Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional: Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear: Highly conserved nuclear RNA-protein complexes that function in RNA processing in the nucleus, including pre-mRNA splicing and pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in the nucleoplasm, and pre-rRNA processing in the nucleolus (see RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEOLAR).Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.PhosphoproteinsKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.RNA, Small Nuclear: Short chains of RNA (100-300 nucleotides long) that are abundant in the nucleus and usually complexed with proteins in snRNPs (RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS, SMALL NUCLEAR). Many function in the processing of messenger RNA precursors. Others, the snoRNAs (RNA, SMALL NUCLEOLAR), are involved with the processing of ribosomal RNA precursors.Dexrazoxane: The (+)-enantiomorph of razoxane.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Ribonucleoprotein, U1 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U1 snRNP along with other small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (U2, U4-U6, and U5) assemble into SPLICEOSOMES that remove introns from pre-mRNA by splicing. The U1 snRNA forms base pairs with conserved sequence motifs at the 5'-splice site and recognizes both the 5'- and 3'-splice sites and may have a fundamental role in aligning the two sites for the splicing reaction.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Protein Array Analysis: Ligand-binding assays that measure protein-protein, protein-small molecule, or protein-nucleic acid interactions using a very large set of capturing molecules, i.e., those attached separately on a solid support, to measure the presence or interaction of target molecules in the sample.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization: A mass spectrometric technique that is used for the analysis of large biomolecules. Analyte molecules are embedded in an excess matrix of small organic molecules that show a high resonant absorption at the laser wavelength used. The matrix absorbs the laser energy, thus inducing a soft disintegration of the sample-matrix mixture into free (gas phase) matrix and analyte molecules and molecular ions. In general, only molecular ions of the analyte molecules are produced, and almost no fragmentation occurs. This makes the method well suited for molecular weight determinations and mixture analysis.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Diazonium CompoundsModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ribonucleoprotein, U5 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U5 snRNP along with U4-U6 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form SPLICEOSOMES.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.PhenanthridinesMaleimidesRibonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear: A nuclear RNA-protein complex that plays a role in RNA processing. In the nucleoplasm, the U4-U6 snRNP along with the U5 snRNP preassemble into a single 25S particle that binds to the U1 and U2 snRNPs and the substrate to form mature SPLICEOSOMES. There is also evidence for the existence of individual U4 or U6 snRNPs in addition to their organization as a U4-U6 snRNP.Cells: The fundamental, structural, and functional units or subunits of living organisms. They are composed of CYTOPLASM containing various ORGANELLES and a CELL MEMBRANE boundary.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Alkaloids: Organic nitrogenous bases. Many alkaloids of medical importance occur in the animal and vegetable kingdoms, and some have been synthesized. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Benzophenanthridines: Compounds of four rings containing a nitrogen. They are biosynthesized from reticuline via rearrangement of scoulerine. They are similar to BENZYLISOQUINOLINES. Members include chelerythrine and sanguinarine.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Androstane-3,17-diol: The unspecified form of the steroid, normally a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE with androgenic activity. It has been implicated as a regulator of gonadotropin secretion.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPeptide Biosynthesis: The production of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS by the constituents of a living organism. The biosynthesis of proteins on RIBOSOMES following an RNA template is termed translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). There are other, non-ribosomal peptide biosynthesis (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NUCLEIC ACID-INDEPENDENT) mechanisms carried out by PEPTIDE SYNTHASES and PEPTIDYLTRANSFERASES. Further modifications of peptide chains yield functional peptide and protein molecules.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Protein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Dactinomycin: A compound composed of a two CYCLIC PEPTIDES attached to a phenoxazine that is derived from STREPTOMYCES parvullus. It binds to DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis (transcription), with chain elongation more sensitive than initiation, termination, or release. As a result of impaired mRNA production, protein synthesis also declines after dactinomycin therapy. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1993, p2015)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Isotope Labeling: Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Okadaic Acid: A specific inhibitor of phosphoserine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 and 2a. It is also a potent tumor promoter. (Thromb Res 1992;67(4):345-54 & Cancer Res 1993;53(2):239-41)Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Eye ProteinsSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.PhosphopeptidesGenetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Isoquinolines: A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)1-(5-Isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-Methylpiperazine: A specific protein kinase C inhibitor, which inhibits superoxide release from human neutrophils (PMN) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or synthetic diacylglycerol.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Uteroglobin: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Molecular Chaperones: A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Protein Kinase C-epsilon: A protein kinase C subtype that was originally characterized as a CALCIUM-independent, serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHORBOL ESTERS and DIACYLGLYCEROLS. It is targeted to specific cellular compartments in response to extracellular signals that activate G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS; TYROSINE KINASE RECEPTORS; and intracellular protein tyrosine kinase.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Phosphotyrosine: An amino acid that occurs in endogenous proteins. Tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation plays a role in cellular signal transduction and possibly in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
Decreasing of specific protein prenylation[edit]. Statins, by inhibiting the HMG CoA reductase pathway, simultaneously inhibit ... the production of both cholesterol and specific prenylated proteins (see diagram).This inhibitory effect on protein prenylation ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1] ... Some specific types are listed in the table below. Note that the associated brand names may vary between countries. ...
Marine-specific systems[edit]. Protein skimmers[edit]. Main article: Protein skimmer. Deep sand beds[edit]. Main article: Deep ...
... which suggested the membrane or cytoskeleton localization of this protein. The specific function of this PTP has not yet been ... The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the PTP family and PTPN14 subfamily of tyrosine protein phosphatases. PTPs are ... "Entrez Gene: PTPN14 protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 14". Wadham C, Gamble JR, Vadas MA, Khew-Goodall Y (Jun ... Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 14 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PTPN14 gene. ...
... and threonine-specific protein kinase activities of purified gag-mil and gag-raf proteins". Nature. 312 (5994): 558-61. Bibcode ... C-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases, from the TKL (Tyrosine-kinase-like) ... Vincenz C, Dixit VM (August 1996). "14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as ... 14-3-3 proteins also contribute to the autoinhibition. As 14-3-3 proteins are all known to form constitutive dimers, their ...
Protein Azurophilic granules (or "primary granules"). Myeloperoxidase, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI), ... Specific granules (or "secondary granules"). Alkaline phosphatase, lysozyme, NADPH oxidase, collagenase, lactoferrin, ... It has been shown in mice that in certain conditions neutrophils have a specific type of migration behaviour referred to as ... The ability of microbes to alter the fate of neutrophils is highly varied, can be microbe-specific, and ranges from prolonging ...
Antifreeze protein Certain plasma proteins of coldwater fish Interact with specific carbohydrates Lectins, selectins (cell ... Notch and its analogs, key proteins in development Hemostasis (and thrombosis) Specific glycoproteins on the surface membranes ... It can also be used for site-specific glycosylation profiling.[11] NMR spectroscopy To identify specific sugars, their sequence ... Secreted extracellular proteins are often glycosylated. In proteins that have segments extending extracellularly, the ...
Proteins, 46, 195-205. Jones D.T. (1999) Protein secondary structure prediction based on position-specific scoring matrices. J ... "Twilight zone of protein sequence alignments". Protein engineering. 12 (2): 85-94. doi:10.1093/protein/12.2.85. PMID 10195279. ... Proteins, 53, 917-930 Wrzeszczynski K.O. and Rost,B. (2004) Cataloguing proteins in cell cycle control. Methods Mol. Biol., 241 ... and predicts aspects of protein structure and function. Users send a protein sequence and receive a single file with results ...
The active site is a region on an enzyme which a particular protein or substrate can bind to. The active site will only allow ... Glycine is a major post-synaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter with a specific receptor site. Strychnine binds to an alternate ... "Functional Design of Proteins". Molecular Cell Biology. 4th edition. W. H. Freeman. ... "Enzymes Can Be Inhibited by Specific Molecules". Biochemistry. 5th edition. W H Freeman. ...
Proteins exist that interact with the FAM107B protein: autophagy proteins that are involved in the transport from the cytoplasm ... 2009), "CDD: specific functional annotation with the Conserved Domain Database.", Nucleic Acids Res.37(D)205-10. Conserved ... the hypothetical protein HP0231, which is a somatostatin receptor, as well as the ISWI complex protein 2, which is a ... which is a heat shock-like protein as well as an antigen; the kinesin-related protein which is a biliary glycoprotein ...
Sugars, starches and simple proteins. Proteins Hemicelluloses Cellulose Lignins and fats. The reactions that take place can be ... The essential elements, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus are liberated and mineralized by a series of specific reactions. Compounds ... Proteins contain nitrogen in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and also small amounts of sulfur, iron, and phosphorus. ... New reactions take place between these compounds and some proteins and other nitrogen containing products, incorporating thus ...
"Prediction of disordered regions in proteins from position specific score matrices". Proteins: Structure, Function, and ... Users sometimes have a protein sequence that they wish to model on a specific template of their choice. This may be for example ... Many proteins contain multiple protein domains. Phyre2 provides a table of template matches color-coded by confidence and ... Phyre and Phyre2 (Protein Homology/AnalogY Recognition Engine; pronounced as 'fire') are web-based services for protein ...
... a highly prostate-specific six transmembrane protein that is overexpressed in prostate cancer". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (39): 36689- ... "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs". Genome ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2001). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ... "The Steap proteins are metalloreductases". Blood. 108 (4): 1388-94. doi:10.1182/blood-2006-02-003681. PMC 1785011 . PMID ...
... the specific peptide inhibitor of ASIC1a proton-gated cation channels". Protein Science. 12 (7): 1332-43. doi:10.1110/ps. ... The psalmotoxin structure can be classified as an inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) protein. Many ion channel effectors from snail, ... "Isolation of a tarantula toxin specific for a class of proton-gated Na+ channels". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (33 ...
Nakayama M, Kikuno R, Ohara O (November 2002). "Protein-protein interactions between large proteins: two-hybrid screening using ... Olsen JV, Blagoev B, Gnad F, Macek B, Kumar C, Mortensen P, Mann M (November 2006). "Global, in vivo, and site-specific ... Testican-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SPOCK2 gene. Proteoglycans, which consist of a core protein and ... "The secreted protein discovery initiative (SPDI), a large-scale effort to identify novel human secreted and transmembrane ...
Transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TM4SF5 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ... 1996). "A pancreatic cancer-specific expression profile". Oncogene. 13 (8): 1819-30. PMID 8895530. ... Wright MD, Ni J, Rudy GB (2000). "The L6 membrane proteins--a new four-transmembrane superfamily". Protein Sci. 9 (8): 1594-600 ... The proteins mediate signal transduction events that play a role in the regulation of cell development, activation, growth and ...
The NRD1 gene codes for the protein nardilysin, an HB-EGF modulator. Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16 and BAG ... Nishi E, Prat A, Hospital V, Elenius K, Klagsbrun M (July 2001). "N-arginine dibasic convertase is a specific receptor for ... Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family of proteins that in humans is encoded by the ... Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor has been shown to interact with NRD1, Zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 16 ...
Alternative splicing has been observed at this locus and three transcript variants, all encoding the same protein, have been ... Purification and characterization as a high specific activity enzyme recognized by an anti-rat tetraphosphatase antibody". FEBS ... Rotllán P, Rodríguez-Ferrer CR, Asensio AC, Oaknin S (1998). "Potent inhibition of specific diadenosine polyphosphate ... "The MutT proteins or "Nudix" hydrolases, a family of versatile, widely distributed, "housecleaning" enzymes". J. Biol. Chem. ...
... bridged scorpion toxin specific of potassium channels". Protein Science. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 12: 1844-1855. ... Pi4 (α-KTx 6.4) is a short toxin from the scorpion Pandinus imperator that blocks specific potassium channels. The name Pi4 is ...
1991). "cDNA cloning of a novel testis-specific calcineurin B-like protein". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 179 (3): 1325-30. ... Calcineurin subunit B type 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PPP3R2 gene. Among its related pathways are MAPK ... "Entrez Gene: PPP3R2 protein phosphatase 3 (formerly 2B), regulatory subunit B, beta isoform". "PathCards :: MAPK signaling ... "PPP3R2 Gene - GeneCards , CANB2 Protein , CANB2 Antibody". Retrieved 2015-09-08. Mukai H, Chang CD, Tanaka H ...
The protein exhibits highly tissue-specific expression in the reproductive tract, suggesting implicit roles in reproduction. ... Cystatin-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CST8 gene. The cystatin superfamily encompasses proteins that contain ... The type 2 cystatin proteins are a class of cysteine proteinase inhibitors found in a variety of human fluids and secretions. ... This gene is located in the cystatin locus and encodes a protein similar to type 2 cystatins. ...
Nardilysin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NRD1 gene. NRD1 has been shown to interact with Heparin-binding EGF- ... 2001). "N-arginine dibasic convertase is a specific receptor for heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor that mediates cell ... Hospital V, Prat A (2005). "Nardilysin, a basic residues specific metallopeptidase that mediates cell migration and ... "N-arginine dibasic convertase is a specific receptor for heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor that mediates cell migration". ...
The structure shows that the group I intron binds across the two subunits of the homodimeric protein with a newly evolved RNA- ... This division is defined by the unique architectures associated with the catalytic domains and by signature sequences specific ... The single YARS gene that is present in the genomes of trypanosomatids, codes for a protein that has twice the length of ... Bedouelle H, Winter G (Mar 1986). "A model of synthetase/transfer RNA interaction as deduced by protein engineering". Nature. ...
Protein Eng. 11 (3): 219-24. doi:10.1093/protein/11.3.219. PMID 9613846. Cosentino G, Lavallée P, Rakhit S, Plante R, Gaudette ... Cohen EA, Gaudreau P, Brazeau P, Langelier Y (1986). "Specific inhibition of herpesvirus ribonucleotide reductase by a ... Although the C-terminus of RNR2 proteins is different across species, RNR2 can interact with RNR1 across species. When the ... Nordlund P, Eklund H (July 1993). "Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Ribonucleotide Reductase Protein R2". J. Mol ...
"A human protein-protein interaction network: a resource for annotating the proteome". Cell. 122 (6): 957-68. doi:10.1016/j.cell ... Hartley JL, Temple GF, Brasch MA (2000). "DNA cloning using in vitro site-specific recombination". Genome Res. 10 (11): 1788-95 ... "Towards a proteome-scale map of the human protein-protein interaction network". Nature. 437 (7062): 1173-8. doi:10.1038/ ... Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor B also known as multiple tumor suppressor 2 (MTS-2) or p15INK4b is a protein that is ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the penultimate step of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. There are approximately ... 1996). "A pancreatic cancer-specific expression profile". Oncogene. 13 (8): 1819-30. PMID 8895530. Ji H, Reid GE, Moritz RL, et ... Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Mutations in the chromosome 9 copy of ASS ... 1997). "A two-dimensional gel database of human colon carcinoma proteins". Electrophoresis. 18 (3-4): 605-13. doi:10.1002/elps. ...
These connections are, unlike most artificial neural networks, sparse and usually specific. It is not known how information is ... proteins, and chemical coupling to network oscillations, columnar and topographic architecture, and learning and memory. ... It is also unknown what the computational functions of these specific connectivity patterns are, if any. ... transmitted through such sparsely connected networks, although specific areas of the brain, such as the Visual cortex, are ...
Serine/threonine-specific protein kinase. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. (Redirected from Non-specific serine/threonine ... In enzymology, the term non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase describes a class of enzymes that belong to the family of ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:protein phosphotransferase (non-specific). ... Protein kinase C (PKC). is actually a family of protein kinases consisting of ~10 isozymes. They are divided into three ...
Invertebrate muscles: muscle specific genes and proteins.. Hooper SL1, Thuma JB. ... complement of present-day muscle proteins. The second is the extraordinary diversity of protein isoforms and genetic mechanisms ... Actin, myosin, and tropomyosin (at least, the presence of other muscle proteins in these organisms has not been examined) exist ... This rich diversity suggests that studying invertebrate muscle proteins and genes can be usefully applied to resolve ...
... Patricia Orduña,1 Antonia I. Castillo-Rodal,1 Martha E. ... "Ribosomal protein L7 included in tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) is a major heat-resistant protein inducing strong ... "Identification of proteins from tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) by LC-MS/MS," Tuberculosis, vol. 89, no. 6, pp. ... W.-X. Xu, L. Zhang, J.-T. Mai et al., "The Wag31 protein interacts with AccA3 and coordinates cell wall lipid permeability and ...
site-specific integrase [Bacteroides faecis] site-specific integrase [Bacteroides faecis]. gi,657614646,ref,WP_029425679.1, ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in ... This record is a non-redundant protein sequence. Please read more here. ...
Specific transcellular binding between membrane proteins crucial to Alzheimer disease Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you ... Specific transcellular binding between membrane proteins crucial to Alzheimer disease. N N Dewji and S J Singer ... Specific intercellular binding of the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein to the presenilins induces intercellular signaling: Its ... The three proteins are all integral membrane proteins. One of them is beta-APP, the precursor of the beta-amyloid found in the ...
The protein was then dialyzed extensively against PBS. For all these protein variants, protein concentration was determined by ... 2011) The expanding view of protein-protein interactions: Complexes involving intrinsically disordered proteins. Phys Biol 8(3 ... Rational design of antibodies targeting specific epitopes within intrinsically disordered proteins Message Subject (Your Name) ... Protein amount is the micrograms of total protein (lysate) spotted on the membrane. The bar plot is a quantification of the ...
The central issue in the regulation of genome functions is the mechanism of sequence-specific protein-nucleic acid interactions ... Protein-protein interactions in gene regulation: the cAMP-CRP complex sets the specificity of a second DNA-binding protein, the ... The Zta trans-activator protein stabilizes TFIID association with promoter DNA by direct protein-protein interaction. Genes Dev ... The central issue in the regulation of genome functions is the mechanism of sequence-specific protein-nucleic acid interactions ...
Site-Specific GlcNAcylation of Human Erythrocyte Proteins. Zihao Wang, Kyoungsook Park, Frank Comer, Linda C. Hsieh-Wilson, ... Site-Specific GlcNAcylation of Human Erythrocyte Proteins. Zihao Wang, Kyoungsook Park, Frank Comer, Linda C. Hsieh-Wilson, ... Site-Specific GlcNAcylation of Human Erythrocyte Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Diabetes ... C: Flow chart for comparing site-specific O-GlcNAc RORs. Inset: Scheme for solid-phase BEMAD. D: Protein expression level ...
Analysis of Chromatin Interactions Mediated by Specific Architectural Proteins in Drosophila Cells. ... to enrich the overall yield of significant genome-wide interactions mediated by a specific protein. Here we applied a modified ... Analysis of Chromatin Interactions Mediated by Specific Architectural Proteins in Drosophila Cells. In: Vavouri T., Peinado M ... efficient and sensitive analysis of protein-directed genome architecture. Nat Methods 13(11):919-992CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ...
Because the protein is specific to mosquitoes, it may be possible to interrupt their egg formation without harming other ... A protein required for development of mosquito eggs may provide a mosquito-selective target for insecticide development, ... Because the protein is specific to mosquitoes, it may be possible to interrupt their egg formation without harming other ... To find mosquito-specific proteins, the authors performed data mining and bioinformatic analyses of public genomic databases to ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Nucleoside-specific channel-forming protein, Tsx-like superfamily (IPR036777). Short name: Channel_Tsx-like_sf ... Analysis of the tsx gene, which encodes a nucleoside-specific channel-forming protein (Tsx) in the outer membrane of ...
... Balázs Liktor,1 Péter Csomor,2 and Tamás ... M. Kawano, T. Seya, I. Koni, and H. Mabuchi, "Elevated serum levels of soluble membrane cofactor protein (CD46, MCP) in ... I. Schrauwen, M. Thys, K. Vanderstraeten et al., "Association of bone morphogenetic proteins with otosclerosis," Journal of ... M. B. Lanteri, M. S. Powell, D. Christiansen et al., "Inhibition of hyperacute transplant rejection by soluble proteins with ...
... of proteins in human cells are Nt-acetylated (5-7). Thus, remarkably, the majority of eukaryotic proteins harbor a specific ... N-Terminal Acetylation of Cellular Proteins Creates Specific Degradation Signals. By Cheol-Sang Hwang, Anna Shemorry, Alexander ... N-Terminal Acetylation of Cellular Proteins Creates Specific Degradation Signals. By Cheol-Sang Hwang, Anna Shemorry, Alexander ... N-Terminal Acetylation of Cellular Proteins Creates Specific Degradation Signals Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
This protein also functions as a co-activator of the transcriptional activator p63. Structure specific recognition protein 1 ... FACT complex subunit SSRP1 also known as structure specific recognition protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... SSRP1 structure specific recognition protein 1". Tan BC, Lee SC (Mar 2004). "Nek9, a novel FACT-associated protein, modulates ... "The chromatin-specific transcription elongation factor FACT comprises human SPT16 and SSRP1 proteins". Nature. 400 (6741): 284- ...
The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:protein phosphotransferase (non-specific). Serine/Threonine Kinase receptors ... the term non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase describes a class of enzymes that belong to the family of transferases, ... which was a general EC number for any enzyme that phosphorylates proteins while converting ATP to ADP (i.e., ATP:protein ... A serine/threonine protein kinase (EC is a kinase enzyme that phosphorylates the OH group of serine or threonine ( ...
Protein-bound conformation of a specific inhibitor against Candida albicans myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase in the ...
Quickly confirms tissue-specific abundance of your protein. Easily accesses hard-to-obtain human tissues, including brain ... Comprehensive collection of high-quality human total protein extracts ready for electrophoresis. ... Tissue-Specific Protein Extracts. Protein Medleys are pools of tissue-specific total protein isolated from a broad range of ... Quickly confirm tissue-specific abundance of your protein *Easily access hard-to-obtain human tissues, including brain regions ...
Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in ... to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.,p>,a href=/help/protein_names target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Protein namesi. ... Protein family/group databases. Allergomei. 194 Cas s 8. Family and domain databases. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. ... Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. May play a role in ...
Rabbit polyclonal Ovary-specific acidic protein antibody validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to ... Anti-Ovary-specific acidic protein antibody. See all Ovary-specific acidic protein primary antibodies. ... Anti-Ovary-specific acidic protein antibody (ab123577) at 1/100 dilution + A549 cell line lysate at 35 µg. Predicted band size ... corresponding to a region within C terminal amino acids 175-204 of Human Ovary-specific acidic protein (NP_116012.2). ...
Compare anterior and ectodermic-specific protein Biomolecules from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices ... Your search returned 1 anterior and ectodermic-specific protein Biomolecules across 1 supplier. ...
Our mrp1 mutations are allele-specific suppressors of carboxyl-terminal truncations of the PET122 protein and do not bypass the ... Functional interactions among two yeast mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and an mRNA-specific translational activator.. P ... Functional interactions among two yeast mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and an mRNA-specific translational activator.. P ... Functional interactions among two yeast mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and an mRNA-specific translational activator.. P ...
Specific protein may help beta cells survive in type 1 diabetes JDRF-funded researchers find therapeutic potential of MANF ... specific-protein-may-help-beta-cells-survive-in-type-1-diabetes-2/. ... Specific protein may help beta cells survive in type 1 diabetes. JDRF ... In the study, mice deficient in the protein developed rapid-onset of T1D due to a decrease in beta cell mass after birth. In ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): Q9UGL1 - Homo sapiens 45 * Q8BLU1 - Mus musculus no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ... The Protein Feature View requires a browser that supports SVG (Scalable Vector Graphics). Mouse over tracks and labels for more ...
A Genome-wide Screen for Site-specific DNA-binding Proteins Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Molecular ... A Genome-wide Screen for Site-specific DNA-binding Proteins. Tony R. Hazbun and Stanley Fields ...
Replication-specific inactivation of the pT181 plasmid initiator protein Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... The resulting heterodimeric protein lacks the topoisomerase and replication activities of unmodified RepC, suggesting that the ... regulation of plasmid DNA replication requires post-replicational inactivation of the initiator protein as well as control of ... attachment of a approximately 12-residue oligodeoxy-nucleotide to one subunit of the dimeric plasmid-coded initiator protein, ...
  • Gene expression, replication, recombination and DNA condensation in chromatin are steered by binding of regulatory protein ligands to specific sites in DNA. (
  • Kim J, Zwieb C, Wu C, Adhya S (1989) Bending of DNA by gene-regulatory proteins: construction and use of a DNA bending vector. (
  • The tsx gene of Escherichia coli encodes an outer membrane protein, Tsx, which constitutes the receptor for colicin K and Bacteriophage T6, and functions as a substrate-specific channel for nucleosides and deoxy-nucleosides [ PMID: 2265760 ]. (
  • Analysis of the tsx gene, which encodes a nucleoside-specific channel-forming protein (Tsx) in the outer membrane of Escherichia coli. (
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (
  • We have shown previously that carboxy-terminal deletions of PET122 are allele-specifically suppressed by mutations in an unlinked nuclear gene, termed PET123, that encodes a small subunit ribosomal protein. (
  • FACT complex subunit SSRP1 also known as structure specific recognition protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SSRP1 gene. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of a heterodimer that, along with SUPT16H, forms chromatin transcriptional elongation factor FACT. (
  • We integrate gene expression profiles of cancer cell lines from two E2F1-driven highly aggressive bladder and breast tumors, and use network analysis methods to identify the tumor type-specific core of the network. (
  • By combining logic-based network modeling, in vitro experimentation, and gene expression profiles from patient cohorts displaying tumor aggressiveness, we identify and experimentally validate distinctive, tumor type-specific signatures of receptor proteins associated to epithelial-mesenchymal transition in bladder and breast cancer. (
  • We cloned the MRE11 gene and found that it encodes a 643-amino acid protein with a highly acidic region containing a heptad repeat of Asp at its C-terminus and is located downstream of YMR44 near the RNA1 locus on the right arm of chromosome XIII. (
  • First, as initially pointed out by Morgan (1934), determinants may be regulatory factors which promote differential gene expression in specific cell lineages. (
  • The protein encoded by this gene localizes to the centrosome during mitosis and to the midbody during cytokinesis. (
  • Several other pathogenic bacteria thermoregulate gene expression of proteins coincidental with changes in DNA supercoiling ( 20 , 36 , 37 , 49 ). (
  • A gene on chromosome 17q21.33 that encodes sperm-associated antigen 9, a member of the JNK-interacting protein (JIP) group of scaffold proteins, which selectively mediates JNK signalling by aggregating specific components of the MAPK cascade to form a functional JNK-signalling module. (
  • A pentadecadeoxyribonucleotide (5′-AAAGCCCCCCACCAC), complementary to a splice junction site of mRNA for human proliferation-associated nucleolar protein P120, inhibited expression of the P120 gene and the mitogen-induced proliferation of human lymphocytes. (
  • The inhibition of P120 gene expression and proliferation was concentration dependent and reached 90% at 200 µ m , as measured by [ 3 H]thymidine uptake and by densitometric scanning of Northern (mRNA) and Western (protein) blots of P120. (
  • One unexpected site of binding was at the gene encoding the AQP4 protein, which is responsible for controlling water movement that allows cells to change their shape as they penetrate through the brain. (
  • In the early 90s, several groups identified in murine brain extracts, a protein of a molecular weight between 100-160 kDa, named Ras-GRF (Ras-Guanine nucleotide Releasing Factor) and Cdc25Mm, based on its ability to induce GDP release in p21ras and on its high homology with the Sacharomyces cerevisiae gene CDC25, whose deficiency it could rescue. (
  • Addgene: A nanobody-based system using fluorescent proteins as scaffolds for cell-specific gene manipulation. (
  • The recombination activating genes Rag1 and Rag2 induce random TCR gene re-arrangements in immature thymocytes and those with productively rearranged TCRα and TCRβ genes express αβTCR protein complexes on their cell surfaces ( 1 ). (
  • Most previous preclinical investigations of migraine and the protein, called calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), used only male animals, leaving the question of neurobiological sex differences unanswered, said Dr. Greg Dussor, the corresponding author of the study and an associate professor of neuroscience in the UT Dallas School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences. (
  • Epigenetic regulation of gene expression, including by Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins, may depend on heritable chromatin states, but how these states can be propagated through mitosis is unclear. (
  • This gene encodes a plant-specific protein of unknown function that appears to be conserved among angiosperms. (
  • Jun proteins modulate the ovary-specific promoter of aromatase gene in ovarian granulosa cells via a cAMP-responsive element. (
  • Ectopic expression of the Jun proteins in a human granulosa cell line significantly inhibited an ovary-specific promoter (PII) of the aromatase gene, whereas expression of dominant-negative mutants of Jun led to increased promoter activity. (
  • Taken together, our work suggests that Jun proteins may attenuate estrogen biosynthesis by directly downregulating transcription of the aromatase gene in ovarian granulosa cells. (
  • (A) Double-stranded breaks can be created at a specific gene locus using a pair of Precision TALs fused to the Fok1 nuclease. (
  • Modified binding of proteins from calcitonin-negative tumor cells to the neuroendocrine-specific CANNTG motif of the calcitonin gene. (
  • Transcription of the calcitonin (CT) gene in the medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cell line TT is modulated by a neuroendocrine-specific enhancer fragment (nucleotides -965 to -905) containing two CANNTG motifs (E2 and E3) and an ETs-like response element. (
  • In conclusion, the CAGCTG motif of E2 modulated the cell-specific transcription of the CT gene, and its inactivation in CT-negative MTC cells correlated with modifications in its binding proteins. (
  • Death-associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. (
  • This gene encodes a multifunctional protein that resides in multiple locations in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. (
  • Invertebrate muscles: muscle specific genes and proteins. (
  • This is the first of a projected series of canonic reviews covering all invertebrate muscle literature prior to 2005 and covers muscle genes and proteins except those involved in excitation-contraction coupling (e.g., the ryanodine receptor) and those forming ligand- and voltage-dependent channels. (
  • This rich diversity suggests that studying invertebrate muscle proteins and genes can be usefully applied to resolve phylogenetic relationships and to understand protein assembly coevolution. (
  • Molecular genetic studies of families suffering from genetic forms of early onset Alzheimer disease (AD) have identified three genes and their protein products as being crucially involved in the etiology of AD. (
  • Species-specific interaction is probably essential for the functioning of these genes. (
  • Transcriptional activator which binds specifically to the MEF2 element, 5'-YTA[AT](4)TAR-3', found in numerous muscle-specific genes. (
  • Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of both the Mapk14 and Mapk11 genes in mice resulted in loss of p38 MAPK expression and activity in the neonatal heart. (
  • Huminiecki, L. & Bicknell, R. In silico cloning of novel endothelial-specific genes. (
  • E2F1 is a remarkable example of a network hub as this protein interacts with many genes, proteins, and other transcription factors through a variety of regulatory mechanisms. (
  • The specific mutants noxy2 , noxy15 , and noxy38 , insensitive to both 9-HOT and isoxaben, displayed enhanced susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 as well as reduced activation of salicylic acid-responding genes. (
  • Recent studies, however, suggest that some of development- or disease-associated lncRNAs are bound to chromatin factors and modulate transcriptional activity by regulating recruitment/activity of chromatin-binding/ modifying proteins at target genes. (
  • For those reasons, it has been hypothesized that all Erp proteins are coexpressed and that circumstances affecting transcription of one erp locus will have similar effects on other erp genes ( 42 , 47 ). (
  • The most notable functions of this process are performed by numerous testis-specific and/or germ cell-specific genes. (
  • Thus, identification and further characterization of testis- and germ cell-specific genes contribute greatly to our knowledge of spermatogenesis. (
  • Previous research has implicated several transcription factors (special types of proteins that bind directly to DNA at specific sites along the genome to either activate or shut off particular genes) in the regulation of glioblastoma tumor growth and migration, but most of these studies were done in a petri dish. (
  • The lack of STN8 caused 50-60% reduction in D1 and D2 phosphorylation, but did not change the phosphorylation level of two peptides that could correspond to light-harvesting proteins encoded by seven different genes in Arabidopsis . (
  • Exploring closely related versions of the genes that produce ANP32A and its relative ANP32B in different species revealed the region of the protein that the virus relies on to support its replication. (
  • Here we present a method to rationally design antibodies to enable them to bind virtually any chosen disordered epitope in a protein. (
  • We illustrate the method by designing six single-domain antibodies to bind different epitopes within three disease-related intrinsically disordered proteins and peptides (α-synuclein, Aβ42, and IAPP). (
  • Many membrane proteins selectively bind defined lipid species. (
  • We were also able to obtain more than 10 novel RNA-binding chromatin protein candidates that specifically bind to methylated lysine 9 residue of histone H3 tail (H3K9me3). (
  • Recently, it was shown that Erp proteins bind complement inhibitory factor H ( 30 , 44 ), suggesting that they contribute to the ability of B. burgdorferi to infect mammals by blocking host complement-mediated killing. (
  • Furthermore, a DNA-binding protein was recently observed to bind specifically to all tested erp promoter DNAs ( 6 ). (
  • In addition, I found that complex formation requires the N-terminal domain of Hook proteins, which resembles the calponin-homology domain of EB proteins yet cannot bind directly to microtubules. (
  • in contrast, MHC-independent TCRs bind to intra-thymic protein ligands independently of CD4/CD8 coreceptors and so cannot access coreceptor-associated Lck to signal positive selection ( 9 ). (
  • Infection of new host species requires the virus to bind to cell surface receptors, utilise foreign host cellular proteins whilst evading host restriction factors in order to replicate its genome, and finally transmit between individuals of the new host. (
  • Can these plates really only bind proteins, not lipids or other things in cell lysate? (
  • The fact that they can both mutate to suppress certain alleles of the mRNA-specific translational activator PET122 strongly suggests that the PET122 protein promotes translation of the coxIII mRNA via an interaction with the small subunit of mitochondrial ribosomes. (
  • Is maternal mRNA a determinant of tissue-specific proteins in ascidian embryos? (
  • These subpopulations might promote the translation of finite sets of mRNA and therefore yield specific translational patterns ( Filipovska and Rackham, 2013 ). (
  • Among the factors that influence erp transcription levels is temperature, with significantly higher levels of erp mRNA and Erp proteins being produced by bacteria grown at 34°C than by those grown at 23°C. These temperatures are hypothesized to model those experienced by the bacteria during mammalian and tick infection, respectively. (
  • In contrast, the cells were most resistant to nisin after a peak in expression of the mRNA of cell wall protein 2 (Cwp2p), which coincided with the G2 phase of the cell cycle. (
  • The herein reported highly sensitive tetramethyl rhodamine based calcium indicator, which can be selectively localized to proteins, is a powerful tool to determine changes in calcium levels inside living cells with spatiotemporal resolution. (
  • Dr. Coppari said the idea of a drug that selectively could target neurons controlling specific fat depots - and that could trigger the remodeling of white fat into brown fat - has high potential. (
  • However, the idea of having a drug that could selectively affect specific hypothalamic neurons that then control specific branches of the sympathetic nervous system suggests that one could avoid acting on unwanted cells but selectively on those able to burn calories such as brown adipocytes. (
  • While serine/threonine kinases all phosphorylate serine or threonine residues in their substrates, they select specific residues to phosphorylate on the basis of residues that flank the phosphoacceptor site, which together comprise the consensus sequence . (
  • Many eukaryotic proteins are acetylated at the α-amino group of their N-terminal residues (fig. S1A) ( 1 ). (
  • that is, recognized directly by the Ubr1 N-recognin, whereas the other four N-terminal residues, called secondary or tertiary destabilizing residues, must be modified through deamidation and/or arginylation before the corresponding proteins can be targeted by Ubr1 (fig. S1C). (
  • According to Uniprot (Entry ID Q8IZA3), the canonical protein contains 346 residues with a mass of 35.9 kDa. (
  • The molecular regulators responsible for this chamber-specific differential growth are largely unknown. (
  • Here, I offer an overview of the molecular mechanisms of both protein folding and misfolding, particularly in the formation of aggregates. (
  • The focus then turns to cellular responses in which aggregation is prevented or reversed by molecular chaperones, molecules dedicated to providing kinetic assistance to protein folding. (
  • Recent advances in sequencing and omics technologies provide us with data that can be used to identify and characterize cancer and tumor-specific molecular networks. (
  • DNA molecules that follow specific instructions could offer more precise molecular control of synthetic chemical systems, a discovery that opens the door for engineers to create molecular machines with new and complex behaviors. (
  • We fnd that the observed substrate-binding defect can be rescued by Hsp70/40 chaperones, providing a molecular explanation as to why the N domain is dispensable for protein disaggregation when Hsp70/40 is present, yet essential for the dissolution of Hsp104-specifc substrates, such as yeast prions, which likely depends on a direct N domain interaction. (
  • At the molecular level, USP7 has been identified as a key regulator of the p53 signaling pathway, through stabilizing p53 protein and preventing its degradation ( 6 ). (
  • We show that this method can be used to target three disordered proteins and peptides associated with neurodegenerative and systemic misfolding diseases. (
  • In this work, we introduce a computational method of rational design of complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that makes it possible to obtain antibody against virtually any target epitope within intrinsically disordered peptides and proteins or within disordered regions in structured proteins. (
  • Indeed, intrinsic disorder is often observed in peptides and proteins implicated in a series of human conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders ( 22 ⇓ - 24 ). (
  • The mature TCR repertoire that is positively selected in normal mice is specific for linear antigenic peptides bound to Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)-encoded molecules, a recognition feature known as "MHC restriction" ( 5 - 7 ). (
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (
  • My question is now, when I try to figure out what this unknown protein is by blasting in ncbi, the only result returns is itself. (
  • This record is a non-redundant protein sequence. (
  • View conserved domains detected in this protein sequence using CD-search. (
  • The protein contains 294 amino acids, the first 22 of which are characteristic of a bacterial signal sequence peptide. (
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (
  • The ability of the reduced and unfolded protein to spontaneously fold into its native state established that the primary amino acid sequence of a protein contains all of the information necessary for proper folding into native form, a fundamental principle for which Anfinsen received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1972. (
  • Genome duplication in eukaryotes created paralog pairs of ribosomal proteins (RPs) that show high sequence similarity/identity. (
  • Using this sequence, homogenous glucosylated proteins could be readily produced. (
  • DNA and proteins are sequence-specifically labeled with affinity or fluorescent reporter groups using DNA or protein methyltransferases and synthetic cofactor analogues. (
  • The Pvmsp-3 α sequence is remarkably diverse, but this extensive diversity is largely restricted to certain domains of the encoded protein. (
  • In nature, TAL proteins comprise an average of 15-20 repeats of a 34 amino acid sequence flanked by N- and C-terminal domains. (
  • GeneArt Precision TALs are supplied as Gateway compatible entry clones (lyophilized DNA) encoding a DNA-binding protein-specific for a customer-submitted DNA sequence-fused to one of several available or customer-designated effector domains (Table 1) . (
  • The work presented herein focuses on applying different mass-spectrometric methods to profile glycosylation patterns in glycoprotein hormones and HIV envelope proteins. (
  • Of these organellar proteins, outer envelope proteins play crucial roles in many cellular processes such as protein import into organelles, organelle movement and division, and lipid synthesis. (
  • The extensive glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env), gp120/gp41, is known to play an important role in evasion of host immune response by masking key neutralization epitopes and presenting the Env glycosylation as "self" to the host immune system. (
  • Using translatome analyses, we show that the translation of mitochondrial proteins is highly down-regulated in yeast lacking RP paralogs required for normal mitochondrial function (e.g. (
  • The negative sense RNA genome of influenza A virus (IAV) is replicated in the cell nucleus using a virally encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, a heterotrimer composed of the polymerase basic 1 (PB1), polymerase basic 2 (PB2) and polymerase acidic (PA) proteins together with nucleoprotein (NP) that surrounds the viral RNA, forming the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) ( Te Velthuis and Fodor, 2016 ). (
  • GeneArt Precision TALs Products and Services provide researchers with custom DNA-binding proteins (encoded in Gateway compatible entry clones) for accurate DNA targeting, providing a means of editing specific loci throughout the genome. (
  • GeneArt Precision TALs provide custom DNA-binding proteins fused to effector domains for accurate DNA targeting and precise genome editing. (
  • The structures and properties of the Rad51 and Rad52 proteins in eukaryotes are described. (
  • This Perspective first revisits some of the seminal developments in protein biochemistry that led to the idea that protein aggregates contain specific, organized, polymeric structures formed from partly structured folding intermediates by alternative, off-pathway folding steps. (
  • Therefore, profiling glycosylation patterns in glycosylated proteins and defining the structures and locations of these glycans is important in understanding the structure-function relationship of glycans in glycosylated proteins. (
  • To determine the structures and locations of the glycans on these proteins, a glycopeptide-based mass mapping approach was employed. (
  • To characterize the glycan structures on glycoprotein hormones, we used a non-specific enzyme to generate small glycopeptides that are easier to separate and analyze. (
  • Research in the past one and a half decade has demonstrated that not all proteins function as folded structures. (
  • In contrast the pre-selection TCR repertoire from which the mature repertoire is selected includes both MHC-restricted TCRs specific for peptide-MHC (pMHC) ligands as well as MHC-independent TCRs specific for conformational epitopes on native protein ligands ( 8 ). (
  • However, in CD4/CD8 coreceptor-deficient mice, Lck in immature thymocytes is not sequestered by coreceptors and so is available to transduce signals from all ligand-engaged TCRs, including TCRs specific for MHC-independent ligands. (
  • These enzymes transfer phosphates to the oxygen atom of a serine or threonine sidechain in proteins . (
  • The chemical reaction performed by these enzymes can be written as ATP + a protein ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + a phosphoprotein Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and a protein, whereas its two products are ADP and phosphoprotein. (
  • 7-10 The enzymes involved transfer lipid-linked glycans, generated en masse in the cytoplasm, to protein targets in the periplasm. (
  • Protein Medleys are prepared from whole-tissue homogenates at 4°C with protease inhibitors present to minimize proteolysis and ensure maximal representation of tissue-specific proteins. (
  • Prior research also has shown that this metabolic sensor protein in peripheral tissues plays an important role in regulating metabolism, but its physiological relevance in brain neurons remained unclear. (
  • Adipose tissue secretes several circulating proteins that appear to effect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism ( 1 ). (
  • Our integrative network-based methodology, exemplified in the case of E2F1-induced aggressive tumors, has the potential to support the design of cohort- as well as tumor type-specific treatments and ultimately, to fight metastasis and therapy resistance. (
  • Specifically, we systematically examined tumor genomes from 21 cancer types to identify domains with high mutational density in specific tissues, the positions of mutational hotspots within these domains, and the functional and structural context where possible. (
  • While hotspots corresponding to specific gain-of-function mutations are expected for oncoproteins, we found that tumor suppressor proteins also exhibit strong biases toward being mutated in particular domains. (
  • Elevated levels of some of these factors, including tumor necrosis factor-α ( 2 ), plasminogen-activator inhibitor-1 ( 3 ), angiotensinogen ( 4 ), and the recently identified protein resistin ( 5 ), are associated with insulin resistance. (
  • A specific protein called TEAD1 is an important regulator of tumor migration in glioblastoma, the most common brain tumor in adults, and deactivating this protein may stop tumor cells from migrating away from the main tumor mass, according to research conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published October 1 in the journal Nature Communications . (
  • A range of recent studies has revealed that the functional diversity provided by disordered regions complements that of ordered regions of proteins, in particular in terms of key cellular functions such as signaling and regulation ( 12 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 18 ). (
  • Inhibition of hyperacute transplant rejection by soluble proteins with the functional domains of CD46 and Fc γ /RII," Transplantation , vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 1128-1136, 2000. (
  • Among the numerous post-translational modifications that a protein can undergo, glycosylation is by far the most common, having the most profound influence on the structural and functional properties of the protein. (
  • These acidic functional groups affect the biological clearance of these proteins. (
  • Mechanistic and Functional Studies of Proteins: A Focus Topic at BioScience2005, held at SECC Glasgow, U.K., 17-21 July 2005. (
  • Towards this goal, and because domains are the functional units of a protein, we explored the protein domain-level landscape of cancer-type-specific somatic mutations. (
  • Thus, to prioritize cancer mutations for further functional studies aimed at more precise cancer treatments, we have systematically correlated mutations and cancer types at the protein domain level. (
  • It is shown here, using cultured cells transfected for each of these proteins, that beta-APP binds specifically and transcellularly to either S182 or STM2. (
  • NeuN is a soluble nuclear protein, appears as 3 bands (46-48 × 10(3) M(r)) on immunoblots, and binds to DNA in vitro. (
  • After complexation with Ni 2+ , this surface binds histidine-tagged GFP and CpcA-PEB in a site-specific fashion. (
  • An understanding of the composition and function of these repeats has allowed scientists to engineer the way that the TAL protein binds and behaves . (
  • We previously identified a retinal-specific isoform of Dynamin-1 that localizes to photoreceptor synaptic terminals and binds Tulp1, a photoreceptor-specific protein thought to be involved in vesicle movement. (
  • Arginine analogs were incorporated site-specifically into proteins using an in vitro translation system. (
  • Mechanistic studies of both productive protein folding and misfolding/aggregation have been considerably advanced by the ability to observe these reactions in vitro with purified proteins. (
  • The derivatization with an aliphatic linker bearing a terminal haloalkane-function by Sonogashira cross-coupling allows the localization of the calcium sensor to Halo fusion proteins which we successfully demonstrate in in vitro and in vivo experiments. (
  • In vitro analysis shows similar protein glucosylation activity in the isolated domain as in the full length toxin. (
  • Although the N domain is dispensable for protein disaggregation, it is sensitive to point mutations that abolish the function of the bacterial Hsp104 homolog in vitro, and is essential for curing yeast prions by Hsp104 overexpression in vivo. (
  • The enrichment approach was combined with solid-phase chemical derivatization and isotopic labeling to detect O-GlcNAc modification sites and to compare site-specific O-GlcNAc occupancy levels between normal and diabetic erythrocyte proteins. (
  • Although a majority of eukaryotic proteins (for example, more than 80% of human proteins) are cotranslationally Nt-acetylated, the function of this extensively studied modification is largely unknown. (
  • Previous studies of N α -terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) have characterized Nt-acetylated proteins and N α -terminal acetyltransferases (Nt-acetylases) that catalyze this cotranslational modification ( 2 - 7 ). (
  • Currently, the prevalent view of Nt-acetylation is that this modification protects proteins from degradation. (
  • This site-specific modification strategy provides a way to explore the roles of post-translational modifications in the absence of heterogeneity due to other modifications. (
  • To this aim, here we present a protocol based on terminal perfusion of mice with a reactive ester derivate of biotin that enables the covalent modification of proteins readily accessible from the bloodstream. (
  • Glycosylation is an important and prevalent protein post-translational modification. (
  • These data unveil a novel signaling cascade that coordinates and regulates rod differentiation through specific PKC isoforms in mammals. (
  • Previous studies have shown that B. burgdorferi regulates synthesis of Erp proteins ( 1 , 6 , 29 , 43 , 45 , 48 ). (
  • The tool works with standard single letter nucleotide or protein codes including ambiguities and can match Prosite patterns in protein sequences. (
  • To find mosquito-specific proteins, the authors performed data mining and bioinformatic analyses of public genomic databases to identify protein-coding sequences that were restricted to the genomes of three of the most important vectors of human disease: Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles mosquitoes. (
  • Expression and Immunogenicity of Proteins Encoded by Sequences Specific to Mycobacterium avium subsp. (
  • paratuberculosis -specific sequences in Escherichia coli . (
  • Nucleotide sequences representing each unique predicted coding region were amplified and cloned into two different E. coli expression vectors encoding polyhistidine or maltose binding protein (MBP) affinity purification tags. (
  • Erp proteins are located on the bacterial outer surface, and those encoded by an individual bacterium may share anywhere between 16 and 100% identical amino acid sequences among themselves ( 2 , 15 , 25 , 42 , 43 , 47 ). (
  • Prion diseases or Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs) are lethal neurodegenerative disorders involving the misfolding of the host encoded cellular prion protein, PrP C . This physiological form of the protein is expressed throughout the body, and it reaches the highest levels in the central nervous system where the pathology occurs. (
  • All 21 of the MBP fusion proteins were successfully purified under denaturing conditions and were evaluated in immunoblotting studies with sera from rabbits and mice immunized with M. avium subsp. (
  • TALs are bacterial proteins identified in Xanthomonas bacteria, a genus of plant pathogens responsible for the natural spread of disease via their type III secretion system . (
  • Serum samples from patients and controls were screened for IgG and IgA antibody reactivity to a nongluten protein extract from the wheat cultivar Triticum aestivum Butte 86. (
  • Compared with healthy controls, patients exhibited significantly higher levels of antibody reactivity to nongluten proteins. (
  • The main immunoreactive nongluten antibody target proteins were identified as serpins, purinins, α-amylase/protease inhibitors, globulins, and farinins. (
  • We developed an antibody (1A2) to Dendritic Cell Specific Transmembrane Protein (DC-STAMP), a potential marker of the OCP population, for analysis by flow cytometry. (
  • Immunoprecipitation and Western blot experiments were performed with bovine and mouse retinal homogenates using a Dynamin-1 antibody raised against the epitope exclusive to the retinal-specific isoform. (
  • In research published online April 8 in the Journal of Neuroscience , a protein implicated in the development of migraine symptoms caused pain responses in female rodents, but not in males, when introduced into the meninges, the protective tissue layers surrounding the brain. (
  • Actin, myosin, and tropomyosin (at least, the presence of other muscle proteins in these organisms has not been examined) exist in muscle-like cells in Radiata, and almost all muscle proteins are present across Bilateria, implying that the first Bilaterian had a complete, or near-complete, complement of present-day muscle proteins. (
  • The Randox Acusera Specific Protein quality control covers 26 serum proteins including immunoglobulins, complement proteins and inflammatory proteins. (
  • Adiponectin or adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa (Acrp30) is a circulating protein produced exclusively in adipocytes. (
  • On the other hand, replacement of fat-specific proteins like leptin or adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa (Acrp30)/adiponectin is associated with increased insulin sensitivity ( 6 - 9 ). (
  • In some cases, however, these procedures may require significant amounts of time and resources, in particular if one is interested in targeting weakly immunogenic epitopes in protein molecules. (
  • Targeted delivery of bioactive molecules to diseased organs or tissues by means of binding molecules specific to markers of diseases represents a promising area of pharmaceutical intervention. (
  • Replication of the Staphylococcus aureus plasmid pT181, which occurs by the rolling circle mechanism, is accompanied by the covalent attachment of a approximately 12-residue oligodeoxy-nucleotide to one subunit of the dimeric plasmid-coded initiator protein, RepC. (
  • Researchers say a female-specific mechanism of downstream CGRP receptor activation is likely to contribute to the higher prevalence of migraine in women. (
  • The N-end rule relates the in vivo half-life of a protein to the identity of its N-terminal residue ( 10 - 20 ). (
  • This is the first case in the brain in vivo where it's been possible to control the activity of a protein, inside nerve cells in real time. (
  • Although these products will contain an unnatural glycan-protein linkage, the properties of the glycan that can influence protein trafficking, in vivo stability or immunogenicity could be exploited. (
  • In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms of protein targeting to the outer membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts in two different directions, as well as targeting signals and cytosolic factors. (
  • Plant non-specific lipid-transfer proteins transfer phospholipids as well as galactolipids across membranes. (
  • However, the requirement to generate lipid-linked glycosyl donors and the localization of protein glycosylation in the periplasm makes it challenging to integrate these approaches with the impressive array of oligosaccharides that have been produced in the cytosol of engineered bacteria. (
  • We demonstrate through multilabel immunofluorescence analyses that individual bacteria simultaneously coexpress their entire Erp protein repertoire. (
  • These communication processes include import of nuclear-encoded proteins and exchanges of metabolites and ions ( Inoue, 2011 ). (
  • However, re-introduction of PTK6 into the nucleus significantly decreases cell proliferation, suggesting context-specific functions for nuclear PTK6. (
  • TSG has a bipartite nuclear localization signal that targets the protein to the nucleus. (
  • Its repression can be relieved by the sequestration of this protein into promyelocytic leukemia nuclear bodies or nucleoli. (