Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
The process whereby an utterance is decoded into a representation in terms of linguistic units (sequences of phonetic segments which combine to form lexical and grammatical morphemes).
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
Ability to make speech sounds that are recognizable.
The acoustic aspects of speech in terms of frequency, intensity, and time.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Measurement of the ability to hear speech under various conditions of intensity and noise interference using sound-field as well as earphones and bone oscillators.
The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Tests of accuracy in pronouncing speech sounds, e.g., Iowa Pressure Articulation Test, Deep Test of Articulation, Templin-Darley Tests of Articulation, Goldman-Fristoe Test of Articulation, Screening Speech Articulation Test, Arizona Articulation Proficiency Scale.
Tests of the ability to hear and understand speech as determined by scoring the number of words in a word list repeated correctly.
Software capable of recognizing dictation and transcribing the spoken words into written text.
A test to determine the lowest sound intensity level at which fifty percent or more of the spondaic test words (words of two syllables having equal stress) are repeated correctly.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
A method of speech used after laryngectomy, with sound produced by vibration of the column of air in the esophagus against the contracting cricopharyngeal sphincter. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Methods of enabling a patient without a larynx or with a non-functional larynx to produce voice or speech. The methods may be pneumatic or electronic.
A disturbance in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that is inappropriate for the individual's age. This disturbance is characterized by frequent repetitions or prolongations of sounds or syllables. Various other types of speech dysfluencies may also be involved including interjections, broken words, audible or silent blocking, circumlocutions, words produced with an excess of physical tension, and monosyllabic whole word repetitions. Stuttering may occur as a developmental condition in childhood or as an acquired disorder which may be associated with BRAIN INFARCTIONS and other BRAIN DISEASES. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
The sounds produced by humans by the passage of air through the LARYNX and over the VOCAL CORDS, and then modified by the resonance organs, the NASOPHARYNX, and the MOUTH.
Disorders of the quality of speech characterized by the substitution, omission, distortion, and addition of phonemes.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
That component of SPEECH which gives the primary distinction to a given speaker's VOICE when pitch and loudness are excluded. It involves both phonatory and resonatory characteristics. Some of the descriptions of voice quality are harshness, breathiness and nasality.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
The process by which an observer comprehends speech by watching the movements of the speaker's lips without hearing the speaker's voice.
The gradual expansion in complexity and meaning of symbols and sounds as perceived and interpreted by the individual through a maturational and learning process. Stages in development include babbling, cooing, word imitation with cognition, and use of short sentences.
A general term for the complete loss of the ability to hear from both ears.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
Conditions characterized by language abilities (comprehension and expression of speech and writing) that are below the expected level for a given age, generally in the absence of an intellectual impairment. These conditions may be associated with DEAFNESS; BRAIN DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; or environmental factors.
The process of producing vocal sounds by means of VOCAL CORDS vibrating in an expiratory blast of air.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Procedures for correcting HEARING DISORDERS.
The language and sounds expressed by a child at a particular maturational stage in development.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
The analysis of a critical number of sensory stimuli or facts (the pattern) by physiological processes such as vision (PATTERN RECOGNITION, VISUAL), touch, or hearing.
Persons with any degree of loss of hearing that has an impact on their activities of daily living or that requires special assistance or intervention.
Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.
Measurement of hearing based on the use of pure tones of various frequencies and intensities as auditory stimuli.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Hearing loss resulting from damage to the COCHLEA and the sensorineural elements which lie internally beyond the oval and round windows. These elements include the AUDITORY NERVE and its connections in the BRAINSTEM.
A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Acquired or developmental cognitive disorders of AUDITORY PERCEPTION characterized by a reduced ability to perceive information contained in auditory stimuli despite intact auditory pathways. Affected individuals have difficulty with speech perception, sound localization, and comprehending the meaning of inflections of speech.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Pathological processes that affect voice production, usually involving VOCAL CORDS and the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA. Voice disorders can be caused by organic (anatomical), or functional (emotional or psychological) factors leading to DYSPHONIA; APHONIA; and defects in VOICE QUALITY, loudness, and pitch.
Failure of the SOFT PALATE to reach the posterior pharyngeal wall to close the opening between the oral and nasal cavities. Incomplete velopharyngeal closure is primarily related to surgeries (ADENOIDECTOMY; CLEFT PALATE) or an incompetent PALATOPHARYNGEAL SPHINCTER. It is characterized by hypernasal speech.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
The testing of the acuity of the sense of hearing to determine the thresholds of the lowest intensity levels at which an individual can hear a set of tones. The frequencies between 125 and 8000 Hz are used to test air conduction thresholds and the frequencies between 250 and 4000 Hz are used to test bone conduction thresholds.
Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.
A device, activated electronically or by expired pulmonary air, which simulates laryngeal activity and enables a laryngectomized person to speak. Examples of the pneumatic mechanical device are the Tokyo and Van Hunen artificial larynges. Electronic devices include the Western Electric electrolarynx, Tait oral vibrator, Cooper-Rand electrolarynx and the Ticchioni pipe.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
The ability to speak, read, or write several languages or many languages with some facility. Bilingualism is the most common form. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
A variety of techniques used to help individuals utilize their voice for various purposes and with minimal use of muscle energy.
Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.
The perceived attribute of a sound which corresponds to the physical attribute of intensity.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.
A cognitive disorder characterized by an impaired ability to comprehend written and printed words or phrases despite intact vision. This condition may be developmental or acquired. Developmental dyslexia is marked by reading achievement that falls substantially below that expected given the individual's chronological age, measured intelligence, and age-appropriate education. The disturbance in reading significantly interferes with academic achievement or with activities of daily living that require reading skills. (From DSM-IV)
Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Difficulty and/or pain in PHONATION or speaking.
The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Gradual bilateral hearing loss associated with aging that is due to progressive degeneration of cochlear structures and central auditory pathways. Hearing loss usually begins with the high frequencies then progresses to sounds of middle and low frequencies.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
A pair of cone-shaped elastic mucous membrane projecting from the laryngeal wall and forming a narrow slit between them. Each contains a thickened free edge (vocal ligament) extending from the THYROID CARTILAGE to the ARYTENOID CARTILAGE, and a VOCAL MUSCLE that shortens or relaxes the vocal cord to control sound production.
The ability to differentiate tones.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Total or partial excision of the larynx.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Method of nonverbal communication utilizing hand movements as speech equivalents.
The study of hearing and hearing impairment.
Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.
A system of hand gestures used for communication by the deaf or by people speaking different languages.
Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
A tubular organ of VOICE production. It is located in the anterior neck, superior to the TRACHEA and inferior to the tongue and HYOID BONE.
The mimicking of the behavior of one individual by another.
Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Appliances that close a cleft or fissure of the palate.
A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Sounds used in animal communication.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).

Descriptive study of cooperative language in primary care consultations by male and female doctors. (1/1550)

OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of some of the characteristics of male and female language by male and female primary care practitioners during consultations. DESIGN: Doctors' use of the language of dominance and support was explored by using concordancing software. Three areas were examined: mean number of words per consultation; relative frequency of question tags; and use of mitigated directives. The analysis of language associated with cooperative talk examines relevant words or phrases and their immediate context. SUBJECTS: 26 male and 14 female doctors in general practice, in a total of 373 consecutive consultations. SETTING: West Midlands. RESULTS: Doctors spoke significantly more words than patients, but the number of words spoken by male and female doctors did not differ significantly. Question tags were used far more frequently by doctors (P<0.001) than by patients or companions. Frequency of use was similar in male and female doctors, and the speech styles in consultation were similar. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that male and female doctors use a speech style which is not gender specific, contrary to findings elsewhere; doctors consulted in an overtly non-directive, negotiated style, which is realised through suggestions and affective comments. This mode of communication is the core teaching of communication skills courses. These results suggest that men have more to learn to achieve competence as professional communicators.  (+info)

Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. (2/1550)

Structural maturation of fiber tracts in the human brain, including an increase in the diameter and myelination of axons, may play a role in cognitive development during childhood and adolescence. A computational analysis of structural magnetic resonance images obtained in 111 children and adolescents revealed age-related increases in white matter density in fiber tracts constituting putative corticospinal and frontotemporal pathways. The maturation of the corticospinal tract was bilateral, whereas that of the frontotemporal pathway was found predominantly in the left (speech-dominant) hemisphere. These findings provide evidence for a gradual maturation, during late childhood and adolescence, of fiber pathways presumably supporting motor and speech functions.  (+info)

Interarticulator programming in VCV sequences: lip and tongue movements. (3/1550)

This study examined the temporal phasing of tongue and lip movements in vowel-consonant-vowel sequences where the consonant is a bilabial stop consonant /p, b/ and the vowels one of /i, a, u/; only asymmetrical vowel contexts were included in the analysis. Four subjects participated. Articulatory movements were recorded using a magnetometer system. The onset of the tongue movement from the first to the second vowel almost always occurred before the oral closure. Most of the tongue movement trajectory from the first to the second vowel took place during the oral closure for the stop. For all subjects, the onset of the tongue movement occurred earlier with respect to the onset of the lip closing movement as the tongue movement trajectory increased. The influence of consonant voicing and vowel context on interarticulator timing and tongue movement kinematics varied across subjects. Overall, the results are compatible with the hypothesis that there is a temporal window before the oral closure for the stop during which the tongue movement can start. A very early onset of the tongue movement relative to the stop closure together with an extensive movement before the closure would most likely produce an extra vowel sound before the closure.  (+info)

Language outcome following multiple subpial transection for Landau-Kleffner syndrome. (4/1550)

Landau-Kleffner syndrome is an acquired epileptic aphasia occurring in normal children who lose previously acquired speech and language abilities. Although some children recover some of these abilities, many children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome have significant language impairments that persist. Multiple subpial transection is a surgical technique that has been proposed as an appropriate treatment for Landau-Kleffner syndrome in that it is designed to eliminate the capacity of cortical tissue to generate seizures or subclinical epileptiform activity, while preserving the cortical functions subserved by that tissue. We report on the speech and language outcome of 14 children who underwent multiple subpial transection for treatment of Landau-Kleffner syndrome. Eleven children demonstrated significant postoperative improvement on measures of receptive or expressive vocabulary. Results indicate that early diagnosis and treatment optimize outcome, and that gains in language function are most likely to be seen years, rather than months, after surgery. Since an appropriate control group was not available, and that the best predictor of postoperative improvements in language function was that of length of time since surgery, these data might best be used as a benchmark against other Landau-Kleffner syndrome outcome studies. We conclude that multiple subpial transection may be useful in allowing for a restoration of speech and language abilities in children diagnosed with Landau-Kleffner syndrome.  (+info)

Survey of outpatient sputum cytology: influence of written instructions on sample quality and who benefits from investigation. (5/1550)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluated quality of outpatient sputum cytology and whether written instructions to patients improve sample quality and to identify variables that predict satisfactory samples. DESIGN: Prospective randomised study. SETTING: Outpatient department of a district general hospital. PATIENTS: 224 patients recruited over 18 months whenever their clinicians requested sputum cytology, randomized to receive oral or oral and written advice. INTERVENTIONS: Oral advice from nurse on producing a sputum sample (114 patients); oral advice plus written instructions (110). MAIN MEASURES: Percentages of satisfactory sputum samples and of patients who produced more than one satisfactory sample; clinical or radiological features identified from subsequent review of patients' notes and radiographs associated with satisfactory samples; final diagnosis of bronchial cancer. RESULTS: 588 sputum samples were requested and 477 received. Patients in the group receiving additional written instructions produced 75(34%) satisfactory samples and 43(39%) of them one or more sets of satisfactory samples. Corresponding figures for the group receiving only oral advice (80(31%) and 46(40%) respectively)were not significantly different. Logistic regression showed that radiological evidence of collapse or consolidation (p<0.01) and hilar mass (p<0.05) were significant predictors of the production of satisfactory samples. Sputum cytology confirmed the diagnosis in only 9(17%) patients with bronchial carcinoma. CONCLUSIONS: The quality of outpatients' sputum samples was poor and was not improved by written instructions. Sputum cytology should be limited to patients with probable bronchial cancer unsuitable for surgery. IMPLICATIONS: Collection of samples and requests for sputum cytology should be reviewed in other hospitals.  (+info)

Continuous speech recognition for clinicians. (6/1550)

The current generation of continuous speech recognition systems claims to offer high accuracy (greater than 95 percent) speech recognition at natural speech rates (150 words per minute) on low-cost (under $2000) platforms. This paper presents a state-of-the-technology summary, along with insights the authors have gained through testing one such product extensively and other products superficially. The authors have identified a number of issues that are important in managing accuracy and usability. First, for efficient recognition users must start with a dictionary containing the phonetic spellings of all words they anticipate using. The authors dictated 50 discharge summaries using one inexpensive internal medicine dictionary ($30) and found that they needed to add an additional 400 terms to get recognition rates of 98 percent. However, if they used either of two more expensive and extensive commercial medical vocabularies ($349 and $695), they did not need to add terms to get a 98 percent recognition rate. Second, users must speak clearly and continuously, distinctly pronouncing all syllables. Users must also correct errors as they occur, because accuracy improves with error correction by at least 5 percent over two weeks. Users may find it difficult to train the system to recognize certain terms, regardless of the amount of training, and appropriate substitutions must be created. For example, the authors had to substitute "twice a day" for "bid" when using the less expensive dictionary, but not when using the other two dictionaries. From trials they conducted in settings ranging from an emergency room to hospital wards and clinicians' offices, they learned that ambient noise has minimal effect. Finally, they found that a minimal "usable" hardware configuration (which keeps up with dictation) comprises a 300-MHz Pentium processor with 128 MB of RAM and a "speech quality" sound card (e.g., SoundBlaster, $99). Anything less powerful will result in the system lagging behind the speaking rate. The authors obtained 97 percent accuracy with just 30 minutes of training when using the latest edition of one of the speech recognition systems supplemented by a commercial medical dictionary. This technology has advanced considerably in recent years and is now a serious contender to replace some or all of the increasingly expensive alternative methods of dictation with human transcription.  (+info)

Language related brain potentials in patients with cortical and subcortical left hemisphere lesions. (7/1550)

The role of the basal ganglia in language processing is currently a matter of discussion. Therefore, patients with left frontal cortical and subcortical lesions involving the basal ganglia as well as normal controls were tested in a language comprehension paradigm. Semantically incorrect, syntactically incorrect and correct sentences were presented auditorily. Subjects were required to listen to the sentences and to judge whether the sentence heard was correct or not. Event-related potentials and reaction times were recorded while subjects heard the sentences. Three different components correlated with different language processes were considered: the so-called N400 assumed to reflect processes of semantic integration; the early left anterior negativity hypothesized to reflect processes of initial syntactic structure building; and a late positivity (P600) taken to reflect second-pass processes including re-analysis and repair. Normal participants showed the expected N400 component for semantically incorrect sentences and an early anterior negativity followed by a P600 for syntactically incorrect sentences. Patients with left frontal cortical lesions displayed an attenuated N400 component in the semantic condition. In the syntactic condition only a late positivity was observed. Patients with lesions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, showed an N400 to semantic violations and an early anterior negativity as well as a P600 to syntactic violations, comparable to normal controls. Under the assumption that the early anterior negativity reflects automatic first-pass parsing processes and the P600 component more controlled second-pass parsing processes, the present results suggest that the left frontal cortex might support early parsing processes, and that specific regions of the basal ganglia, in contrast, may not be crucial for early parsing processes during sentence comprehension.  (+info)

Development of a stroke-specific quality of life scale. (8/1550)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical stroke trials are increasingly measuring patient-centered outcomes such as functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). No stroke-specific HRQOL measure is currently available. This study presents the initial development of a valid, reliable, and responsive stroke-specific quality of life (SS-QOL) measure, for use in stroke trials. METHODS: Domains and items for the SS-QOL were developed from patient interviews. The SS-QOL, Short Form 36, Beck Depression Inventory, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and Barthel Index were administered to patients 1 and 3 months after ischemic stroke. Items were eliminated with the use of standard psychometric criteria. Construct validity was assessed by comparing domain scores with similar domains of established measures. Domain responsiveness was assessed with standardized effect sizes. RESULTS: All 12 domains of the SS-QOL were unidimensional. In the final 49-item scale, all domains demonstrated excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha values for each domain >/=0.73). Most domains were moderately correlated with similar domains of established outcome measures (r2 range, 0.3 to 0.5). Most domains were responsive to change (standardized effect sizes >0.4). One- and 3-month SS-QOL scores were associated with patients' self-report of HRQOL compared with before their stroke (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The SS-QOL measures HRQOL, its primary underlying construct, in stroke patients. Preliminary results regarding the reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the SS-QOL are encouraging. Further studies in diverse stroke populations are needed.  (+info)

Hardbound. Based of the 3rd International Nijmegen conference on Speech Motor Production Fluency Disorders, this book contains a reviewed selection of papers on the topics of speech production as it relates to motor control, brain processes and fluency disorders. It represents a unique collection of theoretical and experimental work, bringing otherwise widespread information together in a comprehensive way. This quality makes this book unlike any other book published in the area of speech motor production and fluency disorders.Topics that are covered include models in speech production, motor control in speech production and fluency disorders, brain research in speech production, methods and measurements in pathological speech, developmental aspects of speech production and fluency disorders. Scientists, clinicians and students as well as anybody interested in the field of speech motor production and fluency disorders, will find useful information in t
Production and comprehension of speech are closely interwoven. For example, the ability todetect an error in ones own speech, halt speech production, and finally correct the error can beexplained by assuming an inner speech loop which continuously compares the word representationsinduced by production to those induced by perception at various cognitive levels (e.g. conceptual, word,or phonological levels). Because spontaneous speech errors are relatively rare, a picture naming and haltparadigm can be used to evoke them. In this paradigm, picture presentation (target word initiation) isfollowed by an auditory stop signal (distractor word) for halting speech production. The current studyseeks to understand the neural mechanisms governing self-detection of speech errors by developing abiologically inspired neural model of the inner speech loop. The neural model is based on the NeuralEngineering Framework (NEF) and consists of a network of about 500,000 spiking neurons. In the firstexperiment we induce
The present invention relates to a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function, and is aimed at providing a speech processing device equipped with both a speech coding/decoding function and a speech recognition function by using a small amount of memory. The speech processing device of the present invention includes a speech analysis unit for obtaining analysis results by analyzing input speech, a codebook for storing quantization parameters and quantization codes indicating the quantization parameters, a quantizing unit for selecting the quantization parameters and the quantization codes corresponding to the analysis results from the codebook and for outputting selected quantization parameters and selected quantization codes, a coding unit for outputting encoded codes of the input speech including the selected quantization codes, a speech dictionary for storing registered data which represent speech patterns by using the codebook, and
Speech production is the process by which thoughts are translated into speech. This includes the selection of words, the organization of relevant grammatical forms, and then the articulation of the resulting sounds by the motor system using the vocal apparatus. Speech production can be spontaneous such as when a person creates the words of a conversation, reactive such as when they name a picture or read aloud a written word, or imitative, such as in speech repetition. Speech production is not the same as language production since language can also be produced manually by signs. In ordinary fluent conversation people pronounce roughly four syllables, ten or twelve phonemes and two to three words out of their vocabulary (that can contain 10 to 100 thousand words) each second. Errors in speech production are relatively rare occurring at a rate of about once in every 900 words in spontaneous speech. Words that are commonly spoken or learned early in life or easily imagined are quicker to say than ...
Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual. This requires the ability in the person making the copy to map the sensory input they hear from the other persons vocal pronunciation into a similar motor output with their own vocal tract. Such speech input output imitation often occurs independently of speech comprehension such as in speech shadowing when a person automatically says words heard in earphones, and the pathological condition of echolalia in which people reflexively repeat overheard words. This links to speech repetition of words being separate in the brain to speech perception. Speech repetition occurs in the dorsal speech processing stream while speech perception occurs in the ventral speech processing stream. Repetitions are often incorporated unawares by this route into spontaneous novel sentences immediately or after delay following storage in phonological memory. In humans, the ability to map heard input vocalizations ...
A speech transmission adapter and a respirator mask comprising a speech transmission adapter. The respirator mask comprises an inhalation port, an exhalation port, and a speech transmission adapter in detachably sealed engagement with the inhalation port. The adapter comprises a peripheral housing, a speech reception means supported by the peripheral housing, and a speech transmission means operably coupled to the speech reception means. The speech reception means receives sound pressure generated by a wearer of the respirator mask, and the speech transmission means conveys signals representative of such sound pressure to an external speech transducer. The adapter mates to the inhalation port of a respirator mask and expands the clean air envelope defined within the mask to include the speech reception means within the clean air envelope without requiring structural modification of the respirator mask. The speech transmission adapter comprises a central aperture which is adapted to accommodate the
A method and apparatus for real time speech recognition with and without speaker dependency which includes the following steps. Converting the speech signals into a series of primitive sound spectrum parameter frames; detecting the beginning and ending of speech according to the primitive sound spectrum parameter frame, to determine the sound spectrum parameter frame series; performing non-linear time domain normalization on the sound spectrum parameter frame series using sound stimuli, to obtain speech characteristic parameter frame series with predefined lengths on the time domain; performing amplitude quantization normalization on the speech characteristic parameter frames; comparing the speech characteristic parameter frame series with the reference samples, to determine the reference sample which most closely matches the speech characteristic parameter frame series; and determining the recognition result according to the most closely matched reference sample.
Your point about phonology is important and interesting. Yes, neuroscientists who study language need to pay more attention to linguistics! You suggest that data from phonology leads you to believe that gestural information is critical. I dont doubt that. But heres an important point (correct me if Im wrong because Im not a phonologist!): the data that drives phonological theory comes from how people produce speech sounds. It doesnt come from how people hear speech sounds. You are assuming that the phonology uncovered via studies of production, also applies to the phonological processing in speech perception. This may be true, but I dont think so. My guess is that most of speech perception involves recognizing chunks of speech on the syllable scale, not individual segments. In other words, while you clearly need to represent speech at the segmental (and even featural) level for production, you dont need to do this for perception. So it doesnt surprise me that phonologists find gesture ...
Understanding speech in the presence of noise can be difficult, especially when suffering from a hearing loss. This thesis examined behavioural and electrophysiological measures of speech processing with the aim of establishing how they were influenced by hearing loss (internal degradation) and listening condition (external degradation). The hypothesis that more internal and external degradation of a speech signal would result in higher working memory (WM) involvement was investigated in four studies. The behavioural measure of speech recognition consistently decreased with worse hearing, whereas lower WM capacity only resulted in poorer speech recognition when sound were spatially co-located. Electrophysiological data (EEG) recorded during speech processing, revealed that worse hearing was associated with an increase in inhibitory alpha activity (~10 Hz). This indicates that listeners with worse hearing experienced a higher degree of WM involvement during the listening task. When increasing the ...
Speech problems are common in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). At an early stage, patients may find it hard to project their voice. As the disease progresses, patients start to have difficulty starting their speech even though they know the words they want to say. They experience freezing of the jaw, tongue and lips. When they eventually get their speech started, they have a hard time moving it forward. They keep on saying the same words or phrases over and over again while their voice gets softer and softer. Many words also run together or are slurred. These symptoms make patients speech very hard to understand and directly affect their care and quality of life. Unfortunately, these symptoms have not responded to medication or surgery like other non-speech motor symptoms do. In fact, some surgical treatment could even make speech worse while other motor function such as walking improves. Traditional behavior therapy for these speech symptoms has not been successful either because ...
Speech Production 2 Paper 9: Foundations of Speech Communication Lent Term: Week 4 Katharine Barden Today s lecture Prosodic-segmental interdependencies Models of speech production Articulatory phonology
The students will get familiar with basic characteristics of speech signal in relation to production and hearing of speech by humans. They will understand basic algorithms of speech analysis common to many applications. They will be given an overview of applications (recognition, synthesis, coding) and be informed about practical aspects of speech algorithms implementation. The students will be able to design a simple system for speech processing (speech activity detector, recognizer of limited number of isolated words), including its implementation into application programs. ...
bedahr writes The first version of the open source speech recognition suite simon was released. It uses the Julius large vocabulary continuous speech recognition to do the actual recognition and the HTK toolkit to maintain the language model. These components are united under an easy-to-use grap...
Introduction. Bothaina El Kahhal The British International School of Cairo Examine closely Katherines speech in Act 5 Scene 2 lines 136-179. What is your view of this speech as the climax of this story? How have Kates opinions and language changed since the early acts of the play? Why do you think that she has changed so much? What is your view of this speech as the climax of this story? In The Taming of the Shrew, Katherina gives a final speech in Act 5, Scene 2, which many people consider sexist, in terms of the content and the language used. As George Bernard Shaw said, the play is Altogether disgusting to modern sensibility. It can be maintained that Petruchio is a rather challenging type, who sees their relationship as a game. Consequently, he knows he will win, thus winning a beautiful bride as well as the dowry. The final speech is proof that he has changed Katherina from an independent male to the woman that she is. He only plays the game to obtain the ideal marriage. Eventually ...
Technique of Speech - Culture of Speech and Business Communication Technique of Speech - Culture of Speech and Business Communication Speech Technique.
Developmental apraxia of speech is a diagnosis that is used clinically, usually to describe children with multiple and severe difficulties with speech sound acquisition. The precise criteria for this diagnostic label have been the source of debate in the research and clinical literature. Most treatment protocols have not withstood controlled investigations of their efficacy. The goal of this seminar is to define developmental apraxia of speech, determine how it can be differentiated from other speech acquisition problems, and become familiar with treatment protocols that appear to be efficacious. These goals will be met by investigating models of speech production and its development, becoming familiar with the experimental literature that has focused on differential diagnosis of developmental apraxia, and evaluating different regimens that have been recommended for treatment of this disorder ...
The temporal perception of simple auditory and visual stimuli can be modulated by exposure to asynchronous audiovisual speech. For instance, research using the temporal order judgment (TOJ) task has shown that exposure to temporally misaligned audiovisual speech signals can induce temporal adaptation that will influence the TOJs of other (simpler) audiovisual events (Navarra et al. (2005) Cognit Brain Res 25:499-507). Given that TOJ and simultaneity judgment (SJ) tasks appear to reflect different underlying mechanisms, we investigated whether adaptation to asynchronous speech inputs would also influence SJ task performance. Participants judged whether a light flash and a noise burst, presented at varying stimulus onset asynchronies, were simultaneous or not, or else they discriminated which of the two sensory events appeared to have occurred first. While performing these tasks, participants monitored a continuous speech stream for target words that were either presented in synchrony, or with the audio
Automatic retraining of a speech recognizer during its normal operation in conjunction with an electronic device responsive to the speech recognizer is addressed. In this retraining, stored trained models are retrained on the basis of recognized user utterances. Feature vectors, model state transitions, and tentative recognition results are stored upon processing and evaluation of speech samples of the user utterances. A reliable transcript is determined for later adaptation of a speech model, in dependence upon the users successive behavior when interacting with the speech recognizer and the electronic device. For example, in a name dialing process, such a behavior can be manual or voice re-dialing of the same number or dialing of a different phone number, immediately aborting an established communication, or braking it after a short period of time. In dependence upon such a behavior, a transcript is select in correspondence to a users first utterance or in correspondence to a users second
This video was recorded at MUSCLE Conference joint with VITALAS Conference. Human speech production and perception mechanisms are essentially bimodal. Interesting evidence for this audiovisual nature of speech is provided by the so-called Mc Gurk effect. To properly account for the complementary visual aspect we propose a unified framework to analyse speech and present our related findings in applications such as audiovisual speech inversion and recognition. Speakers face is analysed by means of Active Appearance Modelling and the extracted visual features are integrated with simultaneously extracted acoustic features to recover the underlying articulator properties, e.g., the movement of the speakers tongue tip, or recognize the recorded utterance, e.g. the sequence of the numbers uttered. Possible asynchrony between the audio and visual stream is also taken into account. For the case of recognition we also exploit feature uncertainty as given by the corresponding front-ends, to achieve ...
I use a systematic combination of speech treatment approaches in my own oral placement work. I generally begin with a bottom-up method where we work on vowel sounds, then consonant-vowel words, then vowel-consonant words, etc. I also capitalize on the speech sounds a child can already make. If the child can say ah, ee, m, or h, then we can work on words or word approximations containing these sounds. I use a hands-on approach where I gently move the childs jaw, lips, and tongue to specific locations for sounds and words (if the child allows touch). Imitation is usually very difficult for children with autism, so I begin saying/facilitating speech sounds and words in unison with the child. We then work systematically from unison, to imitation, to using words in phrases and sentences. This often requires weekly speech therapy sessions with daily practice at home and several years of treatment ...
To further quantify the observed speech-related high-gamma modulation in the STN and the sensorimotor cortex, we investigated whether the two structures showed encoding specific to speech articulators. For the sensorimotor cortex, we found that 30% of recording sites revealed either lip-preferred or tongue-preferred activity, which had a topographic distribution: the electrodes located more dorsally on the sensorimotor cortex produced a greater high-gamma power during the articulation of lip consonants, whereas the electrodes that were located more ventrally yielded a greater high-gamma power for tongue consonants. Therefore, our results appear to recapitulate the dorsal-ventral layout for lips and tongue representations within the sensorimotor cortex (Penfield and Boldrey, 1937; Bouchard et al., 2013; Breshears et al., 2015; Chartier et al., 2018; Conant et al., 2018). We found that articulatory encoding is closely aligned with the consonant onset in acoustic speech production. This ...
On this page: How do speech and language develop? What are the milestones for speech and language development? What is the difference between a speech disorder and a language disorder? What should I do if my childs speech or language appears to be delayed? What research is being conducted on developmental speech and language problems? Your babys hearing and communicative
Many politicians frequently confuse their personal wants with the wants and needs of their audience. The successful politician chooses his speech topics primarily based on the area that hes visiting and the audience that hes addressing. Once you have speech ideas you can use, you can develop a kind of presentation of the subject. Leading the listeners to your viewpoint is often part of the speech to persuade. But , even a speech to inform requires some first lead directly to get your audience to listen attentively and to follow what you are claiming. Making that connection with your audience will most likely make for a great speech. You will sound like a natural speaker if you know your subject and have rehearsed what you mean to say ...
ROCHA, Caroline Nunes et al. Brainstem auditory evoked potential with speech stimulus. Pró-Fono R. Atual. Cient. [online]. 2010, vol.22, n.4, pp.479-484. ISSN 0104-5687. BACKGROUND: although clinical use of the click stimulus for the evaluation of brainstem auditory function is widespread, and despite the fact that several researchers use such stimulus in studies involving human hearing, little is known about the auditory processing of complex stimuli such as speech. AIM: to characterize the findings of the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) performed with speech stimuli in adults with typical development. METHOD: fifty subjects, 22 males and 28 females, with typical development, were assessed for ABR using both click and speech stimuli. RESULTS: the latencies and amplitudes of the response components onset (V, A and complex VA), the area and slope that occur before 10 ms were identified and analyzed. These measurements were identified in all ...
July 1, 2014 By James Taranto at The Wall Street Journal. FIRE is attempting to light one. The Philadelphia-based Schools: Ohio University Chicago State University Citrus College Iowa State University Cases: Citrus College - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit Chicago State University - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit Iowa State University - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit Ohio University - Stand Up For Speech Lawsuit ...
Somebody should let the mayor know that if you dont believe in protecting speech that you disagree with, you fundamentally dont believe in free speech. You believe in an echo chamber.. And on the subject of free speech, it should be noted that just to get the proper permits for their event, the Berkeley Patriots were forced to pay a $15,000 security fee to the university. Which seems like a lot for a student group to pay, particularly when all they are likely to get for that money is a bunch of uniformed security who will stand around and watch free speech advocates get beaten with clubs and pepper-sprayed by antifa.. Had the university shopped around, Im sure they could have found some company who would be willing to stand around and watch it happen for half that price!. Things have gotten so bad that Berkeley leftists have even lost House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi. On Tuesday, the San Francisco Democrat issued the following statement: Our democracy has no room for inciting violence ...
Free speech definition is - speech that is protected by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution; also : the right to such speech. How to use free speech in a sentence.
CiteSeerX - Scientific documents that cite the following paper: On the automatic recognition of continuous speech: Implications from a spectrogram-reading 6 experiment
Dudley Knight is one of the most respected voice and speech teachers in North America and highly regarded internationally. Janet Madelle Feindel, Professor of Voice and Alexander, Carnegie Mellon University, author of The Thought Propels the Sound Actors and other professional voice users need to speak clearly and expressively in order to communicate the ideas and emotions of their characters-and themselves. Whatever the native accent of the speaker, this easy communication to the listener must always happen in every moment, onstage, in film or on television; in real life too. This book, an introduction to Knight-Thompson Speechwork, gives speakers the ownership of a vast variety of speech skills and the ability to explore unlimited varieties of speech actions-without imposing a single, unvarying pattern of good speech. The skills gained through this book enable actors to find the unique way in which a dramatic character embodies the language of the play. They also help any speaker to ...
Other names: rapid speech, tachylalie, tachyfrazie Language is the main means of expression of humanity. Every single person gives her typical accentand form that is unique to her. Speech disorder can occur for various reasons. Speech is through the autonomic nervous system affect our psyche, and therefore it can happen that, for example stutters and bloopers or nervousness. Acceleration of speech can be caused by psychological uncertainty as inner need an unpleasant conversation time
The Speech Enhancer is the only SGD with a natural sounding voice - because it uses a persons biometric voice characteristics as one of the input and control mechanisms. This unique SGD augments your existing speech components with new synthesized components that blend naturally, sounding just like you - only louder and clearer, easier to understand. Speech Generating Device (SGD) Synthesizes New Clear Speech Restores Inaudible Voice Tiny, Battery-powered System
Speech pathologists have expertise in diagnosing, assessing and treating language, communication and swallowing disorders. They can treat people with difficulties with speech, listening, understanding language, reading, writing, social skills, stuttering and using voice. People who benefit from speech therapy treatment may have developmental delays, or have suffered from a stroke, brain injuries, learning disability, intellectual disability, cerebral palsy, and dementia or hearing loss. In addition, speech pathologists can assist those people who have difficulties swallowing food or drink safely ...
In article ,49v09q$87e at,, mgrim at (Martin Grim) says: ,Collecting information about the anatomical part isnt such a hard task, ,but less is known about the way the brain computes speech from the signals ,delivered by the ear and the auditory pathway. The ear converts the sound ,waves to a frequency spectrum, which is send to the auditory cortex. Speech ,is known to be build up by phonemes and phonemes can be identified by their ,formants, or even by formant ratios (for speaker independency). The question ,which rises now is does the brain computes speech from the enire frequency ,spectrum, or does it use just the formants? , ,Does somebody know the answer to this question (which is summarized as ,are formants biological plausible), or perhaps a reference of a publication ,with a discussion about this subject? Martin, The answers to your questions can be found in the realm of neurolinguistics, this being the study of how the brain processes sound, in ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Disorganized Speech, Tangential Speech, Tangentiality, Loose Associations, Word Salad, Schizophasia, Blocking Speech, Circumstantial Speech, Flight of ideas, Perseveration.
Looking for speech device? Find out information about speech device. see language language, systematic communication by vocal symbols. It is a universal characteristic of the human species. Nothing is known of its origin,... Explanation of speech device
topics for a good speech good high school essay topics resume formt cover letter examples best rd grade speech ever essay good persuasive speeches creative persuasive essay topics th graders fun demonstrative
The work of Penfield and collaborators was based predominantly on patients undergoing surgical treatment of epilepsy. The goal of surgery for epilepsy continues to be the excision of epileptogenic tissue in its entirety without resection of normal tissue or tissue essential for speech, language, and memory. Some neurosurgeons have suggested using anatomical landmarks to spare language cortex with dominant hemisphere surgery, such as the superior temporal gyrus and beyond 4 cm from the temporal tip. There is, however, considerable variability in cortical organization across individuals, and resections in anatomically safe areas have been associated with post-operative aphasias (Ojemann, 1993). Thus, reliance on anatomical landmarks may put language at risk in some patients. The surest method to exclude speech and language cortex from resection is to methodically map the cortical area housing the epileptogenic focus ...
When large sections of Melania Trumps speech at the Republican National Convention turned out to be lifted from Michelle Obamas 2008 convention speech, the Trump campaign tried to deflect criticism by throwing the speechwriter under the bus (after initially insisting Melania wrote the speech herself). The campaign went so far as to release an apology letter from the writer, Meredith McIver.. But in doing so, the campaign created another problem, because McIver doesnt work for the campaign. Shes an employee of the Trump Organization, Donald Trumps business empire. A basic rule of campaign finance is that if an employee of a corporation does work for a campaign, it counts as a corporate contribution, and corporations are not allowed to donate to campaigns.. To get around that, the campaign had to pay McIver for her work on Melanias speech. In the latest campaign filings, McIver is listed on the payroll of the campaign-for a grand total of $356.01. The payment, which occurred on July 23, five ...
Speech standards include terminology, languages and protocols specified by committees of speech experts for widespread use in the speech industry. Speech standards have both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include the following: developers can create applications using the standard languages that are portable across a variety of platforms; products from different vendors are able to interact with each other; and a community of experts evolves around the standard and is available to develop products and services based on the standard.
Here is the best resource for homework help with SPEECH 100 : Intro to Speech at Borough Of Manhattan Community College. Find SPEECH100 study guides, notes,
Speech sound disorders is an umbrella term referring to any combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, and/or the phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments (including phonotactic rules that govern syllable shape, structure, and stress, as well as prosody) that impact speech intelligibility. Known causes of speech sound disorders include motor-based disorders (apraxia and dysarthria), structurally based disorders and conditions (e.g., cleft palate and other craniofacial anomalies), syndrome/condition-related disorders (e.g., Down syndrome and metabolic conditions, such as galactosemia), and sensory-based conditions (e.g., hearing impairment). Speech sound disorders can impact the form of speech sounds or the function of speech sounds within a language. Disorders that impact the form of speech sounds are traditionally referred to as articulation disorders and are associated with structural (e.g., cleft palate) and motor-based difficulties (e.g., apraxia). ...
We investigated how standard speech coders, currently used in modern communication systems, affect the intelligibility of the speech of persons who have common speech and voice disorders. Three standardized speech coders (viz., GSM 6.10 [RPE-LTP], FS1016 [CELP], FS1015 [LPC]) and two speech coders based on subband processing were evaluated for their performance. Coder effects were assessed by measuring the intelligibility of vowels and consonants both before and after processing by the speech coders. Native English talkers who had normal hearing identified these speech sounds. Results confirmed that (a) all coders reduce the intelligibility of spoken language; (b) these effects occur in a consistent manner, with the GSM and CELP coders providing the least degradation relative to the original unprocessed speech; and (c) coders interact with individual voices so that speech is degraded differentially for different talkers.. ...
Iqra Educational Trust has been providing speech therapy resources which includes audio and educational resources, specialized books on speech therapy and also purchased speech therapy tests to improve the speech impairment of the deaf children. Iqra Trust arranges special visits to Pakistan by one of our Speech Therapists, Nabia Sohail who educates teachers on different speech therapy methods to improve their skills.. In 2013-2014 we donated speech therapy resources to the Deaf Teacher Training College in Gong Mahal Gulbarg Lahore. In 2013 Iqra trust donated multimedia unit to the speech therapy department of Deaf Teacher Training College for effective teaching for the speech therapy students.. Iqra Educational Trust also sent a speech therapy magazine to a number of speech therapists in Pakistan to keep them informed of the latest therapy methods used.. ...
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates cortical excitability in a polarity-specific way and, when used in combination with a behavioural task, it can alter performance. TDCS has the potential, therefore, for use as an adjunct to therapies designed to treat disorders affecting speech, including, but not limited to acquired aphasias and developmental stuttering. For this reason, it is important to conduct studies evaluating its effectiveness and the parameters optimal for stimulation. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of bi-hemispheric tDCS over speech motor cortex on performance of a complex speech motor learning task, namely the repetition of tongue twisters. A previous study in older participants showed that tDCS could modulate performance on a similar task. To further understand the effects of tDCS, we also measured the excitability of the speech motor cortex before and after stimulation. Three groups of 20 healthy young controls received: (i) anodal tDCS to the left IFG/LipM1
Course Objective: To gain a basic understanding of the structural organization (anatomy), function (physiology), and neural control of the human vocal tract during speech production (speech motor control). The effectors or subsystems of the human vocal tract pro duce forces, movements, sound pressure, air flows and air pressure during speech. These subsystems include the chest wall, larynx, velopharynx, and orofacial [lip, tongue, and jaw]. The selection, sequencing and timing of these articulatory subsystems to produce intelligible speech is orchestrated by the nervous system. The speech motor control system also benefits from several types of sensory signals, including auditory, visual, deep muscle afferents, and cutaneous inputs. The multimodal nature of senso ry processing is vital to the infant learning to speak, and assists the mature speaker in maintaining speech intelligibility. Pathophysiology of vocal tract subsystems due to musculoskeletal abnormalities, brain injury, and progressive ...
This review has examined the spatial and temporal neural activation of speech comprehension. Six theories on speech comprehension were selected and reviewed. The most fundamental structures for speech comprehension are the superior temporal gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, the temporal pole, the temporoparietal junction, and the inferior frontal gyrus. Considering temporal aspects of processes, the N400 ERP effect indicates semantic violations, and the P600 indicates re-evaluation of a word due to ambiguity or syntax error. The dual-route processing model provides the most accurate account of neural correlates and streams of activation necessary for speech comprehension, while also being compatible with both the reviewed studies and the reviewed theories. The integrated theory of language production and comprehension provides a contemporary theory of speech production and comprehension with roots in computational neuroscience, which in conjunction with the dual-route processing model could drive the ...
Published in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, ed. Anne Smith, Volume 52, Issue 4, 2009, pages 1048-1061. Barnes, E. F., Roberts, J., Long, S. H., Martin, G. E., Berni, M. C., Mandulak, K. C., & Sideris, J. (2009). Phonological accuracy and intelligibility in connected speech of boys with fragile X syndrome or Down syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 52(4), 1048-1061.. DOI: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0001). © Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2009, American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. ...
Over the years, since the first accounts of the disorder, there has been disagreement over the underlying nature of the disorder. Some have proposed that CAS is linguistic in nature; others have proposed that it is motoric and some have put forth the tenet that it is BOTH linguistic and motoric in nature. However, currently nearly all sources describe the key presenting impairment involved with CAS as some degree of disrupted speech motor control. The reason for this difficulty is still under investigation by speech scientists.. Weakness, paresis, or paralysis of the speech musculature does not account for the impaired speech motor skills in CAS. Differences in various theories of speech motor control notwithstanding, it is believed that the level of impairment in the speech processing system occurs somewhere between phonological encoding and the motor execution phase, such as a disruption in motor planning and/or programming. Some believe that children with CAS have difficulty accurately ...
Speech is the most important communication modality for human interaction. Automatic speech recognition and speech synthesis have extended further the relevance of speech to man-machine interaction. Environment noise and various distortions, such as reverberation and speech processing artifacts, reduce the mutual information between the message modulated inthe clean speech and the message decoded from the observed signal. This degrades intelligibility and perceived quality, which are the two attributes associated with quality of service. An estimate of the state of these attributes provides important diagnostic information about the communication equipment and the environment. When the adverse effects occur at the presentation side, an objective measure of intelligibility facilitates speech signal modification for improved communication.. The contributions of this thesis come from non-intrusive quality assessment and intelligibility-enhancing modification of speech. On the part of quality, the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Speech planning happens before speech execution. T2 - Online reaction time methods in the study of apraxia of speech. AU - Maas, Edwin. AU - Mailend, Marja Liisa. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present an argument for the use of online reaction time (RT) methods to the study of apraxia of speech (AOS) and to review the existing small literature in this area and the contributions it has made to our fundamental understanding of speech planning (deficits) in AOS. Method: Following a brief description of limitations of offline perceptual methods, we provide a narrative review of various types of RT paradigms from the (speech) motor programming and psycholinguistic literatures and their (thus far limited) application with AOS. Conclusion: On the basis of the review of the literature, we conclude that with careful consideration of potential challenges and caveats, RT approaches hold great promise to advance our understanding of AOS, in ...
The speech of patients with progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) has often been described clinically, but these descriptions lack support from quantitative data. The clinical classification of the progressive aphasic syndromes is also debated. This study selected 15 patients with progressive aphasia on broad criteria, excluding only those with clear semantic dementia. It aimed to provide a detailed quantitative description of their conversational speech, along with cognitive testing and visual rating of structural brain imaging, and to examine which, if any features were consistently present throughout the group; as well as looking for sub-syndromic associations between these features. A consistent increase in grammatical and speech sound errors and a simplification of spoken syntax relative to age-matched controls were observed, though telegraphic speech was rare; slow speech was common but not universal. Almost all patients showed impairments in picture naming, syntactic comprehension and ...
Mainstream automatic speech recognition has focused almost exclusively on the acoustic signal. The performance of these systems degrades considerably in the real world in the presence of noise. On the other hand, most human listeners, both hearing-impaired and normal hearing, make use of visual information to improve speech perception in acoustically hostile environments. Motivated by humans ability to lipread, the visual component is considered to yield information that is not always present in the acoustic signal and enables improved accuracy over totally acoustic systems, especially in noisy environments. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of visual information in speech recognition. We first present a method for automatically locating and extracting visual speech features from a talking person in color video sequences. We then develop a recognition engine to train and recognize sequences of visual parameters for the purpose of speech recognition. We particularly explore the impact of
previous post , next post » Today at ISCSLP2016, Xuedong Huang announced a striking result from Microsoft Research. A paper documenting it is up on - W. Xiong, J. Droppo, X. Huang, F. Seide, M. Seltzer, A. Stolcke, D. Yu, G. Zweig, Achieving Human Parity in Conversational Speech Recognition:. Conversational speech recognition has served as a flagship speech recognition task since the release of the DARPA Switchboard corpus in the 1990s. In this paper, we measure the human error rate on the widely used NIST 2000 test set, and find that our latest automated system has reached human parity. The error rate of professional transcriptionists is 5.9% for the Switchboard portion of the data, in which newly acquainted pairs of people discuss an assigned topic, and 11.3% for the CallHome portion where friends and family members have open-ended conversations. In both cases, our automated system establishes a new state-of-the-art, and edges past the human benchmark. This marks the first time ...
In this study, we focus on the classification of neutral and stressed speech based on a physical model. In order to represent the characteristics of the vocal folds and vocal tract during the process of speech production and to explore the physical parameters involved, we propose a method using the two-mass model. As feature parameters, we focus on stiffness parameters of the vocal folds, vocal tract length, and cross-sectional areas of the vocal tract. The stiffness parameters and the area of the entrance to the vocal tract are extracted from the two-mass model after we fit the model to real data using our proposed algorithm. These parameters are related to the velocity of glottal airflow and acoustic interaction between the vocal folds and the vocal tract and can precisely represent features of speech under stress because they are affected by the speakers psychological state during speech production. In our experiments, the physical features generated using the proposed approach are compared with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nonword Repetition and Speech Motor Control in Children. AU - Reuterskiöld, Christina. AU - Grigos, Maria I.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2015 Christina Reuterskiöld and Maria I. Grigos. Copyright: Copyright 2015 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - This study examined how familiarity of word structures influenced articulatory control in children and adolescents during repetition of real words (RWs) and nonwords (NWs). A passive reflective marker system was used to track articulator movement. Measures of accuracy were obtained during repetition of RWs and NWs, and kinematic analysis of movement duration and variability was conducted. Participants showed greater consonant and vowel accuracy during RW than NW repetition. Jaw movement duration was longer in NWs compared to RWs across age groups, and younger children produced utterances with longer jaw movement duration compared to older children. Jaw movement variability was consistently greater during ...
Academic Writing Web is an online writing service that helps and assist the students with their academic work. We have experienced professionals who are equipped with miraculous skills and extensive experience. Students can get help online from our experts within the blink of an eye. The professionals at Academic Writing Web understand the needs and demands of the students and provide them precise solutions. The speech writing experts here assist students to improve their speech writing skills and to foster their capabilities. Moreover, students can also get access to diverse topics for their speeches and relevant helping materials.. A well crafted speech written by our professionals is not the speech that is written to please you but it is the speech that completely meets the requirements set by your professors. It covers all major aspects a perfect speech has. It is well researched and 100% plagiarism free. The purpose of this platform is to help students like yourself in their academic ...
The concept of hate speech is understood and used variously by different people and in different contexts. Generally, hate speech is that which offends, threatens or insults groups based on race, colour, religion, national origin, gender, sexual orientation, disability or a number of other traits.(1) From a European perspective, hate speech is: understood as covering all forms of expression which spread, incite, promote or justify racial hatred, xenophobia, anti-Semitism or other forms of hatred based on intolerance. It is perceived as all kinds of speech that disseminate, incite or justify national and racial intolerance, xenophobia, anti-Semitism, religious and other forms of hatred based on intolerance.(2) At the same time, hate speech indicates the worst forms of verbal aggression towards those who are in a minority in terms of any criteria or who are different.(3). At the KNCHR, hate speech has been defined as any form of speech that degrades others and promotes hatred and encourages ...
As research on hate speech becomes more and more relevant every day, most of it is still focused on hate speech detection. By attempting to replicate a hate speech detection experiment performed on an existing Twitter corpus annotated for hate speech, we highlight some issues that arise from doing research in the field of hate speech, which is essentially still in its infancy. We take a critical look at the training corpus in order to understand its biases, while also using it to venture beyond hate speech detection and investigate whether it can be used to shed light on other facets of research, such as popularity of hate tweets.
We investigated the consequences of monitoring an asynchronous audiovisual speech stream on the temporal perception of simultaneously presented vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) audiovisual speech video clips. Participants made temporal order judgments (TOJs) regarding whether the speech-sound or the visual-speech gesture occurred first, for video clips presented at various different stimulus onset asynchronies. Throughout the experiment, half of the participants also monitored a continuous stream of words presented audiovisually, superimposed over the VCV video clips. The continuous (adapting) speech stream could either be presented in synchrony, or else with the auditory stream lagging by 300 ms. A significant shift (13 ms in the direction of the adapting stimulus in the point of subjective simultaneity) was observed in the TOJ task when participants monitored the asynchronous speech stream. This result suggests that the consequences of adapting to asynchronous speech extends beyond the case of simple
In online crowdfunding, individuals gather information from two primary sources, video pitches and text narratives. However, while the attributes of the attached video may have substantial effects on fundraising, previous literature has largely neglected effects of the video information. Therefore, this study focuses on speech information embedded in videos. Employing the machine learning techniques including speech recognition and linguistic style classifications, we examine the role of speech emotion and speech style in crowdfunding success, compared to that of text narratives. Using Kickstarter dataset in 2016, our preliminary results suggest that speech information -the linguistic styles- is significantly associated with the crowdfunding success, even after controlling for text and other project-specific information. More interestingly, linguistic styles of the speech have a more profound explanatory power than text narratives do. This study contributes to the growing body of crowdfunding research
TY - CONF. T1 - Inter-Frame Contextual Modelling For Visual Speech Recognition. AU - Pass, Adrian. AU - Ji, Ming. AU - Hanna, Philip. AU - Zhang, Jianguo. AU - Stewart, Darryl. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - In this paper, we present a new approach to visual speech recognition which improves contextual modelling by combining Inter-Frame Dependent and Hidden Markov Models. This approach captures contextual information in visual speech that may be lost using a Hidden Markov Model alone. We apply contextual modelling to a large speaker independent isolated digit recognition task, and compare our approach to two commonly adopted feature based techniques for incorporating speech dynamics. Results are presented from baseline feature based systems and the combined modelling technique. We illustrate that both of these techniques achieve similar levels of performance when used independently. However significant improvements in performance can be achieved through a combination of the two. In particular we ...
InProceedings{Valentini-Botinhao2014, Title = {Intelligibility Analysis of Fast Synthesized Speech}, Author = {Cassia Valentini-Botinhao and Markus Toman and Michael Pucher and Dietmar Schabus and Junichi Yamagishi}, Booktitle = {Proceedings of the 15th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH)}, Year = {2014}, Address = {Singapore}, Month = sep, Pages = {2922-2926}, Abstract = {In this paper we analyse the effect of speech corpus and compression method on the intelligibility of synthesized speech at fast rates. We recorded English and German language voice talents at a normal and a fast speaking rate and trained an HSMM-based synthesis system based on the normal and the fast data of each speaker. We compared three compression methods: scaling the variance of the state duration model, interpolating the duration models of the fast and the normal voices, and applying a linear compression method to generated speech. Word recognition results for the ...
In a speech recognition system, the received speech and the sequence of words, recognized in the speech by a recognizer (100), are stored in a memory (320, 330). Markers are stored as well, indicating a correspondence between the word and a segment of the received signal in which the word was recognized. In a synchronous reproduction mode, a controller (310) ensures that the speech is played-back via speakers (350) and that for each speech segment a word, which has been recognized for the segment, is indicated (e.g. highlighted) on a display (340). The controller (310) can detect whether the user has provided an editing instruction, while the synchronous reproduction is active. If so, the synchronous reproduction is automatically paused and the editing instruction executed.
Looking for online definition of respiration in speech in the Medical Dictionary? respiration in speech explanation free. What is respiration in speech? Meaning of respiration in speech medical term. What does respiration in speech mean?
Does the motor system play a role in speech perception? If so, where, how, and when? We conducted a systematic review that addresses these questions using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review of behavioural, computational modelling, non-human animal, brain damage/disorder, electrical stimulation/recording, and neuroimaging research suggests that distributed brain regions involved in producing speech play specific, dynamic, and contextually determined roles in speech perception. The quantitative review employed region and network based neuroimaging meta-analyses and a novel text mining method to describe relative contributions of nodes in distributed brain networks. Supporting the qualitative review, results show a specific functional correspondence between regions involved in non-linguistic movement of the articulators, covertly and overtly producing speech, and the perception of both nonword and word sounds. This distributed set of cortical and subcortical speech
Most of us must have heard at one time or other a friends child saying tar instead of car or a child on the bus saying that car yewo. And what about Tweety Bird saying I thought I taw a putty tat. Do you know anyone with a speech sound disorder (SSD)? Most probably you do. SSD should be resolved by school age (by 5 or 6 years old) although some SSD persists through to adolescence and young adulthood.. A speech sound disorder (SSD) is a significant delay in the acquisition of articulate speech sounds. SSD is an umbrella term referring to any combination of difficulties with perception, motor production, and/or the phonological representation of speech sounds and speech segments (rules that govern syllable shape, structure and stress, as well as prosody). These difficulties can affect how well a person is understood by others. So a child who mumbles or deletes sounds in his words (ephant instead of elephant) or says (be tee) instead of the bird in the tree has an impact on his ...
Speech recognition drives efficiency and cost savings in clinical documentation by turning clinician dictations into formatted documents -- automatically.. Using front-end speech recognition, clinicians dictate, self-edit and sign transcription-free completed reports in one sitting - directly into a RIS/PACS system or EHR. Front-end speech recognition also allows physicians to quickly navigate from one section of the EHR to another…saving valuable time.. Using background speech recognition, medical transcriptionists (MTs) edit speech-recognized first drafts resulting in up to 100% gains in MT productivity when compared to traditional transcription.. ...
Scientists are developing a new treatment for children with speech sound disorders, which allows them to watch their own tongue move as they speak.. A three-year research project at Queen Margaret University in Edinburgh will attempt to treat children by using ultrasound technology to show them the movements and shapes of their tongue inside the mouth. Currently, most therapy concentrates on auditory skills.. The new project is carried out in co-operation with speech technologists at Edinburgh University, who will work to improve the images, as children often struggle with the grainy pictures from traditional ultrasound.. We can use our expertise to model the complex shapes of the tongue as it moves during speech, and translate this into a clear image of what the tongue is doing, paving the way for effective speech therapy, said Professor Steve Renals from the Centre for Speech Technology Research at Edinburgh University.. The scientists will also record the tongue movements of children with ...
This research topic presents speech as a natural, well-learned, multisensory communication signal, processed by multiple mechanisms. Reflecting the general status of the field, most articles focus on audiovisual speech perception and many utilize the McGurk effect, which arises when discrepant visual and auditory speech stimuli are presented (McGurk and MacDonald, 1976). Tiippana (2014) argues that the McGurk effect can be used as a proxy for multisensory integration provided it is not interpreted too narrowly. Several articles shed new light on audiovisual speech perception in special populations. It is known that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, e.g., Saalasti et al., 2012) or language impairment (e.g., Meronen et al., 2013) are generally less influenced by the talking face than peers with typical development. Here Stevenson et al. (2014) propose that a deficit in multisensory integration could be a marker of ASD, and a component of the associated deficit in communication. However,
Hearing loss has a negative effect on the daily life of 10-15% of the worlds population. One of the most common ways to treat a hearing loss is to fit hearing aids which increases audibility by providing amplification. Hearing aids thus improve speech reception in quiet, but listening in noise is nevertheless often difficult and stressful. Individual differences in cognitive capacity have been shown to be linked to differences in speech recognition performance in noise. An individuals cognitive capacity is limited and is gradually consumed by increasing demands when listening in noise. Thus, fewer cognitive resources are left to interpret and process the information conveyed by the speech. Listening effort can therefore be explained by the amount of cognitive resources occupied with speech recognition. A well fitted hearing aid improves speech reception and leads to less listening effort, therefore an objective measure of listening effort would be a useful tool in the hearing aid fitting ...
• Articulation • Phonology • Receptive/Expressive Language • Pragmatics • • Voice/Fluency • Speech therapy is the treatment of speech and communication disorders. The approach used depends on the actual disorder. It may include physical exercises to strengthen the muscles used in speech (oral-motor work), speech drills to improve clarity, or sound production practice to improve…
The functional effects described above, including impairments of temporal analysis, loss in frequency resolution, and loss in sensitivity, occur primarily because of damage to cochlear outer (and, for more severe losses, inner) hair cells. The deficits in speech understanding experienced by many listeners with hearing impairment may be attributed in part to this combination of effects. Consonant sounds tend to be high in frequency and low in amplitude, sometimes rendering those critical elements of speech inaudible to people with high-frequency hearing loss. Wearing a hearing aid may bring some of those sounds back into an audible range, but compression circuitry in the aid should limit the amplification of the more intense vowel sounds of speech. Unfortunately, multichannel compression hearing aids may abnormally flatten speech spectra, reducing the peak-to-valley differences, and resulting in impaired speech identification (Bor et al., 2008). The possible reductions in spectral contrast within ...
The performance of the existing speech recognition systems degrades rapidly in the presence of background noise. A novel representation of the speech signal, which is based on Linear Prediction of the One-Sided Autocorrelation sequence (OSALPC), has shown to be attractive for noisy speech recognition because of both its high recognition performance with respect to the conventional LPC in severe conditions of additive white noise and its computational simplicity. The aim of this work is twofold: (1) to show that OSALPC also achieves a good performance in a case of real noisy speech (in a car environment), and (2) to explore its combination with several robust similarity measuring techniques, showing that its performance improves by using cepstral liftering, dynamic features and multilabeling ...
What exactly constitutes the material when using speech as a source for music? Since speech includes language and language conveys ideas, it could from a conceptual point of view be almost anything in the sphere of human activity - the historical context, the site, the identities, the topic of conversation, the poetic qualities of words, the voice as instrument, or metaphor, and so forth. Speech is of course also experienced physically as sound. Above all, highly structured sound, a feature it shares with music. One of my methods has been to first of all listen to speech as if it already is music - what kinds of qualities are already present and how little would need to be changed in order to make it work as music (and what does it actually mean for something to work as music?). I really wanted to avoid just shoehorning the sounds of speech into my already existing notions and aesthetic preconceptions of what music should be like. So I started by looking into linguistic literature on prosodic ...
The programme is based on the theory that speech is more successfully restored when patients learn entire phrases, rather than breaking down words into individual sounds such as f and m. Their theory is based on neurobiological principles of movement control for speech articulation, which are underpinned by sensory-motor systems, such as hearing.. Based on this research, the department developed Sheffield Word (SWORD), a software application, which is designed to rebuild speech production via computer-based therapy. The therapy programme incorporates listening and speaking components which are reliant on intense sensory-motor stimulation using auditory and visual media, such as sound files, written words, talking head videos and pictures.. A study funded by the BUPA Foundation enabled the team to embark on a clinical trial of 50 participants, which tested the outcomes of SWORD. Patients who used the software showed reduced levels of struggle during speech production tasks and also displayed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Risk factors for speech disorders in children. AU - Fox, Annette V.. AU - Dodd, Barbara. AU - Howard, David. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The study evaluated the relationship between risk factors and speech disorders. The parents of 65 children with functional speech disorders (aged 2;7-7;2) and 48 normally speaking controls (aged 3;4-6;1) completed a questionnaire investigating risk factors associated in the literature with developmental communication disorders. The findings indicated that some risk factors (pre- and perinatal problems, ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems, and sucking habits and positive family history) distinguished speech-disordered from normally speaking control populations. The present study also investigated whether specific risk factors were associated with three subgroups of speech disorders identified according to their surface error patterns as suggested by Dodd (1995). No risk factor apart from pre- and perinatal factors could be found that ...
View Rodina s professional profile on Speech Buddies Connect. Speech Buddies Connect is the largest community of local Speech Therapists, making it easier than ever to locate speech services in Long Beach, CA from professionals like Rodina .
View Chris Byerss professional profile on Speech Buddies Connect. Speech Buddies Connect is the largest community of local Speech Therapists, making it easier than ever to locate speech services in Agoura Hills, CA from professionals like Chris Byers.
Speech/Language Pathologist What is a speech/language pathologist? Speech/language pathologists specialize in assessing, diagnosing, and treating people with communication problems that result from disability, surgery, or developmental disorders. They are also instrumental in preventing disorders related to speech, language, cognitive communication, voice, and fluency. This includes both understanding speech and speaking problems. They also evaluate and treat people with swallowing disorders due to stro...
Apraxia is a motor speech disorder that is a result of left hemisphere damage. As the patient speaks you will notice he or she will struggle to position the tongue and lips correctly. His or her speech attempts may be unintelligible or they may repeat the same word or phrase in attempt to form the correct word. An Apraxic patients speech errors may include: substituting of one sound for another sound, prosody, omitting sounds, difficulty initiating speech, making several attempts to produce sounds or words, (Words longer in length may have more errors), the ability to read better than name, adding sounds to words and articulation errors. The patients resonance, respiration, phonation, pitch and loudness are normal ...
Free Language Stuff - has hundreds of resources across 20 different areas. Click on any of the areas to find doc/ pdf downloads, worksheets, word lists, and images.. Speech and isnt really a collection of speech therapy materials. But there are blog columns by other professionals that may provide interesting reading.. Speech Language Therapy has a wide range of free downloadable materials across a range of areas.. Minnesota State University has a huge resource library. It is categorized so you can access the materials but the info will still take some wading through to find what you might need.. I Communicate Therapy has both children and adult materials across a wide range of specific speech issues.. With the above list of free speech therapy materials, you should have ample choice for finding resources suitable for all your patient needs.. Save. ...
Palmer, H. E. (1927). The Five Speech-learning Habits. Tokyo, Institute for Research in English Teaching. ...
Many parrots can imitate human speech or other sounds. A study by scientist Irene Pepperberg suggested a high learning ability ... Grey parrots are known for their superior ability to imitate sounds and human speech, which has made them popular pets since ...
Speech and debate[edit]. Washington High School has a speech and debate team that is in the Coast Forensics League. ...
After Aquino's speech, Francis made his first public speech and tackled the issue of corruption in the country. He urged ... Vatican spokesman Father Federico Lombardi described the speech as "rather original because there is not always such a speech ... Cardinal Luis Tagle described Aquino's speech as a "commentary of previous administration". He noted that many speeches made by ... The speech by Aquino proved controversial and drew mixed reactions on internet.[25][26][27] ...
"Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) Version 1.0". *^ "Speech Recognition Grammar Specification Version 1.0". w3. ... Speech Synthesis Markup Language (V1.0 Released 7 September 2004[68]) and Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (V1.0 ... Speech recognition devices and software can improve technology access. Communication (including speech) impairments[edit]. A ... "Speech and Communication Disorders". National Institutes of Health.. *^ "Hearing Disorders and Deafness". National Library of ...
Table 4. "Cannibal Speech Vocabulary" Cannibal word. Standard Natchez word. meaning ʔaʃa-hakiʔiš. pakaʃ-hewʔiʃ. "to howl (of a ... Cannibal speech[edit]. Natchez oral literature has been documented by John R. Swanton and Mary Haas, both of whom worked with ... Kimball, Geoffrey (2012). "Natchez Cannibal Speech". International Journal of American Linguistics. 78 (2): 273-280. doi: ... In these stories Natchez storytellers would employ a special speech register when impersonating the cannibal characters. This ...
Relationship with speech disorders[edit]. Speech is the act of articulating sounds, and this can be impaired for all kinds of ... Speech sound disorder (SSD) is any problem with speech production arising from any cause.[26] ... Some are restricted for use by experts in speech-language pathology: speech and language therapists (SaLTs/SLTs) in the UK, ... Klein, Edward S.; Flint, Cari B. (July 2006). "Measurement of Intelligibility in Disordered Speech". Language, Speech, and ...
Freedom of speech[edit]. Others have accused M-103 of going against free speech[14] and leading to "blasphemy laws".[6] This ... ban freedom of speech'."[17] The Canadian Civil Liberties Association also said that M-103 does not restrict free speech in any ...
Free speech[edit]. In June 2021, a new speech policy was implemented to protect and safeguard transgender individuals within ... in his first Budget Speech on 4 November 1852, who set aside a sum of £10,000 for the establishment of a university.[17] The ...
Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech[edit]. The Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech is located in Northampton. ... Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech (formerly the Clarke School for the Deaf) specializes in oral education (speech and lip- ... Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech (formerly the Clarke School for the Deaf) was founded in Northampton in 1867. It was the ... and the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech. ...
Levels of speech[edit]. Inherent in the Maldivian language is a form of elaborate class distinction expressed through three ... The nominal system of Maldivian comprises nouns, pronouns, adjectives and numerals as parts of speech. ...
Speech recognition[edit]. Hidden Markov models are the basis for most modern automatic speech recognition systems. ... speech recognition and bioinformatics (such as in rearrangements detection[77]). ...
Speech recognition[edit]. Speech recognition consists of a transcript of the speech of the audio track of the videos, creating ... Some search engines apart from using speech recognition to search for videos, also use it to find the specific point of a ... blinkx was launched in 2004 and uses speech recognition and visual analysis to process spidered video rather than rely on ... Rather than applying a text search algorithm after speech-to-text processing is completed, some engines use a phonetic search ...
... not free speech. Free speech is on the books; we have the law, and nobody as yet has thought of rewriting it. This changed when ... "Freedom of Speech: Wilders, Orwell, and the "Koran Ban"". Dr. Andrew Bostom. Archived from the original on 12 May 2012.. ... "Free speech, Muhammad, and the holocaust." (2006). *^ Bazyler, Michael J. "Holocaust denial laws and other legislation ... Freedom of speech, political correctness and self-censorship[edit]. One of the principal lines of controversy surrounding the ...
Other parts of speech[edit]. Adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections are generally invariable, one notable ... did not begin to become the common speech of all of France, however, until after the French Revolution. ...
Symbolic approaches: creating or expressing through symbols and speech[edit]. Another theory of magical thinking is the ...
... 's speech[edit]. On 29 March 1917, Zimmerman delivered a speech intended to explain his side of the situation ... However, on 29 March 1917, Zimmermann gave a speech to the Reichstag confirming the text of the telegram and so put an end to ... "Woodrow Wilson: Speech of Acceptance"., 2 September 1916; retrieved 11 September 2010. ...
"Free Speech in Thailand: WACC Scholar Takes on Prime Minister and Media Giant in Freedom of Speech Case"[permanent dead link], ... Individual speech[edit]. See also: Lèse majesté in Thailand. Although freedom of speech was guaranteed by the 1997 constitution ... Freedom of speech was guaranteed in 1997[1] and those guarantees continue in 2007.[2] Mechanisms for censorship have included ... Freedom of speech was guaranteed in the 1997 Constitution of Thailand.[1] Those guarantees continue in the 2007 Constitution, ...
Voice and speech physiology[edit]. A hysteresis effect may be observed in voicing onset versus offset.[32] The threshold value ... In utterances of vowel-voiceless consonant-vowel sequences during speech, the intraoral pressure is lower at the voice onset of ...
Some of the items below include more than one speech.. Judicial speeches. *(81 BC) Pro Quinctio (On behalf of Publius Quinctius ... Several of Cicero's speeches are printed, in English translation, in the Penguin Classics edition Murder Trials. These speeches ... Speeches[edit]. Of his speeches, eighty-eight were recorded, fifty-two of which survive today. ... Political speeches. Early career (before exile). *(66 BC) Pro Lege Manilia or De Imperio Cn. Pompei (in favor of the Lex ...
Jordania, Joseph (2006). Who Asked the First Question? The Origins of Human Choral Singing, Intelligence, Language and Speech. ... Great apes mimicking human speech is rare although some have attempted to do so, and Viki, a chimpanzee, is one of them. During ... Koko learned and was taught to compensate for this by creating cues to emulate sounds replicating speech and through her use of ... Unlike the Gardners she did not limit her English speech around Koko, and as a result Koko was reported to understand ...
... speech may be unusually fast, jerky, or loud. Speech may convey a sense of incoherence; the conversational style often includes ... Speech and language. Although individuals with Asperger syndrome acquire language skills without significant general delay and ... For example, a person with AS may engage in a one-sided, long-winded speech about a favorite topic, while misunderstanding or ... The speaker's conclusion or point may never be made, and attempts by the listener to elaborate on the speech's content or logic ...
Essays and public speeches[edit]. *1959: Die Wahrheit ist dem Menschen zumutbar (poetological speech at a German presentation ...
Speech sounds[edit]. In some languages, the epiglottis is used to produce epiglottal consonant speech sounds, though this sound ...
Speech perception is the process by which spoken languages are heard, interpreted and understood. Research in speech perception ... or semantics may interact with basic speech perception processes to aid in recognition of speech sounds.[citation needed] It ... It is possible other sensory modalities are integrated at this stage as well.[33] This speech information can then be used for ... A picture of a talking person on a television screen, for example, is bound to the sound of speech from speakers to form a ...
Today, the speech and debate team competes in various speech events, Student Congress, Mock Trial, Lincoln-Douglas debate, and ... The speech and debate teams are formally referred to as the Bancroft and Carrollton-Wight Literary Societies. The school's ... Speech and debate/literary and debating societies. Main article: Bancroft Literary Association and Carrollton-Wight Literary ... which endowed the Gilbert Sandler Fund for Speech and Debate in 2008, help provide financial support to the program.[82] ...
"Doom" speech". The Pearcey Report. Retrieved February 26, 2012.. *^ "UT Professor Clearing The Record On Speech". NBC. April 3 ... Texas Academy of Science speech[edit]. Pianka's acceptance speech[12] for the 2006 Distinguished Texas Scientist Award from the ... "Doom" Pianka speaks: transcript from the speech that started it all". The Pearcey Report. Retrieved February 26, 2012.. ... "Professor's population speeches unnerve some". American Statesman. April 5, 2006. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007.. ...
Commencement Speech UCSD, June 14, 1997, [1] (1997), p. 7. *^ Bailey's Elementary:Educational Strategies for Making Diversity ... In the speech, he discussed his own experience growing up in the segregated south and its profound effect on him. He addressed ... Commencement Speech, University of California San Diego[edit]. President Clinton introduced the initiative during his ... commencement speech to the graduating class of the university. ... 1 Commencement Speech, University of California San Diego. *2 ...
Invited Speech Mumbai, India.. *Saville, P., Small, C. (June 2012). Psychometrics beyond the HR Department. Invited Speech ... Invited Speech Insper Institute, Brazil.. *Saville, P., Small, C. (Nov 2013). Lessons in Leadership. Invited Speech, Bl ... Selected works and speeches[edit]. *Saville, P. (1971). British Supplement to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The ... Invited Speech Delhi, India.. *Saville, P., Small, C. (June 2013). It's All in your Head. Invited address at the EGADE Business ...
Structure of speeches[edit]. The organizers of the event took steps to lift the march from a purely political level to a ... Million Man March / Day of Absence; A Commemorative Anthology; Speeches, Commentary, Photography, Poetry, Illustrations, ... Million Man March / Day of Absence; A Commemorative Anthology; Speeches, Commentary, Photography, Poetry, Illustrations, ... Million Man March / Day of Absence; A Commemorative Anthology; Speeches, Commentary, Photography, Poetry, Illustrations, ...
Working with a certified speech-language pathologist can help a child with speech or language difficulties. ... What Are Speech Disorders?. A speech disorder refers to a problem with making sounds. Speech disorders include:. *Articulation ... What Is Speech-Language Therapy?. Speech-language therapy is the treatment for most kids with speech and/or language disorders. ... Who Gives Speech-Language Therapy?. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often called speech therapists, are educated in the ...
... Versus Developmental Apraxia of Speech. The Committee recommends childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) ... A well-trained speech-language pathologist with specific experience in pediatric speech sound disorders, including motor speech ... In a study of 47 children with speech deficits only (reportedly including CAS), speech and language deficits, or no speech or ... and less accurate than adult speech. Variability is especially noted during the initial portion of speech or speech-like ...
Speech, language, and swallowing disorders result from a variety of causes, such as a stroke, brain injury, hearing loss, ... sometimes called speech therapists) assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent communication and swallowing disorders in ... What Speech-Language Pathologists Do Speech-language pathologists (sometimes called speech therapists) assess, diagnose, treat ... What Speech-Language Pathologists Do About this section. Speech-language pathologists must be able to listen to and communicate ...
... speech production and speech perception of the sounds used in a language, speech repetition, speech errors, the ability to map ... Speech errors[edit]. Main article: Speech error. Speech production is a complex activity, and as a consequence errors are ... Main article: Speech repetition. In speech repetition, speech being heard is quickly turned from sensory input into motor ... esophageal speech, pharyngeal speech and buccal speech (better known as Donald Duck talk). ...
Contact me: Lowndes Middle School Phone (229) 245-2280 or Pine Grove Middle School Phone: (229) 219-3234. Email :[email protected] ...
a b Leybaert, J., & Alegría, J. (1990). Cued Speech and the acquisition of reading by deaf children. Cued speech Journal, 4, 25 ... The National Cued Speech Association defines cued speech as "a visual mode of communication that uses hand shapes and ... Cued speech is considered a communication modality but can be used as a strategy to support auditory rehabilitation, speech ... Cued Speech may also help people hearing incomplete or distorted sound-according to the National Cued Speech Association at ...
Example 3: Speech style variations in Japanese. A certain character sequence can have even opposite meanings with different ... Speech Experts from Asian and Western countries participated. *Extensions and additions to SSML are identified and prioritized ... DFP: New Speech Interface Framework Modular approach faciliates application development, maintainance, debugging and reuse. ... Participants are speech experts on various languages such as Indian, Syrian, Arabic, Hungarian, Polish, Finish, Slovenian, etc ...
Speech Recognition/Synthesis and Natural Language Processing). (2) Multimedia Signal Processing (ex. Speech, Audio, Text, Image ... Speech enhancement/echo cancellation are important for good mobile communication. Especially, it should not distort speech or ... This corpus provides a rich resource for research in speech and automatic speech recognition (ASR). It will be publicly ... We therefore need a efficient way to browse, use and archive those speech data through speech/speaker recognition, story ...
Industry profile for Speech-Language Pathologists: Top. Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Speech- ... Geographic profile for Speech-Language Pathologists. National estimates for Speech-Language Pathologists: Top. Employment ... 29-1127 Speech-Language Pathologists. Assess and treat persons with speech, language, voice, and fluency disorders. May select ... May perform research related to speech and language problems.. National estimates for Speech-Language Pathologists. Industry ...
Find out how speech disorders are treated, how you can help a friend or classmate cope, and lots more. ... Do you know someone who stutters or has another speech disorder? ... What Causes Speech Problems?. *How Are Speech Problems Treated? ... A speech-language pathologist is trained to observe people as they speak and to identify their speech problems. Speech-language ... If you have a speech problem, achieving and keeping control of your speech might be a lifelong process. Although speech therapy ...
Spontaneous Speech:. Systems that are deployed for real use must deal with a variety of spontaneous speech phenomena, such as ... An isolated-word speech recognition system requires that the speaker pause briefly between words, whereas a continuous speech ... Figure: Components of a typical speech recognition system.. Speech recognition systems attempt to model the sources of ... Table: Typical parameters used to characterize the capability of speech recognition systems. Speech recognition is a difficult ...
Maui Speech Instructor - Ron St. John. The Public Speakers Page Includes information and Speaking Tips For Public Speakers in ... Speech 251 , Public Speaking Resources,. ,Supporting Your Speech , Sample Speeches , Speech Practice , Speaking Tips,. ,Speech ... speech preparation, and speech delivery. Through preparation, practice, self-evaluation, and continuous improvement this class ... HEADER OF PAGE Here===================> Personal & Public Speech 151 ...
Hate Speech 828 22 March 2013 Council of Europe Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Send by email Share... ... Hate Speech. 828 22 March 2013 Council of Europe Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Send by email Share on LinkedIn Share on ... Hate speech online is an increasing problem. The Council of Europe has launched a campaign aimed at young people which aims to ... It is against hate speech online in all its forms, including those that most affect young people, such as cyber-bullying and ...
The text of a speech by Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke on Reducing Preventable Mortgage Foreclosures given on March 4, ... The following is the text of a speech by Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke on Reducing Preventable Mortgage Foreclosures ...
Testing for Speech Sound Disorders. A speech-language pathologist, or SLP, can test your childs speech. The SLP will listen to ... speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech-language pathology support ... Others may develop speech problems after a stroke or brain injury. To learn more about adult speech disorders, see apraxia of ... Causes of Speech Sound Disorders. You may not know why your child has problems speaking. Many children learn to say speech ...
Cocos Dartmouth Speech. Conan OBrien told Dartmouth Colleges Class of 2011 that they should be proud. By graduating, they ...
... * 1. ""Given a choice, at a funeralGiven a choice, at a funeral most of us would rather be themost of ...
"Hey dude, lets go hear a guy give a speech."). Possibly we no longer even have the subject matter for a good speech. Speech- ... The speech, or the speech, is a fantasy. Its a desire, certainly on the part of media types, but perhaps on the part of people ... What kind of speech would Gore deliver - as though there were another kind of speech than the cobbled-together (the political ... The best speech at the Democratic convention was Jesse Jacksons (and, really, hes been phoning in his speeches for years). He ...
IBM Watson Speech to Text (STT) is a service on the IBM Cloud that enables you to easily convert audio and voice into written ... What is Watson Speech to Text? IBM Watson Speech to Text technology enables fast and accurate speech transcription in multiple ... Automatic speech recognition Enable your voice applications using neural technologies for speech recognition powered by IBM ... Need a virtual assistant for voice and speech channels? See how AI solves customer issues the first time, across any channel. ...
IBM Watson Text to Speech (TTS) is a cloud service that enables you to convert written text into natural-sounding audio in a ... Powerful real-time speech synthesis Convert written text to natural-sounding speech using our latest neural speech synthesizing ... Watson Text to Speech supports voices in a variety of languages and offers multiple voices, including both male and female ... When a user is connected to the talkbot, the talkbot can reply to the user in natural language using Watson Text to Speech. ...
Green is not only compatible with growth; green is a source of growth. Sweden was one of the first countries to understand this and showed tremendous leadership when it introduced the worlds first carbon tax in 1991, amidst the economic crisis. Yet there is so much more that can be done to foster a fast transition to a low-carbon world whilst creating the competitive economies of the future. ...
The Asia-Pacific region is and will remain the engine of the world economy going forward - it accounts for 57% of global GDP, 46% of world trade and more than a third of the global population - and there is much to celebrate about APECs achievements in recent years. However, APEC economies are not immune from risk. ...
Tony Abbott gives his victory speech at the Four Seasons Hotel, Sydney. ...
Recent speeches by the SEC Chairman, the Commissioners of the SEC, and SEC staff, which generally cover a wide range of topics ... Commission Speeches and Public Statements Archive: 1985. This index lists speeches and other public statements by the Chairman ... Speeches and Statements by:. *Chairman and Commissioners Fourth Quarter , Third Quarter , Second Quarter , First Quarter * ... Contact , Employment , Links , FOIA , Forms , Privacy Policy. ...
... free speech zones at the Democratic National Convention, we ought to resign from the human race. Thats a little strong, Id ... If the free speech zones were taken down, there would have been only two or three days to make and implement a backup plan. ... Such "free speech zones" (Mr. Orwell, call your office) are the norm at all events at which President Bush appears, and much ... I could be wrong on this, but my understanding is that most of the absurdly named "free speech zones" that have been set up at ...
Hillary Clinton was supposed to give her official concession speech at 9:30 a.m. on Wednesday. Two hours later, those of us ... Hillary Clintons Concession Speech Was a Model of Grace Under Unimaginable Circumstances. By Christina Cauterucci ... But Clintons speech was gracious, composed, even optimistic. "Im hoping [Donald Trump] will be a successful president for all ... Hillary Clinton was supposed to give her official concession speech at 9:30 a.m. on Wednesday. Two hours later, those of us ...
... the company is also trying to intimidate critics like Greenpeace with lawsuits that threaten free speech. ... "free speech is not a crime." [18] Greenpeace, and other advocacy groups not only have the right to free speech, ... Free Speech:. How Resolute Forest Products is going to extremes to silence critics of its controversial logging practices. ... Free speech is not just foundational for environmental advocates, it is also vital for some of Resolutes current customers. A ...
Reddit bans pro-Trump forum in hate speech crackdown An online comment forum that is one of the internets most popular ... Amazon asks regulators to block shareholder proposal to address hate speech, Inc. has asked federal regulators to ... Jewish leaders seek better policing of online hate speech By David Rising, Associated Press ... Facebook bans Alex Jones, Louis Farrakhan for hate speech By Barbara Ortutay, Associated Press ...
Freedom of speech-the right to express opinions without government restraint-is a democratic ideal that dates back to ancient ... Symbolic speech is an action that expresses an idea.. Flag burning is an example of symbolic speech that is protected under the ... While freedom of speech pertains mostly to the spoken or written word, it also protects some forms of symbolic speech. ... The First Amendment doesnt specify what exactly is meant by freedom of speech. Defining what types of speech should and ...
Speech given in the House of Representatives. Mr. Speaker, the United States Congress is a 19th century body in a 20th century ...
  • I didn't hear Obama's Afghanistan speech in real time, but I did read the transcript and then catch a replay on CSPAN. (
  • But the most problematic element of Mr. Obama's speech was, fourth, his statement that "American forces will not have a combat mission - we will not get dragged into another ground war in Iraq. (
  • Audio of the speech reviewed by The Post reveals that Trump at times went even further in going after his foes and revising electoral history, even lodging a suggestive attack involving former first lady Michelle Obama's appearance. (
  • The passage he wants to include from President Obama's presidency comes from his inaugural speech, when President Obama called the United States "a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and Hindus, and nonbelievers. (
  • He could not immediately cite any other lines from President Obama's presidential speeches. (
  • Look below for live coverage of Obama's speech from The Times' politics team. (
  • Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often called speech therapists, are educated in the study of human communication, its development, and its disorders. (
  • The goal of this technical report on childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) was to assemble information about this challenging disorder that would be useful for caregivers, speech-language pathologists, and a variety of other health care professionals. (
  • Speech-language pathologists working in schools may meet regularly with individual students or groups of students. (
  • Speech-language pathologists (sometimes called speech therapists ) assess, diagnose, treat, and help to prevent communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. (
  • About 2 out of 5 speech-language pathologists worked in schools in 2016. (
  • Speech-language pathologists typically need at least a master's degree. (
  • Most states require that speech-language pathologists be licensed. (
  • The median annual wage for speech-language pathologists was $74,680 in May 2016. (
  • Employment of speech-language pathologists is projected to grow 18 percent from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the average for all occupations. (
  • Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for speech-language pathologists. (
  • Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of speech-language pathologists with similar occupations. (
  • Learn more about speech-language pathologists by visiting additional resources, including O*NET, a source on key characteristics of workers and occupations. (
  • Speech-language pathologists must be able to listen to and communicate with their patient in order to determine the right course of treatment. (
  • Speech-language pathologists work with children and adults who have problems with speech and language, including related cognitive or social communication problems. (
  • Speech-language pathologists may work with people who are unable to understand language or with those who have voice disorders, such as inappropriate pitch or a harsh voice. (
  • Speech-language pathologists also must complete administrative tasks, including keeping accurate records and documenting billing information. (
  • Some speech-language pathologists specialize in working with specific age groups, such as children or the elderly. (
  • In medical facilities, speech-language pathologists work with physicians and surgeons , social workers , psychologists , occupational therapists , physical therapists , and other healthcare workers. (
  • Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Speech-Language Pathologists are provided. (
  • For a list of all industries with employment in Speech-Language Pathologists, see the Create Customized Tables function. (
  • Speech-language pathologists look for the type of problem (such as a lack of fluency, articulation, or motor skills) someone has. (
  • Speech-language pathologists may evaluate their clients' speech either by recording them on audio or videotape or by listening during conversation. (
  • Speech-language pathologists, or SLPs, can help. (
  • Speech-Language Pathologists evaluate adults who are experiencing difficulties with communication. (
  • If hearing tests and physical exams don't reveal any problems, some doctors arrange a consultation with a speech-language pathologist (pronounced: puh-THOL-uh-jist). (
  • A speech-language pathologist is trained to observe people as they speak and to identify their speech problems. (
  • A speech-language pathologist, or SLP, can test your child's speech. (
  • To find a speech-language pathologist near you, visit ProFind . (
  • Prior to scheduling an augmentative/alternative communication assessment, please provide the AAC Speech-Language Pathologist with records of past device use and school program information, which are important for ensuring that the assessment is both efficient and effective. (
  • The Speech-Language Pathologist will then identify problems in the swallowing process and make appropriate diet, swallowing strategies or referral recommendations to your physician. (
  • Often a speech-language pathologist must work with the baby and family. (
  • A language development specialist like a speech-language pathologist external icon will conduct a careful assessment to determine what type of problem with language or speech the child may have. (
  • P resident Trump's fitness for office is once again being questioned after his speech at a campaign rally in Phoenix, Arizona, in which he repeatedly lashed out at his various critics in front of an adoring crowd of supporters. (
  • As The Washington Post's Josh Dawsey reported Sunday , Trump's speech reserved the heaviest and newest criticisms for the man who is currently the most powerful Republican in Washington, Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell (Ky. (
  • MSNBC spent the minutes after the speech talking about the balloons and Donald Trump's age. (
  • Vox conducted a more thorough account of the biggest lies in Trump's speech. (
  • In his speech Tuesday, President Obama said America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace. (
  • Ted Widmer, who edited an anthology of political speeches for the Library of America, praised President Obama for his "masterful" style, but could not cite a specific line the president said. (
  • I think there are memorable lines in certain speeches (by President Obama)," says presidential speechwriter Adam Frankel, who started writing for President Obama when he was a candidate. (
  • WASHINGTON -- President Obama is set to announce a series of changes to the nation's surveillance programs in a speech at 8 a.m. (
  • Neily said in May that Speech First had around 1,000 members. (
  • Our focus is to develop all necessary modules for Spoken Dialog System including robust speech, speaker and language recognition and natural speech synthesis. (
  • This corpus provides a rich resource for research in speech and automatic speech recognition (ASR). (
  • Our focus is to build a spoken dialog-based Smart Housekeeper and make speech, speaker and language recognition more robust and useful for our daily life. (
  • We therefore need a efficient way to browse, use and archive those speech data through speech/speaker recognition, story summarization and organization. (
  • The performance of conventional Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems degrades dramatically if the microphone is far away from the speakers. (
  • Speech recognition is the process of converting an acoustic signal, captured by a microphone or a telephone, to a set of words. (
  • An isolated-word speech recognition system requires that the speaker pause briefly between words, whereas a continuous speech recognition system does not. (
  • Finally, there are some external parameters that can affect speech recognition system performance, including the characteristics of the environmental noise and the type and the placement of the microphone. (
  • Speech recognition is a difficult problem, largely because of the many sources of variability associated with the signal. (
  • shows the major components of a typical speech recognition system. (
  • Speech recognition systems attempt to model the sources of variability described above in several ways. (
  • Improve speech recognition accuracy for your use case with language and acoustic training options. (
  • Nuance Communications Inc. on Tuesday rolled out updated versions of its speech recognition engine and voice authentication software with a focus on improved accuracy and performance. (
  • With Nuance 8.5, the speech vendors latest version of its namesake speech recognition engine, Nuance is promising a 50 percent reduction in errors in recognizing spoken commands and phrases. (
  • The latest speech recognition engine release also includes a new set of tools for analyzing calls and tuning the engine to better recognize and route calls based on spoken commands. (
  • Taking advantage of the core speech recognition engines accuracy gains, the new release of Nuances speech authentication software, Nuance Verifier 3.5, also is boasting a 15 percent accuracy improvement. (
  • Reaching over the gap: A review of efforts to link human and automatic speech recognition research. (
  • Study of the performance of automatic speech recognition systems in speakers with Parkinson's Disease. (
  • Then, the main tasks of SP are overviewed, especially speaker identification and speech recognition and understanding. (
  • A task object that you use to monitor the speech recognition progress. (
  • object to determine the state of a speech recognition task, to cancel an ongoing task, or to signal the end of the task. (
  • You do not create speech recognition task objects directly. (
  • Cancels the current speech recognition task. (
  • A Boolean value that indicates whether the speech recognition task was canceled. (
  • The current state of the speech recognition task. (
  • An error object that specifies the error that occurred during a speech recognition task. (
  • Use the properties of this class to configure various aspects of your request object before you start the speech recognition process. (
  • property to specify whether you want partial results or only the final result of speech recognition. (
  • A value that indicates the type of speech recognition being performed. (
  • The type of task for which you are using speech recognition. (
  • An identifier string that you use to describe the type of interaction associated with the speech recognition request. (
  • Perform speech recognition on audio coming from the microphone of an iOS device. (
  • Research in speech recognition, language modeling, language understanding, spoken language systems and dialog systems. (
  • CRIS (Custom Recognition Intelligent Service) provides companies with the ability to deploy customized speech recognition. (
  • Our previous dictation-oriented speech recognition project is a state-of-the-art general-purpose speech recognizer. (
  • Along with Web conferencing, he follows search engines, Web browsers, speech technology and the Internet domain-naming system. (
  • A request to recognize speech from captured audio content, such as audio from the device's microphone. (
  • Anne replied in detail to a government request for feedback on the content of the Mandatory Qualifications for Teachers of the Deaf because she feels strongly that the current qualification guidelines reinforce the expectation of failure and do not take into account the needs and outcomes of children with whom Cued Speech is used. (
  • The essential role of the markup language is to provide authors of synthesizable content a standard way to control aspects of speech such as pronunciation, volume, pitch, rate, etc. across different synthesis-capable platforms. (
  • This technical report was developed by the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Ad Hoc Committee on Apraxia of Speech in Children. (
  • The report reviews the research background that supports the ASHA position statement on Childhood Apraxia of Speech (2007). (
  • The Committee recommends childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) as the classification term for this distinct type of childhood (pediatric) speech sound disorder. (
  • A second rationale for the use of CAS as a cover term for this disorder, rather than alternative terms such as developmental apraxia of speech (DAS) or developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD) , is that our literature review indicated that apraxia of speech occurs in children in three clinical contexts. (
  • First, apraxia of speech has been associated causally with known neurological etiologies (e.g., intrauterine stroke, infections, trauma). (
  • Second, apraxia of speech occurs as a primary or secondary sign in children with complex neurobehavioral disorders (e.g., genetic, metabolic). (
  • Third, apraxia of speech not associated with any known neurological or complex neurobehavioral disorder occurs as an idiopathic neurogenic speech sound disorder . (
  • Use of the term apraxia of speech implies a shared core of speech and prosody features, regardless of time of onset, whether congenital or acquired, or specific etiology. (
  • Apraxia (also known as verbal apraxia or dyspraxia) is an oral-motor speech disorder. (
  • Childhood apraxia of speech is not common but will cause speech problems. (
  • To learn more about adult speech disorders, see apraxia of speech and dysarthria . (
  • Speech by Michael Meister (MdB), Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research, on the occasion of the conference Strategies Beyond Borders - Transforming Higher Education in a Digital Age in Berlin, 9 December 2019. (
  • Speech by the Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research, Michael Meister (MdB), at the dinner on the occasion of the ESO Committee of Council Meeting on 8 October 2019 at Schloss Ringberg, Tegernsee. (
  • Speech by the Parliamentary State Secretary to the Federal Minister of Education and Research Michael Meister (MdB) at the International ATLAS Collaboration Meeting on 7 October 2019 in Berlin. (
  • In linguistics ( articulatory phonetics ), articulation refers to how the tongue, lips, jaw, vocal cords, and other speech organs used to produce sounds are used to make sounds. (
  • Speech sounds are categorized by manner of articulation and place of articulation . (
  • Manner of articulation refers to the manner in which the speech organs interact, such as how closely the air is restricted, what form of airstream is used (e.g. pulmonic , implosive, ejectives, and clicks), whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating, and whether the nasal cavity is opened to the airstream. (
  • Cued speech is considered a communication modality but can be used as a strategy to support auditory rehabilitation, speech articulation, and literacy development. (
  • Some people with speech problems, particularly articulation disorders, may also have hearing problems. (
  • Second, the president's speech provides further evidence of his administration's confusion over the connected power and potential of U.S. leadership. (
  • Indiana Gov. Mitch Daniels is giving the Republican response to the president's speech. (
  • Celia Hooper, ASHA vice president for professional practices in speech-language pathology (2003-2005), and Brian Shulman, ASHA vice president for professional practices in speech-language pathology (2006-2008), served as the monitoring officers. (
  • If your physician has referred you to Speech-Language Pathology for a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) we will complete this study in the GI Radiology Department. (
  • Speech compares with written language , [1] which may differ in its vocabulary, syntax, and phonetics from the spoken language, a situation called diglossia . (
  • Speech production is a multi-step process by which thoughts are generated into spoken utterances. (
  • The National Cued Speech Association defines cued speech as "a visual mode of communication that uses hand shapes and placements in combination with the mouth movements and speech to make the phonemes of spoken language look different from each other. (
  • While freedom of speech pertains mostly to the spoken or written word, it also protects some forms of symbolic speech. (
  • The lecture presents various aspects of automatic speech processing (SP), from spoken contents extraction to high level categorization of speech signals. (
  • The Bill of Rights provides constitutional protection for certain individual liberties, including freedoms of speech, assembly and worship. (
  • Jaffer is also the Executive Director of the Knight First Amendment Institute at Columbia University, which was recently promised a $3.25 million dollar commitment from the Charles Koch Foundation to "investigate and address the most pressing challenges to the freedoms of speech and the press. (
  • She didn't break that highest, hardest ceiling she's invoked in both of her presidential concession speeches. (
  • W hen it comes to foreign policy, a presidential speech is measured by two things: strategic tone and strategic substance. (
  • You can end up with a situation like the presidential primaries where you've got eight people in an Iowa cornfield, all trying to have a striking single sentence in the middle of a speech. (
  • As the large baby-boom population grows older, there will be more instances of health conditions that can cause speech or language impairments, such as strokes or dementia. (
  • On May 08, 2018, Speech First filed a lawsuit, Speech First v. Schlissel et. (
  • Therefore, we would like to build a computer-assisted language learning system that could simultaneously detect pronunciation errors, speech prosody deviations and dialogue act mistakes. (
  • Sometimes, speech problems can be due to complications of a stroke or other neurological impairment, while in children, they may occur as a developmental delay or condition. (
  • Developmental stuttering occurs in young children and typically manifests when a child is first learning to speak but lacks the speech and language skills necessary to express himself or herself through speech. (
  • A new study brings neural-level evidence that the continuous variation in natural speech makes the discrimination of phonemes challenging for adults suffering from developmental reading-deficit dyslexia. (
  • Children with developmental disabilities including autism spectrum disorder may also have difficulties with speech and language. (
  • Cued speech was invented in 1966 by R. Orin Cornett at Gallaudet College , Washington, D.C. [1] After discovering that children with prelingual and profound hearing impairments typically have poor reading comprehension , he developed the system with the aim of improving the reading abilities of such children through better comprehension of the phonemes of English. (
  • COLUMBUS, Ohio (AP) - A tax levied by the city of Cincinnati on billboard companies in an effort to close a budget shortfall is an unconstitutional of First Amendment rights to free speech, the Ohio Supreme Court ruled Thursday. (
  • Less than 10 years after the first amendment was passed guaranteeing freedom of speech and freedom of the press, under the leadership of many of the very men who wrote those words, Congress passed and John Adams signed, the Sedition Act. (
  • In the United States, the First Amendment guarantees free speech, though the United States, like all modern democracies, places limits on this freedom. (
  • In the United States, the First Amendment protects freedom of speech. (
  • The First Amendment doesn't specify what exactly is meant by freedom of speech. (
  • Flag burning is an example of symbolic speech that is protected under the First Amendment. (
  • Not all speech is protected under the First Amendment. (
  • Speech inciting illegal actions or soliciting others to commit crimes aren't protected under the First Amendment, either. (
  • Speech is protected by the First Amendment even when it discourages vaccination. (
  • However, the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan has struck down a speech code at the University of Michigan, indicating that broad speech codes seeking to prohibit hate speech probably violate the First Amendment (Doe v. University of Michigan, 1989). (
  • Brian Leiter says that if us libertarian-minded bloggers aren't blogging about the ridiculous "free speech zones" at the Democratic National Convention, we ought to resign from the human race. (
  • Such "free speech zones" (Mr. Orwell, call your office) are the norm at all events at which President Bush appears, and much the same will occur at the Republican National Convention in New York. (
  • But this campaign has now become a battleground over free speech and advocacy itself. (
  • By delegitimizing essential advocacy work for forest protection, which provides important oversight on corporations like Resolute, and by imposing harsh financial penalties on protected free speech, this lawsuit could have a chilling effect on freedom of speech in general. (
  • Ultimately Resolute's meritless lawsuits against Greenpeace could impact individuals and groups across civil society that seek to make positive changes by making it too expensive and risky to engage in free speech, advocacy, informed expert opinions, and even research. (
  • Free speech is not just foundational for environmental advocates, it is also vital for some of Resolute's current customers. (
  • A new Greenpeace investigation reveals that many companies that rely on free speech and transparency as a core part of their business, who should be natural allies of advocacy and expression, are among Resolute's customers. (
  • The campaign to conserve Canada's Great Northern Forest is now a battleground for free speech, and the way that this story plays out could have far reaching ramifications. (
  • Not only can publishers stand up for free speech and forest solutions, but Resolute too can embrace a path toward truly sustainable management of forests for future generations. (
  • The ancient Greeks pioneered free speech as a democratic principle. (
  • The ancient Greek word "parrhesia" means "free speech," or "to speak candidly. (
  • The Supreme Court decided a series of cases in 1919 that helped to define the limitations of free speech. (
  • The Supreme Court upheld his conviction by creating the "clear and present danger" standard, explaining when the government is allowed to limit free speech. (
  • Debs argued that he was exercising his right to free speech and that the Espionage Act of 1917 was unconstitutional. (
  • The Supreme Court has interpreted artistic freedom broadly as a form of free speech. (
  • The Supreme Court didn't bite-they ruled in favor of the students' right to wear the armbands as a form of free speech in Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District . (
  • From the other side of the world, the regime plots ways to chill free speech. (
  • Not only is Jennifer Holm a three-time Newbery Honor winner and the author of the perfectly fabulous Babymouse books, she's also a serious geekmom-and a champion of free speech. (
  • The right to free speech was not an "absolute" right, said the prosecution. (
  • From working with allies to fight for better policies or against bad laws to advocating for people who build tools that protect speech, EFF's activism makes sure technology is made and used in the service of free speech. (
  • As technology grows and changes, it's important that it not reinforce obstacles to free speech, but allows everyone to share ideas and experiences safely. (
  • Does free speech have limits? (
  • What is the state of free speech within the United States? (
  • One reason is to oppose a particular injustice, but Wisconsin is also on the front lines of the latest national offensive to regulate free political speech and assembly. (
  • From our earliest days, when we were called The Fund for Free Expression, we have fought all forms of repression of speech, in all media, around the globe. (
  • Speech First purports to be "a nonprofit membership association working to combat restrictions on free speech and other civil rights at colleges and universities across the United States. (
  • The University of Michigan says the lawsuit is "a false caricature" of the university's free speech policies and practices. (
  • Mr. Skene, 40, a free-lance record producer in Los Angeles, has long collected recordings of speeches. (
  • As has been pointed out in these pages, so-called "political correctness" is essentially an attempt to muzzle free speech and introduce thought control (see " Cultural Marxism and the Birth of Modern Thought Crime " by Claudio Grass for an in-depth discussion of the topic). (
  • And non-English speech synthesis tecnology includes lots of useful hints. (
  • To take the first step, we are now working hard to implement a character-level sequence to sequence-based Chinese text to Taiwanese language interpreter for Taiwanese Speech Synthesis. (
  • To approach the goal of establishing an End-to-End speech synthesis system, we propose to use character-level recurrent neural networks (RNNs) to directly convert input character sequences into latent linguistic feature vectors. (
  • We have developed a speech synthesis-enabled DAISY player. (
  • UK Tel: +44(0)21-414-3736 Keywords: Authors!Iles, Authors!Ing-Simmons, C!Code, Formant Synthesis, GNU GPL, Klatt, Speech Synthesis References: Dennis H. Klatt, "Software for a cascade/parallel formant synthesizer", Journal of the Acoustic Society of America 67(3):971-995, March 1980. (
  • The Speech Synthesis Markup Language Specification is one of these standards and is designed to provide a rich, XML-based markup language for assisting the generation of synthetic speech in Web and other applications. (
  • This document is based upon the Speech Synthesis Markup Language Version 1.0 Candidate Recommendation of 18 December 2003 and feedback received during the review period (see the Disposition of Comments document). (
  • Today, most talk of speech codes is within institutional contexts and refer to colleges and refers to official lists and rules established by authorities, where speech codes are occasionally used by colleges and universities to suppress speech that others find offensive. (
  • Our blog features moms (and dads, too), speech therapists, pediatricians, child development advocates, non-profits, toy-makers - anyone who wants to help create a great collection of speech & language resources. (
  • In speech-language therapy, an SLP works with a child one-on-one, in a small group, or in a classroom to overcome problems. (
  • The good news is that treatments like speech therapy can help people of any age overcome some speech problems. (
  • The evolutionary origins of speech are unknown and subject to much debate and speculation . (
  • 15.25 The Commons debate on the contents of the Queen's speech has finally got started, with Harriet Harman leading the charge. (
  • Dear Alumni of UW-Madison, Forensics, Speech, or Debate, Current Badger speakers and debaters would like to know you. (
  • Has speech and debate helped in any way? (
  • How might you contribute to Wisconsin Speech and Debate? (
  • Speech & Debate' is an eccentric, talky three-hander about three teens who have something strange in common: they've each had a run-in with an unseen pervy teacher at their Oregon high school. (
  • and uptight, determined Solomon (Tony Revolori), a school reporter, in a high-minded extra-curricular society dedicated to speech and debate. (
  • Speech & Debate' feels raw, even unfinished, but it builds to something unexpectedly endearing: a brief burst of solidarity before these three re-enter their own orbits. (
  • Certain birth defects, such as a cleft palate , can interfere with someone's ability to produce speech. (
  • People with a cleft palate have a hole in the roof of the mouth (which affects the movement of air through the oral and nasal passages), and also might have problems with other structures needed for speech, including the lips, teeth, and jaw. (
  • IBM Watson Speech to Text technology enables fast and accurate speech transcription in multiple languages for a variety of use cases, including but not limited to customer self-service, agent assistance and speech analytics. (
  • Our best-in-class AI, embedded within Watson Speech to Text, truly understands your customers. (
  • Train Watson Speech to Text on your unique domain language and specific audio characteristics. (
  • Use Watson Speech to Text with confidence under the world-class data governance practices of IBM. (
  • Lingmo International used Watson Speech services to boost translation accuracy by 90-to-95% to deliver a natural-sounding voice response through an app or earpiece to businesses and consumers. (
  • Speech is often used in combination with hearing aids , cochlear implants , and other assistive devices . (
  • The main focus of the speech processing research at MMC is building speech technology applications that are available for everyone irrespective of the language or type of (disordered) speech of that person, with a strong focus on building speech technology for under-resourced languages and types of speech (e.g., oral cancer speech and dysarthric speech) and languages without a common writing system. (
  • We show how machine learning provides solutions to the main issues that the speech processing systems have to deal with. (
  • Speech is one of the main way that humans communicate together. (
  • Speech interface technology, which allows a user to communicate with computers via voice instead of a keyboard or a mouse, is quickly becoming a main feature in new software. (
  • In the United States, the Supreme Court has not issued a direct ruling on whether speech codes at public universities are unconstitutional. (
  • Freedom of speech-the right to express opinions without government restraint-is a democratic ideal that dates back to ancient Greece. (
  • freedom of speech is about restrictions on speech more broadly. (
  • The constitution allows for freedom of speech provided it does not threaten national security or public order. (
  • The subject of freedom of speech came up in a church discussion group recently. (
  • My view is that freedom of speech is under a great deal more pressure in the US than is believed by at least some of the other people in my group. (
  • Freedom of speech is a bellwether: how any society tolerates those with minority, disfavored, or even obnoxious views will often speak to its performance on human rights more generally. (
  • A speech code is any rule or regulation that limits, restricts, or bans speech beyond the strict legal limitations upon freedom of speech or press found in the legal definitions of harassment, slander, libel, and fighting words. (
  • For all the uselessly vague discoveries that schools should be good and farms should provide the most benefit to farmers when they're profitable, a very real shamelessness emerged elsewhere in Clinton's bloated speech. (
  • Hillary Clinton's concession speech. (
  • But Clinton's speech was gracious, composed, even optimistic. (
  • Just one segment of Clinton's speech threatened to disrupt her poise: her statement to women, and young women in particular, who supported her candidacy. (
  • It is not easy - and even harder without PowerPoint - to make a compelling speech out of the administrative themes of the age: health care, education, campaign-finance reform. (
  • 15.51 Cameron has said his piece, and the Commons begins to empty as backbenchers are selected to make their first speeches of the new parliament. (
  • But the speech was an act of diplomacy and as such, it inevitably was going to skate over some inconvenient truths and tilt its presentation in a way to try to make it more persuasive to its target audience. (
  • seeks to encourage social media companies to operate with greater transparency and accountability toward their users as they make decisions that regulate speech. (
  • An emcee giving a graduation speech should include a warm welcome to everyone including students parents, family, and friends and make them feel welcome. (
  • When you are thinking of a speech for your graduation, you can make it happy or emotional. (
  • An Augmentative/Alternative Communication evaluation assesses children or adults who cannot make their needs understood through speech. (
  • Convert written text to natural-sounding speech using our latest neural speech synthesizing techniques. (
  • Adults can also have speech sound disorders. (
  • Adults may have speech problems that started when they were children. (
  • Speech and language problems in both adults and children can be temporary or permanent and can arise as a result of both physical and emotional problems. (
  • Hate speech online is an increasing problem. (
  • It is against hate speech online in all its forms, including those that most affect young people, such as cyber-bullying and cyber-hate. (
  • The campaign focuses on human rights education, youth participation and media literacy, and seeks to reduce the levels of acceptance of online hate speech. (
  • In its initial batch of rulings, the board ordered Facebook to restore posts by users that the company said broke standards on adult nudity, hate speech, dangerous individuals and misinformation. (
  •, Inc. has asked federal regulators to block multiple shareholder proposals addressing criticism of the company's stances on curbing hate speech, diversity in hiring, workplace conditions and surveillance technologies. (
  • An online comment forum that is one of the internet's most popular websites has banned a pro-Donald Trump forum as part of a crackdown on hate speech. (
  • Is a Confederate flag hate speech? (
  • While recognizing that speech that offends authorities is often mischaracterized as extremist or hate speech, the Representative fights deliberate and violent hate speech in the media through awareness-raising projects, education and regular meetings with media outlets, editors and journalists. (
  • The Dawn newspaper quoted an unidentified official as saying that 21 people had been sentenced this year to up to eight years in prison for delivering hate speeches. (
  • The world's densest concentration of powerful and unaccountable statist control freaks in Brussels has just decided that "hate speech" is in need of more policing. (
  • The official goal of these restrictions on "hate speech" is to remove messages and postings by jihadists supporting ISIS. (
  • Speech codes are often applied for the purpose of suppressing hate speech or forms of social discourse thought to be disagreeable to the implementers. (
  • Nadine Strossen writes that in the 1980s, when the ACLU sued on the matter, "hate speech" codes were invariably struck down as unduly vague and overbroad (a key constitutional criterion), and all subsequent codes directed against specific viewpoints would fail under the same standard. (
  • What Occurs in an Adult Speech-Language Evaluation? (
  • The lecture presents this theorical framework in which the major issues in speech processing are formulated. (
  • The most primitive form of political manipulation, the speech, has made it big again. (
  • It is Clinton, as trite, insincere, forced, remote, and dull in his speech-making as anyone else, who has most of all helped return the speech to its place at the center of political media. (
  • AP) - A Montana group advocating for "right to work" policies sued on Monday to strike down the state's Clean Campaign Act, arguing it contains a provision that violates political speech protections. (
  • But I'm mainly concerned here about non-official harrassment of unpopular political speech, because there seem to be fewer protections against it. (
  • From Mubarak knocking a country offline by pressuring local ISPs to PayPal caving to political pressure to cut off funding to WikiLeaks, this year has brought us sobering examples of how online speech can be endangered. (
  • And it's not only political speech that is threatened - in the United. (
  • Ali Velshi talks with venture capitalist and Harvard Law School lecturer Michael Fertik about why he takes issue with Facebook's controversial decision not to fact-check ads and other forms of political speech. (
  • In the wake of the most terrifying convention speech in modern American history, TV political pundits have focused their coverage on the speech's most harmless and inane feature: its length. (
  • Speech-language therapy is the treatment for most kids with speech and/or language disorders. (
  • Why Do Some Kids Need Speech-Language Therapy? (
  • Speech and language therapy can help. (
  • And one of the news anchors covering the speech for National Public Radio burst into a frenetic run of explanatory whispering: Plays for the Cubs, hit more home runs than Roger Maris but not more home runs than Mark McGwire, does volunteer work in the Dominican Republic, was never really into Devo, looks sallow in aqua. (
  • If confronted with an information gathering interview for a report you are writing, a group project in another course, or a public presentation at your place of work, Speech 151 will provide you with the skills, knowledge, and abilities to confidently communicate your thoughts and ideas to others. (
  • This index lists speeches and other public statements by the Chairman, Commissioners, and Staff of the SEC, which cover a wide range of topics concerning the state of the markets and the Commission's regulatory agenda. (
  • On February 2nd, a Singapore court found the outspoken opposition politician guilty of making a speech in public without a permit. (
  • There are many books available at any bookstore or public library for speech writers, including emcees, to get some great ideas from. (
  • Guests are welcome to attend the West Suburban Toastmasters Club and/or People In Public Speaking (PIPS) for its Humorous Speech contest. (
  • Speech is human vocal communication using language . (
  • Cued speech is a visual system of communication used with and among deaf or hard-of-hearing people. (
  • It is now used with people with a variety of language, speech, communication, and learning needs. (
  • Speech Communication Lab. (
  • Speech is the most natural, powerful and universal media for human-machine/computer communication. (
  • The focus of this course is to provide you with opportunities to experience and practice effective communication skills, such as interviewing, group communication, speech preparation, and speech delivery. (
  • It protects all forms of communication, from speeches to art and other media. (
  • Speech Communication - Special Issue on Bridging the Gap between Human and Automatic Speech Processing, 49, 336-347. (
  • Weinschenk and Barker, two experts in state-of-the-art online communication, discuss the basics of speech interfaces and speech technology, hardware, and software. (
  • Some speech and communication problems may be genetic. (
  • With all national work Anne works informally with other organisations such as the Communication Trust in order to increase awareness of the needs of Cued Speech-using deaf children. (
  • When speech is not easily understood, options are available to promote effective communication. (
  • These options may include dedicated augmentative communication devices or computer programs that produce speech or provide a visual display of a person's thoughts and ideas. (
  • Recommendations may include a specific speech generating device or other methods to enhance communication. (
  • The best speech at the Democratic convention was Jesse Jackson's (and, really, he's been phoning in his speeches for years). (
  • He demands an investigation into the leak of a draft Queen's speech to the Sunday Telegraph , and asks why the first key document produced by the Tory-led government was passed to the press when Cameron had attacked Labour for years for not making major announcements in parliament. (
  • In a series of landmark cases, the U.S. Supreme Court over the years has helped to define what types of speech are-and aren't-protected under U.S. law. (
  • The judge, See Kee Oon, dismissed the defence's case, citing precedent from the High Court, which had decided against Mr Jeyaretnam when he had appealed against a conviction for making a speech without a permit nine years ago. (
  • Churchill's war speech holds up better after fifty-one years than George Bush's Gulf War address does after just one. (
  • A Pakistani antiterrorism court has jailed a prayer leader for five years in prison for making a speech against the Shi'ite minority. (
  • This is a real-time multilingual (mixed Chinese/English) speech recognizer. (
  • Although people ordinarily use speech in dealing with other persons (or animals), when people swear they do not always mean to communicate anything to anyone, and sometimes in expressing urgent emotions or desires they use speech as a quasi-magical cause, as when they encourage a player in a game to do or warn them not to do something. (
  • There are also many situations in which people engage in solitary speech. (
  • People with this problem have difficulty moving the muscles and structures needed to form speech sounds into words. (
  • Many people with speech problems report that their symptoms are worsened when they are experiencing stress , but psychological stress itself is not a known cause of speech problems. (
  • Emcee speeches include introductions of the people involved in the event, the order of the events, and introductions of the events as they happen. (
  • Speech is a skill that many people take for granted. (
  • And though people may not remember particular lines or phrases from every speech, when he is done speaking, people always get a sense of who the president is and exactly where he is coming from. (
  • Sound bites help people to remember a speech and think about the larger message of a speech, but they become a distortion if you only remember the fragment," Widmer says. (
  • Twenty-first-century jobs need twenty-first-century schools … Progress, not partisanship … Honor is not just a word but an obligation … The hard right over the easy wrong … I remember a child …" These are some random jottings from the Democrats' convention, phrases that are interchangeable in any of the speeches delivered in Los Angeles (they would have worked as well in Philadelphia). (
  • These include problems such as stuttering , in which the flow of speech is interrupted by unusual stops, partial-word repetitions ("b-b-boy"), or prolonging sounds and syllables (sssssnake). (
  • White men, it would seem, just can't give good speeches (Mario Cuomo's ability to give a speech made him seem unusual, foreign even). (
  • A child who does not say sounds by the expected age may have a speech sound disorder. (
  • This is not a speech sound disorder. (
  • Yes, the balloons were pretty and it was a long speech, but this is not how responsible journalists should respond to what amounted to a direct assault on facts and liberal democratic norms. (
  • For a generation, television, the cool medium, has been turning the speech, in its best incarnation a highly emotional form, into a media anachronism. (
  • Freed of the limitations inherent in traditional print or broadcast media created-and constrained-by corporate gatekeepers, speech thrives online. (
  • The website will continually be updated by in-house staff to bring the latest news and events, research and media coverage about Cued Speech, both nationally and internationally. (
  • They adjusted the results for (took into account) the amount of verbal speech used in the interactions. (
  • We work in the courts and in legislatures in the US and around the world to defend and expand the right to access and share information and expression-including anonymous speech. (
  • Have you got any stories of personal experiences with Cued Speech or the Association you wish to share? (
  • In the meantime, enjoy the new site, share it with friends, family and professionals, and spread the word about Cued Speech. (
  • In schools, they evaluate students for speech and language disorders and work with teachers, other school personnel, and parents to develop and carry out individual or group programs, provide counseling, and support classroom activities. (
  • At the same time, efforts to control speech and information are also accelerating, by both governments and private actors in the form of censorship, restrictions on access, and violent acts directed against those whose views or queries are seen as somehow dangerous or wrong. (