Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared: A noninvasive technique that uses the differential absorption properties of hemoglobin and myoglobin to evaluate tissue oxygenation and indirectly can measure regional hemodynamics and blood flow. Near-infrared light (NIR) can propagate through tissues and at particular wavelengths is differentially absorbed by oxygenated vs. deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin and myoglobin. Illumination of intact tissue with NIR allows qualitative assessment of changes in the tissue concentration of these molecules. The analysis is also used to determine body composition.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Prosthesis Coloring: Coloring, shading, or tinting of prosthetic components, devices, and materials.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oxyhemoglobins: A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.SulfhemoglobinOptical Imaging: The use of light interaction (scattering, absorption, and fluorescence) with biological tissue to obtain morphologically based information. It includes measuring inherent tissue optical properties such as scattering, absorption, and autofluorescence; or optical properties of exogenous targeted fluorescent molecular probes such as those used in optical MOLECULAR IMAGING, or nontargeted optical CONTRAST AGENTS.Dental Polishing: Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.Tooth Bleaching Agents: Chemicals that are used to oxidize pigments in TEETH and thus effect whitening.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Calycanthaceae: A plant family of the order Laurales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Dental Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of dental prostheses in general or a specific dental prosthesis. It does not include DENTURE DESIGN. The framework usually consists of metal.Immersion: The placing of a body or a part thereof into a liquid.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Crowns: A prosthetic restoration that reproduces the entire surface anatomy of the visible natural crown of a tooth. It may be partial (covering three or more surfaces of a tooth) or complete (covering all surfaces). It is made of gold or other metal, porcelain, or resin.Ytterbium: Ytterbium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Yb, atomic number 70, and atomic weight 173. Ytterbium has been used in lasers and as a portable x-ray source.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Coloring Agents: Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS.Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Autoanalysis: Method of analyzing chemicals using automation.Thulium: Thulium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Tm, atomic number 69, and atomic weight 168.93.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.MethemoglobinMetals, Heavy: Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Tympanic Membrane Perforation: A temporary or persistent opening in the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE). Clinical signs depend on the size, location, and associated pathological condition.Indocyanine Green: A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Saliva, Artificial: A solution used for irrigating the mouth in xerostomia and as a substitute for saliva.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Spectrum Analysis, Raman: Analysis of the intensity of Raman scattering of monochromatic light as a function of frequency of the scattered light.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Photometry: Measurement of the various properties of light.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Solutions: The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Caloric Tests: Elicitation of a rotatory nystagmus by stimulating the semicircular canals with water or air which is above or below body temperature. In warm caloric stimulation a rotatory nystagmus is developed toward the side of the stimulated ear; in cold, away from the stimulated side. Absence of nystagmus indicates the labyrinth is not functioning.Acrylic ResinsZinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Lecithins: A complex mixture of PHOSPHOLIPIDS; GLYCOLIPIDS; and TRIGLYCERIDES; with substantial amounts of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES; PHOSPHATIDYLETHANOLAMINES; and PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS, which are sometimes loosely termed as 1,2-diacyl-3-phosphocholines. Lecithin is a component of the CELL MEMBRANE and commercially extracted from SOYBEANS and EGG YOLK. The emulsifying and surfactant properties are useful in FOOD ADDITIVES and for forming organogels (GELS).Tomography, Optical: Projection of near-IR light (INFRARED RAYS), in the 700-1000 nm region, across an object in parallel beams to an array of sensitive photodetectors. This is repeated at various angles and a mathematical reconstruction provides three dimensional MEDICAL IMAGING of tissues. Based on the relative transparency of tissues to this spectra, it has been used to monitor local oxygenation, brain and joints.Coffee: A beverage made from ground COFFEA beans (SEEDS) infused in hot water. It generally contains CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE unless it is decaffeinated.Metals, Rare Earth: A group of elements that include SCANDIUM; YTTRIUM; and the LANTHANOID SERIES ELEMENTS. Historically, the rare earth metals got their name from the fact that they were never found in their pure elemental form, but as an oxide. In addition they were very difficult to purify. They are not truly rare and comprise about 25% of the metals in the earth's crust.Carbocyanines: Compounds that contain three methine groups. They are frequently used as cationic dyes used for differential staining of biological materials.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Nanoshells: Nanometer range spherical cores of particular semiconductor compounds surrounded by an ultrathin metal shell that is commonly made of gold or silver. This configuration gives the nanoshells highly tunable optical properties. They have potential in biomedicine for diagnosis and therapy.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.ComputersNanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Least-Squares Analysis: A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Semiconductors: Materials that have a limited and usually variable electrical conductivity. They are particularly useful for the production of solid-state electronic devices.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Molecular Imaging: The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.Lead: A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy: Analysis of the energy absorbed across a spectrum of x-ray energies/wavelengths to determine the chemical structure and electronic states of the absorbing medium.Quality Control: A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Thermography: Imaging the temperatures in a material, or in the body or an organ. Imaging is based on self-emanating infrared radiation (HEAT WAVES), or on changes in properties of the material or tissue that vary with temperature, such as ELASTICITY; MAGNETIC FIELD; or LUMINESCENCE.Nanostructures: Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Blood Gas Monitoring, Transcutaneous: The noninvasive measurement or determination of the partial pressure (tension) of oxygen and/or carbon dioxide locally in the capillaries of a tissue by the application to the skin of a special set of electrodes. These electrodes contain photoelectric sensors capable of picking up the specific wavelengths of radiation emitted by oxygenated versus reduced hemoglobin.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Molecular Probe Techniques: The use of devices which use detector molecules to detect, investigate, or analyze other molecules, macromolecules, molecular aggregates, or organisms.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Quantum Dots: Nanometer sized fragments of semiconductor crystalline material which emit PHOTONS. The wavelength is based on the quantum confinement size of the dot. They can be embedded in MICROBEADS for high throughput ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.Spectroscopy, Mossbauer: A spectroscopic technique which uses the Mossbauer effect (inelastic scattering of gamma radiation resulting from interaction with heavy nuclei) to monitor the small variations in the interaction between an atomic nucleus and its environment. Such variations may be induced by changes in temperature, pressure, chemical state, molecular conformation, molecular interaction, or physical site. It is particularly useful for studies of structure-activity relationship in metalloproteins, mobility of heavy metals, and the state of whole tissue and cell membranes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Microscopy, Fluorescence, Multiphoton: Fluorescence microscopy utilizing multiple low-energy photons to produce the excitation event of the fluorophore. Multiphoton microscopes have a simplified optical path in the emission side due to the lack of an emission pinhole, which is necessary with normal confocal microscopes. Ultimately this allows spatial isolation of the excitation event, enabling deeper imaging into optically thick tissue, while restricting photobleaching and phototoxicity to the area being imaged.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Whole Body Imaging: The creation of a visual display of the inside of the entire body of a human or animal for the purposes of diagnostic evaluation. This is most commonly achieved by using MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; or POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Ophthalmoscopy: Examination of the interior of the eye with an ophthalmoscope.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Deuterium Oxide: The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.PhotochemistryCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Heme: The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Electrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Lasers, Semiconductor: Lasers with a semiconductor diode as the active medium. Diode lasers transform electric energy to light using the same principle as a light-emitting diode (LED), but with internal reflection capability, thus forming a resonator where a stimulated light can reflect back and forth, allowing only a certain wavelength to be emitted. The emission of a given device is determined by the active compound used (e.g., gallium arsenide crystals doped with aluminum or indium). Typical wavelengths are 810, 1,060 and 1,300 nm. (From UMDNS, 2005)Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Phosphorus Isotopes: Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Microspectrophotometry: Analytical technique for studying substances present at enzyme concentrations in single cells, in situ, by measuring light absorption. Light from a tungsten strip lamp or xenon arc dispersed by a grating monochromator illuminates the optical system of a microscope. The absorbance of light is measured (in nanometers) by comparing the difference between the image of the sample and a reference image.
This technique is called Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. When making transmission measurements, the spectrophotometer ... Spectrophotometers designed for the infrared region are quite different because of the technical requirements of measurement in ... Additionally, most modern mid-infrared spectrophotometers use a Fourier transform technique to acquire the spectral information ... Atomic absorption spectrophotometry Atomic emission spectroscopy Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy ...
Infrared light transmission photometry[edit]. Main article: Infrared spectroscopy. Spectrophotometry in infrared light is ... Two types of photometers are used: spectrophotometer and filter photometer. In spectrophotometers a monochromator (with prism ... Therefore, infrared spectroscopy is either performed in the gaseous phase (for volatile substances) or with the substances ... Spectrophotometers can thus easily be set to measure the absorbance at different wavelengths, and they can also be used to scan ...
... requiring Last to study it using infrared spectroscopy. Last used a new instrument, a Beckman IR-3 spectrophotometer, and ...
... and Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers Perkin Elmer Inc (2006). "An Introduction to Fluorescence Spectroscopy". Spectroscopy - ... This measurement is performed using a spectrophotometer. Traditional ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy or fluorescence ... Calibration Coefficients of absorption Fluorescence spectrophotometer UV-VIS spectrophotometer Spectrophotometry Handbooks ... Errors in the spectrophotometer such as light distribution can occur when light hits a scratched cuvette. A rubber or plastic ...
Randall of the University of Michigan on the improvement of infrared spectroscopy equipment for analysis of high-octane ... Initially the medical spectrophotometer had a mask-style attachment, into which the patient breathed. This was later modified ... is a pioneer in the development of instruments for infrared spectrophotometry and non-dispersive infrared analysis. Two of his ... Liston-Becker was one of a number of companies seeking to develop instruments to measure CO 2 using infrared absorption. Soon ...
One of the most promising method is based on optical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) where the optical absorbance, i.e. the ... An oil sample is placed in a cuvette and analyzed by a spectrophotometer on a wide range of wavelengths. The results (i.e. the ... Many commercial spectrophotometers exist that can be used for analysis of different quality parameters in olive oil. The main ... The feasibility to measure olive oil free acidity and peroxide value by NIR spectroscopy in the wavenumber range 4,541 to ...
"Infrared spectrophotometer", July 31, 1951, for the Beckman IR-2 spectrophotometer "Double folded-z-configuration monochromator ... The Cary Model 81 Raman Spectrophotometer was an important contribution to high-performance Raman spectroscopy. Described as " ... The Office of Rubber Reserve of the United States government contracted with NTL to produce an infrared spectrophotometer based ... Cary, H. H. (July 31, 1951). Infrared spectrophotometer. U.S. Patent 2,562,525A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark ...
The first low-cost spectrophotometer capable of recording an infrared spectrum was the Perkin-Elmer Infracord produced in 1957. ... Near-infrared[edit]. Main article: Near-infrared spectroscopy. The near-infrared region spans the wavelength range between the ... Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)[1] is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission ... why and how substances absorb and emit infrared light, see the article: Infrared spectroscopy. ...
... Orbiter Infrared gas analyzer Dobson unit Dobson ozone spectrophotometer Differential optical absorption spectroscopy ...
"Infrared Spectroscopy in the Petroleum Industry". Symposium on Spectroscopy in the Petroleum Industry. 32: 7-14. Beckman, A. O ... Brattain, Barnes, and others in the laboratory built a research-quality infrared spectrophotometer, using a rock salt prism, a ... It included infrared spectroscopy researchers at Cambridge (G.B.B.M. Sutherland), at Oxford (Harold Warris Thompson), and ... Companies such as Perkin-Elmer whose work was not as restricted, were able to publish about their work in infrared spectroscopy ...
... or spectrophotometer) to produce an infrared spectrum. An IR spectrum can be visualized in a graph of infrared light absorbance ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter ... Nonlinear two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy[18][19] is the infrared version of correlation spectroscopy. Nonlinear two- ... Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a measurement technique that allows one to record infrared spectra. Infrared ...
Main article: Infrared spectroscopy. Spectrophotometers designed for the infrared region are quite different because of the ... This technique is called Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. When making transmission measurements, the spectrophotometer ... Main article: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Most spectrophotometers are used in the UV and visible regions of the spectrum ... Additionally, most modern mid-infrared spectrophotometers use a Fourier transform technique to acquire the spectral information ...
IR spectroscopy is an important diagnostic technique in metal-carbonyl chemistry. The article infrared spectroscopy of metal ... often outside of the range for the usual IR spectrophotometers). Furthermore, the M-CO bond length is shortened. The weakening ...
Most of his work with Perkin-Elmer focused on computer-aided analytical chemistry, data reduction, infrared spectroscopy, time- ... While at Columbia, he co-invented the Savitzky-Halford ratio recording spectrophotometer, which was manufactured by Perkin- ... Savitzky started with Perkin-Elmer as a staff scientist who was chiefly concerned with the design and development of infrared ... more specifically in the digital processing of infrared spectra and was awarded seven patents in that field. During his long ...
This elaborate light meter uses a process known as spectroscopy to return a number that consistently indicates the roasted ... Bittering units are measured through the use of a spectrophotometer and solvent extraction. Several grades of coconut milk ... degree of roast involves measuring the reflected light from roasted seeds illuminated with a light source in the near infrared ...
The demand for synthetic rubber caused Beckman Instruments to develop infrared spectrophotometers. Infrared spectrophotometers ... The Model D spectrophotometer, using the experimental RCA phototube, was shown at MIT's Summer Conference on Spectroscopy in ... since by 1954 Beckman Instruments was marketing a separate infrared spectrophotometer. Beckman developed the IR-1 infrared ... All modern UV-Vis spectrophotometer are built on the same basic principles as the DU spectrophotometer. "Light from the ...
Versions of modernized Cary 14 spectrophotometers extend the wavelength range to 2500 nanometers in the near infrared spectrum ... Bauman, R. P. (1962). Absorption Spectroscopy. New York: Wiley. pp. 129-131. Two significant trends... extension of the ... The Cary Model 14 UV-VIS Spectrophotometer was a double beam recording spectrophotometer designed to operate over the wide ... including benchmarking with the Beckman DU Spectrophotometer, which was another leading spectrophotometer of the time. The ...
A superconducting quantum interference device measures the magnetometry while the Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy ... and double beam UV-visible spectrophotometer is used for the extinction, or removal, of the NPs gold spectra. A combination of ...
Furthermore, vibrational overtones and combination bands occur in the near-infrared region. The HITRAN spectroscopy database ... This can be observed with a standard UV/vis spectrophotometer, using a 10 cm path-length. The colour can be seen by eye by ... Color of water Dielectric spectroscopy Differential optical absorption spectroscopy Hydroxyl ion absorption in optical fiber ... The regions between these bands can be used in near-infrared spectroscopy to measure the spectra of aqueous solutions, with the ...
... 's optical properties make it ideal as a reference surface in remote sensing and spectroscopy. For instance, it is ... and near-infrared regions of the spectrum. It exhibits highly Lambertian behavior, and can be machined into a wide variety of ... and Lambertian behavior and is primarily used as a reference standard or target for calibration of spectrophotometers. Laser- ... although reflectivity decreases at wavelengths beyond the near infrared. Spectralon exhibits absorbances at 2800 nm, then ...
... see infrared spectroscopy). The characteristic bond of alcohols in infrared is the O-H bond, which gives a strong absorbance at ... Desktop analyzers generally use infrared spectrophotometer technology, electrochemical fuel cell technology, or a combination ... Infrared spectroscopy Fuel cell Semiconductor Semiconductor gas sensors are based on the increase in conductance of a tin oxide ... "Infrared spectroscopy". Organic Chemistry Resources Worldwide. Archived from the original on 2006-08-31. Retrieved 2012-01-12. ...
1999: J. Workman, "Review of Process and Non-invasive Near-Infrared and Infrared Spectroscopy: 1993-1999," Applied Spectroscopy ... Patents pending for first principles spectroscopy (Total Alignment SpectroscopyTM), and novel color-NIR spectrophotometer ... 2001: J. Workman, "Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in Paper and Pulp Analysis," Applied Spectroscopy Reviews, 36 (2&3), 139-168 ... 1993: J. Workman, "A review of process near infrared spectroscopy: 1980-1994," J. Near Infrared Spectrosc. 1(4), 221-245, 1993 ...
The third semester students may choose one of the following papers as elective subject: Spectroscopy, Nuclear Chemistry, ... Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Differential Thermal Analysis and Thermogravimetry (DTA-TG), XFS Spectrometer, UV-VIS ... Fourier Transform Infrared Absorption Spectrometer, Gas Liquid Chromatography, High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Planar ...
The SPC file format is a file format in which all kinds of spectroscopic data, including amongst others infrared spectra, Raman ... spc files as well as many other spectroscopy file formats. An SPC file can also refer to a spectral curve data file of a ... proprietary binary format created by Shimadzu Corporation's line of spectrophotometers. "Thermo Scientific SPC File Format". ... External link in ,website= (help) GRAMS Spectroscopy Suite MyInstrument Software and Components Download SpekWin32 - http://www ...
In the infrared, this allows for measurements as low as 350 cm−1 (28 µm), whereas zinc selenide is opaque by 21.5 µm and ZnSe ... Thallium bromoiodide and thallium bromochloride are mixed salts of thallium(I) that are used in spectroscopy as an optical ... These materials find use in specialized optical settings, such as focusing elements in research spectrophotometers. Compared to ... material for transmission, refraction and focusing of infrared radiation. The materials were first grown by R. Koops in the ...
Infrared lasers, vanadium steel, fiber-optic technology 3.5[8] 69 Tm Thulium after the mythological northern land of Thule. ... Spectroscopy[edit]. There were no further discoveries for 30 years, and the element didymium was listed in the periodic table ... Lasers, wavelength calibration standards for optical spectrophotometers, magnets 1.3[8] 68 Er Erbium after the village of ... Infrared lasers, chemical reducing agent, decoy flares, stainless steel, stress gauges, nuclear medicine, monitoring ...
Chemical composition and structure of organic semiconductors can be characterized by Infra-Red Spectroscopy, Secondary Ion mass ... Optical characterization for this class of materials can be done using UV-VIS absorption spectrophotometers and ... Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors (Hopping ... ionisation potential can be characterized by probing the electronic band structure with Ultraviolet Photoelectron Spectroscopy ...
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Nicolet iS5 Spetrometer with iD5 ATR accessory ... UV-spectrophotometer. UV is used in several courses at Shepherd, including General Chemistry and Biochemistry. ...
... and Laboratory Infrared Spectrophotometer Based Analyzer Systems carbonizable matter~ pharmaceutical applications~ ... Standard Practice for Validation of the Performance of Multivariate Online, At-Line, and Laboratory Infrared Spectrophotometer ... E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy. E275 Practice for Describing and Measuring Performance of Ultraviolet and ... E1655 Practices for Infrared Multivariate Quantitative Analysis. E1866 Guide for Establishing Spectrophotometer Performance ...
Raman spectroscopy. Our modules include all the essential components needed to perform Raman measurements, such as excitation ...
FTIR Spectroscopy > Infra-Red (IR) products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory ... Cary 8454 UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (1). Agilent Technologies. Your trusted diode array for pharma QA/QC. The Agilent Cary ... Uvasol® Solvents for UV/VIS and infrared Spectroscopy. Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany. Uvasol® solvents from Merck Millipore ... Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy) analysis of a wide variety of powders and solid samples. Typically ...
FTIR Spectroscopy > Infra-Red (IR) products in the SelectScience products and suppliers directory ... Cary 8454 UV-Visible Spectrophotometer (1). Agilent Technologies. Your trusted diode array for pharma QA/QC. The Agilent Cary ... Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy) analysis of a wide variety of powders and solid samples. Typically ... The Specac Mini-Film Maker is designed to produce high-quality thin films of polymer and plastic materials for infrared ...
Standard Practice for Qualifying Spectrometers and Spectrophotometers for Use in Multivariate Analyses, Calibrated Using ... 1.2.1 The spectroscopies used in the surrogate test methods would include but not be limited to mid- and near-infrared, ... D6277 Test Method for Determination of Benzene in Spark-Ignition Engine Fuels Using Mid Infrared Spectroscopy ... 5.3 This practice describes how the user of a spectrometer/spectrophotometer can qualify the spectrometer/spectrophotometer to ...
... spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for characterizing Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) ... This study assessed the potential of near infrared (NIR) ... Three spectrophotometers were evaluated for this purpose: two ... Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is currently an ideal alternative to traditional wet chemistry for determining ... Chen, Q.; Ding, J.; Cai, J.; Zhao, J. Rapid measurement of total acid content (TAC) in vinegar using near infrared spectroscopy ...
The first low-cost spectrophotometer capable of recording an infrared spectrum was the Perkin-Elmer Infracord produced in 1957. ... Near-infrared[edit]. Main article: Near-infrared spectroscopy. The near-infrared region spans the wavelength range between the ... Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)[1] is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission ... why and how substances absorb and emit infrared light, see the article: Infrared spectroscopy. ...
... request pricing from manufacturers of NIR spectroscopy (Environmental) products, including FT-NIR spectrometers & detectors. ... NIR spectrophotometers that measure a broader spectrum of wavelengths. Find the best NIR spectroscopy products in our peer- ... Near Infrared Spectroscopy Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy measures the interaction of near-infrared light with a sample, ... Cary 6000i UV-Vis-NIR Spectrophotometer (2). Agilent Technologies. The Cary 6000i is a high performance UV-Visible-NIR ...
Contact a seller below to request a price and purchase a used spectrophotometer. ... Find online auctions and classified ads for Buck Spectrophotometers on LabX. ... Lab Instrument =, Lab Instrument -, FTIR-IR and Near-IR Spectroscopy Buck M500 Infra-red Spectromete. Price: Please Inquire ... Lab Instrument -, UV-Vis-NIR Spectroscopy =, UV-Vis -NIR Systems Buck Spectrophotometer UV VIS CE 30. Price: Please Inquire ...
Optical spectroscopy. *Spectrophotometer (175-3300 nm). *Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/Raman spectroscopy/micro-Raman ... Laser sources ranging from visible wavelengths to near infrared and extending up to mid infrared wavelengths. ... Ultrafast absorption spectroscopy. *Set-up for thermoluminescence (TL) spectroscopic measurements with variable wavelength and ... A variety of set-ups to characterize photonic devices, from the visible to the mid-infrared ...
Main article: Infrared spectroscopy. Spectrophotometers designed for the infrared region are quite different because of the ... This technique is called Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. When making transmission measurements, the spectrophotometer ... Main article: Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Most spectrophotometers are used in the UV and visible regions of the spectrum ... Additionally, most modern mid-infrared spectrophotometers use a Fourier transform technique to acquire the spectral information ...
... and the infrared is absorbed. • The output of an infrared spectrophotometer is a charts. ... 45 ForensicLaboratory • FTIR Spectroscopy is a molecular spectroscopy which is used to characterize both organic and inorganic ... The sample is bombarded with infrared radiation. • When the frequency of the infrared radiation matches the natural frequency ... It combines a microscope with a spectrophotometer so that the light absorption properties of a very small sample can be ...
14.8 Atomic Spectroscopy 288. 14.9 Color Measurement: The Spectrophotometer 292. 14.10 Regression Analysis 296 ... 14.5 Infrared Spectroscopy 280. 14.6 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 286. 14.7 Mass Spectrometry 287 ...
Journal of Spectroscopy is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review ... articles on the theory and application of spectroscopy across all disciplines. Articles may contribute to fundamental research ... Colour changes were monitored with a reflectance spectrophotometer. Surface chemical modifications were evaluated by measuring ... Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Infrared spectra were obtained using a Nicolet Avatar 360 Fourier transform ...
Hitachi F-2500 Fluorescence Spectrophotometer Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Nicolet 380 FTIR. Nicolet Impact 410 ... Beckman Coulter DU 800 Spectrophotometer. Cary 5E UV-Vis-NIR Cecil 2041 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer Unicam Helios Alpha UV/Vis ... Fluorescence spectroscopy. Turner Quantech Digital Filter Fluorometer ...
Infrared spectroscopy was performed on an ATI Mattson Genesis (M100) FTIR Spectrophotometer. Samples were prepared by solvent ... All compounds were characterized by a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, gel ... UV spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, elemental analysis and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). ... 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy was obtained on a Varian 200 MHZ or Varian 400 MHZ spectrometer in solutions of CDCl3 or DMSO-d6 ...
Here, the authors describe a nano-composite capable of generating oxygen under near-infrared light for improved photodynamic ... in which upconversion nanoparticles are loaded to convert 980 nm near-infrared light into 365 nm and 660 nm emissions. Upon ... 9 and Supplementary Discussion 2). 1H NMR, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), UV-vis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS ... UV-vis absorption spectra were taken on a Milton Ray Spectronic 3000 array spectrophotometer. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra ...
Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). *Ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). *Conductivity meter. *Spectrophotometer ...
E169 Practices for General Techniques of Ultraviolet-Visible, and Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers. E275 Practice for ... E131 Terminology Relating to Molecular Spectroscopy. ... and Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers. E691 Practice for ...
10T Drug: Infrared Spectroscopy. 10U Drug: Capillary Electrophoresis. 10V *. * intentionally left blank; no longer active. Fire ... 10Q Drug: Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer. 10R Drug: Raman Spectrometry. 10S Drug: Mass Spectrometry. ...
20.5: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (2). *20.6: Dealing with Noise (9). *20: Extra Problems ... Chapter 20: Spectrophotometers 20.P. 38. 001 002 003 004 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 ...
Mattson Cygnus 100 FT IR; Infrared Spectrophotometer Laser *Laser Spectroscopy System: Diode Pumped Nd-Yag Laser, Oriel ... Chromatography and Mass Spectroscopy *Hewlett Packard GC 5890 Series II with HP 5971 Series Mass Selective Detector ... Infrared *Avatar 360 FT IR; Infrared Spectrophotometer * ... Hewlett Packard 8452A diode array UV/Vis spectrophotometer * ... Hewlett Packard 8453 diode array UV/Vis spectrophotometer (2) * ...
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRA). Van de Kamer. NIRA spectrophotometer. wavelengths range 1400-2600 nM. computer ...
  • Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the potential to detect differences in the chemical composition of the exoskeleton through the stretching and bending of functional groups CH, NH and OH of organic molecules ( Pasquini, 2003 ). (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the detection of clamping ischemia and in the prevention of clamping-related neurologic deficits using, as a cutoff for shunting, a 20% regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) decrease if persistent more than 4 minutes, otherwise a 25% rSO(2) decrease. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The European and Italian Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines do not include cerebral oximetry (CO) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) among methods for the evaluation of cerebral ischemia during CEA under general anesthesia (GA). Many authors do not recommend this monitoring, assuming many limits of this method, such as the wide range of baseline regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) values and lack of an absolute lower cut-off value. (biomedsearch.com)
  • There are two primary methods of testing forages available: wet chemistry or NIRS (Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy). (ndsu.edu)
  • Wet chemistry utilizes chemical and heat processes to isolate and quantify nutrients, while NIRS results are based on the light spectrum reflected off a sample using a spectrophotometer. (ndsu.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the anomaly known as yellow stain on cork granulate. (sisef.it)
  • The effects of the cleaning treatments on the paint films, including morphology changes on the surface, will be assessed with stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersion spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). (queensu.ca)
  • 1 The attachment was the precursor to the first commercial IR microscopy system, which was offered by Perkin-Elmer Inc. The microscope was interfaced to a Model 12 single-beam dispersive spectrophotometer (Figure 1a). (photonics.com)
  • Not until 1983, with the introduction of Digilab LLC's IRMA (infrared microscope accessory), did the spectroscopist really become re-engaged with IR microscopy. (photonics.com)
  • The most straightforward way to do this, the "dispersive spectroscopy" technique, is to shine a monochromatic light beam at a sample, measure how much of the light is absorbed, and repeat for each different wavelength. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5.1 The primary purpose of this practice is to permit the user to validate numerical values produced by a multivariate, infrared or near-infrared laboratory or process (online or at-line) analyzer calibrated to measure a specific chemical concentration, chemical property, or physical property. (astm.org)
  • 1.1 This practice relates to the multivariate calibration of spectrometers and spectrophotometers used in determining the physical and chemical characteristics of materials. (astm.org)
  • Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis techniques, was used to rapidly differentiate between South African game species, irrespective of the treatment (fresh or previously frozen) or the muscle type. (mdpi.com)
  • 1.1 This practice covers requirements for the validation of measurements made by laboratory or process (online or at-line) near- or mid-infrared analyzers, or both, used in the calculation of physical, chemical, or quality parameters (that is, properties) of liquid petroleum products and fuels. (astm.org)
  • Surface-enhanced spectroscopy for quantitative analysis of analytes in biological liquid samples. (google.com)
  • Biological systems are known to be highly transparent to 700- to 1,100-nm near-infrared (NIR) light. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that while biological systems are transparent to 700- to 1,100-nm near-infrared (NIR) light ( 11 ), the strong absorbance of SWNTs in this window ( 12 ) can be used for optical stimulation of nanotubes inside living cells to afford various useful functions. (pnas.org)
  • The system was constructed using a Michelson interferometer (JASCO IRF-10 Interferometer), incorporatin, IRCD optical unit which consists of polarization modulation system and an MCF infrared detector, and the electronic unit which processes the interferogram associated with CD signal in addition to the ordinary absorption interferogram. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Infrared, or IR, spectroscopy is a technique used to characterize covalent bonds. (jove.com)
  • The goal of this study was to investigate and to characterize the differences in the color of the scales among preserved specimens and to analyze the differences in the microstructures of the scales that cover their bodies using near-infrared spectroscopy, and to evaluate whether the latter is efficient in distinguishing the populations. (scielo.br)
  • Although transmission spectroscopy can be used to characterize 'super-Earths' and terrestrial planets with high stability (i.e., down to 10 −5 ) in just a few hours, 2 there are remaining problems associated with observational data from space (e.g., from the current Spitzer Space Telescope and Hubble Space Telescope observatories). (spie.org)
  • Abstract: In this article, we present our ongoing work in the development of a portable spectrophotometer for monitoring the quality of milk. (amrita.edu)
  • Some new testing techniques are presented, such as FTIR, NIR, multi-angle spectroscopy, which are used to determine polymers in the presence of fillers, monitor the concentration of stabilizers, investigate materials containing metallic and pearlescent pigments, and study polymer blends containing pigments. (chemtec.org)