPEECH 100 : Intro to Speech at Borough Of Manhattan Community College. Find SPEECH100 study guides, notes,
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Description: Psycholinguistic research has typically portrayed speech production as a relatively automatic process. This is because when errors are made, they occur as seldom as one in every thousand words we utter. However, it has long been recognised that we need some form of control over what we are currently saying and what we plan to say. This capacity to both monitor our inner speech and self-correct our speech output has often been assumed to be a property of the language comprehension system. More recently, it has been demonstrated that speech production benefits from interfacing with more general cognitive processes such as selective attention, short-term memory (STM) and online response monitoring to resolve potential conflict and successfully produce the output of a verbal plan. The conditions and levels of representation according to which these more general planning, monitoring and control processes are engaged during speech production remain poorly understood. Moreover, there ...
In reading over that speech the first opinion which came across me the first question I asked myself was, Why does Lord Hartington oppose Lord Salisburys Government? -- because there was not a word, not a line, not a sentence, not a single political opinion which betrayed the smallest or faintest shred of difference in political principle between Lord Hartington and those who are now responsible Ministers of the Crown. I will ask your attention while I make to you quotations from that speech, It has been described as the speech of a leader, and it has been described as a weighty speech, If it is the speech of a leader to say absolutely nothing which his followers can take for a lead, and if it is weighty to make a speech which should leave those who read it or hear i tweighed down and oppressed by every doubt and deficiency, then undoubtedly it was a leader-like and weighty speech/ Lord Hartington began that speech by saying that it was not his intention, and at least it would not be his ...
The existence of mirror neurons in the human brain is now well established. Much of human learning involves monkey see monkey do, ask any old time apprentice . Expecting all to re -invent the wheel is nonsensical. Large numbers of mirror neurons seem to lie within the areas involved in the production and perception of speech. It is the areas involved in speech that light up when you read, even silently. So paying attention to speech is crucial in the learning to read process. Speech is perceived through the mechanisms of its production, that is, analysis by synthesis. In other words the listener tries to work out what he/ she would have to do to match the incoming sound. This is done at the speech motor level with speech output suppressed else it would be far too slow. Despite the huge variation in speech pitch between individuals male/ female/ young/ old/ regional accent we all (almost all) make the same sounds in the same way in the same place. The invariance in speech resides in the ...
Extemporaneous Speech Essays and Research Papers. Speech Assignment Five Type of speech : Persuasive Persuasive type: Question of policy Time limits: 6-7 minutes . Visual aid: Required Typed outline: Required Bibliography: Required Copy of in child development Sources Used: 4 Required Assignment Synopsis: This is the most important speech of the semester. Start early and The Twitter A Force of Change, work really hard on this one. Students are to present a 6-7 minute persuasive speech on a current, controversial topic of state, regional, national, or international. Audience , Conclusion , Language 668 Words , 3 Pages. prepare for your fi rst speech and as a checklist for all the speeches you give in your public speaking class.. You can also use the guide as . Roles Of Fathers! a handy reference for speeches you give aft er college. Presenting a speech involves six basic stages: 1. Determining your purpose and topic (Chapter 4) 2. Adapting to your audience (Chapter 5) 3. Researching your topic ...
Eighteen orally educated deaf and 18 normally hearing 36-month-old children were observed in a play session with their mother. Communicative behavior of the child was coded for modality and communicative function. Although the oral deaf children used a normal range of functions, both the quantity and proportions differed from normally hearing children. Whereas the normally hearing 3-year-olds used speech almost exclusively, the deaf children exhibited about equal use of speech, vocalizations, and gestures. Spoken language scores of the deaf children at 5 years of age were best predicted by (a) more frequent use of speech at age 36 months, (b) more frequent use of the Statement function, and (c) relatively infrequent use of the Directive function. It is suggested that some communicative functions are more informative or heuristic than others, and that the early use of these functions is most likely to predict later language competence.. ...
How to Improve Your Clarity of Speech. If you mumble a lot when speaking or find that people dont understand a lot of what you are saying, you can take steps to improve your clarity of speech. Whether you have to give a speech, have a job...
Purpose This study examined alterations in ventilation and speech characteristics as well as perceived dyspnea during submaximal aerobic exercise tasks. Method Twelve healthy participants completed aerobic exercise-only and simultaneous speaking and aerobic exercise tasks at 50% and 75% of their maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max). Measures of ventilation, oxygen consumption, heart rate, perceived dyspnea, syllables per phrase, articulation rate, and inappropriate linguistic pause placements were obtained at baseline and throughout the experimental tasks. Results Ventilation was significantly lower during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. Oxygen consumption, however, did not significantly differ between speaking and nonspeaking tasks. The perception of dyspnea was significantly higher during the speaking tasks compared with the nonspeaking tasks. All speech parameters were significantly altered over time at both task intensities. Conclusions It is speculated that decreased ...
Speaking is not only the basic mode of communication, but also the most complex motor skill humans can perform. Disorders of speech and language are the most common sequelae of brain disease or injury, a condition faced by millions of people each year. Health care practitioners need to interact with basic scientists in order to develop and evaluate new methods of clinical diagnosis and therapy to help their patients overcome or compensate their communication difficulties.
Unit selection synthesis has offered quality speech synthesis merely at the cost of a large well labeled appropriate speech database. As the desire for an easier method for building voices increases alternative methods are being sought. HMM-Generation synthesis, as typified by NITECHs HTS, has been shown to produce high quality acceptable speech output without the laborious hand correction of large databases. This talk presents the FestVox CLUSTERGEN trainer and synthesizer for automatically building Statistical Parametric Synthesis voices. In an effort to generalize HTS in a language independent way we have more tightly coupled a parametric synthesizer build process into FestVox. The process is language independent and robust to less perfect and smaller databases. The resulting synthesis quality is comparable to HTS. In an attempt to investigate multi-lingual synthesis, where cross language data is used to generate target language synthesizer the talk will report on a number of multilingual ...
This handout is provided to parents of children aged 0-5 to provide them with information about which speech sounds development at which ages. It provides parents of what is typical and when to be concerned. As children learn to talk, they all make similar speech errors as they create easy ways to say words. We call these patterns of speech. This factsheet describes common speech errors children make as their develop speech sounds. It also gives you tips for how to work with your child to develop their speech sounds. (English) Colour ...
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In typically developing speech, children make word attempts and get feedback from others and from their own internal systems regarding how "well" the words they produced matched the ones that they wanted to produce. Children use this information the next time they attempt the words and essentially are able to "learn from experience." Usually once syllables and words are spoken repeatedly, the speech motor act becomes automatic. Speech motor plans and programs are stored in the brain and can be accessed effortlessly when they are needed. Children with apraxia of speech have difficulty in this aspect of speech. It is believed that children with CAS may not be able to form or access speech motor plans and programs or that these plans and programs are faulty for some reason. ...
Speech Dis-fluency is a speech disorder and in regular life it is also called as stammering or stuttering. This condition is accompanied by shivering lips..
According to the Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists Communicating Quality 3 the accepted prevalence in 2006 was that 10% of the school aged population had a speech, language or communication difficulty which could potentially affect their educational attainment. The prevalence was higher in areas of social deprivation and where there are vulnerable populations (high rates of drug or alcohol abuse and or looked after children).. For a child with speech and language difficulties accessing education will be challenging and without the right supports they may experience:. ...
Palmer, H. E. (1927). The Five Speech-learning Habits. Tokyo, Institute for Research in English Teaching. ...
Many parrots can imitate human speech or other sounds. A study by scientist Irene Pepperberg suggested a high learning ability ... Grey parrots are known for their superior ability to imitate sounds and human speech, which has made them popular pets since ...
Speech and debate[edit]. Washington High School has a speech and debate team that is in the Coast Forensics League. ...
After Aquino's speech, Francis made his first public speech and tackled the issue of corruption in the country. He urged ... Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi described the speech as "rather original because there is not always such a speech ... Cardinal Luis Tagle described Aquino's speech as a "commentary of previous administration". He noted that many speeches made by ... The speech by Aquino proved controversial and drew mixed reactions on internet.[25][26][27] ...
"Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) Version 1.0". w3.org.. *^ "Speech Recognition Grammar Specification Version 1.0". w3. ... Speech Synthesis Markup Language (V1.0 Released 7 September 2004[68]) and Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (V1.0 ... Speech recognition devices and software can improve technology access. Communication (including speech) impairments[edit]. A ... "Speech and Communication Disorders". National Institutes of Health.. *^ "Hearing Disorders and Deafness". National Library of ...
Table 4. "Cannibal Speech Vocabulary" Cannibal word. Standard Natchez word. meaning ʔaʃa-hakiʔiš. pakaʃ-hewʔiʃ. "to howl (of a ... Cannibal speech[edit]. Natchez oral literature has been documented by John R. Swanton and Mary Haas, both of whom worked with ... Kimball, Geoffrey (2012). "Natchez Cannibal Speech". International Journal of American Linguistics. 78 (2): 273-280. doi: ... In these stories Natchez storytellers would employ a special speech register when impersonating the cannibal characters. This ...
Freedom of speech[edit]. Others have accused M-103 of going against free speech[14] and leading to "blasphemy laws".[6] This ... ban freedom of speech'."[17] The Canadian Civil Liberties Association also said that M-103 does not restrict free speech in any ...
Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech[edit]. The Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech is located in Northampton. ... Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech (formerly the Clarke School for the Deaf) specializes in oral education (speech and lip- ... Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech (formerly the Clarke School for the Deaf) was founded in Northampton in 1867. It was the ... and the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech. ...
Speech recognition[edit]. Hidden Markov models are the basis for most modern automatic speech recognition systems. ... speech recognition and bioinformatics (such as in rearrangements detection[74]). ...
Speech recognition[edit]. Speech recognition consists of a transcript of the speech of the audio track of the videos, creating ... Some search engines apart from using speech recognition to search for videos, also use it to find the specific point of a ... blinkx was launched in 2004 and uses speech recognition and visual analysis to process spidered video rather than rely on ... Rather than applying a text search algorithm after speech-to-text processing is completed, some engines use a phonetic search ...
Other parts of speech[edit]. Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections are generally invariable, one notable ... did not begin to become the common speech of all of France, however, until after the French Revolution. ...
Symbolic approaches: creating or expressing through symbols and speech[edit]. Another theory of magical thinking is the ...
... 's speech[edit]. On 29 March 1917, Zimmerman delivered a speech intended to explain his side of the situation ... However, on 29 March 1917, Zimmermann gave a speech to the Reichstag confirming the text of the telegram and so put an end to ... "Woodrow Wilson: Speech of Acceptance". Presidency.ucsb.edu, 2 September 1916; retrieved 11 September 2010. ...
Voice and speech physiology[edit]. A hysteresis effect may be observed in voicing onset versus offset.[32] The threshold value ... In utterances of vowel-voiceless consonant-vowel sequences during speech, the intraoral pressure is lower at the voice onset of ...
Some of the items below include more than one speech.. Judicial speeches. *(81 BC) Pro Quinctio (On behalf of Publius Quinctius ... Several of Cicero's speeches are printed, in English translation, in the Penguin Classics edition Murder Trials. These speeches ... Speeches[edit]. Of his speeches, eighty-eight were recorded, fifty-two of which survive today. ... Political speeches. Early career (before exile). *(66 BC) Pro Lege Manilia or De Imperio Cn. Pompei (in favor of the Lex ...
... speech may be unusually fast, jerky, or loud. Speech may convey a sense of incoherence; the conversational style often includes ... Speech and language. Although individuals with Asperger syndrome acquire language skills without significant general delay and ... For example, a person with AS may engage in a one-sided, long-winded speech about a favorite topic, while misunderstanding or ... The speaker's conclusion or point may never be made, and attempts by the listener to elaborate on the speech's content or logic ...
Essays and public speeches[edit]. *1959: Die Wahrheit ist dem Menschen zumutbar (poetological speech at a German presentation ...
Speech sounds[edit]. In some languages, the epiglottis is used to produce epiglottal consonant speech sounds, though this sound ...
Speech perception is the process by which spoken languages are heard, interpreted and understood. Research in speech perception ... or semantics may interact with basic speech perception processes to aid in recognition of speech sounds.[citation needed] It ... It is possible other sensory modalities are integrated at this stage as well.[33] This speech information can then be used for ... A picture of a talking person on a television screen, for example, is bound to the sound of speech from speakers to form a ...
"Doom" speech". The Pearcey Report. Retrieved February 26, 2012.. *^ "UT Professor Clearing The Record On Speech". NBC. April 3 ... Texas Academy of Science speech[edit]. Pianka's acceptance speech[12] for the 2006 Distinguished Texas Scientist Award from the ... "Doom" Pianka speaks: transcript from the speech that started it all". The Pearcey Report. Retrieved February 26, 2012.. ... "Professor's population speeches unnerve some". American Statesman. April 5, 2006. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007.. ...
Commencement Speech UCSD, June 14, 1997, [1] (1997), p. 7. *^ Bailey's Elementary:Educational Strategies for Making Diversity ... In the speech, he discussed his own experience growing up in the segregated south and its profound effect on him. He addressed ... Commencement Speech, University of California San Diego[edit]. President Clinton introduced the initiative during his ... commencement speech to the graduating class of the university. ... 1 Commencement Speech, University of California San Diego. *2 ...
Invited Speech Mumbai, India.. *Saville, P., Small, C. (June 2012). Psychometrics beyond the HR Department. Invited Speech ... Invited Speech Insper Institute, Brazil.. *Saville, P., Small, C. (Nov 2013). Lessons in Leadership. Invited Speech, Bl ... Selected works and speeches[edit]. *Saville, P. (1971). British Supplement to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The ... Invited Speech Delhi, India.. *Saville, P., Small, C. (June 2013). It's All in your Head. Invited address at the EGADE Business ...
Structure of speeches[edit]. The organizers of the event took steps to lift the march from a purely political level to a ... Million Man March / Day of Absence; A Commemorative Anthology; Speeches, Commentary, Photography, Poetry, Illustrations, ... Million Man March / Day of Absence; A Commemorative Anthology; Speeches, Commentary, Photography, Poetry, Illustrations, ... Million Man March / Day of Absence; A Commemorative Anthology; Speeches, Commentary, Photography, Poetry, Illustrations, ...
Freedom of speech and press[edit]. The law provides for freedom of speech and of the press; however, the transitional ... Kutino was originally charged with incitement to hatred after a May speech critical of the president; following the speech, ... transitional government authorities and wealthy individuals sometimes restricted the freedom of press and speech on occasions ...
Speech and debate[edit]. Howland High School's Speech & Debate team won OHSSL State Championships in the 2008-2009 and 2010- ...
A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate ... American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Child speech and language: speech disorders. www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders ... Children may outgrow milder forms of speech disorders.. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or any speech ... A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate ...
It can be hard to know if your childs speech or language delay is a problem. Read about the types of problems and how they are ... Other times it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Children who have speech disorders may have trouble making speech ... Delayed Speech or Language Development (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Speech and Language Delay (American Academy of ... Your Starting Guide To Childhood Apraxia of Speech (Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America) ...
... Versus Developmental Apraxia of Speech. The Committee recommends childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) ... A well-trained speech-language pathologist with specific experience in pediatric speech sound disorders, including motor speech ... In a study of 47 children with speech deficits only (reportedly including CAS), speech and language deficits, or no speech or ... and less accurate than adult speech. Variability is especially noted during the initial portion of speech or speech-like ...
Speech, language, and swallowing disorders result from a variety of causes, such as a stroke, brain injury, hearing loss, ... sometimes called speech therapists) assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent communication and swallowing disorders in ... What Speech-Language Pathologists Do Speech-language pathologists (sometimes called speech therapists) assess, diagnose, treat ... What Speech-Language Pathologists Do About this section. Speech-language pathologists must be able to listen to and communicate ...
... speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map ... Speech errors[edit]. Main article: Speech error. Speech production is a complex activity, and as a consequence errors are ... Main article: Speech repetition. In speech repetition, speech being heard is quickly turned from sensory input into motor ... esophageal speech, pharyngeal speech and buccal speech (better known as Donald Duck talk). ...
Example 3: Speech style variations in Japanese. A certain character sequence can have even opposite meanings with different ... Speech Experts from Asian and Western countries participated. *Extensions and additions to SSML are identified and prioritized ... DFP: New Speech Interface Framework Modular approach faciliates application development, maintainance, debugging and reuse. ... Participants are speech experts on various languages such as Indian, Syrian, Arabic, Hungarian, Polish, Finish, Slovenian, etc ...
Speech Recognition/Synthesis and Natural Language Processing). (2) Multimedia Signal Processing (ex. Speech, Audio, Text, Image ... Speech enhancement/echo cancellation are important for good mobile communication. Especially, it should not distort speech or ... This corpus provides a rich resource for research in speech and automatic speech recognition (ASR). It will be publicly ... We therefore need a efficient way to browse, use and archive those speech data through speech/speaker recognition, story ...
Find out how speech disorders are treated, how you can help a friend or classmate cope, and lots more. ... Do you know someone who stutters or has another speech disorder? ... What Causes Speech Problems?. *How Are Speech Problems Treated? ... A speech-language pathologist is trained to observe people as they speak and to identify their speech problems. Speech-language ... If you have a speech problem, achieving and keeping control of your speech might be a lifelong process. Although speech therapy ...
Spontaneous Speech:. Systems that are deployed for real use must deal with a variety of spontaneous speech phenomena, such as ... An isolated-word speech recognition system requires that the speaker pause briefly between words, whereas a continuous speech ... Figure: Components of a typical speech recognition system.. Speech recognition systems attempt to model the sources of ... Table: Typical parameters used to characterize the capability of speech recognition systems. Speech recognition is a difficult ...
Find out how speech disorders are treated, how you can help a friend or classmate cope, and lots more. ... Do you know someone who stutters or has another speech disorder? ... Speech Problems. Whats in this article?. *Some Common Speech ... A speech-language pathologist is trained to observe people as they speak and to identify their speech problems. Speech-language ... If you have a speech problem, achieving and keeping control of your speech might be a lifelong process. Although speech therapy ...
Sometimes Speech students have their events on Friday, but mostly their events are on Saturday of the tournament. ...
"Figures of speech" redirects here. For the hip hop group, see Figures of Speech. ... Look up figure of speech in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. *^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-05-08. ... A figure of speech or rhetorical figure[1] is figurative language in the form of a single word or phrase. It can be a special ... Figures of speech come in many varieties. The aim is to use the language inventively to accentuate the effect of what is being ...
The text of a speech by Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke on Reducing Preventable Mortgage Foreclosures given on March 4, ... The following is the text of a speech by Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke on Reducing Preventable Mortgage Foreclosures ...
Testing for Speech Sound Disorders. A speech-language pathologist, or SLP, can test your childs speech. The SLP will listen to ... speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech-language pathology support ... Others may develop speech problems after a stroke or brain injury. To learn more about adult speech disorders, see apraxia of ... Causes of Speech Sound Disorders. You may not know why your child has problems speaking. Many children learn to say speech ...
Cocos Dartmouth Speech. Conan OBrien told Dartmouth Colleges Class of 2011 that they should be proud. By graduating, they ...
... * 1. ""Given a choice, at a funeralGiven a choice, at a funeral most of us would rather be themost of ...
... allows you to automatically create text captions from voice narration or other audio on the timeline. In this ... video, learn about the voice training feature, how to apply Speech to Text to audio clips, and how to view and edit captions. ...
Green is not only compatible with growth; green is a source of growth. Sweden was one of the first countries to understand this and showed tremendous leadership when it introduced the worlds first carbon tax in 1991, amidst the economic crisis. Yet there is so much more that can be done to foster a fast transition to a low-carbon world whilst creating the competitive economies of the future. ...
The Asia-Pacific region is and will remain the engine of the world economy going forward - it accounts for 57% of global GDP, 46% of world trade and more than a third of the global population - and there is much to celebrate about APECs achievements in recent years. However, APEC economies are not immune from risk. ...
All in all, a good speech, for reasons a lot of other bloggers are already mentioning-but I wanted to highlight an aspect of ...
Recent speeches by the SEC Chairman, the Commissioners of the SEC, and SEC staff, which generally cover a wide range of topics ... Commission Speeches and Public Statements Archive: 1985. This index lists speeches and other public statements by the Chairman ... Speeches and Statements by:. *Chairman and Commissioners Fourth Quarter , Third Quarter , Second Quarter , First Quarter * ... http://www.sec.gov/news/speech/speecharchive/1985speech.shtml. Contact , Employment , Links , FOIA , Forms , Privacy Policy. ...
Hillary Clinton was supposed to give her official concession speech at 9:30 a.m. on Wednesday. Two hours later, those of us ... Hillary Clintons Concession Speech Was a Model of Grace Under Unimaginable Circumstances. By Christina Cauterucci ... But Clintons speech was gracious, composed, even optimistic. "Im hoping [Donald Trump] will be a successful president for all ... Hillary Clinton was supposed to give her official concession speech at 9:30 a.m. on Wednesday. Two hours later, those of us ...
Freedom of speech-the right to express opinions without government restraint-is a democratic ideal that dates back to ancient ... Symbolic speech is an action that expresses an idea.. Flag burning is an example of symbolic speech that is protected under the ... While freedom of speech pertains mostly to the spoken or written word, it also protects some forms of symbolic speech. ... The First Amendment doesnt specify what exactly is meant by freedom of speech. Defining what types of speech should and ...
Speech given in the House of Representatives. Mr. Speaker, the United States Congress is a 19th century body in a 20th century ...
ENGLISH SPEECH. ARTHUR K. SMITH.. MARCH 16, 1958. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue reading the main ... ENGLISH SPEECH. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
  • Relive the Queen's Speech from the 2017 state opening in 90 seconds, where Brexit, economy, and Grenfell Tower fire were addressed among other issues. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Keep up with FDIC announcements, read speeches and testimony on the latest banking issues, learn about policy changes for banks, and get the details on upcoming conferences and events. (fdic.gov)
  • This index lists speeches and other public statements by the Chairman, Commissioners, and Staff of the SEC, which cover a wide range of topics concerning the state of the markets and the Commission's regulatory agenda. (sec.gov)
  • A request to recognize speech from captured audio content, such as audio from the device's microphone. (apple.com)
  • Anne replied in detail to a government request for feedback on the content of the Mandatory Qualifications for Teachers of the Deaf because she feels strongly that the current qualification guidelines reinforce the expectation of failure and do not take into account the needs and outcomes of children with whom Cued Speech is used. (campaign-archive.com)
  • He demands an investigation into the leak of a draft Queen's speech to the Sunday Telegraph , and asks why the first key document produced by the Tory-led government was passed to the press when Cameron had attacked Labour for years for not making major announcements in parliament. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • He says: "This Queen's speech marks a decisive break from the past - not just treating the symptoms of our broken society but its roots as well. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • 15.25 The Commons debate on the contents of the Queen's speech has finally got started, with Harriet Harman leading the charge. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Look below for live coverage of Obama's speech from The Times' politics team. (latimes.com)
  • Around 1,000 Palestinians gathered in the West Bank city of Ramallah on September 22 to protest against U.S. President Barack Obama's speech to the United Nations. (rferl.org)
  • Also in response to Obama's speech, the Palestinian workers union said it was planning to issue a call for rallies to take place after the main weekly Muslim prayers on Friday outside U.S. embassies across the Arab world. (rferl.org)
  • That was the general consensus on President Obama's speech on the Middle East yesterday, which Steve Coll, Wendell Steavenson, and Hendrik Hertzberg discuss on this week's Political Scene podcast . (newyorker.com)
  • With Watson Text-to-Speech, you can generate human-like audio from written text. (ibm.com)
  • As the large baby-boom population grows older, there will be more instances of health conditions that can cause speech or language impairments, such as strokes or dementia. (bls.gov)
  • Debs argued that he was exercising his right to free speech and that the Espionage Act of 1917 was unconstitutional. (history.com)
  • Because Harrisburg is also in the Third Circuit, Reilly and Biter's amicus brief addresses issues in the Bruni appeal that are common to both cases, to ensure that the court is well-informed on this unconstitutional violation of free speech. (canadafreepress.com)
  • It provides that colleges and universities that promulgate restrictive speech codes, so-called free-speech zones, and other unconstitutional speech policies will lose their eligibility to receive federal student loans and grants through the Higher Education Act. (powerlineblog.com)
  • citation needed] In the United States, the Supreme Court has not issued a direct ruling on whether speech codes at public universities are unconstitutional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Certain birth defects, such as a cleft palate , can interfere with someone's ability to produce speech. (kidshealth.org)
  • People with a cleft palate have a hole in the roof of the mouth (which affects the movement of air through the oral and nasal passages), and also might have problems with other structures needed for speech, including the lips, teeth, and jaw. (kidshealth.org)
  • Speech is one of the main ways in which we communicate with those around us. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Scholars of classical Western rhetoric have divided figures of speech into two main categories: schemes and tropes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barack Obama's decision to give his main speech to students in Israel created quite a storm in all the country's student associations. (nytimes.com)
  • Lev Vygotsky ) have maintained is the use in thinking of silent speech in an interior monologue to vivify and organize cognition , sometimes in the momentary adoption of a dual persona as self addressing self as though addressing another person. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to its use in communication, it is suggested by some psychologists such as Lev Vygotsky that speech is internally used in mental processes to enhance and organize cognition in the form of an interior monologue. (wikipedia.org)
  • The good news is that treatments like speech therapy can help people of any age overcome some speech problems. (kidshealth.org)
  • The website will continually be updated by in-house staff to bring the latest news and events, research and media coverage about Cued Speech, both nationally and internationally. (campaign-archive.com)
  • Former Vice President Joe Biden urged Cornell University graduates to resist the allure of technology during his commencement speech on Saturday. (time.com)
  • In a series of landmark cases, the U.S. Supreme Court over the years has helped to define what types of speech are-and aren't-protected under U.S. law. (history.com)
  • The Supreme Court decided a series of cases in 1919 that helped to define the limitations of free speech. (history.com)
  • The Supreme Court upheld his conviction by creating the "clear and present danger" standard, explaining when the government is allowed to limit free speech. (history.com)
  • The Supreme Court has interpreted artistic freedom broadly as a form of free speech. (history.com)
  • The Supreme Court didn't bite-they ruled in favor of the students' right to wear the armbands as a form of free speech in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District . (history.com)
  • We brought the first case in which the U.S. Supreme Court declared speech on the Internet equally worthy of the First Amendment's historical protections. (aclu.org)
  • If not, we might still hope that the Supreme Court will recall the words they are bound by oath to uphold, "Congress may make no law abridging…the freedom of speech. (cato.org)
  • In a far-reaching case that probes the limits of free speech over the Internet, the Supreme Court on Monday was to consider whether Elonis' Facebook posts, and others like it, deserve protection under the First Amendment. (freep.com)
  • For more than four decades, the Supreme Court has said that "true threats" to harm another person are not protected speech under the First Amendment. (freep.com)
  • It ignores Supreme Court rulings regarding the need to protect free speech activities on streets and sidewalks by requiring that regulations such as these be rigorously reviewed and be very narrowly drafted. (canadafreepress.com)
  • But I'm mainly concerned here about non-official harrassment of unpopular political speech, because there seem to be fewer protections against it. (earthlink.net)
  • And it's not only political speech that is threatened - in the United. (eff.org)
  • One reason is to oppose a particular injustice, but Wisconsin is also on the front lines of the latest national offensive to regulate free political speech and assembly. (wsj.com)
  • The court decided that Congress may not prohibit funding of political speech by corporations, labor unions, and nonprofit groups. (cato.org)
  • Congress, especially the Democratic leadership, fears free spending on political speech by businesses and other groups. (cato.org)
  • But, to return to Churchill's political speech, consider his cynical, political closing remarks: "What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Today, most talk of speech codes is within institutional contexts and refer to colleges and refers to official lists and rules established by authorities, where speech codes are occasionally used by colleges and universities to suppress speech that others find offensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cluttering is another problem that makes a person's speech difficult to understand. (kidshealth.org)
  • These options may include dedicated augmentative communication devices or computer programs that produce speech or provide a visual display of a person's thoughts and ideas. (umich.edu)
  • In addition, stuttering typically is perpetuated by the individual's temperament and complex learning, and the response of the person's environment to his/her speech. (bgsu.edu)
  • Speech disorders may lead to challenges with social interactions due to difficulty communicating. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with this problem have difficulty moving the muscles and structures needed to form speech sounds into words. (kidshealth.org)
  • U.S. Census Bureau data from 1997 indicated that 2,270,000 people aged fifteen years and over had "difficulty with speech" (493,000 of those had severe problems). (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the United States, the First Amendment guarantees free speech, though the United States, like all modern democracies, places limits on this freedom. (history.com)
  • The ancient Greeks pioneered free speech as a democratic principle. (history.com)
  • The ancient Greek word "parrhesia" means "free speech," or "to speak candidly. (history.com)
  • Does free speech have limits? (msnbc.com)
  • What is the state of free speech within the United States? (msnbc.com)
  • From our earliest days, when we were called The Fund for Free Expression, we have fought all forms of repression of speech, in all media, around the globe. (hrw.org)
  • From working with allies to fight for better policies or against bad laws to advocating for people who build tools that protect speech, EFF's activism makes sure technology is made and used in the service of free speech. (eff.org)
  • As technology grows and changes, it's important that it not reinforce obstacles to free speech, but allows everyone to share ideas and experiences safely. (eff.org)
  • As has been pointed out in these pages, so-called "political correctness" is essentially an attempt to muzzle free speech and introduce thought control (see " Cultural Marxism and the Birth of Modern Thought Crime " by Claudio Grass for an in-depth discussion of the topic). (lewrockwell.com)
  • The ACLU believes in an uncensored Internet, a vast free-speech zone deserving at least as much First Amendment protection as that afforded to traditional media such as books, newspapers, and magazines. (aclu.org)
  • But that principle has not prevented constant new threats to Internet free speech. (aclu.org)
  • These regulations are deeply flawed both from tax and First Amendment perspectives and should be opposed by anyone who supports free speech. (nationalreview.com)
  • The majority party in Congress fears that free spending on speech will lead to electoral losses in November. (cato.org)
  • Congress cannot require you to give up your free speech rights in exchange for a government contract or a bailout. (cato.org)
  • Justices consider free speech on Facebook The case has drawn widespread attention from those who say comments on social media can be hasty, impulsive and easily misinterpreted. (freep.com)
  • The Bruni trial court's ruling reflects a longstanding and widespread error of assigning abortion a status that trumps other rights, including free speech and freedom of religion. (canadafreepress.com)
  • Our friend Sen. Tom Cotton has introduced the Campus Free Speech Restoration Act (CAFSRA). (powerlineblog.com)
  • What is Text to Speech? (ibm.com)
  • Find out what Text to Speech can do for your communications. (ibm.com)
  • studies and experiments with text-to-speech and speech-to-text in systems for human-computer interaction, especially multimodal dialogue systems. (kth.se)
  • [ 1 ] Since that time "speech act theory" has become influential not only within philosophy, but also in linguistics, psychology, legal theory, artificial intelligence, literary theory, and feminist thought among other scholarly disciplines. (stanford.edu)
  • One way of appreciating the distinctive features of speech acts is in contrast with other well-established phenomena within the philosophy of language and linguistics. (stanford.edu)
  • A Grammar of Speech has relevance for many areas related to linguistics, such as Artificial Intelligence, computational linguistics, and machinetranslation. (google.com)
  • Problems or changes in the structure or shape of the muscles and bones used to make speech sounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 15.51 Cameron has said his piece, and the Commons begins to empty as backbenchers are selected to make their first speeches of the new parliament. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Onlinecensorship.org seeks to encourage social media companies to operate with greater transparency and accountability toward their users as they make decisions that regulate speech. (eff.org)
  • An Augmentative/Alternative Communication evaluation assesses children or adults who cannot make their needs understood through speech. (umich.edu)
  • The Speech-Language Pathologist will then identify problems in the swallowing process and make appropriate diet, swallowing strategies or referral recommendations to your physician. (umich.edu)
  • Such courses are often electives and are available only in schools where the speech teacher's time, interests, and education make them available. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The palate, tongue, jaw and lips move in precise ways to modify the sounds in order to make speech sounds. (smartdraw.com)
  • In the United States, the First Amendment protects freedom of speech. (history.com)
  • The First Amendment doesn't specify what exactly is meant by freedom of speech. (history.com)
  • Flag burning is an example of symbolic speech that is protected under the First Amendment. (history.com)
  • Not all speech is protected under the First Amendment. (history.com)
  • Speech inciting illegal actions or soliciting others to commit crimes aren't protected under the First Amendment, either. (history.com)
  • A statute that proscribes speech without regard to the speaker's intended meaning runs the risk of punishing protected First Amendment expression simply because it is crudely or zealously expressed," said a brief from the American Liberties Union and other groups. (freep.com)
  • The city blatantly ignored the First Amendment to appease the abortion industry by trying to silence all pro-life speech. (canadafreepress.com)
  • However, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan has struck down a speech code at the University of Michigan, indicating that broad speech codes seeking to prohibit hate speech probably violate the First Amendment (Doe v. University of Michigan, 1989). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first is as follows, "First, to protect vulnerable students from threatening, truly harassing speech that amounts to 'fighting words,' which are not protected by the First Amendment" (Downs, 1993). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, opponents of speech codes often maintain that any restriction on speech is a violation of the First Amendment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another area of research is how the human brain in its different areas such as the Broca's area and Wernicke's area underlies speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speech is the most natural, powerful and universal media for human-machine/computer communication. (google.com)
  • It protects all forms of communication, from speeches to art and other media. (history.com)
  • Freed of the limitations inherent in traditional print or broadcast media created-and constrained-by corporate gatekeepers, speech thrives online. (eff.org)
  • Speech communication focuses on how people use messages to generate meaning within and across various contexts, cultures, channels, and media. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Play media Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hillary Clinton was supposed to give her official concession speech at 9:30 a.m. on Wednesday. (slate.com)
  • Hertzberg's disappointment with the speech stemmed mostly from Obama's failure to put forward a plan of action, he said-"something like appointing Hillary Clinton to lead the negotiations" between Israel and the Palestinian Authority. (newyorker.com)
  • Freedom of speech-the right to express opinions without government restraint-is a democratic ideal that dates back to ancient Greece. (history.com)
  • While freedom of speech pertains mostly to the spoken or written word, it also protects some forms of symbolic speech. (history.com)
  • The subject of freedom of speech came up in a church discussion group recently. (earthlink.net)
  • My view is that freedom of speech is under a great deal more pressure in the US than is believed by at least some of the other people in my group. (earthlink.net)
  • Freedom of speech is a bellwether: how any society tolerates those with minority, disfavored, or even obnoxious views will often speak to its performance on human rights more generally. (hrw.org)
  • Even if they are approved, these disclosure mandates seek to restrict freedom of speech. (cato.org)
  • In that case, the court essentially says, the pre-eminent right of freedom of speech must yield to the even more pre-eminent right of abortion. (canadafreepress.com)
  • Every year, American libraries feature displays of "banned books" to promote freedom of speech and of the press. (powerlineblog.com)
  • A speech code is any rule or regulation that limits, restricts, or bans speech beyond the strict legal limitations upon freedom of speech or press found in the legal definitions of harassment, slander, libel, and fighting words. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, it prohibits spending on speech done independently of candidates and campaigns. (cato.org)
  • The Harrisburg buffer zone prohibits pro-life speech on public sidewalks up to 70 feet outside a Planned Parenthood abortion center. (canadafreepress.com)
  • We perceive no reason why a witness could not likewise identify a voice as being that of a particular race or nationality, so long as the witness is personally familiar with the general characteristics, accents, or speech patterns of the race or nationality in question, i.e., so long as the opinion is 'rationally' based on the perception of the witness. (jhu.edu)
  • Speech is researched in terms of the speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in vocal language. (wikipedia.org)
  • Speech perception refers to the processes by which humans can interpret and understand the sounds used in language. (wikipedia.org)
  • In schools, they evaluate students for speech and language disorders and work with teachers, other school personnel, and parents to develop and carry out individual or group programs, provide counseling, and support classroom activities. (bls.gov)
  • Sometimes Speech students have their events on Friday, but mostly their events are on Saturday of the tournament. (google.com)
  • Teachers are encouraged to have students listen to the speech or show a video of the speech later during the first weeks of school. (nea.org)
  • Speech communication education in the secondary schools is of critical importance in preparing students for their roles in a global society. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The functions of secondary school speech communication education are based on the premise that such instruction should provide for the need of all students - those who are deficient, those who are gifted, and those who are normal in basic oral communication abilities. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Speech communication education also seeks to provide learning experiences for students with special interests and abilities in speech. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As justification for their claim that speech instruction should be a required part of the secondary school curriculum for all students, speech educators note that oral communication is an extraordinarily pervasive element of social life. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because of the importance of oral communication in social relations, systematic instruction for all students in the nature, principles, and skills of oral communication is considered the primary objective of contemporary secondary speech education. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some of the students shared their views of the speech with The Times. (nytimes.com)
  • In a speech criticizing Iran's nuclear program Wednesday, the Israeli prime minister held up a poster with a diagram of a bomb to literally illustrate his point. (thedailybeast.com)
  • It was Bibi as showman, more grand than his speech in the UN showing a cartoon figure of Iran's progress toward a nuclear weapon. (jpost.com)
  • The Whisper speech engine has been shipped by our Speech Products Group as part of the SAPI SDK, which in turn has been shipped in Microsoft Phone and Microsoft Agent, Microsoft Encarta, Windows 2000, Office XP and Windows XP. (microsoft.com)
  • And non-English speech synthesis tecnology includes lots of useful hints. (w3.org)
  • To take the first step, we are now working hard to implement a character-level sequence to sequence-based Chinese text to Taiwanese language interpreter for Taiwanese Speech Synthesis. (google.com)
  • To approach the goal of establishing an End-to-End speech synthesis system, we propose to use character-level recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to directly convert input character sequences into latent linguistic feature vectors. (google.com)
  • We have developed a speech synthesis-enabled DAISY player. (google.com)