An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.
Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.
Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A mass-spectrometric technique that is used for microscopic chemical analysis. A beam of primary ions with an energy of 5-20 kiloelectronvolts (keV) bombards a small spot on the surface of the sample under ultra-high vacuum conditions. Positive and negative secondary ions sputtered from the surface are analyzed in a mass spectrometer in regards to their mass-to-charge ratio. Digital imaging can be generated from the secondary ion beams and their intensity can be measured. Ionic images can be correlated with images from light or other microscopy providing useful tools in the study of molecular and drug actions.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.
The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.
A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of a wide range of biomolecules, such as glycoalkaloids, glycoproteins, polysaccharides, and peptides. Positive and negative fast atom bombardment spectra are recorded on a mass spectrometer fitted with an atom gun with xenon as the customary beam. The mass spectra obtained contain molecular weight recognition as well as sequence information.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Unstable isotopes of fluorine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. F atoms with atomic weights 17, 18, and 20-22 are radioactive fluorine isotopes.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.
The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.
The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.
A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The simplest saturated hydrocarbon. It is a colorless, flammable gas, slightly soluble in water. It is one of the chief constituents of natural gas and is formed in the decomposition of organic matter. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Five-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.
High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.
A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.
An extraction method that separates analytes using a solid phase and a liquid phase. It is used for preparative sample cleanup before analysis by CHROMATOGRAPHY and other analytical methods.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.
The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)
Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.
Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.
Use of various chemical separation and extraction methods, such as SOLID PHASE EXTRACTION; CHROMATOGRAPHY; and SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION; to prepare samples for analytical measurement of components.
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Breaks in bones.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The use of molecularly targeted imaging probes to localize and/or monitor biochemical and cellular processes via various imaging modalities that include RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING; ULTRASONOGRAPHY; MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; FLUORESCENCE IMAGING; and MICROSCOPY.
The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.
The application of medical knowledge to questions of law.
The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)
The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
Radioactive substances added in minute amounts to the reacting elements or compounds in a chemical process and traced through the process by appropriate detection methods, e.g., Geiger counter. Compounds containing tracers are often said to be tagged or labeled. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Methods for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of an indicator, such as a dye, radionuclide, or chilled liquid, into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The five-carbon building blocks of TERPENES that derive from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Devices for accelerating charged particles in a spiral path by a constant-frequency alternating electric field. This electric field is synchronized with the movement of the particles in a constant magnetic field.
Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Mixtures of many components in inexact proportions, usually natural, such as PLANT EXTRACTS; VENOMS; and MANURE. These are distinguished from DRUG COMBINATIONS which have only a few components in definite proportions.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.
A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
The development and use of techniques and equipment to study or perform chemical reactions, with small quantities of materials, frequently less than a milligram or a milliliter.
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)

Lysozyme sorption in hydrogel contact lenses. (1/536)

PURPOSE: To examine the processes involved in formation of protein deposits on hydrogel contact lenses. METHODS: The adsorption and/or penetration of lysozyme on or into three types of contact lenses, etafilcon A, vifilcon A, and tefilcon, were investigated in vitro using a radiolabel-tracer technique, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and laser scanning confocal microscopy. RESULTS: Binding of lysozyme to high-water-content, ionic contact lenses (etafilcon A and vifilcon A) was dominated by a penetration process. The extent of this penetration was a function of charge density of the lenses, so that there was a higher degree of penetration of lysozyme in etafilcon A than in vifilcon A lenses. In contrast, the binding of lysozyme to tefilcon lenses was a surface adsorption process. The adsorption and desorption kinetics showed similar trends to those found in human serum albumin (HSA) adsorption on lens surfaces. However, the extent of lysozyme adsorption on tefilcon is much higher than HSA adsorption, probably because of the self-association of lysozyme on the tefilcon lens surface. Furthermore, either penetration or adsorption of lysozyme involved reversible and irreversible processes and were both time dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Binding of lysozyme to hydrogel lenses involves surface adsorption or matrix penetration. These processes may be reversible or irreversible. The properties of the lens materials, such as charge density (ionicity) and porosity (water content) of the lenses, determine the type and rates of these processes.  (+info)

The active site of purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) metal content and spectroscopic characterization. (2/536)

Purple acid phosphatase from sweet potatoes Ipomoea batatas (spPAP) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized using spectroscopic investigations. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry analysis revealed a molecular mass of approximately 112 kDa. The metal content was determined by X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. In contrast to previous studies it is shown that spPAP contains a Fe(III)-Zn(II) center in the active site as previously determined for the purple acid phosphatase from red kidney bean (kbPAP). Moreover, an alignment of the amino acid sequences suggests that the residues involved in metal-binding are identical in both plant PAPs. Tyrosine functions as one of the ligands for the chromophoric Fe(III). Low temperature EPR spectra of spPAP show a signal near g = 4.3, characteristic for high-spin Fe(III) in a rhombic environment. The Tyr-Fe(III) charge transfer transition and the EPR signal are both very sensitive to changes in pH. The pH dependency strongly suggests the presence of an ionizable group with a pKa of 4.7, arising from an aquo ligand coordinated to Fe(III). EPR and UV/visible studies of spPAP in the presence of the inhibitors phosphate or arsenate suggest that both anions bind to Fe(III) in the binuclear center replacing the coordinated water or hydroxide ligand necessary for hydrolysis. The conserved histidine residues of spPAP corresponding to His202 and His296 in kbPAP probably interact in catalysis.  (+info)

Mono- and binuclear Zn2+-beta-lactamase. Role of the conserved cysteine in the catalytic mechanism. (3/536)

When expressed by pathogenic bacteria, Zn2+-beta-lactamases induce resistance to most beta-lactam antibiotics. A possible strategy to fight these bacteria would be a combined therapy with non-toxic inhibitors of Zn2+-beta-lactamases together with standard antibiotics. For this purpose, it is important to verify that the inhibitor is effective under all clinical conditions. We have investigated the correlation between the number of zinc ions bound to the Zn2+-beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus and hydrolysis of benzylpenicillin and nitrocefin for the wild type and a mutant where cysteine 168 is replaced by alanine. It is shown that both the mono-Zn2+ (mononuclear) and di-Zn2+ (binuclear) Zn2+-beta-lactamases are catalytically active but with different kinetic properties. The mono-Zn2+-beta-lactamase requires the conserved cysteine residue for hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring in contrast to the binuclear enzyme where the cysteine residue is not essential. Substrate affinity is not significantly affected by the mutation for the mononuclear enzyme but is decreased for the binuclear enzyme. These results were derived from kinetic studies on two wild types and the mutant enzyme with benzylpenicillin and nitrocefin as substrates. Thus, targeting drug design to modify this residue might represent an efficient strategy, the more so if it also interferes with the formation of the binuclear enzyme.  (+info)

Use of a field portable X-Ray fluorescence analyzer to determine the concentration of lead and other metals in soil samples. (4/536)

Field portable methods are often needed in risk characterization, assessment and management to rapidly determine metal concentrations in environmental samples. Examples are for determining: "hot spots" of soil contamination, whether dust wipe lead levels meet housing occupancy standards, and worker respiratory protection levels. For over 30 years portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have been available for the in situ, non-destructive, measurement of lead in paint. Recent advances made possible their use for analysis of airborne dust filter samples, soil, and dust wipes. Research at the University of Cincinnati with the NITON 700 Series XRF instrument (40 millicurie Cadmium 109 source, L X-Rays) demonstrated its proficiency on air sample filters (NIOSH Method No. 7702, "Lead by Field Portable XRF; limit of detection 6 microg per sample; working range 17-1,500 microg/m3 air). Research with lead dust wipe samples from housing has also shown promising results. This XRF instrument was used in 1997 in Poland on copper smelter area soil samples with the cooperation of the Wroclaw Medical Academy and the Foundation for the Children from the Copper Basin (Legnica). Geometric mean soil lead concentrations were 200 ppm with the portable XRF, 201 ppm with laboratory-based XRF (Kevex) and 190 ppm using atomic absorption (AA). Correlations of field portable XRF and AA results were excellent for samples sieved to less than 125 micrometers with R-squared values of 0.997, 0.957, and 0.976 for lead, copper and zinc respectively. Similarly, correlations were excellent for soil sieved to less than 250 micrometers, where R-squared values were 0. 924, 0.973, and 0.937 for lead, copper and zinc, respectively. The field portable XRF instrument appears to be useful for the determination of soil pollution by these metals in industrial regions.  (+info)

Physicochemical evidence that Treponema pallidum TroA is a zinc-containing metalloprotein that lacks porin-like structure. (5/536)

Although TroA (Tromp1) was initially reported to be a Treponema pallidum outer membrane protein with porin-like properties, subsequent studies have suggested that it actually is a periplasmic substrate-binding protein involved in the transport of metals across the treponemal cytoplasmic membrane. Here we conducted additional physicochemical studies to address the divergent viewpoints concerning this protein. Triton X-114 phase partitioning of recombinant TroA constructs with or without a signal sequence corroborated our prior contention that the native protein's amphiphilic behavior is due to its uncleaved leader peptide. Whereas typical porins are trimers with extensive beta-barrel structure, size exclusion chromatography and circular dichroism spectroscopy revealed that TroA was a monomer and predominantly alpha-helical. Neutron activation, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and anomalous X-ray scattering all demonstrated that TroA binds zinc in a 1:1 molar stoichiometric ratio. TroA does not appear to possess structural features consistent with those of bacterial porins.  (+info)

Mutations in the Ca2+ binding site of the Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase. (6/536)

Recent structure determinations suggested a new binding site for a non-redox active metal ion in subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase both of mitochondrial and of bacterial origin. We analyzed the relevant metal composition of the bovine and the Paracoccus denitrificans enzyme and of bacterial site-directed mutants in several residues presumably liganding this ion. Unlike the mitochondrial enzyme where a low, substoichiometric content of Ca2+ was found, the bacterial wild-type (WT) oxidase showed a stoichiometry of one Ca per enzyme monomer. Mutants in Asp-477 (in immediate vicinity of this site) were clearly diminished in their Ca content and the isolated mutant enzyme revealed a spectral shift in the heme a visible absorption upon Ca addition, which was reversed by Na ions. This spectral behavior, largely comparable to that of the mitochondrial enzyme, was not observed for the bacterial WT oxidase. Further structure refinement revealed a tightly bound water molecule as an additional Ca2+ ligand.  (+info)

Nonstatistical binding of a protein to clustered carbohydrates. (7/536)

Carbohydrate-derivatized self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are used as a model system to address issues involving cell-surface carbohydrate-protein interactions. Here we examine the influence of carbohydrate surface density on protein-binding avidity. We show that the binding selectivity of Bauhinia purpurea lectin switches from one carbohydrate ligand to another as the surface density of the carbohydrate ligands increases from values of chi(sugar) approximately 0.1-1.0. Polyvalent binding is possible at all surface densities investigated; hence, the switch in selectivity is not due simply to the achievement of a critical density that permits polyvalent contacts. Instead, secondary interactions at high surface densities promote a switch in carbohydrate-binding selectivity. These findings may have implications for how changes in the composition and the density of cell-surface carbohydrates influence biological recognition processes and regulatory pathways.  (+info)

Intramyocardial vascular volume distribution studied by synchrotron radiation-excited X-ray fluorescence. (8/536)

We evaluated the vascular volume distribution with fine resolution (0.1-1.3 mg myocardial tissue) in the sagittal plane of the left ventricle by using the microsphere filling method in 21 dogs. The coronary arterial volume density in the sagittal plane did not exhibit normal distribution and was characterized by variability among the outer-to-inner layers and within the layers (+2SD/-2SD > 80 times), and the median values in the layers ranged from 4.7 to 22. 9 nl/mg myocardial tissue. The fractal analysis of vascular volume revealed a self-similar nature with a fractal dimension (D value) similar to that of flow distribution (1.20 +/- 0.05 and 1.24 +/- 0. 09 for vascular volume and flow distribution, respectively) and had a more marked variability than the flow. The correlation of the regional vascular volume between adjacent regions decreased as the distance increased. However, the correlation coefficients in the endocardial-to-epicardial direction were significantly higher than those in the anterior-to-posterior direction (P < 0.05 by paired t-test). In conclusion, we determined intramyocardial vascular volume density in the sagittal plane, and the distribution revealed considerable variability, self-similarity, and asymmetry in the correlation among the adjacent regions. These observations could be related to the characteristics of the intramural coronary vascular network.  (+info)

Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) 1thickness analysis of thin films by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciencesFoot District - tu tienda online de zapatillas. La mejor selección de nike, adidas, NB y muchas otras más. Envío Gratis. Entrega al día siguiente.Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of .edsonsemprimer.pdf - Download as . Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy . The probability of absorption then increases again as the X-ray energy approaches the .CHAPTER 16 X-ray Spectroscopy by Manne Siegbahn 16.1.Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Detector . State-of the Art Ethernet X ray Electronic interface 10/100 megabits per .High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: . Download Paper . DOI Link. Keywords . X-ray ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pre-Columbian alloys from the royal tombs of Sipán; energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis with a portable equipment. AU - Cesareo, R.. AU - Calza, C.. AU - Dos Anjos, M.. AU - Lopes, R. T.. AU - Bustamante, A.. AU - Fabian S., J.. AU - Alva, W.. AU - Chero Z., L.. PY - 2010/4/1. Y1 - 2010/4/1. N2 - On the north coast of present-day Peru flourished approximately between 50 and 700 AD, the Moche civilization. It was an advanced culture and the Moche were sophisticated metalsmiths, so that they are considered as the finest producers of jewels and artefacts of the region. The Moche metalworking ability was impressively demonstrated by the objects discovered by Walter Alva and coworkers in 1987, in the excavations of the Tumbas Reales de Sipán. About 50 metal objects from these excavations, now at the namesake Museum, in Lambayeque, north of Peru, were analyzed with a portable equipment using energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence. This portable equipment is mainly composed ...
Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) Wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS) 1thickness analysis of thin films by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy a thesis submitted to the graduate school of natural and applied sciencesFoot District - tu tienda online de zapatillas. La mejor selección de nike, adidas, NB y muchas otras más. Envío Gratis. Entrega al día siguiente.Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) John Goodge, University of Minnesota-Duluth. Interaction of an electron beam with a sample target produces a variety of .edsonsemprimer.pdf - Download as . Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy . The probability of absorption then increases again as the X-ray energy approaches the .CHAPTER 16 X-ray Spectroscopy by Manne Siegbahn 16.1.Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) Detector . State-of the Art Ethernet X ray Electronic interface 10/100 megabits per .High-resolution X-ray emission spectroscopy with transition-edge sensors: . Download Paper . DOI Link. Keywords . X-ray ...
The elemental analysis of plant material is a frequently employed tool across biological disciplines, yet accurate, convenient and economical methods for the determination of some important elements are currently lacking. For instance, digestion-based techniques are often hazardous and time-consuming and, particularly in the case of silicon (Si), can suffer from low accuracy due to incomplete solubilisation and potential volatilization, whilst other methods may require large, expensive specialised equipment.. Here, we present a rapid, safe and accurate procedure for the simultaneous, non-consumptive analysis of Si and phosphorus (P) in as little as 0.1 g dried and ground plant material using a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (P-XRF).. We used certified reference materials from different plant species to test the analytical performance of P-XRF and show that the analysis suffers from very little bias and that the repeatability precision of the measurements is as good as or better than ...
During the past five decades, the use of X-ray analytical methods has increased in the areas of materials characterization and phase identification. The wide range of applicability of the X-ray fluorescence method has made it a technique employed in thousands of laboratories all over the world. Over the years, many techniques and procedures have been developed that greatly enhance the versatility of the method. The purpose of the X-ray clinic is to combine theoretical and practical application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ...
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Progress in total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry at Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology. Tiwari, M. K.; Lodha, G. S.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Gowrisankar, B.; Singh, A. K.; Bhalerao, G. M.; Sinha, A. K.; Das, Arijeet; Verma, A.; Nandedkar, R. V. // Current Science (00113891);9/10/2008, Vol. 95 Issue 5, p603 Total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy has attracted interest in recent years. Using this technique, almost all elements ranging from sodium (Z = 11) to uranium (Z = 92) in the periodic table can be detected and analysed in a wide concentration range in a single measurement. The... ...
ASTM-D7220 Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Automotive, Heating, and Jet Fuels by Monochromatic Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry - automotive fuel; diesel; gasoline; petroleum; polarization; spectrometry; sulfur; X-ray;; ICS Number Code 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)
In the present paper a method for the determination of strontium, barium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, iron, aluminum and sulfur in the product of strontium carbonate by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with pressed powder sample preparation was developed, and the standard samples were synthesized by high purity reagent. As the contents of strontium in the product of strontium carbonate were very high, the phenomenon of spectrum-peak-saturated occurred and the count rate was overflowed according to the measuring condition which was automatically given by the software system of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. As a result, the deviation of the measurement is greater. According to analyzing the measuring condition of strontium, a method was given for reducing the count rate by reducing the measuring power of strontium, thus achieving the goal of measurement. When sulfate was measured with pressed powder sample, the results were enhanced with the increase in measuring number. In light of this ...
G. Vankó, P. Glatzel, V. Pham, R. Abela, D. Grolimund, C. N. Borca, S. L. Johnson, C. Milne, W. Gawelda, A. Galler, and C. Bressler, Time-Resolved X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy, in International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper TuD3 ...
The present study was conducted to (i) determine the precision and accuracy of arsenic measurement in soil samples using ST-EDXRF by comparison with the results of ICP-MS analyses and (ii) identify the relationship of As concentration with soil characteristics. For the analysis of samples, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF) were performed. According to the results found in the soil samples, the addition of HCl to HNO3, used for the digestion gave significant variations in the recovery of As. However, spectral interferences between peaks for As and Pb can affect detection limits and accuracy for XRF analysis. When comparing the XRF and ICP-MS results a correlation was observed with R2 = 0.8414. This means that using a ST-EDXRF spectrometer, it is possible to achieve accurate and precise analysis by the calibration of certified reference materials and choosing an appropriate secondary target. On the other hand, with ...
|span style=font-weight: bold;|Horizon|/span| is the new Benchtop Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (TXRF) for multi elemental qualitative and quantitative analyses for major constituents and ultra-trace in suspension as well as liquid samples, manufactured by GNR. Verify the new product page here |link products/x-ray-fluorescence/horizon/||/link| 
This study discloses a method for quickly qualitatively detecting the phosphorus element for fireworks and firecrackers based on energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (EDXRF), including the following steps: preparation of samples, establishment of detection methods, determination of the characteristic line fluorescence intensity values of Sb element in samples. The method of the study has the advantages that: (1) the method is simple to operate, and the method can be repeatedly called for testing. Only one new test method needs to be built before the sample test. After the method is established, the test can be repeated at different times without re-establishing the test method for each test. After the first establishment of the new test method, the entire test process only includes three steps: sample preparation, sample loading into the sample cup and on-board testing. (2) The detection period is extremely short. After the sample is prepared, the entire measurement process takes ...
The electrodeposition of FeNi alloy films was performed galvanostatically in the sulfate solution (Fe2+/Ni2+ mass ratio 1:2) in order investigate their co-deposition mechanism. The FeNi layers were deposited at variable substrates (copper, brass, silver) under the same chemical (electrolyte composition) and electric plating (current density value) conditions. After applying various time, substrates and external magnetic field orientation, the quality of the obtained film was examined. The surface morphology and crystallographic texture variation were investigated by the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) and Laser Confocal Scanning Microscope (LCSM). The anomalous co-deposition of iron group metals is evidently dependent on the substrate.
misc{ecc82857-fb61-4074-a7eb-b66b46ce0ed0, author = {Ahlberg, Mats and Akselsson, Roland and Johansson, Gerd and Johansson, Thomas B and Malmqvist, Klas}, keyword = {thick samples,particle induced X-ray emission,PIXE}, language = {eng}, title = {Proton Induced X-Ray Emission Applied to Thick Samples}, year = {1975 ...
China Med-D-Jy10 10mA Portable X-ray Unit, Find details about China Portable X-ray Unit, 10mA X-ray Macjhine from Med-D-Jy10 10mA Portable X-ray Unit - Guangzhou Med Equipment Co., Ltd.
Due to the excellent selectivity and precision, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry is the ideal technique for monitoring TaNx films.
The S8 DRAGON is a truly simultaneous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer for precise, high-speed elemental analysis for process control in metal production and foundries.
The aim of this thesis was to investigate carbon based molecular materials at first principles levels. Special attention has been paid to simulations of X-ray spectroscopies, including near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), X-ray photoelectron, and X-ray emission spectroscopy, which can provide detailed information about core, occupied and unoccupied molecular orbitals of the systems under investigation. Theoretical calculations have helped to assign fine spectral structures in high resolution NEXAFS spectra of five azabenzenes (pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyridazine and s-triazine), and to identify different local chemical environments among them. With the help of NEXAFS, the characters of important chemical bonds that might be responsible for the unique magnetic properties of the tetracyanoethylene compound has been revealed. Calculations have demonstrated that X-ray spectroscopies are powerful tools for isomer identification and structure determination of fullerenes and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tracer analysis of tumor by proton-induced X-ray spectroscopy. AU - Ishii, K.. AU - Kamiya, M.. AU - Sera, K.. AU - Morita, S.. AU - Chu, T. C.. AU - Matsuzawa, T.. AU - Shishido, F.. AU - Tawara, H.. PY - 1976/10/1. Y1 - 1976/10/1. N2 - Small amounts of Ga, Yb, and Tl were injected into rats implanted with several kinds of tumor. Samples of liver, serum, brain and tumor, taken out from these rats, were bombarded by 3.5 MeV protons and the induced X-rays were analysed using a Si(Li) detector. Absolute concentrations of these elements taken up by these tissues were determined referring to a known concentration of doped uranium. Some concentration of elements and species of tumor are found.. AB - Small amounts of Ga, Yb, and Tl were injected into rats implanted with several kinds of tumor. Samples of liver, serum, brain and tumor, taken out from these rats, were bombarded by 3.5 MeV protons and the induced X-rays were analysed using a Si(Li) detector. Absolute concentrations of ...
Abstract: Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to quantify the total amount of trace elements in retina from adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6). Concentration of trace elements within individual retinal areas in frozen sections of the fellow eye was established with the use of two methodologies: (1) particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) in combination with 3D depth profiling with Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and (2) synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microscopy. The most abundant metal in the retina was zinc, followed by iron and copper. Nickel, manganese, chromium, cobalt, selenium and cadmium were present in very small amounts. The PIXE and SXRF analysis yielded a non-homogenous pattern distribution of metals in the retina. Relatively high levels of zinc were found in the inner part of the photoreceptor inner segments (RIS)/outer limiting membrane (OLM), inner nuclear layer and plexiform layers. Iron was found to accumulate in the retinal ...
This one-hour webinar will demonstrate the use of Total reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy in biopharmaceutical production, clinical testing and academic research. It will highlight the ease-of-use and suitability for routine monitoring and research investigations.. This webinar will give you an overview of trace element analysis of cell culture media in biopharmaceutical production. During the second part the analysis of minute amounts of protein samples and blood serum from mice and the benefits for biomedicine and biochemical research will be described.. Whether you are interested in modern analytical technologies without complex lab installation requirements, low operation and maintenance costs, this webinar will give you the information you need on the capabilities of the TXRF technique.. ...
Austin, TX- February 17, 2017. Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc. has published a new application report that describes the utility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) in academia for teaching and basic research. Rigaku Application Note EDXRF 1654 details useful topics for teaching including principles of X-ray fluorescence, spectra and quantitative comparisons, empirical calibration and use of Fundamental Parameters. 1074189568
The concrete degradation is one of the most serious problems for a dam construct during the normal operation, which determines the dam service life. Hence, it is very important to reduce the extent of the dam concrete degradation for the safety of the dam normal operation. Here, Lijiaxia hydroelectric station is taken as an example, and a comprehensive method to assess the sulphate effect on dam gallery is proposed. Eleven samples in total were taken from three difference locations by the drill bore. The microstructural investigations including X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) were conducted to assess the sulphate attack and the degradation degree. Meanwhile, the water chemical analysis was applied to reveal the mechanism of concrete degradation. The experimental and analysis results indicate that the concrete degradation degree varies with the location of the samples. The components of the
The development of iron granules in honey-bee tissues was investigated using both anatomical and analytical methods. Iron granules are present only in the trophocytes of post-eclosion adults and have the same elemental composition as those in foraging adults. The granules increase in both size and number during ageing. Iron levels in developing worker honey-bees were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. The rate of iron accumulation was directly related to iron levels in the diet, and the iron can be obtained from pollen and honey, both major food sources of the bee. In adults, the iron content of the fat body reached a maximum level (2.4 +/− 0.15 micrograms mg-1 tissue), regardless of the amount of iron available for ingestion. Maximal iron levels are reached at the time when honey-bee workers commence foraging behaviour, suggesting that iron granules may play a role in orientation. Alternatively, accumulation of iron in granules may be a method of maintaining iron ...
Abstract With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam-sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors-namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge-that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample, in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2-5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces ...
The report summarizes the initial work conducted on the rock art pigments for important, primarily Chumash Indian, sites in the vicinity of California. The purpose of this study was the analysis of fifteen red and yellow pigment samples by polarized light microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy energy dispersive. Further work concerning the characterization of these pigments was carried out by X-ray diffraction and the pigments were primarily identified as red ochres and yellow ochres. X-ray powder diffraction work was carried out on a number of the pigment microsamples with the result that many of them proved to be admixtures of quartz and haematite. Components such as goethite or lepidocrocite were comparatively less common in this material suggesting that the source of the pigment was either a relatively pure haematite or that some conversion to haematite had been deliberately created. Common impurities from the Santa Barbara Channel Island areas include albite or ...
The MESA-7220 is based on the latest advances in Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technology. It utilizes a proprietary X-ray optical technology and produces a polarized, monochromatic X-ray source. This approach is critical for a user to achieve an ultra low noise background for the best limits of detection for sulfur and chlorine. This provides excellent performance at high concentration (multiple wt.% levels), simultaneous multi-element analysis and applicability over a wide range of sample types, and excellent low ppm capabilities.. *Available in the Americas. For additional information, please contact us. ...
Austin, TX - June 11, 2013. Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc. today announced a new empirical method for the analysis of finished cement. Application Note #1273 demonstrates the capabilities of the Rigaku NEX QC+ energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer for quality control during the cement production process. The report includes complete information regarding sample preparation, method calibration and repeatability. 2012675269
Applied Rigaku Technologies, Inc., a division of Rigaku Corporation, announced the global introduction of the new Rigaku NEX OL on-line process elemental analyzer at the 64th annual Pittsburgh Conference on Analytical Chemistry and Applied Spectroscopy (Pittcon 2013) held March 17 - 21, 2013 at the Pennsylvania Convention Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA. ART also introduced a new compact benchtop energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analyzer, the Rigaku NEX QC+, at PittCon.
B568 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thickness by X-Ray Spectrometry. B890 Standard Test Method for Determination of Metallic Constituents of Tungsten Alloys and Tungsten Hardmetals by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. B953 Standard Practice for Sampling Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys for Spectrochemical Analysis. B954 Standard Test Method for Analysis of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys by Atomic Emission Spectrometry. B985 Standard Practice for Sampling Aluminum Ingots, Billets, Castings and Finished or Semi-Finished Wrought Aluminum Products for Compositional Analysis. C125 Standard Terminology Relating to Concrete and Concrete Aggregates. C1109 Standard Practice for Analysis of Aqueous Leachates from Nuclear Waste Materials Using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. C1111 Standard Test Method for Determining Elements in Waste Streams by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. C1254 Standard Test Method for Determination of Uranium in Mineral ...
Prof. Dr. Serena DeBeer. Ex situ and in situ advanced X-ray spectroscopic approaches will be utilized in Project B6 to characterize spinel-based oxidation catalysts. Using X-ray emission spectroscopy time-resolved element-specific changes in the electronic structure of a catalyst will be tracked. Furthermore, two-dimensional resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy will be applied to specifically select for a metal and conclude on its oxidation state, d-to-d excitations and/or site symmetry.. ...
Synchrotron-based micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS) in combination with micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray diffraction (micro-XRD) are powerful tools for spatially resolved micro-scale investigations of retention processes in heterogeneous systems. We have successfully applied these techniques in the investigations of uptake processes in argillaceous rocks and hardened cement paste. Here one of the essential questions is On what mineral phase or phases is sorption occurring in the complex mineral assemblage? and Is it the same phase(s) assumed in the modeling? In some cases minor minerals may well be important. Furthermore, we were able to shine light into the alkali-aggregate reaction, which is a severe alteration process limiting the lifetime of concrete structures exposed to water or moisture ...
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A method is described, employing as the sample bottom mud from Linsley Pond, North Branford, Connecticut, for the determination of all detectable exchangeable cations lying between lithium and uranium on the periodic table. Dried (48 h 110°C) and ground (200 mesh) lake mud samples are leached successively with IN, ,i,p,/i,H 6.9 ammonium acetate. Another set of similarly prepared samples are leached with doubly distilled deionized water. The leachate is made up to 100 ml. This volume is then added to a beaker containing two grams of terephthalic acid. The liquid is evaporated on to the water-insoluble terephthalic acid. The dried material is ground and pressed into a pellet. Another set of samples is treated in a similar fashion except that methyl cellulose is used as a substrate. The advantages and disadvantages of the two substrates are discussed. The pressed pellets containing the absorbed detectable exchangeable cations are examined with a G. E. x-ray emission spectroscope for those elements ...
The electronic structures of complex systems have been studied by theoretical calculations of soft x-ray spectroscopies like x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray emission spectroscopies. A new approach based on time dependent density functional theory has been developed for the calculation of shake-up satellites associated with photoelectron spectra. This method has been applied to the phthalocyanine molecule, describing in detail its electronic structure, and revealing the origin of controversial experimental features. It is illustrated in this thesis that the theoretical intepretation plays a fundamental role in the full understanding of experimental spectra of large and complex molecular systems. Soft x-ray spectroscopies and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies have proved to be powerful tools for isomer identification, in the study of newly synthesized fullerene molecules, the azafullerene C48N12 and the C50Cl10 molecule, as well as for ...
The electronic structures of complex systems have been studied by theoretical calculations of soft x-ray spectroscopies like x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, and x-ray emission spectroscopies. A new approach based on time dependent density functional theory has been developed for the calculation of shake-up satellites associated with photoelectron spectra. This method has been applied to the phthalocyanine molecule, describing in detail its electronic structure, and revealing the origin of controversial experimental features. It is illustrated in this thesis that the theoretical intepretation plays a fundamental role in the full understanding of experimental spectra of large and complex molecular systems. Soft x-ray spectroscopies and valence band photoelectron spectroscopies have proved to be powerful tools for isomer identification, in the study of newly synthesized fullerene molecules, the azafullerene C48N12 and the C50Cl10 molecule, as well as for ...
The element-specific valence- and conduction-band densities of states for the high-dielectric-material CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 have been measured using soft x-ray emission and absorption spectroscopies. Ti L a , b ,Cu L a , b , and O K soft x-ray emission spectra of CaCu 3 Ti 4 O 12 were measured with monochromatic photon excitation on selected energies above the Ti and Cu L 2,3 and O K absorption edges, respectively. X-ray absorption spectra were recorded at the same edges. The electronic structure was also calculated using density functional theory employing the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. Excellent agreement is seen between the results of these calculations and the measured x-ray emission and absorption spectra. This agreement is particularly good at the O K edge where the resonant behavior of the x-ray emission spectrum can be attributed directly to s - and p -state emission from valence-band O 2 p states when in resonance with p * and s * conduction-band O 2... ...
Bismuth complex oxides, in particular, bismuth tungstate, have recently attracted attention as promising photocatalytic materials for water treatment processes. In the present work, photocatalytic bismuth tungstate films were prepared by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering of Bi and W targets in an Ar/O2 atmosphere onto spherically-shaped glass beads. The uniform coverage of the substrate was enabled by the use of oscillating bowl placed underneath the magnetrons. The atomic ratio of Bi/W was varied through the variation of the power applied to the magnetrons. The deposited coatings were analyzed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The photocatalytic properties of the films were studied via the methylene blue (MB) degradation process under artificial (fluorescent light) and natural (sunlight) irradiation, and compared to the photocatalytic
Although the content of Mg2+ in hard tissues is very low (typically 1.5wt%), its incorporation into synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) particles and its role in the minerals properties are still subject of intensive debate. A combined experimental-computational approach is used to answer many of the open questions. Mg2+-enriched HAp particles are prepared using different synthetic approaches and considering different concentrations of Mg2+ in the reaction medium. The composition, morphology and structure of the resulting particles are investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies, FTIR, and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. After this scrutiny, the role of the Mg2+ in the first nucleation stages, before HAp formation, is investigated using atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. Saturated solutions are simulated with and without the presence of DNA, which has been recently used as a soft template in the ...
The soft x-ray emission from plasma produced in polyacetal and polyethylene capillary discharges excited by current pulses 100 ns full-width half-maximum (FWHM), 50 ns risetime, and peak currents up to 60 kA has been studied. Time-resolved spectra show that intense Cᴠɪ line emission dominates in the polyethylene discharges, peaking shortly after the maximum of the current and vanishing before the end of the current pulse. Polyacetal capillary spectra are dominated by Oᴠɪ lines and show weak Cᴠɪ emission. Plasma density and temperature for the polyethylene discharge were derived from the Stark ...
Low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2, SiO2, and Al2O3 was applied to modify the surface and to tailor the diameter of nanochannels in etched ion-track polycarbonate membranes. The homogeneity, conformity, and composition of the coating inside the nanochannels are investigated for different channel diameters (18-55 nm) and film thicknesses (5-22 nm). Small angle x-ray scattering before and after ALD demonstrates conformal coating along the full channel length. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy provide evidence of nearly stoichiometric composition of the different coatings. By wet-chemical methods, the ALD-deposited film is released from the supporting polymer templates providing 30 μm long self-supporting nanotubes with walls as thin as 5 nm. Electrolytic ion-conductivity measurements provide proof-of-concept that combining ALD coating with ion-track nanotechnology offers promising perspectives for single-pore applications by controlled ...
Soft magnetic composites (SMCs) are designed for the sustainable industrial production of uniform isotropic components with three-dimensional magnetic properties. The nanocoating covering the surface of water-atomized iron powder is the paramount feature of SMC technology that gives the material the high resistivity needed for minimizing the negative effects of eddy currents. An analysis of its initial state/composition on a micro level and any changes during further compaction and heat treatment is thus of great importance. Therefore, a method for the evaluation of composition and thickness of such insulating coatings was developed in this study. High resolution imaging combined with surface analytical and depth profiling techniques (high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) were used. Analyses were performed on commercially available SMC powder grades having a phosphate-based coating. Depth profiling was
OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to quantify 36 inorganic chemical elements in aerosols from disposable electronic cigarettes (ECs) and electronic hookahs (EHs), examine the effect of puffing topography on elements in aerosols, and identify the source of the elements. METHODS: Thirty-six inorganic chemical elements and their concentrations in EC/EH aerosols were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, and their source was identified by analyzing disassembled atomizers using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. RESULTS: Of 36 elements screened, 35 were detected in EC/EH aerosols, while only 15 were detected in conventional tobacco smoke. Some elements/metals were present in significantly higher concentrations in EC/EH aerosol than in cigarette smoke. Concentrations of particular elements/metals within EC/EH brands were sometimes variable. Aerosols generated at low and high air-flow rates produced the same pattern of elements, although ...
In this article we report about the synthesis of superparamagnetic bare Fe₃O₄ nanostructures and core/shell (Fe₃O₄/alginate) nanocomposites by simple low-temperature based method at pH values 5, 9, and 14. The structural morphology and magnetic behavior of Fe₃O₄ nanostructures and core/shell (Fe₃O₄/alginate) nanocomposites (Fe₃O₄/alg NCs) have been investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The particle size was calculated by TEM measurements and it turns out to be ∼10nm and ∼14nm for bare Fe₃O₄ nanoparticle and Fe₃O₄/alg NCs with core/shell structure, respectively. The magnetic properties of the synthesized products were found to be function of pH at which the synthesis has been done. The synthesized Fe₃O₄ nanoparticle ...
The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by microorganisms is an area attracting growing interest in nanobiotechnology, due to the applications of these nanoparticles in various products including cosmetics and biosensors, and in the biomedical, clinical, and bioimaging fields as well. Various microorganisms have been found to be able to synthesize AgNPs when silver salts are supplied in the reaction system. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate the efficiency of synthesis of AgNPs by the strain Bacillus methylotrophicus DC3, isolated from the soil of Korean ginseng, a traditionally known oriental medicinal plant in Korea. The AgNPs showed maximum absorbance at 416 nm, when assayed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis). The field emission transmission electron micrograph (FE-TEM) results showed that the particles were spherical and 10-30 nm in size. In addition, the product was also characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), which displayed a 3 keV peak
We report on the plume dynamics of the plasma induced by laser ablation of a swine skeletal muscle tissue sample in different vacuum conditions. Pulses from a transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser were focused onto a target sample and the induced plasma was allowed to expand in different air pressures. The expansion features were studied using fast photography of the overall visible emission by using a gated intensified charged coupled device. Free expansion and plume splitting were observed at different pressure levels. The expansion of the plasma plume front was analyzed using various expansion models and the velocity of the plume front was estimated. The effect of the number of accumulated laser shots on the crater volume at different ambient air pressures and an elemental analysis of the sample were performed using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. The surface morphology of the irradiated surface showed that increasing the pressure ...
In this research, TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized by anodized oxidation method and were covered with a hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles using photodeposition and dip coating for loading silver nanoparticles and coated hydroxyapatite (HA). The morphological texture of TiO2 nanotube and Ag-HA nanoparticles on TiO2 nanotubes surface were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX analysis) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MCF-7 cell lines were treated with concentrations 1, 10 and 100 µg/ml of TiO2 nanotubes and HA/Ag/TiO2 nanotube for 24 and 48h. Finally, the cell viability and IC50% were evaluated using MTT assay. The results show that the HA/Ag/TiO2 has more positive effect on enhancing the cell death compare to TiO2 nanotubes and also exerts a time and concentration-dependent inhibition effect on viability of MCF-7 cells
Electroless deposition of Ni-P-Al2O3 and Ni-P-TiO2, in the presence of gluconate as a complexing agent, on copper substrates was studied. The dependence of the composite formation on different plating variables was investigated. The deposited coatings were characterized using different techniques, including energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), hardness and corrosion resistance testing. The amount of particles incorporated in the coatings increased with increasing particle concentration in the bath. However, the particle size greatly affected the amount incorporated. The addition of these particles changed the microstructure of the Ni-matrix, and enhanced the hardness and corrosion resistance.
The N K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra of the purine-containing nucleotide, guanosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate (GMP), in aqueous solution are measured under various pH conditions. The spectra show characteristic peaks, which originate from resonant excitations of N 1s electrons to π* orbitals inside the guanine moiety of GMP. The relative intensities of these peaks depend on the pH values of the solution. The pH dependence is explained by the core-level shift of N atoms at specific sites caused by protonation and deprotonation. The experimental spectra are compared with theoretical spectra calculated by using density functional theory for GMP and the other purine-containing nucleotides, adenosine 5{sup ′}-monophosphate, and adenosine 5{sup ′}-triphosphate. The N K-edge XANES spectra for all of these nucleotides are classified by the numbers of N atoms with particular chemical bonding characteristics in the purine moiety. ...
In situ time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements are applied to track the phase transition processes of LixNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which is one of the most promising positive electrode materials for lithium ion batteries with its high redox potential
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of ammonia formation on Rh(111) studied by dispersive near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. AU - Nagasaka, Masanari. AU - Kondoh, Hiroshi. AU - Amemiya, Kenta. AU - Nakai, Ikuyo. AU - Shimada, Toru. AU - Yokota, Reona. AU - Ohta, Toshiaki. PY - 2010/2/11. Y1 - 2010/2/11. N2 - The reaction mechanism of ammonia formation on a Rh(111) surface was investigated by means of dispersive near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (dispersive-NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Nitrogen-covered Rh(111) surfaces were exposed to gaseous hydrogen (1.0-5.0 × 10-7 Torr) at constant surface temperatures (330-390 K) to form ammonia which desorbs immediately from the surface. Continuous data acquisition of nitrogen K-edge NEXAFS spectra enables us to monitor coverage changes of surface species during the progress of the reaction. The obtained NEXAFS spectra were well reproduced by summation of the standard spectra for N and NH. We found that the NH species, which is considered as a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy investigation of cadmium sorption on cryptomelane (KMn8O16). AU - Randall, SR. AU - Sherman, DM. AU - Ragnarsdottir, KV. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Article (Academic Journal). VL - 151. SP - 95. EP - 106. JO - Chemical Geology. JF - Chemical Geology. SN - 0009-2541. ER - ...
x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) x-ray x ray detector x ray centers in hyderabad x pole xpert dance pole x pole x frame banner stand x banner stands x banner stand x back chair x X-ray navigation X-ray microtomography X-ray emission spectroscopy X-ray emission X-ray cross section X-ray absorption spectroscopy X-ray absorption near-edge structure X-ray Physics X-ray Microscopy X-ray Diffractometry (PXRD) X-ray CT X-ray Binaries X-ray Analysis X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (XAFS) X-pinch X-machines X-linked mental retardation X-inactivation X-band Radar X-Ray Optics X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy X-Ray Bursters X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (in Materials C X-Men (Marvel Comics) X-Group X-FEM X ray Inspection X ray Imaging X ray Fluorescence X ray Film X ray Equipment X ray Diffraction X ray Computed Tomography X ray Absorption X chromosome inactivation X chromosomal Inactivation X Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy X Ray Photoelectron X Ray Microscope X Ray Market X Ray Devices X Ray
Obtaining exact information about the chemical composition, morphology, and crystal habit of different materials is of major importance in materials science. Classical methods unveiling morphological information include scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (1), whereas chemical information about the materials is obtained by different techniques such as x-ray absorption near-edge structure (2, 3), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (4, 5), Raman, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in SEM. A more sophisticated and costly method for a comprehensive chemical analysis of bulk material is the use of nuclear physics techniques such as particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and particle-induced gamma emission (PIGE) techniques, either driven by a conventional (6) or laser-based accelerator (7). Recently, we introduced an alternative method suitable to assess the chemical composition, crystal ...
X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). -EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) for determination of metal site fine structures (metal-metal and metal-ligand distances at ~0.02 Å resolution, chemical nature and number of metal ligands).. -XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) for determination of metal oxidation state and site geometry. more, for example here or here X-ray absorption linear dichroism spectroscopy (XALDS) for determination of orientations of interatomic vectors within, for example, the protein matrix, in crystals and partially oriented systems (such as proteins in biological membranes). more, for example here or here. XAS under elevated gas pressure more, for example here. X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) for probing metal oxidation state, spin state, site geometry, electronic configuration, ligand structures, etc. more, for example here or here. Time-resolved XAS/XES to follow structural changes and redox transitions at metal ...
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D5673 Standard Test Method for Elements in Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. D5907 Standard Test Methods for Filterable Matter (Total Dissolved Solids) and Nonfilterable Matter (Total Suspended Solids) in Water. D6247 Standard Test Method for Determination of Elemental Content of Polyolefins by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. D7237 Standard Test Method for Free Cyanide and Aquatic Free Cyanide with Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) Utilizing Gas Diffusion Separation and Amperometric Detection. D7847 Standard Guide for Interlaboratory Studies for Microbiological Test Methods. E37 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Pig Lead. E53 Standard Test Method for Determination of Copper in Unalloyed Copper by Gravimetry. E314 Standard Test Methods for Determination of Manganese in Iron Ores by Pyrophosphate Potentiometry and Periodate Spectrophotometry Techniques. E353 Standard Test Methods for Chemical Analysis of Stainless, Heat-Resisting, Maraging, and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Local structure of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles studied by Co K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy. AU - Maugeri, L.. AU - Iadecola, A.. AU - Joseph, B.. AU - Simonelli, L.. AU - Olivi, L.. AU - Okubo, M.. AU - Honma, I.. AU - Wadati, H.. AU - Mizokawa, T.. AU - Saini, N. L.. PY - 2012/8/22. Y1 - 2012/8/22. N2 - We have studied the local structure of LiCoO 2 nanoparticles by Co K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy as a function of particle size. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure data reveal substantial changes in the near neighbor distances and the associated mean square relative displacements with decreasing particle size. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra show clear local geometrical changes with decreasing particle size, similar to those that appear in the charging (delithiation) process. The results suggest that the LiCoO 2 nanoparticles are characterized by a large atomic disorder confined to the Co-O octahedra, similar to the distortions generated during the ...
Last week, Frank Brenker and his colleagues Bart Vekemans, Laszlo Vincze, and Manfred Burghammer analyzed the first track to be extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Collector. We suspected that this is a particle that was ejected from an impact of a high-velocity particle (either an interplanetary dust particle or an interstellar dust particle) on the port (left-side) aft solar panel. We thought that this would be the case for two reasons. We mainly based this expectation on the trajectory - it appears to be pointing back to the aft solar panel - but also on the track shape - it does not show the shock-induced flaring that one usually sees with hypervelocity impacts. Dr. Brenker and colleagues used a highly focussed x-ray beam at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. ESRF is essentially an x-ray microscope the size of a shopping mall. The incredibly tight focus of this beam (about a tenth of a micron!) is ideal for the analysis of these very tiny samples. ...
X-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy have been used to investigate the photon emission and absorption associated with the Ce 3d5/2 and Ce 3d3/2 core levels in Ce oxide. A comparison of the two processes and their spectra will be made.
Polarization-dependent grazing incidence X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were completed on oriented single crystals of magnesite [MgCO3] and brucite [Mg(OH)2] reacted with aqueous uranyl chloride above and below the solubility boundaries of schoepite (500, 50, and 5 ppm) at pH 8.3 and at ambient (PCO2 = 10-3.5) or reduced partial pressures of carbon dioxide (PCO2 = 10-4.5). X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra show a striking polarization dependence ( = 0° and  = 90° relative to the polarization plane of the incident beam) and consistently demonstrated that the uranyl molecule was preferentially oriented with its Oaxial=U(VI)=Oaxial linkage at high angles (60-80º) to both magnesite () and brucite (0001). Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis shows that the effective number of U(VI) axial oxygens is the most strongly affected fitting parameter as a function of polarization. Furthermore, axial tilt in the surface thin films (thickness ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anatase-TiO2 nanomaterials. T2 - Morphological/size dependence of the crystallization and phase behavior phenomena. AU - Fernández-García, Marcos. AU - Wang, Xianqin. AU - Belver, Carolina. AU - Hanson, Jonathan C.. AU - Rodriguez, José A.. PY - 2007/1/18. Y1 - 2007/1/18. N2 - Nanoparticulated TiO2 materials with anatase structure were synthesized by using a microemulsion method. Three different syntheses with varying surfactant-to-water molar ratio (CD) were used to obtain amorphous solid precipitates at room temperature. The structural characteristics of these solid precursors were studied by using X-ray absorption structure (X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and Raman spectroscopies, which showed that all lack 3D (tridimensional) order but contain a different degree of 2D-confmed connectivity. While heating such solid precursors under dry air, marked differences appeared in the phase behavior; the onset temperature for ...
The main objective of this paper was to study the morphology, composition and chemical state of coatings based on titanium nitride obtained using the condensation method with ion bombardment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyse the structure and composition of the coatings produced at different formation times.. It was determined that coatings formed at different times still have a sufficiently close chemical composition and contain titanium nitride (TiN), titanium oxynitride (TiNxO1-x), titanium oxide (TiOx) and titanium carbide (TiC). The paper demonstrates that the increase in the formation time of coatings leads to a decrease in the proportion of carbon in the amorphous state and an increase in the fraction of carbon which is a part of titanium carbides. In the composition of coatings formed in 15 and 50 minutes, the fraction of carbon chemically bonded to titanium differs by a factor ...
Introduction: Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) is a member of the family of calcium phosphates (CP), which has many uses in bone cement. Recently, graphene and its derivatives have been studied to increase the biological and mechanical properties of CP structures and their results have been satisfactory. Objective: In this study, the main objective is to investigate the physical properties of GO/DCPD powders, which has been synthesized via a simple precipitation method. Material and Methods: Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate and diammonium hydrogen phosphate were used as a precursor for DCPD synthesis. DCPD was precipitated in the presence of graphene oxide. The powders obtained after washing and drying were evaluated. The analysis performed in the sample includes inductively coupled plasma (ICP), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope
Large scale hexagonal ZnMgO nanowire array and network with tunable shapes has been successfully synthesized on solid Si substrate, and flexible substrates (Au and Pd coated plastic substrates) using low temperature hydrothermal synthesis technique. The diameters of the nanowires have been controlled in the range of 150-200 nm. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphologies and orientations of the nanowires. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometry, room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to determine the structural and optical properties of the as-grown nanowire architectures. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicates that the Mg concentration in the ZnMgO nanowires can reach ~2-5 atomic percent. To confirm the alloying process of Mg into ZnO and its distribution during the growth process, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy
For the first time, using scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption near edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure X-ray diffraction, it is showed that MnCO3, MnWO4, Mn3(PO4)2·3H2O, MnS and Mn(VO3)2·xH2O under the water-oxidation conditions and in the presenc
A fiber-optic refractive index (RI) sensor based on a long period fiber grating (LPFG) coated with a zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was fabricated and characterized. A method to overcoat the LPFGs with a homogeneous ZnO thin films was developed. Characterization of ZnO thin films, deposited simultaneously on silicon (Si) planar substrates, was performed using Scanning Electron Microscope, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The LPFGs with ZnO coatings from 29 to 145 nm of thickness were characterized and compared in terms of the wavelength shift and the intensity of the attenuation bands changing the surrounding refractive index (SRI) from 1.300 to 1.600. An average wavelength sensitivity of similar to 7162 nm/RIU was achieved in the RI range from 1.440 to 1.456 and more than 12,000 nm/RIU at 1.440 RI. Using a ZnO film thickness of 116 nm and in the RI region between 1.320 and 1.360 the average sensitivity of similar to 806 nm/RIU was measured for a 145 nm ...
THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 20, 2014 at 4:30pm at the Environmental Science Center (21 Sachem Street, 1st Floor, Lecture Hall 110). Abstract: The UNESCO world heritage site, Mogao caves near Dunhuang, is a Buddhist temple site along the ancient Silk Road with a history that extends over 1000 years from the 4th C to the 14th C. The 45,000 square metres of wall paintings in 492 caves are an immense resource for the study of the history of art, architecture, religion, technology, politics and cultural exchange along the Silk Road. In this talk, we show an example of a systematic in situ study of the wall paintings using a range of non-invasive optical imaging and spectroscopic instruments. Microfade spectrometry, PRISMS (the remote 3D spectral imaging system), hand-held X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) will all be discussed. This talk demonstrates through examples how a combination of non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic methods can yield a wealth of ...
The one-dimensional (1D) TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) and their derivatives have been extensively studied due to their wide applications, such as photocatalysts, solar cell, paints and so on. Since TiO2 has a wide band gap (~3.0 eV), its photo-absorption as the photocatalyst only occurs in the UV region that wastes mostly solar energy. Therefore, the solution to higher photocatalytic efficiency has been sought for some time. This thesis presents a study of the size-dependent phase transitions of TiO2 NTs using synchrotron-based X-ray techniques. The chemical environment including local symmetry and the luminescence origin of the TiO2 NTs can be tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) technique. As a result, the anatase-to-rutile transition highly depended on the sizes of NTs with the same annealing treatment. Additionally, the shortest NTs require a lower temperature to start the amorphous-to-anatase transition.
The treatment of chromium tanned sheepskins with poly(hydroxyl urethane) and dispersion of chemically synthesized nanosilver showed the best resistance to fungi and bacterial exposure tests. These collagen-based materials containing different amounts of nanosilver were investigated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The influence of sheepskins treated with silver nanoparticles on the wound healing process was assessed and the nanoparticles concentration seems to have a positive effect up to 370 ppm and does not influence the inflammatory process above this concentration ...
To address one of the serious problems associated with permanent implants, namely bacterial infections, novel organic/inorganic coatings containing zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) are proposed. Coatings were obtained by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on stainless steel 316L. Different deposition conditions namely: deposition times in the range 60-300 s and applied voltage in the range 5-30 V as well as developing a layered coating approach were studied. Antibacterial tests against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Salmonella enteric bacteria confirmed the activity of nZnO to prevent bacterial growth. Coatings composition and morphology were analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Moreover, the corrosion resistance was analyzed by evaluation of the polarization curves in DMEM at 37 °C, and it was found that coatings containing nZnO increased the corrosion ...
Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element in most organisms but has to be carefully handled since there is a thin line between beneficial and toxic concentrations. Many bacteria have the ability to reduce selenite (Se(IV)) and (or) selenate (Se(VI)) to red elemental selenium that is less toxic. A strictly aerobic bacterium, Comamonas testosteroni S44, previously isolated from metal(loid)-contaminated soil in southern China, reduced Se(IV) to red selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) with sizes ranging from 100 to 200 nm. Both energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX or EDS) and EDS Elemental Mapping showed no element Se and SeNPs were produced inside cells whereas Se(IV) was reduced to red-colored selenium in the cytoplasmic fraction in presence of NADPH. Tungstate inhibited Se(VI) but not Se(IV) reduction, indicating the Se(IV)-reducing determinant does not contain molybdenum as co-factor. Strain S44 was resistant to multiple heavy and transition metal(loid)s such as Se(IV), As(III), Cu(II), and Cd(II)
There is little information on in situ distribution of nutrient elements in N 2-fixing nodules.The aim of this study was to quantify elemental distribution in tissue components of N 2-fixing nodules harvested from Psoralea pinnata plants grown naturally in wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos. The data obtained from particle-induced X-ray emission revealed the occurrence of 20 .... [PDF ...
Maintaining or regenerating a vital pulp is a preferable goal in current endodontic research. In this study, human dental pulp cell aggregates (spheres) were applied onto bovine and human root canal models to evaluate their potential use as pre-differentiated tissue units for dental pulp tissue regeneration. Human dental pulp cells (DPC) were derived from wisdom teeth, cultivated into three-dimensional cell spheres and seeded onto bovine and into human root canals. Sphere formation, tissue-like and mineralization properties as well as growth behavior of cells on dentin structure were evaluated by light microscopy (LM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Spheres and outgrown cells showed tissue-like properties, the ability to merge with other cell spheres and extra cellular matrix formation; CLSM investigation revealed a dense network of actin and focal adhesion contacts (FAC) inside the spheres and a pronounced
Core-shell nanostructures are emerging as more important materials than alloy nanostructures and have much more interesting potential applications in various fields. In this work, we demonstrated the fast and facile synthesis of core-shell nanoparticles consisting of Pt thin layer as the shell and Ni nanoparticles as the cores. The described method herein is suitable for large-scale and low-cost production of the core-shell nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy techniques were used to investigate the physicochemical characterizations. Importantly, the catalytic activity of [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles was probed to develop electrocatalyst in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs). This electrocatalyst was applied to ethanol oxidation reaction for first time. Thus, the electrocatalytic activity of the [email protected] core-shell nanoparticles towards ethanol oxidation reaction has been investigated by cyclic voltammetry
Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) show higher strength and lower Youngs modulus than Ti-6Al-4V alloy and SUS 316L stainless steel. This study aimed to perform in vivo evaluations of Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs for osteosynthesis devices. In the study for intramedullary implants, osteotomies of the femoral bones were performed in male Wistar rats and were stabilized with Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, or 316L stainless steel intramedullary nails for 12 weeks. In the study for bone surface implants, Zr65Al7.5Ni10Cu17.5 BMGs ribbons were implanted on the femur surface for 6 weeks. Local effects on the surrounding soft tissues of the implanted BMGs were assessed by histological observation. Implanted materials surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). In the study for intramedullary implants, bone healing after osteotomy was assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (QCT) and mechanical tests. Histological
Faceted colloidal nanoparticles are currently of immense interest due to their unique electronic, optical, and catalytic properties. However, continuous flow synthesis that enables rapid formation of faceted nanoparticles of single or multi-elemental composition is not trivial. We present a continuous flow synthesis route for the synthesis of uniformly sized Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell nanoparticles in a single-phase microfluidic reactor, which enables rapid formation of shaped nanoparticles with a reaction time of 3 min. The PdPt core-shell nanoparticles feature a dendritic, high surface area with the Pt shell covering the Pd core, as verified using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The Pd nanocubes and PdPt core-shell particles are catalytically tested during NO2 reduction in the presence of H2 in a flow pocket reactor. The Pd nanocubes exhibited low-temperature activity (i.e., <136 °C) and poor selectivity performance toward
Silver nanoparticle (AgNP) synthesis was carried out via a microbial-mediated biological route and impregnated on propolis-loaded silk sutures using an in situ process. silk sutures fabricated with propolis and biosynthesized AgNPs (bioAgNP-propolis coated sutures) were intensively characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Antibacterial characteristics of the bioAgNP-propolis coated sutures was evaluated using agar plate method. Biocompatibility of the bioAgNP-propolis coated sutures was evaluated using 3T3 fibroblast cells and their wound healing potential was also investigated ...
Evidence of composition fluctuations around threading dislocations at scales ranging from atomic distances to tens of nanometers is provided by z-contrast imaging, strain measurement, and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in AlxIn1-x N/GaN heterostructures. The atomic core rings of edge-type dislocations are shown to lie across highly antisymmetric elemental environments, and the indium-rich pit centers of mixed dislocation are found to lie on the tensile side of their atomic core ring. The observed composition fluctuations around pure-edge dislocations are compared with an elastostatic free energy model calculation and a good qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained. Hydrostatic stress is shown to be their principal cause: Tensile stress regions are indium rich and compressive stress regions are aluminum rich. We show that the stress field of a mixed dislocation can impact the composition of the alloy more than a hundred nanometers away from its core. Indium core segregation on pure-screw
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thermal behavior and viscoelastic properties of gutta-percha used for back-filling the root canal. AU - Hsu, Yung Hao. AU - Wang, Hsin Hui. AU - Shen, Yung Kang. AU - Gutmann, James L.. AU - Hsieh, Sung Chih. N1 - © 2019 Association for Dental Sciences of the Republic of China. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.. PY - 2020/3/1. Y1 - 2020/3/1. N2 - Background/purpose: In clinical operations, qualitative differences in the texture and operational feeling of the regular type and soft type back-filled gutta-percha are readily discernible. This study aimed to investigate and compare the thermal behavior and physical properties of the two gutta-percha materials. Materials and methods: The chemical compositions of regular and soft type Gutta-Percha Obturator® pellets were examined via energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The thermal behaviors of the pellets during heating and cooling were evaluated using a differential scanning calorimeter. Finally, the viscoelastic properties of ...
Safety and efficacy issues are associated with reprocessing of single-use electrosurgical pencils (EPs), requiring methods for assessing the reprocessing protocol before clinical reuse. This study aimed at monitoring the surface characteristics of single-use EPs subjected to multiple clinical use and in-hospital reprocessing. A total of 24 single-use-labeled EPs were divided in five test groups and one control group. The test groups were subjected to a different number of clinical uses, ranging from one to five. A multitechnique approach based on optical stereomicroscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was applied. The silicon coating of the tip was significantly reduced, and foreign bodies were occasionally found on reprocessed EPs. The amount of biological debris and chemical residuals increased with the number of reprocessing cycles in critical areas. The ...
The valence states of Mn in mixed-valent layer and tunnel structure manganese dioxides (MnO2), usually referred to as phyllomanganates and tectomanganates, can be measured by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy with a precision and accuracy that are difficult to estimate owing to the paucity of well-characterized standards. A compilation of the Mn K-edge XANES spectra of most naturally occurring manganates, synthetic analogs of known structure and chemical composition, and pure-valence phase species is presented and made available as an open source. We intend this compilation to serve as a basis for the spectroscopic determination of the fractions of the Mn 2+, 3+, and 4+ valences in mixed-valent manganates and phase mixtures. The XANES derivatives of tectomanganates and phyllomanganates with no or little Mn3+ in the MnO2 layer exhibit intensities, shapes, and relative energy positions of the main features characteristics of a particular valence composition. For these ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - STEM EDX nitrogen mapping of nanoinclusions in milky diamonds from Juina, Brazil, using a windowless silicon drift detector system. AU - Rudloff-Grund, J.. AU - Brenker, F. E.. AU - Marquardt, K.. AU - Kaminsky, F. V.. AU - Schreiber, A.. PY - 2016/6/7. Y1 - 2016/6/7. N2 - Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) in combination with a windowless detector setup allows high-resolution imaging and chemical composition mapping even of light elements present in low concentrations. The used TEM-system combines a field emission electron source with four silicon drift detectors allowing for high detection sensitivity. We used this enhanced system to investigate 20 to 200 nm sized inclusions in milky diamonds from Rio Soriso, Juina area, Brazil. The diamonds act as a chemical inert container and therefore protect their inclusions from further chemical reactions with their surroundings. We visualize the presence and ...
The electronic properties of Au crystal and nano Au have been investigated by theory and experiment. Molecularly capped nano-Au was synthesized using the two-phase method. Au nano-particles have been characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). They retain the fcc crystal structure. Their sizes have been determined to be in a range from 5.5 nm to 1.7 nm. The L3 X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) of nano-Au and Au foil have been recorded using synchrotron radiation, and examined by theoretical calculation [1] based on the first principles [2,3]. Both theory and experiment show that the nano-Au particles have essentially all the Au L3 XANES features of bulk Au in the near edge region with less pronounced resonance peaks. It is also shown that nano Au exhibits lower 4f binding energy than bulk Au in good agreement with quantum confined Au systems reported previously [3,4].
Eight patients with colloid cysts of the third ventricle were examined with CT and MR. In six, surgical resection was performed and the material was subjected to histologic evaluation; the concentrations of trace elements were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission. Stereotaxic aspiration was performed in two. The investigation showed that colloid cysts are often iso- or hypodense relative to brain on CT (5/8), but sometimes have a center of increased density. Increased density did not correlate with increased concentration of calcium or other metals but did not correlate with high cholesterol content. Colloid cysts appear more heterogeneous on MR (6/8) than on CT (3/8), despite a homogeneous appearance at histology. High signal on short TR/TE sequences is correlated with a high cholesterol content. A marked shortening of the T2 relaxation time is often noticed in the central part of the cyst. Analysis of trace elements showed that this phenomenon is not related to the presence of metals ...
SEE PDF Full Length Article Writers: Ariadne C. Catto, Luís F. da Silva, Maria Inês B. Bernardi, Sandrine Bernardini, Khalifa Aguir, Elson Longo, and Valmor R. Mastelaro. Keywords: cobalt; gas sensor; ozone; XANES spectroscopy; XPS; zinc oxide. Abstract: A detailed study of the structural, surface, and gas-sensing properties of nanostructured CoxZn1-xO films is presented. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed a decrease in the crystallization degree with increasing Co content. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS) revealed that the Co2+ ions preferentially occupied the Zn2+ sites and that the oxygen vacancy concentration increased as the amount of cobalt increased. Electrical measurements showed that the Co dopants not only enhanced the sensor response at low ozone levels (ca. 42 ppb) but also led to a decrease in the operating temperature and improved selectivity. The enhancement in the gas-sensing properties was attributed to the ...
Biocomposite scaffolds of lithium (Li)-containing mesoporous bioglass and monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactide-is the initial weight and is the weight of the samples at time is the initial weight and is the weight of samples soaking for time t. and composition of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM; S-3400N; Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS; Falcon, New York, USA), respectively. The changes in the ion concentrations (Si, Ca, and P ions) in SBF after soaking the samples at different time points were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (IRIS 1000; Thermo Elemental, Massachusetts, USA). Cell culture MC3T3-E1 cells (ATCC; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, Peoples Republic of China) were cultured with Dulbeccos Modified Eagles Medium supplemented with glutamine (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA), made up of 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum (Sijiqing, Hangzhou, Peoples ...
Changes in bioavailability of phosphorus (P) during pedogenesis and ecosystem development have been shown for geogenic calcium phosphate (Ca-P). However, very little is known about long-term changes of biogenic Ca-P in soil. Long-term transformation characteristics of biogenic Ca-P were examined using anthropogenic soils along a chronosequence from centennial to millennial time scales. Phosphorus fractionation of Anthrosols resulted in overall consistency with the Walker and Syers model of geogenic Ca-P transformation during pedogenesis. The biogenic Ca-P (e.g., animal and fish bones) disappeared to 3% of total P within the first ca. 2,000 years of soil development. This change concurred with increases in P adsorbed on metal-oxides surfaces, organic P, and occluded P at different pedogenic time. Phosphorus K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy revealed that the crystalline and therefore thermodynamically most stable biogenic Ca-P was transformed into more soluble forms ...
Ecosystems throughout the world are experiencing significant biogeochemical perturbation from anthropogenic activities. As one example, manganese (Mn) is enriched in surface soils at the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO) in Pennsylvania due to past atmospheric inputs from industrial sources. At the SSHCZO, large quantities of Mn that are leached from soil components into solution are taken up by vegetation each year; as a result, only relatively small quantities of Mn are transferred from hillslopes into the stream. Here, we combined mass balance models at the containerized seedling (mesocosm) and pedon-scales with synchrotron-source spectroscopies (X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption near edge structure) to examine Mn geochemistry in the soil-plant system and the impact of vegetation on Mn transport in forested catchments.. Manganese uptake into vegetation exceeded Mn losses in soil leachate, and net Mn loss from soils decreased in the presence of vegetation due to ...
A broad range of chemical reactions are triggered by the absorption of light. Examples include photosynthesis and charge transfer in semiconductors and molecules. Electronic dynamics which evolve on the few femtosecond to attosecond timescale are expected to play an important role in these processes. We aim to investigate these dynamics with transient X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. XANES spectroscopy uses resonant excitation of particular atoms in a molecule to provide a highly localised probe of electronic structure. By employing attosecond soft x-ray pulses generated via high harmonic generation for XANES spectroscopy this atomic scale spatial resolution can in principle be combined with the attosecond temporal resolution required for tracking electronic dynamics. I shall present development of a beamline for transient XANES spectroscopy and progress towards visible pump, soft x-ray probe experiments in the organic polymer poly(hexylthiophene ...
Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, ...
Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry. CRC Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-203-90870-9. Knipp, J.K.; G.E. Uhlenbeck (June 1936). "Emission of ... Law for Quantitative X-ray Fluorescence by the Fundamental Parameters Method". X-Ray Spectrometry. 6 (4): 201. Bibcode:1977XRS ... photon emission by a non-relativistic particle), and the emission of electrons and positrons during beta decay. However, the ... The total emission power density, integrated over all frequencies, is P B r = ∫ ω p ∞ d ω d P B r d ω = 16 3 [ e 2 4 π ε 0 ] 3 ...
spectrochemistry spectrometry See mass spectrometry. spectroscopy The study of radiation and matter, such as X-ray absorption ... and emission spectroscopy. standard solution standard conditions of temperature and pressure (STP) A standardisation of ambient ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also References External links X-ray A form of ... mass spectrometry (MS) An analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions in a chemical sample by ...
Chemical analyses were done on most samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The ... or dark pigments were removed from the plaster statue and beads and used for X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analysis, which provided ... HCl to remove the carbonate ingredients and the clay mineralogy was determined by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). 5. ...
... optical emission and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. SPECTRO is a major provider or analytical instrumentation with an ... Instruments is a manufacturer of elemental analyzers using optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry. ... SPECTRO was founded in 1979 and specialized in metal analyzers based on optical emission (arc/spark). These were later followed ...
The other two systems are the X-ray fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray fluorescence Diffractometry (XRD). The XRF is a ... In 2001, the first Positron emission tomography (PET) was licensed by the PNRI at St. Luke's Medical Center. During the years ... In the Radiometric / Gamma ray Spectrometry, gamma ray spectrometers are used for geological mapping, radiogenic mineral ... An average gamma ray would take hours to irradiate an object while an electron beam may take only seconds. The next is the ...
... mineralogical applications of micro-beam trace-element analytical techniques such as micro-Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE ... and Secondary-Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). His fundamental work on the platinum-group minerals has brought order and ...
Journal of X-Ray Spectrometry. 35, 271 (2006). Technical papers Micro-radiographs by reflection and by transmission, Gazeta de ... Fundamentals of X radiation emission and absorption processes", Gazeta de Física 5 (5) (Mar. 1972). "Lídia Coelho Salgueiro ( ... Despite a complete absence of research funds, Salgueiro continued X-ray and radioactivity research. Over the years, she ... she proved adept at adapting old laboratory equipment for use in experiments in areas such as nuclear physics and X-ray ...
X-ray (XRF, XRD, and microanalysis); mass spectrometry; magnetic resonance (NMR, EPR, MRI); surface analysis (ESCA, SIMS, Auger ... Spectroscopy covers many techniques from analytical chemistry to include: atomic absorption and emission (including plasma- ...
... as has been established by x-ray microanalysis and plasma emission spectrometry. H. halophila causes no known diseases. H. ...
Particle-induced X-ray emission, accelerator mass spectrometry, channeling, ion implantation, surface modification and ... The experimental facilities available in the ion beam laboratory include an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) for radiocarbon ... The 3 million volt NEC 9SDH-2 pelletron accelerator of the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry lab is a multi-disciplinary research ...
... particle-induced X-ray emission, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy; and chemical methods such ... In present day organic chemistry spectroscopic techniques (NMR, both 1H and 13C), mass spectrometry and chromatographic ... Sahu, Ramesh Chandra; Patel, Rajkishore; Ray, Bankim Chandra (2011-08-01). "Removal of hydrogen sulfide using red mud at ... such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, which probes the mass of atoms; other spectroscopy which probes the inner ...
... of the sputter threshold in practical depth-profiling by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry ... GCIB smoothing of high voltage electrodes has been shown to reduce field electron emission and GCIB treated RF cavities are ... Gas cluster sputter rates of different polymers differ a great deal, and X-ray damage (of the type that accumulates during XPS ... Cumpson, Peter; Portoles, Jose; Sano, Naoko; Barlow, Anders (2013). "X-ray enhanced sputter rates in argon cluster ion sputter- ...
Electron emission techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), which ... vaporize atoms include inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ... The excited state of a nucleus which results in gamma emission usually occurs following the emission of an alpha or a beta ... causes the emission of a positron and a neutrino. The electron or positron emissions are called beta particles. Beta decay ...
An interest towards absolute (standardless) analysis has revived, particularly in emission spectrometry.[citation needed] Great ... x-ray spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dual polarization interferometry, ... "High-performance Liquid Chromatography/NMR Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry:Further Advances in Hyphenated Technology". Journal ... Mass spectrometry measures mass-to-charge ratio of molecules using electric and magnetic fields. There are several ionization ...
Test Method for Nickel on Steel for Porcelain Enameling by X-Ray Emission Spectrometry C813 - 20 Test Method for Hydrophobic ... 17 Guide for High-Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectrometry of Soil Samples C1403 - 15 Test Method for Rate of Water Absorption of ... Test Method for Measurement of Coating Thickness by X-Ray Spectrometry B569 - 19 Specification for Brass Strip in Narrow Widths ... 15 Test Method for Analysis of Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys by Atomic Emission Spectrometry B955/B955M - 18 Specification for ...
... including a 300kV field emission cryo EM A Fourier transform mass spectrometry facility, equipped for both electrospray and ... Theresa Rebeck (M.A.'83, MFA '86, PhD '89) Playwright, made her Broadway debut in October with "Mauritius." Raymond Arsenault ( ... Ray Jackendoff-Language and Linguistics/Psychology (emeritus) Gish Jen-English and American Literature Mickey Keller-History ... MALDI ionization X-ray crystallography facilities Microfluidics fabrication facility The Ashton Graybiel Spatial Orientation ...
Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), sometimes also called Optical emission spectrometry (OES) Atomic absorption spectroscopy ( ... AAS) Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) X-Ray diffraction (XRD) Pottery seriation has proven useful for ... Such methods include: Neutron activation analysis (NAA) Instrumental Neutron activation analysis (INAA) X-ray fluorescence ...
... atomic emission spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and wet chemical analyses. Data are compiled from the scientific ... and minerals by a wide range of techniques including mass spectrometry, ...
Optical microscopy Optical emission spectroscopy Particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) Pyrolysis gas ... Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) Mass spectrometry (MS) Mössbauer spectroscopy Neutron activation analysis ... Vacuum fusion X-ray diffraction (XRD) X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) X-ray microscopy (XRM) Analytical chemistry List of ... Top A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z See also Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) Atomic emission ...
X-ray crystallography XDS - X-ray diffuse scattering XPEEM - X-ray photoelectron emission microscopy XPS - X-ray photoelectron ... Mass spectrometry MS/MS - Tandem mass spectrometry MSGE - Mechanically Stimulated Gas Emission Mössbauer spectroscopy - ... X-ray resonant exchange scattering XRF - X-ray fluorescence analysis XRR - X-ray reflectivity XRS - X-ray Raman scattering XSW ... Ion induced X-ray analysis: See Particle induced X-ray emission INS - Ion neutralization spectroscopy Inelastic neutron ...
Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), synchrotron-based microXRF, and Neutron ... Among the best are Inductively-Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ... A high-throughput determination of metal concentrations in whole intact Arabidopsis thalianaseeds using synchrotron-based X-ray ...
Analysis of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Spark Atomic Emission Spectrometry and Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry ... 12 Test Method for Analysis of Low-Alloy Steels and Cast Irons by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry E322- ... 14 Practice for Testing Homogeneity of a Metal Lot or Batch in Solid Form by Spark Atomic Emission Spectrometry E829 - 16 ... 17 Test Method for Analysis of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel by Spark Atomic Emission Spectrometry E415-RUS - 17 Стандартный метод ...
Ellipsometry 2D X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) Raman Spectroscopy/Microscopy Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry Time of ... Surwade, Sumedh P.; Smirnov, Sergei N.; Vlassiouk, Ivan V.; Unocic, Raymond R.; Veith, Gabriel M.; Dai, Sheng; Mahurin, Shannon ... Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) DNA synthesis Nanoparticle synthesis ... Zero emission vehicles (e.g. advanced fuel cells/batteries) Self-cleaning surfaces (e.g. super hydrophobic surface coatings) ...
Atomic emission spectrometry, x-ray fluorescence spectrometry with higher energy synchrotron radiation (SR-XFS) and Laser ... Electron microprobe (EMP), Synchrotron micro-XRF (SR-M-XRF), Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), Laser ... Laser ablation allows for high spatial resolution sampling while the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry provides high ... and synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SR-l-XRF). Due to the small size of gold (. ...
... spectrometry, gamma MeSH E05.196.867.776.751 - spectroscopy, mossbauer MeSH E05.196.867.800 - spectrometry, x-ray emission MeSH ... x-ray diffraction MeSH E05.196.309.742.225 - crystallography, x-ray MeSH E05.196.353.500 - microdialysis MeSH E05.196.370.310 ... spectrometry, mass, electrospray ionization MeSH E05.196.867.877.750 - spectrometry, mass, fast atom bombardment MeSH E05.196. ... 867.877.755 - spectrometry, mass, matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization MeSH E05.196.867.877.760 - spectrometry, mass, ...
Atomic Emission Spectrometry D5709 - 09(2015) Test Method for Sieve Analysis of Petroleum Coke D5710/D5710M - 15 Specification ... 15 Test Method for Trace Element Analysis of Hazardous Waste Fuel by Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry D5842 - ... 17 Test Method for Trace Metals in Petroleum Coke by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) D5602/ ... Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometrye espectrometria de absorção ...
mass spectrometry, including FTMS Nuclear magnetic resonance Linear accelerator Magnetic resonance imaging X-ray ... including mass spectroscopic and atomic emission spectroscopic detection. ... In 2008, Varian bought Oxford Diffraction, a British company specializing in X-ray diffraction equipment. On 27 July 2009 ... In 2006 Varian bought Ion Spec, an FTMS (Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry) manufacturing company. In 2007, Varian, Inc. ...
Optical emission spectrometry, OES Neutron activation analysis, NAA Atomic absorption spectroscopy AAS X-ray fluorescence XRF ... particle induced x-ray emission Electron microprobe X-ray diffraction Cathodoluminescence Raman spectroscopy Agent-based ...
High performance liquid chromatography Coupled With Mass spectrometry With Mass Detector, Scanning electron microscope, X-ray ... Atomic Emission Spectroscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Potentiostat / Galvanostat, Centrifuge Refrigerated Superspeed, Absorption ... Spectroscopy and Atomic Emission For Multicomponent Analysis, Gas Chromatography-Mass Detector, Liquid Chromatography System, ...
... low energy electron induced X-ray emission spectrometry) developed at the beginning of the 21st century. CAMECA instruments are ...
X-ray crystallographic and nuclear magnetic resonance structure studies have shown how this binding distorts the DNA[23] by ... "Metabolism of Benzo[a]pyrene in Human Bronchoalveolar H358 Cells Using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry". Chem. Res. ... Assessment of Benzo-alpha-pyrene Emissions in the Great Lakes Region, pp 23-24 ...
Chang, Raymond (1998). Chemistry, 6th Ed. New York: McGraw Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-115221-1. .. ... Emission spectrum of iron. The term chemical energy is often used to indicate the potential of a chemical substance to undergo ... Levi, Primo The Periodic Table (Penguin Books) [1975] translated from the Italian by Raymond Rosenthal (1984) ISBN 978-0-14- ... Chang, Raymond. Chemistry 6th ed. Boston: James M. Smith, 1998. ISBN 0-07-115221-0. ...
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. *Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. *LBOZ ... including x-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and/or microwave wavelengths. ...
Cranial computed topography, magnetic resonance imaging, and flurodeoxyglucose positron emission topography are just some of ... this can be difficult to measure since GHB has high volatility and may be obscured on gas chromatography or mass spectrometry ... MRI or X-ray computed tomography abnormalities. *Oculomotor apraxia. *Microcephaly. *Macrocephaly. *Hyperreflexia ...
Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. *Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. *Inelastic mean free ... XANES, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure. *Xenon arc lamp. *X-ray transient ... Isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, Multiple collector - inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) ...
X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), and positron emission tomography (PET). ... Biard B (2013). "Quantitative analysis of the fission product distribution in a damaged fuel assembly using gamma-spectrometry ... Redirected from Single photon emission computed tomography). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less ... Modern SPECT equipment is available with an integrated X-ray CT scanner. As X-ray CT images are an attenuation map of the ...
Inductively coupled plasmas (ICP), formed typically in argon gas for optical emission spectroscopy or mass spectrometry ... See Flashes in the Sky: Earth's Gamma-Ray Bursts Triggered by Lightning Archived 7 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine ... "cathode ray" matter was subsequently identified by British physicist Sir J.J. Thomson in 1897.[15] ...
Emissions from nuclear power plantsEdit. Carbon-14 is produced in coolant at boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized ... The primary natural source of carbon-14 on Earth is cosmic ray action on nitrogen in the atmosphere, and it is therefore a ... "National Ocean Sciences Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Facility. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06- ... Carbon-14 may also be produced by lightning [22][23] but in amounts negligible, globally, compared to cosmic ray production. ...
When the light passes from air into water, the refracted ray is bent towards the perpendicular... When the ray passes from ... The process that causes the amplification is stimulated emission.. Optical fiber is also widely exploited as a nonlinear medium ... Melling, Peter J.; Thomson, Mary (2002). "Fiber-optic probes for mid-infrared spectrometry". In Chalmers, John M.; Griffiths, ... Daniel Colladon first described this "light fountain" or "light pipe" in an 1842 article titled On the reflections of a ray of ...
Ar is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily by neutron capture of 40. Ar followed by two-neutron emission. In the subsurface ... Argon may be used as the carrier gas in gas chromatography and in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; it is the gas of ... K, followed by proton emission. 37. Ar is created from the neutron capture by 40. Ca followed by an alpha particle emission as ... Ar (11.2%) by electron capture or positron emission, and also to stable 40. Ca (88.8%) by beta decay. These properties and ...
X-ray spectroscopy. Works cited[edit]. *Gilmore G, Hemingway J. Practical Gamma-Ray Spectrometry. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester ... When these emissions are detected and analyzed with a spectroscopy system, a gamma-ray energy spectrum can be produced. ... Gamma ray characteristics[edit]. The gamma-ray spectrum of natural uranium, showing about a dozen discrete lines superimposed ... Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources, in such as the nuclear industry, ...
Defalque, Ray J.; Wright, A. J. (2000). "Was chloroform produced before 1831?". Anesthesiology. 92 (1): 290-291. doi:10.1097/ ... There are several colorimetric and fluorometric reagents for phosgene, and it can also be quantified with mass spectrometry. ... of emissions are natural in origin. Many kinds of seaweed produce chloroform, and fungi are believed to produce chloroform in ... "Halocarbon Emissions from a Degraded Forested Wetland in Coastal South Carolina Impacted by Sea Level Rise". ACS Earth and ...
Jenkins, Ron; Gould, R W; Gedcke, Dale (1995). "Instrumentation". Quantitative x-ray spectrometry (2nd ed.). New York: Dekker. ... But, many other types of CT exist, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography ( ... Contrast media used for X-ray CT, as well as for plain film X-ray, are called radiocontrasts. Radiocontrasts for X-ray CT are, ... T: X-ray tube D: X-ray detectors X: X-ray beam R: Gantry rotation ... X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), computerized axial ...
Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) using either the mass spectrometry (MS) or atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) modifications ... High-resolution X-ray crystallography established that these antibiotics associate only with the 23S rRNA of a ribosomal ... 28Mg decays by the emission of a high-energy beta or gamma particle, which can be measured using a scintillation counter. ... Stelzer, R.; Lehmann, H.; Krammer, D.; Luttge, U. (1990). "X-Ray microprobe analysis of vacuoles of spruce needle mesophyll, ...
Neutron emission · Proton emission. Decay energy · Decay chain · Decay product · Radiogenic nuclide ... Gabrielse, G. (2006). "Antiproton mass measurements". International Journal of Mass Spectrometry. 251 (2-3): 273-280. Bibcode: ... Köhn, C.; Ebert, U. (2015). "Calculation of beams of positrons, neutrons and protons associated with terrestrial gamma-ray ... This was confirmed experimentally by Henry Moseley in 1913 using X-ray spectra. ...
Its emission peak is at 509 nm, which is in the lower green portion of the visible spectrum. The fluorescence quantum yield (QY ... Peptide mass fingerprinting/Protein mass spectrometry. *Dual-polarization interferometry. *Microscale thermophoresis. * ... X-ray crystallography. *Protein NMR. *Cryo-electron microscopy. *Freeze-fracture electron microscopy ... Excitation and emission spectra for various fluorescent proteins. *Green Fluorescent Protein Chem Soc Rev themed issue ...
... either X-ray or uv, is used to dissociate stable gaseous molecules in a carrier gas of He or Ar. In instances where a ... Main article: Ion-mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry. Ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (IMS/MS or IMMS) is a ... Flame emission spectrometer. *Gas chromatograph. *High-performance liquid chromatograph. *Infrared spectrometer. *Mass ... accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS) and spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS). ...
Mass Spectrometry Reviews. 25 (4): 515-50. Bibcode:2006MSRv...25..515D. doi:10.1002/mas.20078. PMID 16463281. Archived from the ... Fission and alpha-particle emission would then make heavy nuclei decay into iron, converting all stellar-mass objects to cold ... A comparison of the X-ray crystal structures and low temperature magnetism of tetrakis(methylammonium) hexachloroferrate(III) ... In the last decade, advances in mass spectrometry have allowed the detection and quantification of minute, naturally occurring ...
The X-ray structure for synephrine has been determined.[55]. SynthesisEdit. Early and seemingly inefficient syntheses of ... at inducing light-emission in the firefly (Photinus species) light organ.[98] Synephrine exhibits similarly high potency in ... "A rapid liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for evaluation of synephrine in Citrus aurantium ... "The resolution and absolute configuration by X-ray crystallography of the isomeric octopamines and synephrines." J. Chem. Soc ...
Ar is made by cosmic ray activity, primarily by neutron capture of 40. Ar followed by two-neutron emission. In the subsurface ... Argon may be used as the carrier gas in gas chromatography and in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry; it is the gas of ... K, followed by proton emission. 37. Ar is created from the neutron capture by 40. Ca followed by an alpha particle emission as ... Ar (11.2%) by electron capture or positron emission, and also to stable 40. Ca (88.8%) by beta decay. These properties and ...
1997). "Tungsten determination in biological fluids, hair and nails by plasma emission spectrometry in a case of severe acute ... Hasz, Wayne Charles et al. (August 6, 2002) "X-ray target" U.S. Patent 6.428.904 ...
About one in 100,000 alpha emissions causes an excitation in the nucleus which then results in the emission of a gamma ray with ... Polonium-210 may be quantified in biological specimens by alpha particle spectrometry to confirm a diagnosis of poisoning in ... This process is accompanied by bubbling and emission of heat and light by glassware due to the absorbed alpha particles; as a ... Momoshima, N.; Song, L. X.; Osaki, S.; Maeda, Y. (2002). "Biologically induced Po emission from fresh water". J Environ ...
The beta decay from 137Cs to 137mBa is a strong emission of gamma radiation.[52] 137Cs and 90Sr are the principal medium-lived ... used as a source of positive ions in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). ... in scintillation counters widely used in mineral exploration and particle physics research to detect gamma and X-ray radiation ... Because of the bright blue lines in the emission spectrum, they derived the name from the Latin word caesius, meaning sky-blue. ...
a b c Raymond, David (April 7, 2006). "Nuclear Binding Energies". New Mexico Tech. Diakses tanggal 2007-01-03. ... "Atomic Emission Spectra - Origin of Spectral Lines". Avogadro Web Site. Diakses tanggal 2006-08-10. ... inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, ICP-MS), keduanya menggunakan plasma untuk menguapkan sampel analisis.[90] ... inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ICP-AES) dan plasma gandeng induktif-spektrometri massa ( ...
6, only one ray emitted from point A on the source is traced. As the ray passes through the paired flats, it is multiply ... "Spectrometry by Fourier transform". OPI - Optique pour l'Ingénieur. Retrieved 3 April 2012.. ... In Fourier transform spectroscopy they are used to analyze light containing features of absorption or emission associated with ... Phase-contrast X-ray imaging (Fig. 26) refers to a variety of techniques that use phase information of a coherent x-ray beam to ...
... as an outgoing ray from a corner-cube mirror is parallel to the incoming ray, regardless of the orientation of the mirror about ... Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)[1] is a technique used to obtain an infrared spectrum of absorption or emission ... Griffiths, P.; de Hasseth, J. A. (18 May 2007). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0- ... Peter R. Griffiths; James A. De Haseth (2007). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ...
Examples of important subdivisions in medical imaging include radiology (which uses the imaging technologies of X-ray ... nuclear medicine and functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography. Though they do not strictly relay ...
"For his distinguished researches in the sciences of X-ray structure analysis and X-ray spectroscopy.". ... "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to emission and infra-red spectroscopy and his origination of the atomic ... "In recognition of his contribution to the rapid development of accelerator mass spectrometry and radiocarbon dating techniques ... Raymond Arthur Lyttleton. Astronomy. "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to astronomy, particularly for his work ...
... using mass spectrometry or infrared spectrometry. Deuterium can be detected by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy, since the ... Emission spectrum of an ultraviolet deuterium arc lamp. Deuterium is most commonly used in hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance ... The two stable isotopes of hydrogen can also be distinguished by using mass spectrometry. ... and proven by mass spectrometry of light elements in 1920. The prevailing theory at the time was that isotopes of an element ...
... electron energy loss spectrometry; EDB : electrical diffusion batteries; EDX : energy dispersive x-ray analyzer; ER : emission ... Gharpure R, Marsh ZA, Tack DM, Collier SA, Strysko J, Ray L, Payne DC, Garcia-Williams AG.. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2021 ... Harmonized emissions monitoring and exposure assessment approaches are needed to facilitate inter-comparison of study results. ... Improved understanding of AM process emissions and exposures is needed for hygienists to ensure appropriate health and safety ...
Spectrometry is the spectroscopic technique used to assess the concentration or amount of a given chemical (atomic, molecular, ... Radiation spectrometry -. Comprising of absorption spectrometry, emission spectrometry, raman scattering spectrometry, and ... X-ray fluorescence spectrometry:-. X radiation emitted by atoms excited by absorption of X-radiation.Fluorescence techniques ... Emission spectrometry:-. Atoms or molecules brought to an excited state may de excite by emitting radiation, known as emission ...
Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) analysis of paraffin sections. Scanning electron microscopy combined with energy- ... i Field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) image of DAB-stained DCs after treatment with 1% gold chloride, taken in ... dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) is a spectral technique that provides visual identification of multiple elements ... Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis of paraffin sections. a-d Paraffin sections from patients with siderosis. a In ...
X-ray photoelectron emission spectrometry system. US5327012. 23 Dec 1992. 5 Jul 1994. Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. ...
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission * Spinacia oleracea / enzymology * Zinc / metabolism* Substances * Bacterial Proteins ... In addition, we examined the wild-type protein using extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. Our results suggest ...
Optical Emission Spectrometry. Perform rapid elemental analysis of solid metallic samples with optical emission spectrometry ... X-ray Diffraction. Our line of ARL EQUINOX X-ray diffractometers provides high-performance results in a wide range of ... X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, FTIR spectrometers and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers enable researchers and material ... X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. For the analysis of surfaces and thin film structures, our line of XPS spectrometers feature ...
MeV-range velocity-space tomography from gamma-ray and neutron emission spectrometry measurements at JET Salewski, Mirko ; ... Observation of short time-scale spectral emissions at millimeter wavelengths with the new CTS diagnostic on the FTU tokamak ...
7.2 Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) 168. 7.3 Optical Emission Spectrometry 169. 7.4 Mass Spectrometry (MS) 172. 7.5 X-Ray ... 2.2 X-ray Radiation and Their Interaction 11. 2.3 The Development of X-ray Spectrometry 21. 2.4 Carrying Out an Analysis 26. 3 ... 4.1 General Design of an X-ray Spectrometer 61. 4.2 Comparison of Wavelength- and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometers 63. 4.2 ... Wiley-VCH, Weinheim X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Laboratory Applications Provides comprehensive coverage on using X-ray ...
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission * Suspensions * Titanium / chemistry * Titanium / pharmacokinetics* * Titanium / toxicity* * X-Ray ...
Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). *Microwave plasma emission spectrophotometry (MP-AES). *Portable X-ray fluorescence ...
Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. *Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy. *Atomic Absorption ... X-Ray Powder Diffraction. *Scanning Electron Microscopy. Additionally we have a wide range of Infrared Spectroscopy and ...
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). *Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD) ... Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). * ...
Optical Emission Spectroscopy. Mass Spectroscopy. X-ray Diagnostics. Laser Assisted Plasma spectrometry e.g. Shadowgraph, LIBS ... Security Applications e.g. Plasma based Neutron and X-ray sources for Homeland Security. Plasma Focus Devices. Plasma Based ... Diagnostics and monitoring of Electrons, Ions, Neutrons emissions from various plasma sources Applications. Plasma ... Plasma Diagnostics for Radiation and Energetic Particle Emissions. ...
Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission. Chemical. Reg. No./Substance: 0/Cryoprotective Agents; 0/Polymers; 9003-39-8/Povidone; 9004-54-0/ ...
spectrometry of emission in the ultraviolet band. *spectrometry of X-ray fluorescence. *X-ray microfluorescence. *X-ray ...
Techniques are complementary to other methods within Intertek powder X-Ray Diffraction (pXRD) , X-ray photoelectron ... High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). *Contamination Analysis of Trace Chemicals and Metals ... ICP-OES Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy - Optical Emission Spectroscopy. *ICP-MS Inductively Coupled Plasma ... X-Ray Diffraction. *Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICP) Analysis * ...
... atomic emission spectrometry; ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry; ID-ICP-MS, isotope dilution ICP-MS; INAA ... mass spectrometry; INAA, instrumental neutron activation analysis; XRF/WDX, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence ... mass spectrometry; ICP-AES, inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometry; ICP-MS, inductively coupled plasma - ... mass spectrometry; IC, ion chromatography; ICP-AES, inductively coupled plasma - ...
Accelerator-Based Surface Chemistry by Combined Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOF-MS) and Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission ( ... X-ray diffraction examinations and ion exchange capacity measurements indicated no evidence of irradiation effects on the ... Laser ablation ion-storage time-of-flight mass spectrometry Description: No abstract prepared. ...
Flamen photometry (atomic emission spectroscopy). Fluorescence spectroscopy. Mass spectrometry. X-ray structural analysis. ...
6.5 Proton induced X-ray emission. 6.6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger spectroscopy. 7. Mass spectrometry. 7.1 ... 5.3 Atomic emission spectroscopy. 5.4 Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. 6. X-ray techniques. 6.1 Introduction. 6.2 X-ray ... 7.2 Molecular mass spectrometry. 7.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry. 7.4 Atomic mass spectrometry. 8. Chromatography and ... 6.3 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. 6.4 Electron microprobe analysis. ...
The phase composition was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD; D/max-PA, Rigaku, Japan) with a step of 0.02° and a scanning ... The microstructure and fracture morphology were examined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM; JSM-7001F, JEOL ... Japan). The electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) was conducted by energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). ...
Mass Spectrometry and Separations. MALDI-TOF/TOF. ESI-QqTOF. ESI-ITMS. ESI-Triple Quad-MS. UHPLC and nanoLC for LC/MS. GC- ... X-Ray Metrology for Silicon. X-Ray Metrology for Compound Semiconductor. X-Ray Defect Inspection. Process Equipment. Photomask ... X-ray Diffraction. Einkristalldiffraktometrie. Small-Angle X-ray Scattering. RFA-Handspektrometer. LIBS. Mikro-RFA und TRFA. ... Mass Spectrometry. LabScape - Magnetic Resonance & Preclinical Imaging. IR, NIR & Raman Service & Support- Optische ...
Gamma ray spectrometry in tokamaks. C. Schlatter. 2006. Detailed record. Full text ... Recent electron cyclotron emission results on TCV. V. S. Udintsev; G. Turri; E. Asp; C. Schlatter; T. P. Goodman et al. ... Recent electron cyclotron emission results on TCV. V. S. Udintsev; G. Turri; E. Asp; C. Schlatter; T. P. Goodman et al. ... EC-16, Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating, Sanya, China, 12-15 April 2010. ...
Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry ... The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) Facility. The X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectrometer is located in the Grant Institute, School of ... X-Ray Diffraction Facility. The XRD is located in the Grant Institute, School of GeoSciences at the University of Edinburgh . ... Wolfson Laboratory - Stable Isotope Mass Spectrometry. The School has an established stable isotope laboratory, which was ...
Handbook of X-Ray Spectrometry. CRC Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-203-90870-9. Knipp, J.K.; G.E. Uhlenbeck (June 1936). "Emission of ... Law for Quantitative X-ray Fluorescence by the Fundamental Parameters Method". X-Ray Spectrometry. 6 (4): 201. Bibcode:1977XRS ... photon emission by a non-relativistic particle), and the emission of electrons and positrons during beta decay. However, the ... The total emission power density, integrated over all frequencies, is P B r = ∫ ω p ∞ d ω d P B r d ω = 16 3 [ e 2 4 π ε 0 ] 3 ...
Fluorescence Spectrometry. The department has a Fluoromax from Spex. It is capable of recording excitation, emission or ... X-ray Fluorescence. The department has a handheld Bruker XRF.. ... UV-vis Spectrometry. The department has several UV-vis ... Mass Spectrometry. The department obtained a Micromass QTof2 with an electrospray ion source through a generous donation from ...
  • Spectroscopy or spectrometry is often used in physical and analytical chemistry for the identification of substances through the spectrum emitted from or absorbed by them. (
  • Spectroscopy or spectrometry is also heavily used in astronomy and remote sensing. (
  • This book focuses on the practical aspects of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy and discusses the requirements for a successful sample analysis, such as sample preparation, measurement techniques and calibration, as well as the quality of the analysis results. (
  • X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy for Laboratory Applications begins with a short overview of the physical fundamentals of the generation of X-rays and their interaction with the sample material, followed by a presentation of the different methods of sample preparation in dependence on the quality of the source material and the objective of the measurement. (
  • 5.3 Atomic emission spectroscopy. (
  • 6.6 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger spectroscopy. (
  • During the last two decades, remarkable and often spectacular progress has been made in the methodological and instrumental aspects of x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy. (
  • Synchrotron Rapid Scanning X-ray Fluorescence (SRS-XRF) maps are combined with sulphur X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy to provide the first map of organic sulphur distribution within whole fossils, and demonstrate that organically derived endogenous compounds are present. (
  • Surface chemistry was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. (
  • SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis is used to determine the elemental composition of the residue, with XRD (X-Ray Diffraction) sometimes used to identify specific compounds present. (
  • In x-ray spectroscopy, for example, x-rays bombard a substance. (
  • note: Results are based on samples that were dried for one hour at 105°C. The values were generally derived from various fusions and acid digestion methods followed by inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectroscopy or X-ray fluorescence. (
  • Introduction to NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. (
  • The cores are characterized using nitrogen permeability, micro-CT, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Itrax-XRF scanning. (
  • and lead release by the use of artificial sweat immersion and plasma optical emission spectroscopy. (
  • Taking snapshots of photosynthetic water oxidation using femtosecond X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy. (
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX): surface morphology and elemental analysis. (
  • Introduction The basis of modern oil analysis is the use of optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to measure the ppm (parts per million) levels of wear metals, contaminants and additives in oil samples. (
  • Moreover, synchrotron radiation offers the unique capability of spatially resolved chemical speciation using micro-X-ray absorption spectroscopy. (
  • 7.3 Secondary ion mass spectrometry. (
  • The Ion Micro-Probe (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, SIMS) Facility is located in the School of GeoSciences, Grant Institute at the University of Edinburgh. (
  • Secondary ion mass spectrometry instrumentation update. (
  • 10. X-ray diffraction and small-angle scattering. (
  • As usual, alternating with x-ray diffraction, the emphasis this year was x-ray fluorescence, but as has been the pattern for several occasions over the last few years, the Plenary Session did not deal with that subject, specifically. (
  • X-Ray Diffraction Using Synchrotron Radiation - A Catalysis Perspective. (
  • It was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis, thermogravimetry and X-ray diffraction. (
  • With hundreds of major innovations to their credit, Rigaku companies are world leaders in X-ray spectrometry, diffraction, and optics, as well as small molecule and protein crystallography and semiconductor metrology. (
  • Here we present combined X-ray emission spectra and diffraction data of 2-flash (2F) and 3-flash (3F) photosystem II samples, and of a transient 3F' state (250 μs after the third flash), collected under functional conditions using an X-ray free electron laser. (
  • The corona charged aerosol detector for liquid chromatography and high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry combined with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. (
  • High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis of botanical medicines and dietary supplements: a review. (
  • Everhart-Thornley Detector, Quad Backscatter Detection Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, Variable Pressure System and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. (
  • Samples prepared on polycarbonate filters were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray spectrometry, and plasma emission spectrometry. (
  • Surface topography was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and blue-light profilometry. (
  • B. Cross, "Scanning X-Ray Fluorescence Microscopy and Principal Component Analysis", Proc. (
  • The combination of PIXE with backscattering spectrometry and scanning transmission ion microscopy provides a high accuracy in elemental quantification of cellular organelles. (
  • When the excitation is caused by selective absorption, by the atoms or molecules to be analyzed, of electromagnetic radiation,this represents a fluorescence emission (or a phosphorescence emission, depending on the electron excitation start involved). (
  • Perform rapid elemental analysis of solid metallic samples with optical emission spectrometry using Arc/Spark excitation. (
  • It is capable of recording excitation, emission or synchronous fluorescence spectra. (
  • These organic dyes can be characterized by the wavelengths of light that they absorb (excitation wavelengths), and the wavelengths of light that they emit (emission wavelengths). (
  • The excitation and emission wavelengths are properties of each dye that are highly specific and reliable. (
  • Further synchrotron radiation analysis of a number of these entrapped particles shows them to exist as UO 2 -identical to reactor fuel, with confirmation of their nuclear origin shown via mass spectrometry analysis. (
  • Pyrolysis gas chromatography mass spectrometry shows a similar distribution of aliphatic material within both feathers that are different from those of their respective matrices. (
  • OPtical methods ( emission spectral analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry, UV/VIS molecular absorption spectrometry. (
  • Flame Emission and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, Electrothermal AAS, Hydride generation AAS and Flameless mercury analysis. (
  • Field portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) continues to gain acceptance as a complement to traditional laboratory testing of metal contaminated soil. (
  • Field portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) is an exemplary field method, offering extremely rapid, cost-effective screening of heavy metals in soil by in-situ measurement. (
  • To achieve these objectives, three different field technologies--portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF), a colorimetric field kit, and qualitative test kits--were evaluated in the field. (
  • X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, FTIR spectrometers and X-ray photoelectron spectrometers enable researchers and material analysts to probe the chemical composition of materials ranging from ultra thin-films to bulk powders used in product development and materials troubleshooting. (
  • For instance, in April 2019, Bruker Corporation, a scientific instruments manufacturer based in the U.S., partnered with DKSH, a market expansion services provider, for the sales of its dispersive X-ray fluorescence benchtop spectrometers in China. (
  • Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) and IMS/MS. Sherma, J. (
  • Rigaku Corporation today announced the publication of a new application report describing the analysis of low concentration sulfur in automotive fuels using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometry. (
  • Rigaku Application Note #XRF 5035 adheres to the American Society for Testing and Materials method ASTM D2622-10 ("Standard Test Method for Sulfur in Petroleum Products by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry") and highlights the capabilities of the Rigaku Mini-Z Sulfur analyzer. (
  • Electron microscopes from our FEI business, X-ray diffractometers and Raman imaging microscopes provide insight into the structure of materials with microscopic and crystallographic capabilities. (
  • Laboratory, portable, and process control Raman spectrometry instruments. (
  • Spectrometry is the spectroscopic technique used to assess the concentration or amount of a given chemical (atomic, molecular, or ionic) species. (
  • In addition, we examined the wild-type protein using extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis. (
  • These are the key findings of a research report released by Transparency Market Research, titled " Spectrometry Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2014 - 2020 . (
  • Furthermore, the clinical application of spectrometry has also improved in terms of disease marking, proteomics, toxicology, and tissue analysis. (
  • The Instrumental Analysis Expert Working Group is the successor to the earlier AMC Sub-Committees on Instrumental Criteria (IASC) and Mass Spectrometry (MSSC). (
  • Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES) is a well-known tecnique for the elemental analysis of the ferrous and not ferrous alloys. (
  • Advances in X-Ray Analysis. (
  • The 37th Annual Denver Conference on Applications of X-Ray Analysis was held August 1-5, 1988, at the Sheraton Steamboat Resort and Conference Center, Steamboat Springs, Colorado. (
  • In an attempt to introduce the audience to one of the new developments in x-ray analysis, the title of the session was 'High Brilliance Sources/Applications,' and dealt exclusively with synchrotron radiation, a topic which has made a very large impact on the x-ray community over the last decade. (
  • On-Line X-Ray Analysis. (
  • What Can Data Analysis do for X-Ray Microfluorescence Analysis? (
  • Applications of a Laboratory X-Ray Microprobe to Materials Analysis. (
  • Chemical State Analysis by X-Ray Fluorescence Using Absorption Edges Shifts. (
  • Quantitative Analysis of Fluorine and Oxygen by X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Using a Layered Structure Analyzer. (
  • Quantitative Analysis of Arsenic Element in a Trace of Water Using Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. (
  • Impurity Analysis of Silicon Wafers by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis. (
  • It provides a common vocabulary and offers practical tools and guidelines for ceramic analysis using techniques and methodologies ranging from network analysis and typology to rehydroxylation dating and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (
  • The use of X-Ray fluorescence in healthcare research is also contributing significantly to the elemental analysis market growth. (
  • A number of pieces of Byzantine jewellery has been analysed by x-ray fluorescence analysis, after first gently abrading a small area of the surface of the gold with the carborundum paper in an inconspicious position on the back or side of the object. (
  • For compliance verification, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is the preferred analysis tool for use at distribution terminals, as well as at mobile or stationary testing laboratories. (
  • Their performances were measured against analysis of paint samples performed using an established laboratory technique, microwave acid digestion/inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (MW/ICP). (
  • Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES): analysis of bulk samples, down to ppb level. (
  • Glow discharge mass spectrometry (GD-MS) is an excellent technique for fast multi-element analysis of pure metals. (
  • The aim of this article is to present the recent achievements in the field of cellular chemical element imaging, and direct speciation analysis, using proton and synchrotron radiation X-ray micro- and nano-analysis. (
  • Atomic-line emission spectra are produced by the inductively coupled plasma for specific element and the intensities of the lines (bands) are monitored by a photomultiplier tube. (
  • 100 mg boron/L of sample) was reported to interfere with the line emission spectra of barium at 455.50 nm (Mauras and Allain 1979). (
  • Discrete spectra that have bright spikes are called emission spectra, while those that have dark spikes are called absorption spectra. (
  • This study uses X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT), nitrogen permeability, and Itrax X-ray fluorescence (Itrax-XRF) scanning to investigate the mechanism of fines migration during CO 2 injection. (
  • Mass spectrometry systems include an ionizer, mass analyzer and the detector, with a high pressure chamber holding the mass analyzer and a separate chamber. (
  • The Mini-Z Sulfur analyzer is equipped with an air-cooled 40 W Cr-target X-ray tube. (
  • On the other hand, synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence provides chemical element imaging with less than 100 nm spatial resolution. (
  • The analytical sensitivity of X-ray microanalysis can be greatly improved by using accelerated protons (particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method) or synchrotron radiation (synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) method). (
  • Broadly speaking, bremsstrahlung or braking radiation is any radiation produced due to the deceleration (negative acceleration) of a charged particle, which includes synchrotron radiation (i.e. photon emission by a relativistic particle), cyclotron radiation (i.e. photon emission by a non-relativistic particle), and the emission of electrons and positrons during beta decay. (
  • In terms of technology, the global spectrometry market will mostly be dominated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry by 2020. (
  • With the Centre facing budgetary constraints she proved adept at adapting old laboratory equipment for use in experiments in areas such as nuclear physics and X-ray spectrography. (
  • Horizon is the new Benchtop Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (TXRF) for multi elemental qualitative and quantitative analyses for. (
  • Horizon is the new Benchtop Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (TXRF) for multi elemental qualitative and quantitative analyses for major constituents and ultra-trace in suspension as well as liquid samples, manufactured by GNR. (
  • On-Line X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Coating Thickness Measurements. (
  • and determining the properties of the sample by inspecting C and S. This method can be used to analyze X-ray spectral data generated by operating a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an attached Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). (
  • Historically, the first method of X-ray microanalysis was the electron microprobe developed by Castaing (1951) based on the use of an electron microscope with an X-ray detector. (
  • It is difficult to investigate proteins in their natural environment that is liquid because the usual X-ray methods require an ultrahigh vacuum, which cannot be achieved in an environment of liquid samples. (
  • These interferences are caused when a sample contains elements or compounds that have analytical emission lines (bands) that overlap the line chosen for the analyte. (
  • The produced-water samples are analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). (
  • The MSSC prepared detailed training guides aimed at improving the quality of measurements by mass spectrometry. (
  • Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry is widely recognized for its ability to probe the structure and dynamics of proteins. (
  • ABSTRACT This paper discusses the use of the Sycamore Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for monitoring Hydrogen Sulfide Gas concentrations within odor control systems. (
  • b The data generally includes sets by various fusions, and fused pellet or fusion followed by x-ray fluorescence. (
  • Depending of the type of sample to be analyzed, and the performance level being sought, in the laboratory, absorption spectrometry is used either on molecules in liquid or gaseous phase, or on atomic vapor, obtained through thermal breakdown of liquid or solid samples. (
  • Provides comprehensive coverage on using X-ray fluorescence for laboratory applications This book f. (
  • A dip in the plasma emission intensity in the initial stage of the discharge (the so-called 'dark phase') is observed. (
  • Through combined x-ray fluorescence and absorption contrast micro-focused x-ray tomography, entrapped U particulate are observed to exist around the exterior circumference of the highly porous Si-based particle. (
  • The Homogeneity of Fe, Sr and Zr in SL-3/Lake Sediment Standard Reference Material by Radioisotope Induced X-Ray Emission. (
  • Time-resolved mass spectrometry (TRMS) allows one to differentiate between chemical states that can be observed sequentially at different time points. (
  • O 3 concentrations are much lower than the background values, indicating the chemical scavenging of O 3 caused by its precursor emissions from traffic and other sources in Hong Kong. (
  • X-ray chemical imaging holds the potential for fundamental breakthroughs in the understanding of biological systems because chemical interactions can be evidenced at the subcellular level. (