That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The use of ultraviolet electromagnetic radiation in the treatment of disease, usually of the skin. This is the part of the sun's spectrum that causes sunburn and tanning. Ultraviolet A, used in PUVA, is closer to visible light and less damaging than Ultraviolet B, which is ionizing.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Photochemotherapy using PSORALENS as the photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light type A (UVA).
Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.
Chemical or physical agents that protect the skin from sunburn and erythema by absorbing or blocking ultraviolet radiation.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Microscopy in which the image is formed by ultraviolet radiation and is displayed and recorded by means of photographic film.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
Irradiation directly from the sun.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An allotropic form of carbon that is used in pencils, as a lubricant, and in matches and explosives. It is obtained by mining and its dust can cause lung irritation.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.
Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic number 13, atomic symbol Al, and atomic weight 26.98.
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.
Dimers found in DNA chains damaged by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They consist of two adjacent PYRIMIDINE NUCLEOTIDES, usually THYMINE nucleotides, in which the pyrimidine residues are covalently joined by a cyclobutane ring. These dimers block DNA REPLICATION.
A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
An injury to the skin causing erythema, tenderness, and sometimes blistering and resulting from excessive exposure to the sun. The reaction is produced by the ultraviolet radiation in sunlight.
Insoluble polymers of TYROSINE derivatives found in and causing darkness in skin (SKIN PIGMENTATION), hair, and feathers providing protection against SUNBURN induced by SUNLIGHT. CAROTENES contribute yellow and red coloration.
Coloration of the skin.
Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.
The measurement of the density of a material by measuring the amount of light or radiation passing through (or absorbed by) the material.
A naturally occurring furocoumarin compound found in several species of plants, including Psoralea corylifolia. It is a photoactive substance that forms DNA ADDUCTS in the presence of ultraviolet A irradiation.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.
A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Abnormal responses to sunlight or artificial light due to extreme reactivity of light-absorbing molecules in tissues. It refers almost exclusively to skin photosensitivity, including sunburn, reactions due to repeated prolonged exposure in the absence of photosensitizing factors, and reactions requiring photosensitizing factors such as photosensitizing agents and certain diseases. With restricted reference to skin tissue, it does not include photosensitivity of the eye to light, as in photophobia or photosensitive epilepsy.
The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.
An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tantalum. A rare metallic element, atomic number 73, atomic weight 180.948, symbol Ta. It is a noncorrosive and malleable metal that has been used for plates or disks to replace cranial defects, for wire sutures, and for making prosthetic devices. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Inorganic or organic compounds containing trivalent iron.
A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.
A naturally occurring furocoumarin, found in PSORALEA. After photoactivation with UV radiation, it binds DNA via single and double-stranded cross-linking.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Relating to the size of solids.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A chemical element having an atomic weight of 106.4, atomic number of 46, and the symbol Pd. It is a white, ductile metal resembling platinum, and following it in abundance and importance of applications. It is used in dentistry in the form of gold, silver, and copper alloys.
A rare, pigmentary, and atrophic autosomal recessive disease. It is manifested as an extreme photosensitivity to ULTRAVIOLET RAYS as the result of a deficiency in the enzyme that permits excisional repair of ultraviolet-damaged DNA.
Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
The separation of particles from a suspension by passage through a filter with very fine pores. In ultrafiltration the separation is accomplished by convective transport; in DIALYSIS separation relies instead upon differential diffusion. Ultrafiltration occurs naturally and is a laboratory procedure. Artificial ultrafiltration of the blood is referred to as HEMOFILTRATION or HEMODIAFILTRATION (if combined with HEMODIALYSIS).
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Mammalian pigment cells that produce MELANINS, pigments found mainly in the EPIDERMIS, but also in the eyes and the hair, by a process called melanogenesis. Coloration can be altered by the number of melanocytes or the amount of pigment produced and stored in the organelles called MELANOSOMES. The large non-mammalian melanin-containing cells are called MELANOPHORES.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
The products of chemical reactions that result in the addition of extraneous chemical groups to DNA.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
A nonimmunologic, chemically induced type of photosensitivity producing a sometimes vesiculating dermatitis. It results in hyperpigmentation and desquamation of the light-exposed areas of the skin.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chemical bond cleavage reactions resulting from absorption of radiant energy.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
Exposing oneself to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A common genetically determined, chronic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by rounded erythematous, dry, scaling patches. The lesions have a predilection for nails, scalp, genitalia, extensor surfaces, and the lumbosacral region. Accelerated epidermopoiesis is considered to be the fundamental pathologic feature in psoriasis.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.

Characterisation of copper-binding to the second sub-domain of the Menkes protein ATPase (MNKr2). (1/6255)

The Menkes ATPase (MNK) has an essential role in the translocation of copper across cellular membranes. In a complementary manner, the intracellular concentration of copper regulates the activity and cellular location of the ATPase through its six homologous amino-terminal domains. The roles of the six amino-terminal domains in the activation and cellular trafficking processes are unknown. Understanding the role of these domains relies on the development of an understanding of their metal-binding properties and structural properties. The second conserved sub-domain of MNK was over-expressed, purified and its copper-binding properties characterised. Reconstitution studies demonstrate that copper binds to MNKr2 as Cu(I) with a stoichiometry of one copper per domain. This is the first direct evidence of copper-binding to the MNK amino-terminal repeats. Circular dichroism studies suggest that the binding or loss of copper to MNKr2 does not cause substantial changes to the secondary structure of the protein.  (+info)

Cloning, overexpression, purification, and physicochemical characterization of a cold shock protein homolog from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima. (2/6255)

Thermotoga maritima (Tm) expresses a 7 kDa monomeric protein whose 18 N-terminal amino acids show 81% identity to N-terminal sequences of cold shock proteins (Csps) from Bacillus caldolyticus and Bacillus stearothermophilus. There were only trace amounts of the protein in Thermotoga cells grown at 80 degrees C. Therefore, to perform physicochemical experiments, the gene was cloned in Escherichia coli. A DNA probe was produced by PCR from genomic Tm DNA with degenerated primers developed from the known N-terminus of TmCsp and the known C-terminus of CspB from Bacillus subtilis. Southern blot analysis of genomic Tm DNA allowed to produce a partial gene library, which was used as a template for PCRs with gene- and vector-specific primers to identify the complete DNA sequence. As reported for other csp genes, the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA was anomalously long; it contained the putative Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The coding part of the gene contained 198 bp, i.e., 66 amino acids. The sequence showed 61% identity to CspB from B. caldolyticus and high similarity to all other known Csps. Computer-based homology modeling allowed the conclusion that TmCsp represents a beta-barrel similar to CspB from B. subtilis and CspA from E. coli. As indicated by spectroscopic analysis, analytical gel permeation chromatography, and mass spectrometry, overexpression of the recombinant protein yielded authentic TmCsp with a molecular weight of 7,474 Da. This was in agreement with the results of analytical ultracentrifugation confirming the monomeric state of the protein. The temperature-induced equilibrium transition at 87 degrees C exceeds the maximum growth temperature of Tm and represents the maximal Tm-value reported for Csps so far.  (+info)

Safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) following oral administration of escalating single doses in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected adults. (3/6255)

Abacavir (1592U89) is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have selective activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in vitro and favorable safety profiles in mice and monkeys. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of abacavir following oral administration of single escalating doses (100, 300, 600, 900, and 1,200 mg) to HIV-infected adults. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, subjects with baseline CD4+ cell counts ranging from < 50 to 713 cells per mm3 (median, 315 cells per mm3) were randomly assigned to receive abacavir (n = 12) or placebo (n = 6). The bioavailability of the caplet formulation relative to that of the oral solution was also assessed with the 300-mg dose. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects; mild to moderate asthenia, abdominal pain, headache, diarrhea, and dyspepsia were the most frequently reported adverse events, and these were not dose related. No significant clinical or laboratory abnormalities were observed throughout the study. All doses resulted in mean abacavir concentrations in plasma that exceeded the mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for clinical HIV isolates in vitro (0.07 microgram/ml) for almost 3 h. Abacavir was rapidly absorbed following oral administration, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring at 1.0 to 1.7 h postdosing. Mean maximum concentrations in plasma (Cmax) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased slightly more than proportionally from 100 to 600 mg (from 0.6 to 4.7 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 1.0 to 15.7 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity) but increased proportionally from 600 to 1,200 mg (from 4.7 to 9.6 micrograms/ml for Cmax; from 15.7 to 32.8 micrograms.h/ml for AUC0-infinity. The elimination of abacavir from plasma was rapid, with an apparent elimination half-life of 0.9 to 1.7 h. Abacavir was well absorbed, with a relative bioavailability of the caplet formulation of 96% versus that of an oral solution (drug substance in water). In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and is well tolerated by HIV-infected subjects and demonstrated predictable pharmacokinetic characteristics when it was administered as single oral doses ranging from 100 to 1,200 mg.  (+info)

Safety and single-dose pharmacokinetics of abacavir (1592U89) in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected children. (4/6255)

Abacavir (formerly 1592U89) is a potent 2'-deoxyguanosine analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor that has been demonstrated to have a favorable safety profile in initial clinical trials with adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection. A phase I study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of abacavir following the administration of two single oral doses (4 and 8 mg/kg of body weight) to 22 HIV-infected children ages 3 months to 13 years. Plasma was collected for analysis at predose and at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 5, and 8 h after the administration of each dose. Plasma abacavir concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Abacavir was well tolerated by all subjects. The single abacavir-related adverse event was rash, which occurred in 2 of 22 subjects. After administration of the oral solution, abacavir was rapidly absorbed, with the time to the peak concentration in plasma occurring within 1.5 h postdosing. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were comparable among the different age groups for each dose level. The mean maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax) and the mean area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0-infinity) increased by 16 and 45% more than predicted, respectively, as the abacavir dose was doubled from 4 to 8 mg/kg (Cmax increased from 1.69 to 3.94 micrograms/ml, and AUC0-infinity increased from 2.82 to 8.09 micrograms.h/ml). Abacavir was rapidly eliminated, with a mean elimination half-life of 0.98 to 1.13 h. The mean apparent clearance from plasma decreased from 27.35 to 18.88 ml/min/kg as the dose increased. Neither body surface area nor creatinine clearance were correlated with pharmacokinetic estimates at either dose. The extent of exposure to abacavir appears to be slightly lower in children than in adults, with the comparable unit doses being based on body weight. In conclusion, this study showed that abacavir is safe and well tolerated in children when it is administered as a single oral dose of 4 or 8 mg/kg.  (+info)

The binding affinity of Ff gene 5 protein depends on the nearest-neighbor composition of the ssDNA substrate. (5/6255)

The Ff gene 5 protein (g5p) is considered to be a nonspecific single-stranded DNA binding protein, because it binds cooperatively to and saturates the Ff bacteriophage single-stranded DNA genome and other single-stranded polynucleotides. However, the binding affinity Komega (the intrinsic binding constant times a cooperativity factor) differs by over an order of magnitude for binding to single-stranded polynucleotides such as poly[d(A)] and poly[d(C)]. A polynucleotide that is more stacked, like poly[d(A)], binds more weakly than one that is less stacked, like poly[d(C)]. To test the hypothesis that DNA base stacking, a nearest-neighbor property, is involved in the binding affinity of the Ff g5p for different DNA sequences, Komega values were determined as a function of NaCl concentration for binding to six synthetic sequences 48 nucleotides in length: dA48, dC48, d(AAC)16, d(ACC)16, d(AACC)12, and d(AAACC)9A3. The binding affinities of the protein for these sequences were indeed found to be related to the nearest-neighbor compositions of the sequences, rather than to simple base compositions. That is, the g5p binding site, which is spanned by four nucleotides, discriminates among these sequences on the basis of the relative numbers of nearest neighbors (AA, CC, and AC plus CA) in the sequence. The results support the hypothesis that the extent of base stacking/unstacking of the free, nonbound ssDNA plays an important role in the binding affinity of the Ff gene 5 protein.  (+info)

Extraction and analysis of cosmetic active ingredients from an anti-cellulitis transdermal delivery system by high-performance liquid chromatography. (6/6255)

A new transdermal delivery system that controls cellulitis is evaluated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. An extraction procedure and the validation of the analytical method to assay the active excipients from the Centella asiatica plant (asiaticoside, madacessic acid, and asiatic acid) are described. Excellent results ae obtained in terms of linearity, accuracy, and specificity of the analytical method.  (+info)

Identification of the major tamoxifen-DNA adducts in rat liver by mass spectroscopy. (7/6255)

We present here the first mass spectroscopic (MS) identification of the main tamoxifen-induced DNA adducts in rat liver. The two main adducts were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by MS, MS-MS and ultraviolet spectroscopy. Adduct 1 was the N-desmethyltamoxifen-deoxyguanosine adduct in which the alpha-position of the metabolite N-desmethyltamoxifen is linked covalently to the amino group of deoxyguanosine. Adduct 2 was confirmed to be the trans isomer of alpha-(N2-deoxyguanosinyl)tamoxifen, as previously suggested by co-chromatography.  (+info)

Conformation and self-association of human recombinant transforming growth factor-beta3 in aqueous solutions. (8/6255)

The transforming growth factors-beta (TGF-beta) are important regulatory peptides for cell growth and differentiation with therapeutic potential for wound healing. Among the several TGF-beta isoforms TGF-beta3 has a particularly low solubility at physiological pH and easily forms aggregates. A spectroscopic structural analysis of TGF-beta3 in solution has thus been difficult. In this study, circular dichroism spectroscopy was used to determine the secondary structural elements of TGF-beta3. In addition, the aggregation of TGF-beta3 was investigated systematically as a function of pH and salt concentration using a rapid screening method. Sedimentation equilibrium and sedimentation velocity analysis revealed that TGF-beta3 exists predominantly in two major forms: (i) monomers in solution at low pH and (ii) large precipitating aggregates at physiological pH. Under acidic conditions (pH < 3.8) the protein was not aggregated. At pH approximately 3.9, a monomer right arrow over left arrow dimer equilibrium could be detected that transformed into larger aggregates at pH > 4.1. Aggregation was pronounced in the pH range of 4.3 < pH < 9.8 with the aggregation maximum between pH 6.5 and 8. 5. The aggregation process was accompanied by a structural change of the protein. The CD spectra were characterized by an isodichroic point at 209.5 nm indicating a two-state equilibrium between TGF-beta3 dissolved in solution and aggregated TGF-beta3. Aggregated TGF-beta3 showed a higher beta-sheet content and lower beta-turn and random coil contributions compared with monomeric TGF-beta3. Both the solution structure and the aggregate structure of TGF-beta3 were different from the crystal structure. This was in contrast to TGF-beta2, which showed very similar crystal and solution structures. Under alkaline conditions (pH > 9.8) the turbidity disappeared and a further conformational change was induced. The pH dependence of the TGF-beta3 conformation in solution in the range of 2.3 < pH < 11. 0 was reversible. Aggregation of TGF-beta3 was, furthermore, influenced by the presence of salt. For pH > 3.8 the addition of salt greatly enhanced the tendency to aggregate, even in the very basic domain. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4, cNaCl = 164 mM) TGF-beta3 has almost the highest tendency to aggregate and will remain in solution only at nanomolar concentrations.  (+info)

Lucas, A.A., Donnelly, S. E., Vigneron, J.P. and Rife, J.C. (1983) Vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy of high-pressure helium microbubbles in metals. Surface Science, 126 (1-3). pp. 66-79. ISSN 0039-6028 Metadata only available from this repository ...
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The ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to conjugated bond energies. Molecular Orbital Theory describes this bond energy using electron transitions from the HOMO and …
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The effect of temperature on the Schumann-Runge ultraviolet absorption continuum of oxygen has been investigated, using photoelectric techniques, over a temperature range from 300 to 900 K and in the wavelength interval from 1580 to 1950 A. The monochromator bandwidth was 0.075 A. Absolute absorption cross sections were obtained, and curves are presented showing the variation of the cross section with wavelength for the temperatures 300, 600, and 900 K. (Author)(*ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY
October 2019. In This Edition Chromatography - Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy: A Versatile Tool for Analysis of Gasoline and Jet Fuels - High-performance Columns and Bulk for your Chromatography - New L.... ...
Supplementary MaterialsTable S1 1H NMR data of HA-ss-FA conjugate thead th rowspan=2″ valign=top align=still left colspan=1″ Amount /th th colspan=3″ valign=best align=still left rowspan=1″ em /em H (ppm) hr / /th th valign=best align=still left rowspan=1″ colspan=1″ HA /th th valign=best align=still left rowspan=1″ colspan=1″ CYS /th th valign=best align=still left rowspan=1″ colspan=1″ FA /th /thead 14. hyaluronic acidity; s, solid; m, moderate, sh, sharpened. Abstract Launch A reduction-sensitive Compact disc44-positive tumor-targetable medication delivery program for doxorubicin (DOX) delivery originated predicated on hyaluronic acidity (HA)-grafted polymers. Materials and methods HA was conjugated with folic acid (FA) via a reduction-sensitive disulfide linkage to form an amphiphilic polymer (HA-ss-FA). The chemical structure of HA-ss-FA was analyzed by ultraviolet spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and 1H nuclear ...
The sportcentrum dont have nice selection toronto american senior online dating website of beers overall. Ive been crunching on this problem for about a week now and im at a loss, any suggestions? This geometry video tutorial contains plenty of examples and practice problems. There is sat, low upon the shore in the black rocks and shaded by the cocoa palms, and there by the door was a red holoku, no greater than a fly, and going to no pay best rated seniors online dating sites and fro with a flys busyness. Determination of the degree of acetyla-tion of chitosans by first derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Reliable and and easy cmms for building and plant maintenance management So come the race it was all a bit surreal being placed in between girant thomas, and sir bradley wiggings. So that these systems are now open source does not change the fundamentals of our business model: if you would like to consume smartdatacenter or manta as a service, you can spin up an instance on the public ...
The characterization of the electronically excited states of DNA strands populated upon solar UV light absorption is essential to unveil light-induced DNA damage and repair processes. We report a comprehensive analysis of the electronic properties of the UV spectrum of single-stranded polyadenine based on th
Authors: (S.V. Paston, O.A. Dommes, A.E. Tarasov, Saint Petersburg State University, Faculty of Physics, St. Petersburg, Russia ...
Infrared and ultraviolet-visible absorption cross-sections, effective quantum yields of photolysis and OH reaction rate coefficients for CFCHO and CFCHCHO are reported. Relative rate measurements at 298(2) K and 1013(10) hPa, give (OH + CFCHO)/(OH + CHCH) = 2.00(13), (OH + CFCHCHO)/(OH + CHCHOH) = 1.21(5) and (OH +
K. ASHOK RAO*, S. SIVARAMAIAH*, K. SARA SUBUDHI, D. SREEVANI, Y. UMAMAHESWARI and G. V. HARITHA,Determination of Copper in Water, Vegetables, Foodstuffs and Pharmaceuticals by Direct and Derivative Spectrophotometry, Chem Sci Trans.,2012,1(3), pp 590-603 ...
UV-visible absorption spectroscopy is one of the most widely used techniques in clinical and chemical laboratories. It is employed in qualitative analysis for the identification of chemicals, however its principal use is for the quantitative determination of various organic and inorganic species in solution. This aspect will be the focus of this section.. The essential theory and principles of UV-visible spectroscopy, as well as its applications and limitations for chemical analysis, will be investigated. There are five tasks you will undertake in this section.. ...
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Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis of sequestra, unaffected corneas and contact lenses (from affected and contralateral/unaffected eyes) showed that lipid and protein were present but did not play an important role in sequestra. Ultraviolet-visible light absorbance spectroscopy revealed a peak at 385 nm in unaffected corneas that was absent in sequestra and the difference was significant (P < 0.0001); this peak may be a characteristic feature of the normal feline cornea. The absorbance spectra displayed a peak at 280 nm in two sequestra suggesting that chromophore groups (e.g. melanin) were present ...
Hi guys, please can you kindly help me. I am getting an absorbance of over 6.0Abs for my experiment. However, when I am reading posts they mention that an...
The instrument used in UV/ VIS spectroscopy is called a UV/ VIS spectrophotometer. To obtain absorption information, a sample is placed in the spectrophotometer and ultraviolet and/or visible light at a certain wavelength (or range of wavelengths) is shined through the sample. The spectrophotometer measures how much of the light is absorbed by the sample. The intensity of light before going into a certain sample is symbolized by ,math,I_0,math,. The intensity of light remaining after it has gone through the sample is symbolized by ,math,I,math,. The fraction of light transmittance is (,math,I/I_0,math,), which is usually expressed as a percent Transmittance (%T). From this information, the absorbance of the sample is determined for that wavelength or as a function for a range of wavelengths. Sophisticated UV/ Vis spectrophotometers often do this automatically. Although the samples could be solid (or even gaseous), they are usually liquid. A transparent cell, often called a cuvette, is used to ...
Figures 4.26, 4.27, and 4.28 show typical UV absorption spectra for some simple aldehydes and ketones (Rogers, 1990 Martinez et al., 1992 see also Cronin and
The interaction of sensors with these metal ions induced a new absorption band with a hypsochromic shift to the characteristic signal of the free sensors. A theoretical study via time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was performed. This method has enabled us to reproduce the hypsochromic shift in the maximum UV-vis absorption band and explain the selective sensing of the ions. For all of the systems studied, the absorption band is characterized by a π → π* transition centered in the ligand. Instead of Ni2+ and Cu2+ ions, the transition is set toward the σ* molecular orbital with a strong contribution of the 3dx2-y2 transition (π → 3dx2-y2). These absorptions imply a ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism that results in the hypsochromic shift in the absorption band of these systems ...
Know more about UV WinLab, the instrument control and manipulation software for the latest range of PerkinElmer LAMBDA™ 365, High Performance UV/Vis and UV/Vis/NIR spectrophotometers.
Protein quantitation was carried out by two independent methods:. 1. UV spectroscopy at 280 nm using the absorbency value of 0.171 as the extinction coefficient for a 0.1% (1mg/ml) solution. This value is calculated by the PC GENE computer analysis program of protein sequences (IntelliGenetics).. 2. Analysis by RP-HPLC, using a standard solution of IL-3 as a Reference Standard.. Usage: ...
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About this Index: This index lists the names of all compounds found in the IR - Industrial Chemicals, Basic Organic Compounds - Wiley spectral database. Bio-Rad is the world leader in spectral databases. They offer over 2.3 million high-quality IR, Raman, NIR, NMR, MS and UV-Vis spectra. Please visit our website for a complete listing. ...
About this Index: This index lists the names of all compounds found in the ATR-IR - Solvents - Bio‑Rad Sadtler spectral database. Bio-Rad is the world leader in spectral databases. They offer over 2.3 million high-quality IR, Raman, NIR, NMR, MS and UV-Vis spectra. Please visit our website for a complete listing. ...
The Mettler-Toledo Excellence instruments UV Vis spectrophotometer is the ideal tool for spectroscopic analysis in the life sciences field as well as man...
High performance UV Vis cuvette and specialized micro-volume spectrophotometers. Modular design enables optimization of your application workflows. Superior optical technology enables accurate, reliable measurements within 1 second.
High performance UV Vis cuvette and specialized micro-volume spectrophotometers. Modular design enables optimization of your application workflows. Superior optical technology enables accurate, reliable measurements within 1 second.
Beckman DU730 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer Unused unit, in original box. The unit has been sitting for a few years, though it has never been
In article ,david-0809991507400001 at,, david at (David) wrote: , Im sorry for not making it clear, but the kind of homogeneity I was , thinking about was with respect to proteins rather than nucleic acids, and , I guess in particular, whether a protein that appears pure on, e.g. a gel , or gel filtration columnm, has higher-order oligomers or aggregates , present. As suggested, good ways to study this include gel filtration and , analytical ultracentrifugation, which we have done for our system, but I , had recently heard the advice that one should always as a first step, look , at the UV280 scan to see if there are aggreagates, which was what prompted , my original question. Remember that absorption of light in mainly due to only 3 aas( trp(~280nm),tyr(~275nm,phe~258nm)). If you have a solution of a monomeric protien in solution or a multimeric protein in solution, the absorption spectra will not reveal it. It will just tell you the ...
LabX UV Vis expands the instrument with a sophisticated graphical editor for spectra evaluation, increased automation capabilities, more workflow options, a method of editing and many more features ...
The following application note shows the usefulness of the SofTA ELSD compared with a UV detector. As glycine methyl ester does not have UV absorbance, it is difficult to monitor this synthesis reaction with a UV detector.
HPLC traces of SFB (black, absorbance at 254 nm), 1-Cold (red, absorbance at 320 nm), 18F-SFB (green, radiochromatograph), 1 (blue, radiochromatograph), and rea
A versatile, dual-wavelength absorbance detector that offers simplicity for routine UV-based applications and high sensitivity for low-level impurity analysis.
Abstract: The method of choice for analysis of drugs in multi-component preparations is chromatographic based technique such as High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). However, chromatographic method is time consuming and requiring much effort. As a consequence, some simple methods such as UV spectrophotometry are continuously developed, especially in combination with the chemometrics software. The UV-vis spectrophotometry coupled with multivariate calibration of Partial Least Square (PLS) has been developed for quantitative analysis of paracetamol, guaiphenesin and chlopheniramine maleate in the presence of phenylpropanolamine without separation step. The calibration model is prepared by developing a series of sample mixture comprising these drugs in certain proportion. The evaluation of calibration model was based on coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error of Calibration (RMSEC). The result showed that UV spectrophotometry combined with PLS can be used for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultraviolet resonance Raman study of proline isomerization. AU - Harhay, Gregory P.. AU - Hudson, Bruce S.. PY - 1991/1/1. Y1 - 1991/1/1. N2 - The ultraviolet resonance Raman spectra of aqueous solutions of proline dipeptides obtained with 200- and 218-nm excitation at pH 1.5 and 6.5 are reported. The cis/trans isomer ratio for these dipeptides is known to depend on pH. The amide II′ like mode of the X-Pro peptide (imide) linkage at 1487 cm-1, involving predominantly the motions of the peptide carbon and nitrogen, is the most strongly enhanced band in the 200-250-nm region. We observe that this band does not shift appreciably with the change in isomer ratio associated with the change in pH. The same behavior is observed with the 1467-cm-1 band of aqueous polyproline, which has undergone a salt-induced isomerization. We conclude from these observations that contrary to earlier evidence the position of the amide II′ like band is not diagnostic for the isomeric state of the ...
Bless, R. C., A. D. Code, and E. T. Fairchild, Ultraviolet photometry from the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. XXI. Absolute energy distribution of stars in the ultraviolet, Astrophysical Journal 203, 410-416, 1976.. Bohlin, R. C., D. Frimout, and C. F. Lillie, Absolute flux measurements in the rocket ultraviolet, Astronomy and Astrophysics 30, 127-134, 1974.. Bohlin, R. C., A. V. Holm, B. D. Savage, M. A. J. Snijders, and W. M. Sparks, Photometric calibration of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE): Low Dispersion, Astronomy and Astrophysics 85, 1-13, 1980.. Brune, W. H., G. H. Mount, and P. D. Feldman, Vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometry and effective temperatures of hot stars, Astrophysical Journal 227, 884-899, 1979.. Henry, R. C., A. Weinstein, P. D. Feldman, W. G. Fastie, and H. W. Moos, Low-resolution ultraviolet spectroscopy of several hot stars observed from Apollo 17, Astrophysical Journal 201, 613-623, 1975.. Holberg, J. B., W. T. Forrester, and D. E. Shemansky, Voyager ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterisation of DME-HCCI combustion cycles for formaldehyde and hydroxyl UV-vis absorption. AU - Azimov, Ulugbek. AU - Stylianidis, Nearchos. AU - Kawahara, Nobuyuki. AU - Tomita, Eiji. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - We investigated time-resolved ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) light absorbance to identify the formation behaviour of formaldehyde (HCHO) and hydroxyl (OH) within the wavelength range of 280-400 nm in a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine fuelled with dimethyl ether (DME). The time-resolved HCHO and OH profiles at different initial pressures showed that HCHO absorbance increased in the low-temperature reaction (LTR) and thermal-ignition preparation (TIP) regions and decreased gradually as the combustion approached the high-temperature reaction (HTR) region. At higher intake pressures, HCHO absorbance decreased and OH absorbance increased. The ...
Greetings VIPErs,. I am looking for molar absorptivity (or molar extinction coefficient) data for a handful of inorganic compounds (in solution), as a function of wavelength in the UV/visible spectrum. Can you help?. The compounds are Co(NO3)2, CoCl2, K2CrO7, AuCl3, K2CrO4, NiCl2, CuSO4, and KMnO4.. I have tried the following online resources without success: the CRC Handbook, the NIST Chemical WebBook, the Combined Chemical Dictionary, PubChem, SciFinder, and Google.. I would greatly appreciate your suggestions for resources that may have these data! If the search is to no avail, I will probably resort to tracking down a UV/vis spectrophotometer (and the various chemicals) and taking the measurements myself, but I would hugely appreciate a more reliable source, in addition to not having to do this.. Many thanks! ...
Experimental protocol for the spectrophotometric determination of native and desialylated apo-transferrin molar absorption coefficients. Supplemental information for the manuscript in preparation (published version will be linked here).
The formation of 7-hydroxywarfarin in incubations of (S)-warfarin with human liver microsomes reflects their cytochrome P-4502C9 activity. This paper describes a rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of 7-hydroxywarfarin with high sensitivity, selectivity, and a …
A simple, sensitive and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of terazosin in human plasma. The method involves a one-step single solvent extraction procedure using dichloromethane with a 0.25 ml plasma sample. Recovery values were all greater than 90% over the concentration range 0.25-100 ng/ml. Terazosin was found to adsorb to glass or plastic tubes, but this could be circumvented by using disposable plastic tubes. Also, rinsing the injector port with methanol after each injection helped to prevent any carry-over effect. The internal standard, prazosin, did not exhibit this problem. The method has a quantification limit of 0.25 ng/ml. The within- and between-day coefficient of variation and accuracy values were all less than 7% over the concentration range 0.25-100 ng/ml and hence the method is suitable for use in pharmacokinetic studies of terazosin.
Homework Statement I need to calculate molar extinction coefficient for Albumin at 280nm. Homework Equations A=ε*c*L ε=A/(c*L) But since...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
0008] Organic compounds also absorb strongly in the UV and this absorption has also been exploited as an analog measurement for TOC. Differential absorbance spectroscopy, a measurement of water monitoring as a function of wavelength has been described previously. See Development of Differential UV Spectroscopy for DBP Monitoring, Korshin, G. V., et al., AWWA Foundation, (2002). Monitoring TOC using UV absorption has focused on wavelengths between 200 and 400 nanometers where strong absorption bands of organic compounds occur. Historically this range also represented that part of the UV spectrum accessible by readily available optical components. However, absorptivity of water in this region of electromagnetic spectrum is a potential problem. Consider the plot of water absorptivity versus electromagnetic wavelength shown in the graph of FIG. 1 (derived from The region of wavelengths between 200 nm and 400 nm is region of particular interest because ...
Ural Federal University (UrFU) Institute of Physics and Technology in Yekaterinburg, Russia contracted McPherson (Chelmsford, MA USA), a manufacturer of ultraviolet spectrometers, to provide a VUVAS instrument in support of the UrFU scientific development program. The new VUVAS PLUS Spectrophotometer system works from 115nm vacuum ultraviolet to 1800nm infrared. The new system measures transmittance and reflectance at adjustable angles. Plus it delivers tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) e
Ultraviolet spectroscopy has been implemented for over thirty years to monitorvolcanic SO2 emissions. These data have provided valuable information concerningunderground magmatic conditions, which have been of utility in eruption forecastingefforts. During the last decade the traditionally used correlation spectrometers have beenupgraded with miniature USB coupled UV spectrometers, opening a series of exciting newempirical possibilities for understanding volcanoes and their impacts upon the atmosphere.Here we review these technological developments, in addition to the scientific insightsthey have precipitated, covering the strengths and current limitations of this approach.
Rate coefficients for the inactivation of several penicillin in acids and alkalis at 30°C have been determined by means of ultraviolet spectroscopy. The case of benzylpenicillin, though well investigated in the past, has been studied again and, in the light of new experiments, a scheme detailing the proportions of the various degradation products has been proposed. A number of substituted phenylpenicillins have been synthesised, and their reactions with acid have been investigated. Product analysis was carried out by means of TLG and NMR studies, the degradation products (penicilloic, penilloic, penillic and penicillenic acids) having been previously prepared and characterised. From the manner in which the phenyl substituent on the penicillin affects the rate coefficient, it is deduced that the mechanism of inactivation by acids involves a rate-determining intramolecular attack by the side-chain carbonyl group on the protonated β-lactam function. An intermediate oxazolone-thiazolidine ...
The handbook presents useful analysis and assignment of spectra and structural elucidation of organic and organometallic molecules. The correlation charts are compiled from an extensive search of spectroscopic literature and contain current, detailed information that includes new results for many compounds. The handbook includes graphical data charts for nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the most useful nuclei, as well as infrared and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Because mass spectrometry data is not best represented graphically, the data are presented in tabular form, where mass spectrometry can be used for analyses and structural determinations in tandem with other techniques. In addition to presenting absorption bands and intensities for a variety of important functional groups and chemical families, the book also discusses instrument calibration, diagnostics, common solvents, fragmentation patterns, several practical conversion tables, and laboratory safety ...
Sidney Kaye and Ebbe C. Hoff, Identification and Determination of Strychnine by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, 43 J. Crim. L. & Criminology 246 (1952 ...
Synonyms: Creatine kinase, CK, CPK.. CPT Code: 82550. Description: CPK is an intracellular enzyme found in high concentrations in skeletal muscle, myocardium, and brain. Damage to these tissues results in elevated serum levels of CK. Three isoforms are used to determine the tissue origin of serum CK: skeletal muscle (MM), myocardium (MB), and brain (BB).. Method: Analysis may be part of a selected automated chemistry profile or may be ordered separately. Serum should be collected in a plain red-top tube. Avoid hemolysis. All determinations of CK levels should be done before invasive diagnostic procedures such as electromyography or muscle biopsy. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry is most common.. Normal Values: Values depend on the method used but generally range from 50 to 200 U/L for males; values for females are 25% lower. Black individuals (males more so than females) may have CK levels above normal values. Such values do not correlate with muscle mass and are not associated with an occult ...
The extinction coefficient is present in the beer-lambert law (A=ECL). However, how would I calculate the extinction coefficient from a graph where concentration is on the x-axis and optical density on the y-axis? Would I have to work out a gradient? And so, where do I go next to work out the extinction coefficient ...
Detection of Hg2+ with high sensitivity is of great significance in the biochemical sensing field. Quantitative of Hg2+ was realized based on the influence of Hg2+ on the UV-vis absorption performance of Au-Pt-Au core-shell nanoraspberry (APA)-rhodamine-6G (R6G) structure. First, APA sol was added into R6G indicator solution and the UV-vis absorption signal intensity of R6G was evidently promoted. The signal intensity monotonously increased as more APA sol was added. However, when HgCl2 solution was introduced, the signal intensity declined. A linear relationship between Hg2+ concentration and signal intensity at 527 nm was revealed, based on which quantitative determination of Hg2+ could be realized. Hg2+ detection sensitivity was measured to be 0.031 a.u./M with a limit of detection of 10-7 M and the response time was 20 s. A high Hg2+ detection selectivity over Cu2+, Na+, Li+, and K+ was demonstrated. Due to its simplicity and high sensitivity, the proposed method could find an extensive ...
As you decrease the concentration the absorbance decreases and they should both become zero together so the intercept should be zero; that means from Y=mx+c for c=0 you only need Y=mx. For A=ecl, l=1cm and so except for its contribution to the units you can ignore it. That leaves you with A=ec, which is in the form Y=mx. As you vary the concentration the absorbance changes. The slope of their linear relationship (in the Beers law range, A,~2) is the extinction coefficient. To lay it out explicitly ...
Different methods have been developed to determine or estimate the purity and concentration of DNA, such as UV spectrophotometry (1), diphenylamine assay (1, 2), restriction enzyme digestion and gel electrophoresis. Each procedure has advantages and disadvantages. For example, UV spectrophotometry is quite simple for the determination of DNA concentration and purity. However, it but can not be used to estimate the DNA concentration if the DNA sample is contaminated with RNA and some degraded DNA. Moreover, when the DNA sample is contaminated with some organic materials and/or ions, which will inhibit enzymatic reactions (such as restriction digestion), this method can not give any information about the contamination. In these cases, the restriction digestion and gel electrophoresis method can be used to distinguish DNA, degraded DNA, RNA and different contaminants and estimate the DNA concentration if a standard marker is used ...
Information of Solvents & Reagents , Spectroscopy & GC-HS. 1,2-Dichloroethane & UV Spectroscopy, 99.9%, 1,4-Dioxane & UV Spectroscopy, 99.9%, Acetic Acid , 99.9%, Acetone & UV Spec
You may also wish to search for items by Summrell. 2 matching references were found. Cason, J.; Allinger, N.L.; Summrell, G.; Williams, D.E., Branched-chain Fatty Acids XVII. Synthesis of Two Trimethylalkanoic Acids Certain Relationships of Boiling POint and Index of Refraction to Structure, J. Org. Chem., 1951, 16, 1170-6. [all data] Cason, J.; Summrell, G., Branched-chain Fatty Acids XVIII. Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Saturated Branched-chain Acids, J. Org. Chem., 1951, 16, 1177-80. [all data] ...
Over the past 35 years, HORIBA Scientific has developed some of the most innovative Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) monochromators for synchrotron centers and the wider scientific community.
The molar absorptivities of two different molecules, adenosine and inosine were determined in this lab using UV-Vis and Beers law. The changes in UV-Vis spectra will be observed to determine changes in concentration of both adenosine and inosine. In order to do this, the molar absorptivity (ε) of both of these molecules will be known. A calibration curve from the class data will be created. From this data the standard deviation, Confidence Interval (90% and 95% confidence) will be calculated and Grubbs test will be performed to determine the outlier. ...
Instrumentation is used in the undergraduate chemistry curriculum to help demonstrate the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions and demonstrate how it can be used to determine certain properties of a chemical system. For example, absorbance spectroscopy teaches students about transmission and absorption of radiation by a compound and how these measurements can be used to determine concentration or chemical reaction order. Chromatography illustrates to students how the structure of compounds can help isolate them from others. When certain techniques are coupled together, the concepts are layered and even more can be learned about the system being studied.
4 consider the characteristics of derivative spectra of aromatic amino acids and proteins and also the features of spectral change under the influence of EFEs such as γ-radiation and temperature. In Chap. 5, the authors discuss both methodological questions of cell pigment spectroscopy and a number of debatable and evolutionary questions of pigment metabolism in representatives of various systematic groups of Eucaryota and Procaryota domains. In a separate section, the data of the last 20 years on features of carotenoid biosynthesis are presented. Biologists know well the world information base, the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) (www. gov), containing over 22 million significant and interesting scientific references. I. Sapozhnikov) are contained in this database and also two articles published 39 years later in 2004, where she was not the first, leading author (according to Russian rules of author placement) but only third or fourth. I. Sapozhnikov is a well-known figure ...
Figures (a) through (f) display the absorbance spectra of the gold nanoparticle mixed with each of the prepared reducing agents solutions. Figure (a) displays the absorbance spectrum of the AuNP-Cellulose nanocrystal solution, with no apparent peaks. Figure (b) displays the absorbance spectrum of the AuNP-Chitosan solution, with no observed peaks. Figure (c) displays the absorbance spectrum of the AuNP-Fructose solution, with an observed peak at wavelength 250nm. Figure (d) displays the absorbance spectrum of the AuNP-Galactose solution, with an observed peak at wavelength 250nm. Figure (e) displays the absorbance spectrum of the AuNP-H2AsCt solution, with a slight observed peak at wavelength 600nm. Figure (f) displays the absorbance spectrum of the AuNP-Na3Ct solution, with an observed steep peak at wavelength 550nm. ...
A new sensor has been developed for measuring atomic mercury using absorption spectroscopy with 254-nm radiation generated from two sum-frequency-mixed diode lasers. Beams from a 375-nm external-cavit
with kinetic attachment Beckam Coulter DU 520 UV/Vis spectrophotometer is an eagle-i resource of type UV/vis spectrophotometer at University of Puerto Rico - Medical Sciences Campus.
Two compounds of organic molybdate-alkali salt: [H(4,4-bipy)]2[K2Mo8O26](I) and H3 [Na Mo8 O26] (4,4-bipy)5 (H2O)4 (II), with beta-[Mo8O26]4- anion, were synthesized. The relationship between their properties and structures was studied by using FTIR, Raman, NIR-Vis and fluorescence etc. They possess isolating beta-[Mo8O26]4- anion, whose terminal O atoms combine with alkali. The FTIR and Raman spectra showed that the vibrational frequencies of the group are related to the structure of the materials. In UV-Vis spectra of compound (I) and (II), there is a characteristic wide peak at 280-300 nm. The fluorescence spectra of compound (I) and (II) were studied, which showed that the wide emission peak is from 450 to 650 nm and excited by 350 nm for compound (I), and the emission peak is from 400 to 550 nm and excited by 325 nm for compound (II). For compound (I), the intensity of emission becomes stronger with decreasing of temperature, and so does the fluorescence lifetime.
Left: A [email protected] cluster. Right: UV-Visible spectra, with and without SO coupling.. After a first work on [email protected] Pb12 clusters, the authors modeled energies as well as UV/Vis and IR spectra of several actinide metals encapsulated in C28 cages through the use of DFT and TD-DFT. For modeling such compounds with these heavy elements, the relativistic effects implemented through ZORA are quite important, for instance in the spectroscopy of these compounds. Dr. Dognon has also indicated that the bond energy decomposition in ADF, the utility of the ADF GUI for building structures / analyzing results, as well as the good parallelization of the ADF program were all critical to the studies.. Do you want try for yourself? Request a free 30-day evaluation for the whole Amsterdam Modeling Suite.. ...
In this paper, we study the change mechanism of UV of three amino acids with positively charged R-group, which are processed under alternating electric field. We prepared 0.01mol/L aqueous solution of lysine(K), arginine(R), histidine(H) respectively, then disposed them at different frequency electric field for 5 minutes, scanning UV spectrum finally. As a result, red/blue shift and hyperchromic/hypochromic effect arise in spectrums of these three amino acids. Compared with control group, ΔλKmax is between -0.4nm and 0.8nm, ΔλRmax between -0.4nm and 0.8nm, ΔλHmax between -2.2nm and -0.6nm; ΔεKmax is between -2.657% and 2.143%, ΔεRmax between -4.997% and -1.581%, ΔεHmax between -2.098% and 0.314%. The levels of the amino acid molecules and the energy levels difference are affected by the excitation of alternating electric field. The changes of energy level difference result in the occurrence of UV spectrum red/blue shift. There is reduced trend of Δλmax along with increasing ...
MW = 332.31. Excitation wavelength: 460 nm Emission wavelength: 515 nm. Absorption maxima at 493.5 and 460 nm. A = Ecl. Molar extinction coefficient of fluorescein at 485nm = 50358/ so Absorbance 10^-5M = 0.50358. (1/100 of a 1mM solution =10^-5M). 1 mM stock in 10mM NaOH. ...
where 40 is the average extinction coefficient for RNA. In addition, the A260/A280 ratio can be used to estimate RNA purity. An A260/A280 ratio between 1.8 and 2.1 indicates a highly pure RNA sample.. UV spectroscopy is relatively simple to perform but has several drawbacks. It does not discriminate between RNA and DNA so it is advisable to DNAse treat RNA samples before quantifying. DNA in the sample will lead to an overestimation of RNA concentration. Since proteins and residual phenol from the purification can interfere with absorbance readings, it is important to remove these contaminants in purification. Also, absorbance readings are dependent on pH and ionic strength. Dilute RNA samples in TE (pH 8.0) and use TE to blank the spectrophotometer before taking absorbance readings.. An alternative method for quantifying RNA samples is to use fluorescent dyes such as RiboGreen (Invitrogen). RiboGreen exhibits a strong fluorescent signal when bound to nucleic acids. Samples are quantified in a ...
Rating active ingredients in pharmaceutical forms such as tablets , suspensions, syrups , capsules, etc. by methods such as high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), UV spectrophotometry ( UV ), titration, and gravimetry ...
Bit rate in a PCM Companding system is reduced by transmitting sample magnitude (Xn) if the sample is near a zero-crossing, and transmitting the difference (Dn) between sequential samples if not near a zero-crossing. ROMs are used for mapping (transforming) full versus reduced data.
where nW, nY, and nC are the number of Tryptophans (W), Tyrosines (Y) and Cystines (i.e. disulphide bonds, but here denoted C) in the sequence. The molar extinction coefficients used in Innovagens Peptide Calculator are ...
The LAMBDA™ 365 delivers state-of-the-art UV/Vis performance that meets the needs of pharmaceuticals, analytic chemists, geneticists, and manufacturing QA/QC analysts everywhere. With 21 CFR part 11 compliant software available, the LAMBDA system is ready to support everything from standard methods and applications to those requiring regulatory compliance.
The UV/Vis+ Photochemistry Database is a collection of photochemical data and information was started in 1999 and is now an online database updated weekly.
In addition, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry can be used to determine the thickness, along with the refractive index and ... The light source consists of a Xenon flash lamp for the ultraviolet (UV) as well as for the visible (VIS) and near-infrared ... If UV/Vis spectrophotometry is used in quantitative chemical analysis then the results are additionally affected by uncertainty ... 2002). Ultraviolet Spectroscopy and UV Lasers. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 978-0-8247-0668-5.[page needed] Historically, the ...
22 (67). Bibcode:1913POPot..67.....K. Loyd A. Jones (July 1927). "Photographic Spectrophotometry in the Ultra-Violet Region". ... ISBN 978-0-521-77096-5. W. M. H. Greaves (1936). "Time Effects in Spectrophotometry". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical ...
Feldman, Paul D.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Fastie, William G.; Donn, Bertram (23 August 1974). "Rocket Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry ... Mariner 10, en route to Venus, also made ultraviolet measurements of Kohoutek at a distance of around 0.7 AU in January 1974, ... Analyses of Kohoutek's coma and tail in the near-ultraviolet found the roughly equal presence of hydrogen atoms and hydroxide, ... Opal, C. B.; Carruthers, G. R.; Prinz, D. K.; Meier, R. R. (23 August 1974). "Comet Kohoutek: Ultraviolet Images and ...
Kondo, Y.; Henize, K. G.; Kotila, C. L. (1970). "Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of Canopus from Gemini XI". The Astrophysical ... It was studied in the ultraviolet by an early astronomical satellite, Gemini XI in 1966. The UV spectra were considered to be ...
Gurzadyan, G.A. (1975). "Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of the Emission Star SAO 0400183". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 39: 213. ... Ultraviolet spectrograms of thousands of stars to as faint as 13th stellar magnitude were obtained by a wide-angle meniscus ... Gurzadyan, G. A., Ultraviolet observations of planetary nebulae, Planetary nebulae. Observations and theory, Proc. IAU Symp.76 ... Ultraviolet telescope Optical system: Mersenne Spectrograph: Wadsworth Diameter of primary mirror: 280 mm Focal length: 1400 mm ...
September 2002), "Metallicity Determinations from Ultraviolet-Visual Spectrophotometry. I. The Test Sample", The Astrophysical ...
September 2002), "Metallicity Determinations from Ultraviolet-Visual Spectrophotometry. I. The Test Sample", The Astrophysical ...
Sommer, L. (1989). Analytical absorption spectrophotometry in the visible and ultraviolet : the principles. Amsterdam: Elsevier ... To take readings in the ultraviolet or visible range, either a deuterium or tungsten lamp was used, with the light focussed ... Clarke, F. J. J. (June 5, 1972). "High Accuracy Spectrophotometry at the National Physical Laboratory (Teddington, Middlesex, ... Hind, Andrew R. (December 2002). "To improvements in spectrophotometry. . " (PDF). American Laboratory. 34: 32-35. Retrieved 27 ...
In particular, ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrophotometry-based assays are widely applied. The most common UV/Vis ... spectrophotometry assay involves the monitoring of the formation of o-quinones, which are the products of polyphenol oxidase- ...
Although spectrophotometry is most commonly applied to ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation, modern spectrophotometers ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spectrophotometry. Spectrophotometry Handbook (Articles with short description, Short ... Spectrophotometry is a tool that hinges on the quantitative analysis of molecules depending on how much light is absorbed by ... Samples for IR spectrophotometry may be smeared between two discs of potassium bromide or ground with potassium bromide and ...
... based on the Astron ultraviolet spectrophotometry". Pis'ma v Astronomicheskii Zhurnal (in Russian). 12: 291-296. Bibcode: ... As a fraction of the gas molecules in the coma are ionized by the solar ultraviolet radiation, pressure from the solar wind, a ... Based on data retrieved by the largest ultraviolet space telescope of the time, Astron, during its Halley's Comet observations ... ISBN 978-0-521-64591-1. Woods, Thomas N.; Feldman, Paul D.; Dymond, Kenneth F.; Sahnow, David J. (1986). "Rocket ultraviolet ...
1986). "A model for the coma of Comet Halley, based on the Astron ultraviolet spectrophotometry". Pis'ma v Astronomicheskii ... based on the Astron ultraviolet spectrophotometry". Pis'ma v Astronomicheskii Zhurnal. 12: 696. Bibcode:1986PAZh...12..696B. A. ... The payload consisted of an 80 cm ultraviolet telescope, which was jointly designed by the USSR and France, and an X-ray ... Based on the 4MV spacecraft design and operational for six years, Astron was the largest ultraviolet space telescope of its ...
Bohlin, R. C.; Gilliland, R. L. (2004). "Hubble Space Telescope Absolute Spectrophotometry of Vega from the Far-Ultraviolet to ... The UBV photometric system measures the magnitude of stars through ultraviolet, blue and yellow filters, producing U, B and V ... ISBN 978-0-226-10953-4. Michelson, E. (1981). "The near ultraviolet stellar spectra of alpha Lyrae and beta Orionis". Monthly ... ISBN 978-0-521-59889-7. Cochran, A. L. (1981). "Spectrophotometry with a self-scanned silicon photodiode array. II - Secondary ...
Hydrogen is easily detected in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible ranges from its absorption and emission of light (the hydrogen ... Advances in Standards and Methodology in Spectrophotometry. Burlington: Elsevier Science. p. 1. ISBN 978-0444599056. "A ... These mixed-molecular ices are exposed to ultraviolet radiation and cosmic rays, which results in complex radiation-driven ... However, these measurements have limitations, with various types of radiation (radio, infrared, visible, ultraviolet etc.) able ...
Millikan, R.A.; Sawyer, R.A. (1919). "Three fourth of an Octave farther in the Ultra-violet". Science. 50 (1284): 138-139. ... Advances in Standards and Methodology in Spectrophotometry. Burlington: Elsevier Science. p. 1. ISBN 9780444599056. "The Era of ... Hoag, J.B. (1927). "Wavelengths of Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen in the Extreme Ultraviolet with a Concave Grating at Grazing ... Millikan, R.A.; Sawyer, R.A. (1918). "Extreme ultraviolet spectra of hot sparks in high vacuum". Phys. Rev. 12 (2): 168. ...
"Fluorescence spectrophotometry of reduced phosphopyridine nucleotide in intact cells in the near-ultraviolet and visible region ...
Zscheile, F. P.; Sidwell, A. E. (1937). "Photoelectric Spectrophotometry. An Apparatus for the Ultra-violet and Visible ...
Cooksey, Catherine C.; Allen, David W. (2013-05-23). Reflectance measurements of human skin from the ultraviolet to the ... Cooksey is a leading expert in spectrophotometry and low uncertainty methods of measuring spectral reflectance and ... She is responsible for realizing and maintaining NIST's national scale for spectral transmittance at ultraviolet, visible, and ...
The NIFA administers cobalt-60 radiation source, Laser absorption spectrometer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry, Near- ... infrared spectrometer and Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. A library was opened in 1990, and recently, the institute has ...
Ultraviolet fluorescence and infrared analysis are used to detect repairs or earlier painting present on canvasses. Atomic ... Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) are used to detect anomalies in ...
She utilized spectroscopic methods, including ultraviolet spectrophotometry in her studies and worked to develop analytical ... Hill worked on the properties of ultraviolet light, developing analytic methodology, and, in collaboration with her husband ...
"In situ ultraviolet spectrophotometry for high resolution and long-term monitoring of nitrate, bromide and bisulfide in the ... "Direct ultraviolet spectrophotometric determination of total sulfide and iodide in natural waters", Analytical Chemistry, 73 ( ...
... use single instrument containing both the optical and electronic components needed for ultraviolet-absorption spectrophotometry ... Described as "famous" it gave the field of Raman spectrophotometry a "tremendous boost" in the United States. Other instruments ... Beckman, A. O.; Gallaway, W. S.; Kaye, W.; Ulrich, W. F. (1977). "History of spectrophotometry at Beckman Instruments, Inc". ... Cary made substantial contributions, including the design of a reliable ultraviolet phototube for the instrument.: 164 The DU ...
Barstow, M. A.; Holberg, J. B.; Koester, D. (1994), "Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of HD16538 and HR:8210 Ik-Pegasi", ... Recent measurements with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer space telescope gave a more accurate orbital period of 21.72168 ± ... nm which lies in the far ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Brown, A. G. A.; et al. (Gaia collaboration) (August ... making it a strong source of ultraviolet radiation. Under normal conditions this white dwarf would continue to cool for more ...
"Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry of HD16538 and HR:8210 Ik-Pegasi", Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 270 ...
... micrometers Ultraviolet and infrared energy sources Photometric colour determination equipment X-ray fluorescence and spectro-photometry ... Some inks may react to ultraviolet light, for example. Does the stamp have the correct tagging? Does the stamp have the correct ...
... use single instrument containing both the optical and electronic components needed for ultraviolet-absorption spectrophotometry ... on an instrument to find the energy of ultraviolet light. It worked by shining the ultraviolet light onto a thermocouple, ... There was also growing interest in examining ultraviolet spectra beyond that range. Just as Beckman had created a single easy- ... It produced accurate absorption spectra in both the ultraviolet and the visible regions of the spectrum with relative ease and ...
... see also Spectrophotometry). For example, the Johnson UVB filters can be used to detect an ultraviolet (UV) excess in stars, ... Among stars of the same color, less metallic stars emit more ultraviolet radiation. The Sun, with 8 planets and 5 known dwarf ... Wallerstein, George; Carlson, Maurice (September 1960). "Letter to the Editor: on the Ultraviolet Excess in G Dwarfs". The ... Carney, B. W. (October 1979). "Subdwarf ultraviolet excesses and metal abundances". The Astrophysical Journal. 233: 211. ...
... electron microscopy with X-ray and energy dispersive fluorescence X-ray radiography ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometry ...
... spectrophotometry, ultraviolet MeSH E05.196.867.838 - spectroscopy, electron energy-loss MeSH E05.196.867.838.500 - microscopy ... spectrophotometry, ultraviolet MeSH E05.196.867.151 - circular dichroism MeSH E05.196.867.519 - magnetic resonance spectroscopy ... spectrophotometry, atomic MeSH E05.196.712.726.676 - spectrophotometry, infrared MeSH E05.196.712.726.676.700 - spectroscopy, ... spectrophotometry, atomic MeSH E05.196.867.826.676 - spectrophotometry, infrared MeSH E05.196.867.826.676.700 - spectroscopy, ...
3 This Auto-focusing Normal Incidence instrument is designed for use in the extreme ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet region ( ... Spectroscopy Laboratory equipment Raman spectroscopy Infrared spectroscopy Spectrometer Monochromator Optics Spectrophotometry ... Ultraviolet Monochromator (US Patent No. 3,211,049)3 This grazing incidence Rowland circle instrument is designed for use in ... Some of these include: Monochromator Adapted for use in the Ultraviolet Region (US Patent No. 3,090,863) ...
... passband for the ultraviolet light, (~320-380 nm, mean 364 nm) B: passband for the blue light, including some violet, (~395-500 ... and spectrophotometry". Icarus. 25 (1): 104-130. Bibcode:1975Icar...25..104C. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(75)90191-8. Thomas H. ...
The smoking gun: Researchers found less dimming in the infrared light from the star than in its ultraviolet light. Any object ... February 2018). "Non-grey dimming events of KIC 8462852 from GTC spectrophotometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 610 (12). L12. ...
Kalckar, H.M.; Bessmann, Alice N. (1947b). "Differential Spectrophotometry of Purine Compounds by Means of Specific Enzymes: II ... The lab was equipped with a Beckman DU ultraviolet spectrophotometer, introduced in 1941 and still relatively rare; Kalckar ... Kalckar, H.M.; Shafran, Manya (1947c). "Differential Spectrophotometry of Purine Compounds by Means of Specific Enzymes: III. ... Singleton 2007b Kalckar, H.M.; Shafran, Manya (1947a). "Differential Spectrophotometry of Purine Compounds by Means of Specific ...
Ceres is well within the snow line, exposed to ultraviolet, and Cererean water was considered speculative, at least on its ... Feierberg, M; Lebofsky, L; Tholen, D (1985). "The nature of C-class asteroids from 3u spectrophotometry". Icarus. 63 (2): 191. ... Lesser signs of water include ultraviolet/visible (OH 0-0, 308 Å), mid-infrared, and longer. The hydrogen nucleus- one proton- ... Observations of (1) Ceres emitting hydroxide (OH), the product of water after exposure to the Sun's ultraviolet levels, were ...
UVS-M the Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer was to find the distribution of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen in the upper atmosphere, ... SVET the High-Resolution Mapping Spectrometer was designed for spectrophotometry of Mars in absorption bands of some rocks that ...
Hawley's research involved spectrophotometry of gaseous nebulae and emission-line galaxies, with particular emphasis on ... the primary operator of a second telescope carried in the crew module and used for several days to make broadband ultraviolet ...
Gas phase titration has several advantages over simple spectrophotometry. First, the measurement does not depend on path length ... DeMore, W.B.; M. Patapoff (September 1976). "Comparison of Ozone Determinations by Ultraviolet Photometry and Gas-Phase ...
Dodd, R. J. (April 2007), "Unified Absolute Spectrophotometry for Star Clusters", in Sterken, C. (ed.), The Future of ... Niemczura, E. (June 2003), "Metallicities of the SPB stars from the IUE ultraviolet spectra", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 404 ( ...
Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy Vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy Video ... Raman spectroscopy Saturated spectroscopy Scanning tunneling spectroscopy Spectrophotometry Spin noise spectroscopy traces ... Electronic excitations are studied using visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy as well as fluorescence spectroscopy. Studies in ... Atomic absorption spectroscopy and atomic emission spectroscopy involve visible and ultraviolet light. These absorptions and ...
... e1 Test Method for Vinyl and Trans Unsaturation in Polyethylene by Infrared Spectrophotometry D6249 - 19 Guide for Alkaline ... 12 Practice for Preparation of Textiles Prior to Ultraviolet (UV) Transmission Testing D6545 - 18 Test Method for Flammability ... Test Method for Determination of Total Volatile Sulfur in Gaseous Hydrocarbons and Liquefied Petroleum Gases by Ultraviolet ... Inorganic Carbon and Organic Carbon in Water by Ultraviolet, Persulfate Oxidation, and Membrane Conductivity Detection D6318 - ...
A Guide to Spectroradiometry: Instruments & Applications for the Ultraviolet. Guide. N.p., 1997. Web. American Astronomical ... Radiometer Spectrometer Spectroradiometry Spectrophotometry Leslie D. Stroebel and Richard D. Zakia (1993). Focal Encyclopedia ...
The electromagnetic radiation of the primary is concentrated in the far ultraviolet, so the visual and ultraviolet spectra are ... Pakull, M. W. (1991). "Spectrophotometry of Ring Nebulae around Wolf-Rayet Stars". In van der Hucht, Karel A.; Hidayat, Bambang ... Unfortunately this is impractical for AB7 because the majority of the radiation occurs in the far ultraviolet. A more common ...
Spectrophotometry in infrared light is mainly used to study structure of substances, as given groups give absorption at defined ... A photometer is an instrument that measures the strength of electromagnetic radiation in the range from ultraviolet to infrared ... Absorption photometers for work in aqueous solution work in the ultraviolet and visible ranges, from wavelength around 240 nm ... The light sensing element in photon counting devices in NIR, visible and ultraviolet wavelengths is a photomultiplier to ...
Other important diagnostic tools of clinical chemistry, including the methods of spectrophotometry, electrophoresis and ... ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy, were all first developed and applied in Western laboratories, hospitals and factories.[ ...
This color is determined by the frequency of plasma oscillations among the metal's valence electrons, in the ultraviolet range ... ISBN 978-0-412-30410-1. Marczenko, Zygmunt & Balcerzak, María (2000). Separation, preconcentration, and spectrophotometry in ...
January 1999). "Far-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectroscopy of Io's Atmosphere with HST/STIS". Science. 283 (5400): 353-357. Bibcode: ... 1980). "Spectrophotometry of Io: Preliminary Voyager 1 results". Geophys. Res. Lett. 7 (11): 963-966. Bibcode:1980GeoRL...7.. ... 1979). "Extreme ultraviolet observations from Voyager 1 encounter with Jupiter". Science. 204 (4396): 979-982. Bibcode:1979Sci ... To study similar variations within the plasma torus, researchers measure the ultraviolet light it emits. Although such ...
January 1982), "Ultraviolet spectrum variability of UX UMa", Astrophysical Journal, 252: L35-L37, Bibcode:1982ApJ...252L..35H, ... October 1983), "Time-resolved spectrophotometry of the nova-like variable UX Ursa Majoris", Astrophysical Journal Supplement ...
Spectrophotometry, AtomicSpectrophotometrySpectrophotometry, UltravioletUltraviolet TherapySpectrophotometry, InfraredPUVA ... Ultraviolet spectrophotometry is most common.. Normal Values: Values depend on the method used but generally range from 50 to ... Determination of the degree of acetyla-tion of chitosans by first derivative ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Reliable and and ... Sidney Kaye and Ebbe C. Hoff, Identification and Determination of Strychnine by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry, 43 J. Crim. L ...
Determination of oil content in wastewater by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Zhan Huiying. (College of Chemical Engineering, ... Oils in the wastewater determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry is easy to perform with a good precision and sensitivity, a ... In the present paper, oils in the wastewater were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry with the properties of easy ... Determination of oils in wastewater by ultraviolet spectrophotometry was based on characteristic absorption of aromatic ...
Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet * Taurocholic Acid / blood * Ursodeoxycholic Acid / blood Substances * Bile Acids and Salts ...
Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet Preferred Concept UI. M0020239. Scope Note. Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet ... Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry Previous Indexing. Spectrophotometry (1966-1972). Public MeSH Note. 73. History Note. 73. Date ... Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet Preferred Term Term UI T038474. Date01/01/1999. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1973). ... Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry Term UI T038473. Date04/11/1994. LexicalTag NON. ThesaurusID NLM (1995). ...
Development of methodology to aid in the exposure assessment of ultraviolet radiation in the workplace is the goal of the work ... Absorption-spectrophotometry; Light-source; Light-emission ... capable of determining the exposure of workers to ultraviolet ... Measurement-equipment; Workplace-monitoring; Exposure-assessment; Occupational-exposure; Testing-equipment; Ultraviolet- ...
Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet. 1. 2009. 237. 0.020. Why? Spectrophotometry, Infrared. 1. 2009. 119. 0.020. Why? ...
... using spectrophotometry and ultraviolet (UV) photography, and show that the blue throat and the blue spots located on the ... Colouration in male blue-throated keeled lizards (Algyroides nigropunctatus): Evidence for ultraviolet reflectance of throat ...
Blood, tissue, and urine concentrations of MDA were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry after identification by gas ...
Most of our photometry and spectrophotometry are measured from the same region of each galaxy, and our spectrophotometry has ... Most of our photometry and spectrophotometry are measured from the same region of each galaxy, and our spectrophotometry has ... Most of our photometry and spectrophotometry are measured from the same region of each galaxy, and our spectrophotometry has ... Most of our photometry and spectrophotometry are measured from the same region of each galaxy, and our spectrophotometry has ...
u003cbr\u003e5.1 Ultraviolet\/visible spectrophotometry. \u003cbr\u003e5.2 Infrared spectroscopy. \u003cbr\u003e5.3 ... u003cbr\u003e5.1 Ultraviolet\/visible spectrophotometry. \u003cbr\u003e5.2 Infrared spectroscopy. \u003cbr\u003e5.3 ...
In addition, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to characterize WEOC stability. Organic N ... Assessing the Quality of Dissolved Organic Matter in Forest Soils using Ultraviolet Absorption Spectrophotometry. Soil Science ... In addition, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to characterize WEOC stability. Organic N ... Weishaar, J.L., Aiken, G.R., Bergamaschi, B.A., Fram, M.S., Fujii, R. and Mopper, K. (2003) Evaluation of Specific Ultraviolet ...
Withdrawn samples were diluted appropriately, and estimated for the drug content by ultraviolet spectrophotometry at 228 nm. ... The ultraviolet spectra were taken before and after sterilization at 0 h and 24 h using double beam ultraviolet-visible ... Ultraviolet spectra of the ingredients before and after sterilization at 0 h and 24 h were identical. No additional peak was ...
An ultraviolet spectrophotometer was used to measure the concentration of SBX remaining in the solution before and after ... and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrophotometry (ICP-OES) were used to calculate the reagent ion adsorption ... The Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurement, ultraviolet spectrophotometer (UV), ...
Spectrophotometry is the traditional method used to measure DNA. Most labs know of the Nanodrop series, which determines the ... quantity of ultraviolet radiation that gets absorbed by bases in solutions in order to assess the concentration of RNA or DNA ...
This technical article aims to describe the development and validation of an analytical method based on ultraviolet-visible (UV ... absorption spectrophotometry, designed to evaluate the content of 2-furfura... ...
Hemoglobin or Hb structure, normal range chart, function, low and high levels Heme unit, oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in red blood cells or RBCs
Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet, Zoledronic Acid ...
Aliquots from the receptor compartment were withdrawn (1 mL) and analyzed by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry ( ...
... and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Samples were studied from the following selected fields: El Morgan, Egypt; Duri, Indonesia; ... Six crude oil samples were analyzed to evaluate gas- liquid chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, infrared ...
... ultra-violet (UV) fluorescence method, and UV-spectrophotometry method are used for NO2, SO2, and O3 concentrations, ...
Retinol and retinyl esters are most often analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. While these methods provide acceptable ...
... to calculate the compositions of buffers of defined buffer capacity and ionic strength for ultra-violet spectrophotometry ...
Spectrophotometry. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Ultraviolet Rays --adverse effects. en_US. ... Near ultraviolet radiation induced changes in goat lens. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics. 1996 Oct; 33(5): 403-8. ... The possibility that the ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and other ambient sources as a major causative factor for the ...
Amino acid composition analysis: contribution of ultraviolet derivative spectrophotometry and retention time prediction. ...
  • Six crude oil samples were analyzed to evaluate gas- liquid chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometry, infrared spectroscopy, sulfur and nitrogen determinations, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and ultraviolet spectrophotometry. (
  • We want to make through epub Ultraviolet Spectroscopy, server-side and British research through our present-day corporations. (
  • In This Edition Chromatography - Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy: A Versatile Tool for Analysis of Gasoline and Jet Fuels - High-performance Columns and Bulk for your Chromatography - New L. (
  • Ultraviolet Spectroscopy 9. (
  • Determination of oils in wastewater by ultraviolet spectrophotometry was based on characteristic absorption of aromatic compounds with conjugated bond and benzene ring in oils in ultraviolet region. (
  • Oils and its products have characteristic absorption in ultraviolet region. (
  • Absorption spectrophotometry, ultraviolet and visible. (
  • Abstract: the practical application principle of ultraviolet spectrophotometry is to judge substances according to the different absorption degree of ultraviolet rays by different substances. (
  • Regardless of the lifestyles of many aggressive analytical recommendations, molecular absorption spectrophotometry nonetheless is still extremely popular in perform, rather in biochemical, scientific, natural, agricultural, foodstuff and environmental analyses. (
  • In addition, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopies were used to characterize WEOC stability. (
  • The investigations included the development of an electrophoretic separation method, the optimization of an extraction procedure for inks from paper as well as the evaluation of ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS) absorbance and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection for the analysis of inks by CE. (
  • Techniques at the museum include optical microscopy, ultraviolet and infrared photography, portable X-ray fluorescence and spectrophotometry. (
  • the test is positive if the blood spot fails to show fluorescence under ultraviolet light. (
  • Biochemists depend on ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry to quantify the nucleic acid or. (
  • A precise, reliable, rapid, and inexpensive simple approach for the analysis of bisacodyl tablets has been devised and validated using UV spectrophotometry with absorbance technique. (
  • Blood, tissue, and urine concentrations of MDA were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry after identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (
  • GV (ceramic brackets) and GVI (polycarbonate brackets) were immersed in Replasul "S"®. Relative quantitative analysis of the influence of plaque disclosing tablets on bracket staining was performed using reflectance spectrophotometry of stain deposition. (
  • Because UV spectrophotometry has the characteristics of simple operation and high sensitivity in practical application, it is widely used in food detection and safety analysis by food safety inspection departments. (
  • Based on this, this paper will stand on the application of UV Spectrophotometry in food detection and food safety analysis, explore the scope of application and practical results, and look forward to its future development space based on reality and combined with the development trend of the times. (
  • Ultraviolet/visible scans can be used to compare spectra of the separated main and trace components of inks. (
  • Development of methodology to aid in the exposure assessment of ultraviolet radiation in the workplace is the goal of the work carried out in this phase I SBIR proposal. (
  • Most labs know of the Nanodrop series, which determines the quantity of ultraviolet radiation that gets absorbed by bases in solutions in order to assess the concentration of RNA or DNA in a sample. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Near ultraviolet radiation induced changes in goat lens. (
  • The possibility that the ultraviolet radiation from sunlight and other ambient sources as a major causative factor for the onset of cataract processes and photolytic changes of the eye lens constituents was studied. (
  • Machine-learning prediction model for acute skin toxicity after breast radiation therapy using spectrophotometry. (
  • Because ultraviolet light has this characteristic, it can be applied to the judgment of substances. (
  • Oils in the wastewater determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry is easy to perform with a good precision and sensitivity, a broad measurement range as well. (
  • abstract = "We present calibrations for star formation rate (SFR) indicators in the ultraviolet, mid-infrared, and radio-continuum bands, including one of the first direct calibrations of 150 MHz as an SFR indicator. (
  • These assessments typically only consider retinyl esters and/or free retinol, however a need has been recognized in the literature for retinoid analysis to establish what linkages exist between depressed levels of retinol/retinyl esters caused by pollutant exposure and how this may impact levels of biologically active vitamin A. Retinol and retinyl esters are most often analyzed by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. (
  • Spectrophotometry is the most widely used technique in pharmaceutical analysis because of its inherent simplicity and wide availability in most quality control laboratories [ 8 ]. (
  • The research carried out here demonstrates that chemical actinometry using 3 mm ID quartz tubes along with a photometer constructed from a light emitting diode and a light sensitive diode, constitutes an inexpensive, accurate system capable of determining the exposure of workers to ultraviolet hazards. (
  • additionally, the tactic and its instrumentation has lately gone through huge improvement leading to a few new unique techniques of spectrophotometry within the ultraviolet (UV) and visual (VIS) areas. (
  • even if there are many finished textbooks facing UV/VIS spectrophotometry, they generally tend to explain historic points or comprise collections of specified techniques for the decision of analytes and don't replicate sufficiently the current nation of the strategy and level of improvement reached. (
  • Lei donadas de la sonda Galileo , estudiadas tornarmai en 2009, mostrarà la preséncia d'un camp magnetic que necessitariá l'existéncia de magma liquid a 50 km de la superficia [7] . (
  • Here, we describe the colouration of 13 male blue-throated keeled lizards from Cres Island (Croatia) using spectrophotometry and ultraviolet (UV) photography, and show that the blue throat and the blue spots located on the flanks reflect in the UV part of the spectrum. (
  • Spectrophotometry is the traditional method used to measure DNA. (
  • The ultraviolet (UV) region of the electromagnetic spectrum corresponds to conjugated bond energies. (
  • 12. Most of our photometry and spectrophotometry are measured from the same region of each galaxy, and our spectrophotometry has been validated with SDSS photometry, so our random and systematic errors are small relative to the intrinsic scatter seen in SFR indicator calibrations. (
  • The levels of elements were measured by using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. (
  • Percentages of zinc oxide in the test sample and ten other commercially available brands of talcum powder were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. (
  • The compound responsible for this peak has been identified by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and by mass spectrometry as dimethylkynuramine (DMK). (
  • Blood, tissue, and urine concentrations of MDA were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry after identification by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. (
  • Sample identification was made with thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification with ultraviolet spectrophotometry (only in unadulterated samples). (
  • Non-targeted methods will use the full spectra from simple near infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet spectrophotometry (UV) and sophisticated mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) instruments to acquire as complete data as possible for botanical materials. (
  • The basic parts of a spectrophotometer are a light source (often an incandescent bulb for the visible wavelengths, or a deuterium arc lamp in the ultraviolet), a holder for the sample, a diffraction grating or monochromator to separate the different wavelengths of light, and a detector. (
  • The combined determination of benzoic acid (sodium) and sorbic acid (potassium ) in acidic foods was achieved using a standard spectrophotometer using an ultraviolet spectrophotometer [7]. (
  • They are probably talking about spectrophotometry and more specifically about an UV-Visible spectrophotometer, used to analyze "color" of molecules. (
  • The ultraviolet spectrophotometer is laboratory analytical equipment that uses the interaction between light and matter to analyze materials. (
  • Spectrophotometry was conducted on the solutions proposed with SF−56 spectrophotometer in spectral range 190−1100 nm. (
  • This type is called a double beam UV visible spectrophotometer, where ultraviolet rays are used. (
  • Characterizations of silver nano particles (AgNPs) were determined by using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction . (
  • The CuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-vis). (
  • The effects of different I-doping concentrations in the electrolytic bath on the deposited CdTe layers deposited were evaluated structurally, optically, morphologically and electronically using X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, photoelectrochemical cell measurement and direct-current (DC) conductivity test respectively. (
  • GV (ceramic brackets) and GVI (polycarbonate brackets) were immersed in Replasul "S"®. Relative quantitative analysis of the influence of plaque disclosing tablets on bracket staining was performed using reflectance spectrophotometry of stain deposition. (
  • 19. Evaluation of the effect of topical agents on radiation-induced skin disease by reflectance spectrophotometry. (
  • the test is positive if the blood spot fails to show fluorescence under ultraviolet light. (
  • The particle size of the fabricated nanophosphors varied in the range of 300 to 500 nm and emitted a red green fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) light (Bharat et al. (
  • This method allowed the synthesis of nanoparticles, which was confirmed by ultraviolet-visible UV-Vis spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy TEM. (
  • The ultraviolet spectrum of such an intact molecule is a composite absorption band envelope containing the unresolved contributions from the chromophoric arrays compressed into a narrow wavelength range. (
  • Unlike consumer digital cameras and the human eye, which only see red, green and blue light, a relatively narrow portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, each pixel of a hyperspectral image captures information for hundreds of narrow spectral bands-from the ultraviolet to the infrared. (
  • Here, the principle is that functional groups or regions within the protein absorb light in the ultraviolet or visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum (200-800 nm). (
  • The study yielded the following results: Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric analyses of varIOUS effluent samples collected from different locations at the mill indicated the presence of aromatic compounds. (
  • The ultraviolet, x rays and gamma rays are the high energy electromagnetic waves. (
  • Sunscreens protect against the sun's ultraviolet rays that tan the skin and cause photoaging. (
  • OPTIZEN Alpha can grasp the quantitative characteristics equivalent to density or purity by measuring transmittance or optical density in accordance with wavelength of pattern in the range of ultraviolet rays and visual ray. (
  • To develop and validate two analytical methods by UV spectrophotometry to quantify lamivudine and zidovudine in dissolution test. (
  • Rogers, AR & Smith, G 1973, ' The determination of physostigmine by thin layer chromatography and ultraviolet spectrophotometry ', Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications , vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 125-136. (
  • A method was established for the determination of carboxyl groups in pulp by ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometry. (
  • The determination of benzoic acid, a food preservative, is usually carried out using ether-based alkali titration and steam distillation ultraviolet spectrophotometry. (
  • 1948) described a sensitive method, using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, for the estimation of caffeine in coffee preparations. (
  • But in addition, Intertek PTL also performs other common analytical plastic tests required by the plastics industry, including Karl Fischer Moisture Analysis (ASTM D6869, ISO 15512) and Ultraviolet Visible Spectrophotometry UV/VIS to name just a few. (
  • Prof. Marceli Struszyński, appreciating their role and importance in modern analytical chemistry, encouraged his collaborators to master and apply new techniques (spectrophotometry in visible light and ultraviolet, emission spectrometry and electrochemical and chromatographic techniques). (
  • This will be supplemented by microscopy (phase contrast, electron and multi-photon confocal), spectrophotometry, ocular coherence tomography, videokeratography, finite element analysis and computer modelling of light scattering. (
  • See 1 E-7 m for a list of objects of comparable sizes.In photolithography, in laser technology, etc., the term deep ultraviolet or DUV refers to wavelengths below 300nm.The name means 'beyond violet' (from Latin ultra , 'beyond'), violet being the colour of the shortest wavelengths of visible light. (
  • Many fruits, flowers, and seeds stand out more strongly from the background in ultraviolet wavelengths as compared to human colour vision. (
  • These lamps emit ultraviolet light with two main peaks in the UVC band at wavelengths of 253.7 nm and 185 nm due to the mercury within the lamp, as well as some visible light. (
  • In the TSB test, spectrophotometry is used to identify and quantify the amount of bilirubin in a specific amount of serum by measuring the amount of ultraviolet light absorbed by bilirubin pigment in the sample. (
  • Specific applications of spectrophotometry include measuring levels of bilirubin, hemoglobin, and glucose in the blood. (
  • or a spectrograph, used in astronomy to determine elemental composition of planets and stars. (
  • The research carried out here demonstrates that chemical actinometry using 3 mm ID quartz tubes along with a photometer constructed from a light emitting diode and a light sensitive diode, constitutes an inexpensive, accurate system capable of determining the exposure of workers to ultraviolet hazards. (
  • It uses light in the visible and adjacent near ultraviolet (UV) and near infrared (NIR) ranges. (
  • At that time, many scientists, including Ritter, concluded that light was composed of three separate components: an oxidising or calorific component (infrared), an illuminating component (visible light), and a reducing or hydrogenating component (ultraviolet). (
  • What is Ultraviolet Light? (
  • What does Ultraviolet Light remove from water? (
  • How does Ultraviolet Light work? (
  • What are the benefits of Ultraviolet Light? (
  • How does ELGA LabWater use Ultraviolet Light? (
  • Ultraviolet (UV) light is used, as described above, to inactivate microorganisms and photo-oxidise organic impurities. (
  • Previously, reusable quartz cuvettes were necessary for measurements in the ultraviolete (UV) range, because most plastics and optical glass materials absorb the ultraviolet light, resulting in interference. (
  • Ten amino acids of various types were determined by UV spectrophotometry after derivatization to their dithiocarbamates in a two-phase system of 6% aqueous sodium hydroxide-carbon disulphide. (
  • Double Beam Spectrophotometry in the Far Ultraviolet. (
  • Richard G. Schmitt and Richard K. Brehm, "Double Beam Spectrophotometry in the Far Ultraviolet. (
  • Visible spectrophotometry using a tungsten lamp and deuterium lamp allows concentration measurement. (
  • 5] Benzoic acid and sorbic acid are both conjugated organic compounds with strong absorption in the near ultraviolet region. (
  • In addition, content of carboxyl groups was measured with the capacity of copper ions exchanged with the hydrogen ions of carboxylic acid by UV spectrophotometry. (
  • Quasiment tous les échantillons de sel iodé contenaient des concentrations en iode respectant les normes égyptiennes. (
  • The use of UVâ Vis spectrophotometry especially applied in the analysis of pharmaceutical dosage form has increased rapidly over the last few years (Tella et al. (
  • The objective of this study was to establish standard curve for fluorescence quantitative analysis by lambda DNA, to compare the difference between dsDNA value in fluorescence system and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, and to identify the allelic variations of rust resistance genes in wheat. (
  • Protein analysis uses spectrophotometry. (
  • This detector can be used for monitoring fires, microbial sterilization/disinfection processing, and spectrophotometry analysis. (
  • The analysis of oxidation process in water solutions, allowed identification of benzoquinone formation using ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometry, due to its specific maxima at 247 and 500 nm. (
  • Standards development has itself been hindered by a lack of human skin reflectance data, especially in the ultraviolet and short-wave infrared. (
  • The HST data are analyzed along with ground-based optical and IUE spectrophotometry. (