Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Syphilis Serodiagnosis: Serologic tests for syphilis.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Flocculation Tests: Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Treponemal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus TREPONEMA.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Treponema Immobilization Test: Syphilis serodiagnosis employing as the antigen Treponema pallidum obtained from rabbit syphilis orchitis. Treponemes are kept alive for a few hours in a special medium. When syphilitic serum and complement are added and incubated, the treponemes are immobilized, i.e., stop moving.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Reagins: Antibodies, especially IGE, that bind to tissue of the same species so that ANTIGENS induce release of HISTAMINE and other vasoactive agents. HYPERSENSITIVITY is the clinical manifestation.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Brucella melitensis: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are sheep and goats. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected. In general, these organisms tend to be more virulent for laboratory animals than BRUCELLA ABORTUS and may cause fatal infections.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Neurosyphilis: Infections of the central nervous system caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM which present with a variety of clinical syndromes. The initial phase of infection usually causes a mild or asymptomatic meningeal reaction. The meningovascular form may present acutely as BRAIN INFARCTION. The infection may also remain subclinical for several years. Late syndromes include general paresis; TABES DORSALIS; meningeal syphilis; syphilitic OPTIC ATROPHY; and spinal syphilis. General paresis is characterized by progressive DEMENTIA; DYSARTHRIA; TREMOR; MYOCLONUS; SEIZURES; and Argyll-Robertson pupils. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp722-8)Cat-Scratch Disease: A self-limiting bacterial infection of the regional lymph nodes caused by AFIPIA felis, a gram-negative bacterium recently identified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and by BARTONELLA HENSELAE. It usually arises one or more weeks following a feline scratch, with raised inflammatory nodules at the site of the scratch being the primary symptom.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect: A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Yaws: A systemic non-venereal infection of the tropics caused by TREPONEMA PALLIDUM subspecies pertenue.Granuloma Inguinale: Anogenital ulcers caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis as distinguished from lymphogranuloma inguinale (see LYMPHOGRANULOMA VENEREUM) caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Diagnosis is made by demonstration of typical intracellular Donovan bodies in crushed-tissue smears.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.Bartonella henselae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Xenodiagnosis: A method for diagnosing a disease in one organism by inoculating the putative causative organism in a second animal of a different species. It has been used for the detection of parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi and Trichinella spiralis) when peripheral blood smears are negative. (Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995)Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Celiac Disease: A malabsorption syndrome that is precipitated by the ingestion of foods containing GLUTEN, such as wheat, rye, and barley. It is characterized by INFLAMMATION of the SMALL INTESTINE, loss of MICROVILLI structure, failed INTESTINAL ABSORPTION, and MALNUTRITION.Pneumonia, Mycoplasma: Interstitial pneumonia caused by extensive infection of the lungs (LUNG) and BRONCHI, particularly the lower lobes of the lungs, by MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE in humans. In SHEEP, it is caused by MYCOPLASMA OVIPNEUMONIAE. In CATTLE, it may be caused by MYCOPLASMA DISPAR.Echinococcosis: An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.BrazilHelicobacter Infections: Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Short filamentous organism of the genus Mycoplasma, which binds firmly to the cells of the respiratory epithelium. It is one of the etiologic agents of non-viral primary atypical pneumonia in man.Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Blood DonorsBorrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.NitroimidazolesCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Coccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Echinococcosis, Pulmonary: Helminth infection of the lung caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis.Central Nervous System Helminthiasis: Infections of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; or MENINGES caused by HELMINTHS (parasitic worms).Calymmatobacterium: A genus of bacteria causing GRANULOMA INGUINALE and other granulomatous lesions.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Thoracic Cavity: The region of the thorax that includes the PLEURAL CAVITY and MEDIASTINUM.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Echinococcus: A genus of very small TAPEWORMS, in the family Taeniidae. The adult form is found in various CARNIVORA but not humans. The larval form is seen in humans under certain epidemiologic circumstances.Leprosy: A chronic granulomatous infection caused by MYCOBACTERIUM LEPRAE. The granulomatous lesions are manifested in the skin, the mucous membranes, and the peripheral nerves. Two polar or principal types are lepromatous and tuberculoid.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Penicillin G Benzathine: Semisynthetic antibiotic prepared by combining the sodium salt of penicillin G with N,N'-dibenzylethylenediamine.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Lymphadenitis: Inflammation of the lymph nodes.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Taenia solium: Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Liver Abscess, Amebic: Single or multiple areas of PUS due to infection by any ameboid protozoa (AMEBIASIS). A common form is caused by the ingestion of ENTAMOEBA HISTOLYTICA.Erythema Chronicum Migrans: A deep type of gyrate erythema that follows a bite by an ixodid tick; it is a stage-1 manifestation of LYME DISEASE. The site of the bite is characterized by a red papule that expands peripherally as a nonscaling, palpable band that clears centrally. This condition is often associated with systemic symptoms such as chills, fever, headache, malaise, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, backache, and stiff neck.Paratuberculosis: A chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS caused by MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM SUBSPECIES PARATUBERCULOSIS.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis: A subspecies of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. It is the etiologic agent of Johne's disease (PARATUBERCULOSIS), a chronic GASTROENTERITIS in RUMINANTS.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Paracoccidioidomycosis: A mycosis affecting the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes, and internal organs. It is caused by Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is also called paracoccidioidal granuloma. Superficial resemblance of P. brasiliensis to Blastomyces brasiliensis (BLASTOMYCES) may cause misdiagnosis.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.Paracoccidioides: A mitosporic fungal genus. P. brasiliensis (previously Blastomyces brasiliensis) is the etiologic agent of PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Convalescence: The period of recovery following an illness.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Melioidosis: A disease of humans and animals that resembles GLANDERS. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA PSEUDOMALLEI and may range from a dormant infection to a condition that causes multiple abscesses, pneumonia, and bacteremia.Gliadin: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Leishmania: A genus of flagellate protozoa comprising several species that are pathogenic for humans. Organisms of this genus have an amastigote and a promastigote stage in their life cycles. As a result of enzymatic studies this single genus has been divided into two subgenera: Leishmania leishmania and Leishmania viannia. Species within the Leishmania leishmania subgenus include: L. aethiopica, L. arabica, L. donovani, L. enrietti, L. gerbilli, L. hertigi, L. infantum, L. major, L. mexicana, and L. tropica. The following species are those that compose the Leishmania viannia subgenus: L. braziliensis, L. guyanensis, L. lainsoni, L. naiffi, and L. shawi.Dyspepsia: Impaired digestion, especially after eating.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Mycobacterium leprae: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that causes LEPROSY in man. Its organisms are generally arranged in clumps, rounded masses, or in groups of bacilli side by side.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Chagas Cardiomyopathy: A disease of the CARDIAC MUSCLE developed subsequent to the initial protozoan infection by TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI. After infection, less than 10% develop acute illness such as MYOCARDITIS (mostly in children). The disease then enters a latent phase without clinical symptoms until about 20 years later. Myocardial symptoms of advanced CHAGAS DISEASE include conduction defects (HEART BLOCK) and CARDIOMEGALY.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Serum: The clear portion of BLOOD that is left after BLOOD COAGULATION to remove BLOOD CELLS and clotting proteins.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Mycoplasma Infections: Infections with species of the genus MYCOPLASMA.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Entamoeba histolytica: A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Chlamydophila pneumoniae: A species of CHLAMYDOPHILA that causes acute respiratory infection, especially atypical pneumonia, in humans, horses, and koalas.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.HTLV-II InfectionsProspective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Chlamydophila Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.IndiaPeptic Ulcer: Ulcer that occurs in the regions of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT which come into contact with GASTRIC JUICE containing PEPSIN and GASTRIC ACID. It occurs when there are defects in the MUCOSA barrier. The common forms of peptic ulcers are associated with HELICOBACTER PYLORI and the consumption of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Horse Diseases: Diseases of domestic and wild horses of the species Equus caballus.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.
... causes and effects of a disease on a specific population on the basis of serologic tests) in Egypt was the first to show the ... of the 32 camels studied tested positive for sarcoptic mange. In another study, dromedaries were found to have natural ... A 2013-14 study of dromedaries in Saudi Arabia concluded the unusual genetic stability of MERS-CoV coupled with its high ... "Camelid genetic resources. A report on three Arabian Gulf Countries" (PDF). ICAR Technical Series: 81-92. ...
The sensitivity of the ELISA was 100% when compared with blood culture, but only 44% compared with serologic tests other than ... PCR testing for fluid and tissue samples other than blood has also been described. A history of animal contact is pivotal; in ... In recent years, molecular diagnostic techniques based on the genetic component of the pathogen have become more popular. ... Genitourinary infection can include epidydemoorchitis or pyonephrosis (rare). Cutaneous involvement is not specific. ...
... and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood. Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. ... tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the Lyme disease spirochete. PCR tests ... Serologic tests for Lyme disease are of limited use in people lacking objective signs of Lyme disease because of false positive ... The most widely used tests are serologies, which measure levels of specific antibodies in a patient's blood. These tests may be ...
West Nile fever
Diagnostic and serologic laboratory testing using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and viral culture of CSF to identify ... or their oral swab samples collected on specific RNA-preserving filter paper card, can have their virus presence tested by ... The genetic material of WNV is a positive-sense, single strand of RNA, which is between 11,000 and 12,000 nucleotides long; ... Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and blood tests. There is no human vaccine. The best method to reduce the risk of ...
Swine influenza - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Serologic and genetic characterization of North American H3N2 swine influenza A viruses". Canadian Journal of Veterinary ... Tests were done. Testers found that the hemagglutinin (HA) gene was similar to that of swine flu viruses that had already been ... These are very similar, as they are made to match the specific virus strain. ... he tested the blood of 10 apparently healthy pigs housed near poultry farms in West Java where avian flu had broken out, Nature ...
Gramer MR, Lee JH, Choi YK, Goyal SM, Joo HS (July 2007). "Serologic and genetic characterization of North American H3N2 swine ... Additional tests of 150 pigs outside the area were negative. The influenza virion is roughly spherical. It is an enveloped ... "Lab Test on three samples from Jajarkot confirms swine flu". infonepal.com. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2016. "Swine ... This method allows a specific diagnosis of novel influenza (H1N1) as opposed to seasonal influenza. Near-patient point-of-care ...
Epstein-Barr virus infection
Usually, laboratory tests are needed for confirmation. Serologic results for persons with infectious mononucleosis include an ... test. There is no specific treatment for infectious mononucleosis, other than treating the symptoms. In severe cases, steroids ... It is much more common in people of Chinese ancestry (genetic), but is also linked to the Chinese diet of a high amount of ... EBV antibody tests turn up almost universally positive. In the United States roughly half of five-year-olds have been infected ...
Rh blood group system
In serologic testing, D positive blood is easily identified. Units which are D negative are often retested to rule out a weaker ... 2012). "A genetic study of nine populations from the region of Tlemcen in Western Algeria: a comparative analysis on the ... Otherwise the child may be Rh positive or Rh negative, depending on the parents' specific genotypes. The D antigen is inherited ... Some keystones were to recognize its importance for blood transfusion (including reliable diagnostic tests), hemolytic disease ...
Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies, helped by specific genetic ... tTG testing should be done first as it is an easier test to perform. An equivocal result on tTG testing should be followed by ... However, serologic tests have high sensitivity only in people with total villous atrophy and have very low ability to detect ... Although blood antibody tests, biopsies, and genetic tests usually provide a clear diagnosis, occasionally the response to ...
It is also important to note that serologic tests are more valuable for the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis than for ... to diagnose polycystic echinococcosis is that there aren't many genetic sequences that can be used for PCR that are specific ... This form of treatment is still relatively new and requires much more testing before being widely used. An alternative to open ... imaging is the major method used for the diagnosis of alveolar echinococcosis while the same types of serologic tests (except ...
In contrast to serologic tests reporting a direct blood type phenotype, genotyping allows the prediction of a phenotype based ... In addition to the current practice of serologic testing of blood types, the progress in molecular diagnostics allows the ... Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion ... As with many other genetic traits, the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups varies significantly between populations. Thirty ...
Family history, blood antibody tests, intestinal biopsies, genetic testing, response to gluten withdrawal. ... Diagnosis is typically made by a combination of blood antibody tests and intestinal biopsies, helped by specific genetic ... However, serologic tests have high sensitivity only in people with total villous atrophy and have very low ability to detect ... Although blood antibody tests, biopsies, and genetic tests usually provide a clear diagnosis, occasionally the response ...
2015-16 Zika virus epidemic
The PRINT test looks for viral-specific neutralizing antibodies. However, this test can still produce false positive results, ... Plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRINT) can be performed and may be specific. The Zika virus can be identified by RT-PCR ... three approaches to the vaccine include an inactive Zika virus test and the other two involve replicas of the virus's genetic ... Although serologic evidence indicated additional human exposure during subsequent decades in parts of Africa and Asia, before ...
Specific tests are a must for proper diagnosis of leptospirosis. Under circumstances of limited access (e.g., developing ... microscopic agglutination test), a serological test, is considered the gold standard in diagnosing leptospirosis. As a large ... The traditional serologic system currently seems more useful from a diagnostic and epidemiologic standpoint-but this may change ... Up to 13 different genetic types of Leptospira may cause disease in humans. It is transmitted by both wild and domestic animals ...
"Arbovirus Antibodies Test". Medical Health Tests. March 27, 2012. Retrieved April 17, 2013. Huang, C.; Slater, B.; Campbell, W ... serologic and/or virologic techniques such as ELISA, complement fixation, polymerase chain reaction, neutralization test, and ... No significant distinct genetic populations exist due to the species having recent common ancestry. In the past, arboviruses ... Among cases in which symptoms do appear, symptoms tend to be non-specific, resembling a flu-like illness, and are not ...
... and 2 Serologic test for Syphilis The WHO reported in 2006 that 56 out of 124 countries surveyed did not use these basic tests ... Some of the test results are later found to be false positives using more specific testing. False negatives are rare, but ... It is a genetic disorder that does not affect the safety of the blood. The donor's race or ethnic background is sometimes ... Most blood is tested for diseases, including some STDs. The tests used are high-sensitivity screening tests and no actual ...
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing and anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA) form the mainstay of serologic testing for ... In addition to hormonal mechanisms, specific genetic influences found on the X chromosome may also contribute to the ... Other tests routinely performed in suspected SLE are complement system levels (low levels suggest consumption by the immune ... When skin not exposed to the sun is tested, a positive direct IF (the so-called lupus band test) is an evidence of systemic ...
Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS
Positive HIV antibody tests are usually followed up by retests and tests for antigens, viral genetic material and the virus ... 1999). "Evaluation of HIV serial and parallel serologic testing algorithms in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire". AIDS. 13 (1): 109-117. ... Disease-specific drugs can also alleviate symptoms of AIDS and even cure specific AIDS-defining conditions in some cases. ... Progress in testing methodology has enabled detection of viral genetic material, antigens, and the virus itself in bodily ...
Other recommended tests are cranial ultrasound, hearing evaluation, and eye examination. Testing should be done for any ... 2008). "Genetic and Serologic Properties of Zika Virus Associated with an Epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007". Emerging ... Later on, serology for the detection of specific IgM and IgG antibodies to Zika virus can be used. IgM antibodies can be ... Additional testing should be done if there are any signs of Zika virus disease. Women with positive test results for Zika virus ...
Laboratory testing. Laboratory testing is often used to confirm a diagnosis of genital herpes. Laboratory tests include culture ... However, a glycoprotein G-specific (IgG) HSV test introduced in the 1980s is more than 98% specific at discriminating HSV-1 ... Brown ZA, Wald A, Morrow RA, Selke S, Zeh J, Corey L (2003). "Effect of serologic status and cesarean delivery on transmission ... Pyles RB (2001). "The association of herpes simplex virus and Alzheimer's disease: a potential synthesis of genetic and ...
Diagnosis of HIV/AIDS
"Test for HIV in just 15 minutes with this $34 smartphone dongle". Retrieved February 6, 2015. Bartlett, JG. Serologic tests for ... Nucleic-acid-based tests amplify and detect one or more of several target sequences located in specific HIV genes, such as HIV- ... several genetic disorders, and the side effects of many chemotherapy drugs. In general, the lower the number of T cells the ... General information on HIV testing - Types of HIV test - Home testing Bulk procurement of HIV test kits instructions from the ...
In the United States no serologic tests for diagnosis of HEV infection have ever been authorized by the Food and Drug ... if IgM anti-HEV is negative, then if additional blood testing reveals *positive HEV RNA then the person has HEV infection ... Hepatitis E infection appeared to be more common in people on hemodialysis, although the specific risk factors for transmission ... Whereas genotype 2 remains less commonly detected than other genotypes, genetic evolutionary analyses suggest that genotypes 1 ...
Blood samples were obtained and tested for LCMV antibodies. Of the 82 workers that were tested, seven had definite serologic ... test or an enzyme immunoassay to detect specific antibody in blood or cerebrospinal fluid. A PCR assay has been recently ... However, some authors note that such complement-fixation tests are insensitive and should not be used for diagnosis. Dr. Clare ... Conveniently, the mouse is also the most widely used genetic model for mammalian genetics. A major phenotypic difference ...
"Guidelines for clinical use of the antinuclear antibody test and tests for specific autoantibodies to nuclear antigens. ... Mahler, M; Raijmakers, R (August 2007). "Novel aspects of autoantibodies to the PM/Scl complex: clinical, genetic and ... "Long-term outcome in mixed connective tissue disease: Longitudinal clinical and serologic findings". Arthritis & Rheumatism ... The ANA test detects the autoantibodies present in an individual's blood serum. The common tests used for detecting and ...
Serologic studies have distinguished 71 human enterovirus serotypes on the basis of antibody neutralization tests. Additional ... 2005). "Genetic Characteristics of Human Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 Circulating from 1999 to 2004 in Shenzhen, ... Poliomyelitis primarily via the fecal-oral route Polio-like syndrome found in children who tested positive for enterovirus 68. ... 2002). "Biological Significance of a Human Enterovirus B-Specific RNA Element in the 3′ Nontranslated Region". J. Virol. 76 (19 ...
John Frank (epidemiologist)
Tammemagi MC, Frank JW, LeBlanc M, Artsob H. Intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility of an ELISA serologic test for Lyme ... Risks and benefits of population-based genetic testing for Mendelian subsets of common diseases were examined using the example ... a comparative study of various indices of reproducibility applied to repeat ELISA serologic tests for Lyme disease. Journal of ... Quantitative measures of HIV-specific antibodies predict progression to AIDS. Journal of Infectious Diseases 1995; 172:1375-9. ...
Virus del Zika - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Lanciotti, RS; Kosoy, OL; Rentin, JJ; et al «Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap ... Evaluation of Altona Diagnostics RealStar Zika Virus RT-PCR Test Kit for Zika virus PCR testing» (en anglès). J Clin Microbiol ... Watanabe M, Buth JE, Vishlaghi N, de la Torre-Ubieta L, et al «Self-Organized Cerebral Organoids with Human-Specific Features ... L'ús combinat dels Euroimmun Zika Virus IgM i IgG ELISAs tests proporciona una bona especificitat (82%). Un grup ...
However, a glycoprotein G-specific (IgG) HSV test introduced in the 1980s is more than 98% specific at discriminating HSV-1 ... Laboratory testing is often used to confirm a diagnosis of genital herpes. Laboratory tests include culture of the virus, ... The older IgM serologic assay could not differentiate between antibodies generated in response to HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. ... Pyles RB (2001). "The association of herpes simplex virus and Alzheimer's disease: a potential synthesis of genetic and ...
Serologic tests and enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which measured Variola virus-specific immunoglobulin and ... a b The Genetic Engineering of Smallpox. WHO's Retreat from the Eradication of Smallpox Virus and Why it Should be Stopped ... Did bioweapons test cause a deadly smallpox outbreak?". Science. 296 (5576): 2116-17. doi:10.1126/science.296.5576.2116. PMID ... On Vozrozhdeniya Island in the Aral Sea, the strongest recipes of smallpox were tested. Suddenly I was informed that there were ...
රැධිර වර්ගය - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
In contrast to serologic tests reporting a direct blood type phenotype, genotyping allows the prediction of a phenotype based ... In addition to the current practice of serologic testing of blood types, the progress in molecular diagnostics allows the ... Patients should ideally receive their own blood or type-specific blood products to minimize the chance of a transfusion ... As with many other genetic traits, the distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups varies significantly between populations and ...
Crohn's has a genetic component. Because of this, siblings of known people with Crohn's are 30 times more likely to develop ... A colonoscopy is the best test for making the diagnosis of Crohn's disease, as it allows direct visualization of the colon and ... They may have specific dietary intolerances (not allergies). Acute treatment uses medications to treat any infection (normally ... Even with a full battery of tests, it may not be possible to diagnose Crohn's with complete certainty; a colonoscopy is ...
... neonatal diagnosis based on molecular testing of placenta and cord blood and comparative mother-child serologic tests and a ... Also, the test may not detect T. gondii infections in immunocompromised patients because the titers of specific anti-Toxoplasma ... Genetic or pharmacological blockade of G9a in the NAc potentiates behavioral responses to cocaine and opiates, whereas ... The most commonly used tests for the measurement of IgM antibody are double-sandwich IgM-ELISA, the IFA test, and the ...
Mumps | Laboratory Confirmation by IgM Serology | Lab Testing | CDC
A: The presence of mumps-specific IgG indicates a recent or a prior exposure to mumps virus or mumps vaccine. Serologic tests ... See question regarding utility of viral samples for genetic analysis.. Top of Page ... Q: What does a positive mumps IgG test result mean?. A: A single serum sample tested for mumps-specific IgG is not useful for ... Q: What serologic tests are used at CDC to diagnose mumps?. A: A capture IgM EIA (non-quantitative) that incorporates a ...
Inflammatory Bowel Disease - IBD | ARUPConsult Lab Test Selection
Genetic Testing. Although some genetic variants are associated with specific IBD phenotypes, genetic testing is not currently ... serologic tests may only be useful as adjunct diagnostic tools for IBD diagnosis and/or risk stratification. ... Although some genetic variants are associated with specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes, genetic testing has ... Tests Before Treatment Initiation. In addition to the tests used for diagnosis, some specific tests are recommended before ...
Reemergence and Autochthonous Transmission of Dengue Virus, Eastern China, 2014 - Volume 21, Number 9-September 2015 - Emerging...
... as were serologic and genetic tests for hantaviruses, phleboviruses, and Rickettsiales bacteria, performed as described (10). ... and were tested for DENV IgM by a non-serotype-specific dengue dual IgM- and IgG-capture ELISA Kit (PanBio, Windsor, NSW, ... ELISA results showed 16 serum samples were positive for dengue-specific IgM and 3 for dengue-specific IgG. Although the ... serologic, and virologic investigations all confirmed the presence of dengue in Wenzhou and Wuhan, even though dengue has not ...
SARS | Frequently Asked Questions | CDC
What does serologic testing involve?. A serologic test is a laboratory method for detecting the presence and/or level of ... Laboratory Testing. Is there a laboratory test for SARS?. Yes, several laboratory tests can be used to detect SARS-CoV. A ... What is a PCR test?. PCR (or polymerase chain reaction) is a laboratory method for detecting the genetic material of an ... Antibodies are substances made by the bodys immune system to fight a specific infection. ...
Zika Virus and the World Health Organization Criteria for Determining Recent Infection Using Plaque Reduction Neutralization...
... and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and DENV-2. Plaque reduction neutralization test results were ... of these closely related flaviviruses left researchers and clinicians with challenges to interpret serological tests. Thirty- ... Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, 2007. Emerg Infect Dis 14: ... Serotype-specific detection of dengue viruses in a fourplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 43: ...
Got The Other Three Kid's Tests Back - Celiac Disease - Pre-Diagnosis, Testing & Symptoms - Celiac.com Celiac Disease & Gluten...
So out of my 5 kids no one tested true positive as celiac. Here are the results all together: 10yo girl: Total IgA Ref Range 52 ... Serologic and Genetic Testing. Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University. Accessed Feb. 14, 2011. ... specific than other celiac blood tests. However, a positive AGA-IgG. test can indicate celiac disease in a patient with IgA ... My son tested negative on all IgA tests . . . even though he does not have a deficiency. Only his IgG tests were out of range. ...
CDGF - Clinical: Celiac Disease Gluten-Free Cascade, Serum and Whole Blood
... serologic and genetic laboratory tests may be used to identify individuals with a high probability of having celiac disease. ... The most sensitive and specific serologic tests are tTG and deamidated gliadin antibodies. The treatment for celiac disease is ... Genetic susceptibility is related to specific HLA markers. More than 97% of individuals with celiac disease in the United ... TEST CATALOG Test Information New Tests Test Updates Order Your First Test Algorithms ...
NEWS: Latest info about new Borrelia culture lab test | LymeDisease.org
There continues to be high interest in the Lyme community about the recently available Borrelia culture blood test. Heres an ... The available serologic tests for Lyme are indirect tests- because they measure antibody levels and not the bacteria themselves ... What has been missing until now is a reliable, sensitive and specific direct laboratory test that can indeed inform whether the ... obvious infection can be missed due to the notoriously large number of strain variations present and the possibility of genetic ...
Inflammatory bowel disease biobank research update - Mayo Clinic
... biobank are hopeful that serologic and genetic markers will help them develop therapeutic approaches tailored to an ... The studys aims include testing for genetic, serologic and clinical associations in rare subtypes of IBD manifestations and ... The projects goal is to use serologic biomarkers to predict disease severity and progression. Specific aims for this project ... Tests & Procedures A-Z. *Drugs & Supplements A-Z. *Appointments. *Patient & Visitor Guide ...
Amebiasis. | Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Currently, detection of E. histolytica infections depends on examinations for ova and parasites and on serologic tests; however ... of monoclonal antibodies and DNA probes specific for pathogenic zymodemes may be beneficial for clinical laboratory testing and ... Exchange of genetic material between strains of amebae can influence zymodeme patterns. ... This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. ...
Testing for COVID-19: A way to lift confinement restrictions
The brief discusses what tests can be used for each goal, as well as practical implementation issues with testing strategies, ... The brief discusses what tests can be used for each goal, as well as practical implementation issues with testing strategies, ... This brief discusses how testing strategies can be used to achieve three main goals: 1) suppressing the resurgence of local ... This brief discusses how testing strategies can be used to achieve three main goals: 1) suppressing the resurgence of local ...
Genetic and Blood Tests for Celiac Disease - Celiac Disease Center - EverydayHealth.com
Celiac disease runs in families but genetic screening can inform you about your risk. Find out more about the pros and cons of ... Genetic Testing for Celiac Disease: Who Should be Tested? "Serologic testing is the screening test. Genetic testing is only ... Anti-endomysial antibody (EMA) test: While less sensitive than the tTG test, the EMA test is more specific to celiac disease. ... Genetic testing (a blood test or cheek swab to check for the presence of certain genes) and serologic testing (a blood test to ...
Muscle, Nerve, and Skin Pathology - Insights
Access to state-of-the-art testing and expertise. The most trusted muscle and nerve laboratory in the U.S. In our consultative ... Integrated access to in-house genetic, biochemical and serologic confirmatory testing. Not only is our testing supported by ... but we have access to the largest available test menu specific to neurology. Our highly specialized test menu provides answers ... Testing *Test in Focus. *New Tests Launched. *CPT Codes and LOINC Updates ...
Celiac Disease Testing (for Health Care Professionals) - LESIDAY
Genetic tests that confirm the presence or absence of specific genes associated with celiac disease may be beneficial in some ... Serologic Tests. Serologic tests look for three antibodies common in celiac disease:. *anti-tissue transglutaminase (tTG) ... If serologic or genetic tests indicate the possibility of celiac disease, a biopsy should be done promptly and before ... Panels are often used because no one serologic test is ideal. However, the tests included in a celiac panel vary by lab, and ...
Test Ordering Program | College of American Pathologists
... provides pathologists information about commonly misapplied laboratory tests to address laboratory stewardship through test… ... Free Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing. Total PSA testing is used to test for likelihood of prostate cancer, and until ... Repetitive Constitutional Genetic Testing. An individuals genetic makeup does not change within his/her lifetime, so repeating ... Appropriate Testing for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection. Are positive serologic HCV assays being repeated? Is the same ...
Inclusion Body Myositis Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Other Tests
... genetic testing is available for OPMD (PABPN1 gene); rare, genetically distinct oculopharyngodistal variant in Japan ... specific for s-IBM; characteristic p62 aggregates were specific (91%), but they lacked sensitivity (44%).  ... PM- or DM-like clinical and myopathological presentation but with additional systemic and serologic features diagnostic of an ... Other Tests. Although not routinely indicated, quantitative sensory testing showed abnormal vibratory, thermal, and heat pain ...
Home - Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) - NCBI
... provides a central location for voluntary submission of genetic test information by providers. The scope includes the tests ... The overarching goal of the GTR is to advance the public health and research into the genetic basis of health and disease ... purpose, methodology, validity, evidence of the tests usefulness, and laboratory contacts and credentials. ... Scope includes pathogen-specific genetic tests; panels to identify pathogens; tests that assess viral load; serologic tests for ...
Dna probes | Article about Dna probes by The Free Dictionary
In areas where histoplasmosis is not endemic, including Taiwan, serologic tests, antigen detection reagents, and specific DNA ... The new test uses DNA probes to pinpoint nucleotide variations that genetically distinguish among head blight species.. A test ... uses two DNA probes that cover three complementary areas to amplify genetic signals by repeating hybridization.. Sanko Junyaku ... proteins, for example, by measuring mRNA in cells with PDGF receptor type-specific DNA probes or by. United States Department ...
Diagnostic Testing Algorithms for Celiac Disease | Mayo Medical Lab Room | MedPage Today
I think it is important to summarize the test performance and clinical utility of the various serologic and genetic tests used ... In celiac diagnostic testing, the IgA isotype for the celiac-specific serologies is more sensitive and specific compared to the ... Caveats of Serology Testing for Celiac Disease Both the serologic and genetic testing can be important in establishing a ... In addition to serology tests, genetic testing can be useful in the evaluation of a patient with suspected celiac disease. In ...
Streptococcus - Medical Microbiology - NCBI Bookshelf
Serologic methods can detect group A or B antigen; definitive antigen identification is by the precipitin test. Bacitracin ... Table 13-3shows biochemical tests that provide sensitive group-specific characteristics permitting presumptive identification ... Resistance among the enterococci can be either intrinsic or acquired (by de novo genetic mutation or acquisition of DNA from ... The Lancefield capillary precipitation test is the classical serologic method. S pneumoniae, which lacks a demonstrable group ...
HIV ELISA Test - Vironostika | ReduceTheBurden.org
"Additional, more specific tests" - thats what all HIV tests say. Of course, there are no "more specific tests." ... So what are they calling "HIV"? Proteins and cloned genetic material - that you can find in healthy persons and sick persons. ... "Currently, two HIV serotypes, designated as HIV-1 and HIV-2, have been identified based on the results of serologic and ... "Dont use this test, use these other tests." But none of these tests are more specific, and none are virologic, or theyd use ...
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of Serologic Testing in Diagnosis and Assessment of Viral Immunity
Review the types of tests used for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. Discuss approaches to serologic test development. ... Date: October 29, 2020 Time: 6:00am (PDT), 9:00am (EDT), Chronic inflammation can occur as a result of a combination of genetic ... Discuss pros and cons in measuring virus-specific IgG vs IgG+IgM. ... Discuss approaches to serologic test development.. *Review the ... Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of Serologic Testing in Diagnosis and Assessment of Viral Immunity. C.E. Credits: P.A ...
ASMscience | Multilocus Sequence Typing
Hence, risk analyses require testing for other virulence or serotype-specific genes. Multiplex PCR enables simultaneous testing ... Serologic tests for detecting antibody responses to different enterococcal antigens have been proposed. In addition to the ... Impact of Genetic Diversity on the Biology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Strains * Authors: Stefan Niemann, Matthias ... Positive catalase testing has also been reported for strains of Enterococcus haemoperoxidus and Enterococcus silesiacus when ...
In certain scenarios, genetic testing for the HLA DQ2 or DQ8 alleles can be a useful diagnostic tool. These alleles are ... Although current serologic tests are accurate in most scenarios, the presence of false positive results, and the fact that the ... How Personalized Hospital Ratings May Drive Patient-Specific Care in the Digital Age ... In patients with low to moderate suspicion for celiac disease, the diagnostic work-up begins with serologic testing, followed ...
Celiac Disease read more
... by Asper Biotech helps to estimate an individuals specific risk rate for celiac disease based on their personal genetic ... Asper Biogene - genetic testing company. with a set of efficient DNA tests. ... CD is usually detected by serologic testing of celiac-specific antibodies and confirmed by duodenal mucosal biopsies. Both ... A positive serological test is supportive of the diagnosis but no single test is 100% specific for CD and the diagnostic ...
ASMscience | Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
Not surprisingly, little effort has been undertaken to develop serologic tests for detection of invasive infections caused by ... In order to develop a universal genetic identification system for yeasts, the most reproducible, specific, and sensitive ... Susceptibility testing of P. aeruginosa is difficult, especially for mucoid isolates, due to increasing resistance, lack of ... DNA sequencing of one or more genes or the whole genome, probing the presence of specific repeat sequences, sequence-specific ...
Dromedary - Wikipedia
... causes and effects of a disease on a specific population on the basis of serologic tests) in Egypt was the first to show the ... of the 32 camels studied tested positive for sarcoptic mange. In another study, dromedaries were found to have natural ... A 2013-14 study of dromedaries in Saudi Arabia concluded the unusual genetic stability of MERS-CoV coupled with its high ... "Camelid genetic resources. A report on three Arabian Gulf Countries" (PDF). ICAR Technical Series: 81-92. ...
Lyme disease - Wikipedia
... and possibly testing for specific antibodies in the blood. Blood tests are often negative in the early stages of the disease. ... tests for Lyme disease have also been developed to detect the genetic material (DNA) of the Lyme disease spirochete. PCR tests ... Serologic tests for Lyme disease are of limited use in people lacking objective signs of Lyme disease because of false positive ... The most widely used tests are serologies, which measure levels of specific antibodies in a patients blood. These tests may be ...
AssaysGenesSpecificityAvailable serologic testsBiopsySusceptibilityMarkersConfirmatoryDiagnosis of Lyme DiseaseAntibody testsAnti-tTGSpecimensCross-reactivity2019EndoscopicELISAAssayBiochemicalLyme DiseaseSymptomsImmunityScreened for celiac diseaseSerumLaboratory testsSerologyAntigenic differencesFindingsDetectAssessSerological testSensitivityPatientsInterpretationPredictStrainsPredispositionInfectionPhenotypesMolecularDiagnoseHemolyticGlutenInfectionsPatient'sInfectious diseasesDiagnostic testPanelsUsefulnessMutationsClinicianNucleotideTypeAlgorithmPolymerase chain reCharacteristicsEpidemiologicInterpret
- IgM test methods and kits vary considerably in their sensitivity and specificity with some indirect EIA and immunofluorescent assays detecting as few as 12%-15% of confirmed mumps cases (Rota et al 2013). (cdc.gov)
- What etiologic agents are likely to interfere with serologic assays for mumps (i.e., produce false-positive results)? (cdc.gov)
- Parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), adenovirus, and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) have all been noted to interfere with mumps serologic assays (Davidkin et al. (cdc.gov)
- Thirty-six women attending a prenatal clinic in Honduras and with positive DENV IgM enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays (ELISAs) were screened with a ZIKV immunoglobulin M ELISA, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction for ZIKV and DENV 1-4, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNTs) for ZIKV and DENV-2. (ajtmh.org)
- Are positive serologic HCV assays being repeated? (cap.org)
- Optimal testing, however, remains controversial, especially because of the large number of assays available. (cap.org)
- In this month's "Hot Topic," Melissa Snyder, Ph.D., will review the diagnostic testing algorithms for celiac disease, and highlight the advantages and limitations of certain tests, including serology and genetic assays. (medpagetoday.com)
- Anti-tissue transglutaminase (TTG) antibody, deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibody and endomysium antibody (EMA) based assays are the preferred initial tests for detection of disease. (asperbio.com)
- However, as the prevalence of infection has declined, the percentage of false-positive results with serologic assays has increased significantly, making these tests too unreliable in most countries and regions. (tripdatabase.com)
- The staff at IMUGEN is highly trained in performing and interpreting these assays, has decades of experience in analyzing these test results in the context of various clinical situations, and is available to assist healthcare providers in interpreting tests and answering questions about the diagnosis of tick-borne infections. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- ELISA tests are high-throughput assays used throughout laboratory medicine," says Elitza Theel, Ph.D. , director of Mayo Clinic's Infectious Diseases Serology Laboratory. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- This chapter provides an overview of currently available HIV laboratory screening methods, viral load assays, and HIV resistance tests. (thebodypro.com)
- Provides a wide range of neurobehavioral assays and tests for comprehensive and objective phenotyping of various domains of mouse or rat behaviors. (corefacilities.org)
- Genetic testing is primarily used for therapeutic decision-making in IBD, as variants in TPMT and NUDT15 genes can affect how patients metabolize thiopurine drugs used for IBD treatment. (arupconsult.com)
- Genetic tests that confirm the presence or absence of specific genes associated with celiac disease may be beneficial in some cases. (lesiday.com)
- In addition, gluten intolerance is more frequent in risk groups, such as first-degree relatives of patients (up to 20% in siblings) as well as individuals with specific genetic syndromes like Down syndrome (5-10%), Turner syndrome (~7%) and Williams syndrome (9.5%) or autoimmune diseases like type 1 diabetes (4%-19%), thyroiditis (2%-5%) and multiple sclerosis (~10%) suggesting the existence of common predisposing genes to autoimmunity. (asperbio.com)
- Although HLA DQ2 genes confer genetic susceptibility to celiac disease, approximately 30% of general population in North America is DQ2 positive. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Target gene-specific primer pairs for IL-4 and IL-12B genes. (elsevier.es)
- It is known that there is a strong association with specific HLA genes that are required for the disease to occur, but are themselves not sufficient for the disease to be manifested. (historynewsnetwork.org)
- Locus specific cDNA hybridization probes, particularly probes for genes of Class II loci, for use in the typing procedure are described. (patents.com)
- The major reason for all of this is the poor sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests. (lymedisease.org)
- Regarding specificity, once positive, these serologic tests tend to remain positive for variable periods, even years, even after treatment. (lymedisease.org)
- Some reference labs-labs used for specialized tests-have developed cascades of tests in an attempt to minimize the use of less accurate tests whose automatic inclusion in a panel would add little or no sensitivity and/or detract from specificity. (lesiday.com)
- The tTG test also has a specificity of more than 98 percent. (lesiday.com)
- Streptococci are classified on the basis of colony morphology, hemolysis, biochemical reactions, and (most definitively) serologic specificity. (nih.gov)
- Other than sporadic transmission to humans (5,6), swine influenza A viruses of the H1N1 subtype historically have been distinct from avian and other mammalian H1N1 influenza viruses in characteristics of host specificity, serologic cross-reactivity, and/or nucleotide sequence. (thepigsite.com)
- The traditional western blot test improves the specificity of the diagnosis during later stages of infection, but it too may lack both sensitivity and specificity in early infection. (longislandlymedisease.com)
Available serologic tests1
- 1-3) Given the invasive nature and cost of the biopsy, serologic and genetic laboratory tests may be used to identify individuals with a high probability of having celiac disease. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- Serologic tests for celiac disease provide an effective first step in identifying candidates for intestinal biopsy. (lesiday.com)
- If serologic or genetic tests indicate the possibility of celiac disease, a biopsy should be done promptly and before initiating any dietary changes. (lesiday.com)
- 1 Negative findings for HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 make current or future celiac disease very unlikely in patients for whom other tests, including biopsy, do not provide a clear diagnostic result. (lesiday.com)
- On the other hand, a positive tTg or EMA test does not mean that a person definitely has celiac disease - only an intestinal biopsy can prove that - but it is certainly suggestive of the diagnosis in a symptomatic person. (everydayhealth.com)
- This is a big mistake," says Dr. DeCross, noting that a gluten-free diet can compromise the results of other screening methods like serologic testing and endoscopic biopsy. (everydayhealth.com)
- This (genetic) test is good for ruling out the disease, especially in first-degree relatives of someone who is biopsy-diagnosed," explains Shilson. (everydayhealth.com)
- Although current serologic tests are accurate in most scenarios, the presence of false positive results, and the fact that the gluten-free diet is a lifelong prescription, mandates biopsy confirmation. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- In patients with low to moderate suspicion for celiac disease, the diagnostic work-up begins with serologic testing, followed by small intestinal biopsy in positive cases. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Certain patient groups should undergo biopsy regardless of serologic results. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- has been shown to be low in the inflamed mucosa of UC patients while specific SNPs of Nepicastat HCl the gene have been associated with UC.30 31 A recent study also showed that RNA expression from rectal biopsy specimens was significantly decreased in patients with active UC compared to UC patients in remission. (healthanddietblog.info)
- Diagnosis is supported by a positive tissue transglutaminase serologic test but, in general, should be confirmed by a small bowel biopsy showing the characteristic histology associated with celiac disease. (aafp.org)
- Skin biopsy (with an evaluation of the density of intraepidermal nerve fibers) and tests of autonomic nerve function are useful for the diagnosis. (91outcomes.com)
- and the disease is still strongly suspected, a biopsy may be useful as the patient may have a selective IgA deficiency and the serological tests will be negative because of IgA deficiency, not just TTG and EMG. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Genetic susceptibility is related to specific HLA markers. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- susceptibility may be partly genetic. (nih.gov)
- For celiac disease to develop, an individual must have the both the genetic susceptibility and the proper environmental exposure. (medpagetoday.com)
- If susceptibility testing is ordered for penicillin-allergic women, specimen labels should identify the patient as penicillin allergic and specify antibiotic susceptibility testing for clindamycin and erythromycin if GBS is isolated. (mn.us)
- It has been suggested that these associations among CD and other AD may be explained by the sharing of a common pathogenic basis involving genetic susceptibility, similar environmental triggers, and the loss of intestinal barrier secondary to dysfunction of intercellular tight junctions with increased intestinal permeability, and possibly by other undiscovered mechanisms [ 7 , 11 - 16 ]. (hindawi.com)
- See Serologic Markers . (arupconsult.com)
- Although the field is still young, serologic and genetic markers are expected to help researchers develop therapeutic approaches tailored to an individual's unique genetic or molecular profiles. (mayoclinic.org)
- There is a strong genetic predisposition to celiac disease, with the major risk attributed to the specific genetic markers known as HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8 that are present in affected individuals. (nih.gov)
- Genetic Markers for Crohn's: ATG16L1 and NOD2. (directlabs.com)
- Because of these and other potential nonspecific reactions , specimens reactive with the Vironostika HIV-1 Plus O Microelisa System assay should be confirmed with a confirmatory test ,e.g. (reducetheburden.org)
- Clinicians should obtain a plasma HIV RNA assay to exclude HIV infection when there is a discrepancy between an HIV screening test and an HIV confirmatory test, such as the Western blot. (thebodypro.com)
Diagnosis of Lyme Disease2
- Recognizing the importance of serology and how much it can contribute to fighting the pandemic, companies and medical research centers across the world are eagerly developing antibody tests. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- Because HIV-2 infections are not always detected by HIV-1 antibody tests (4), antibody tests for HIV-2 have been developed. (cdc.gov)
- IGA antihuman tissue transglutaminase (TTG) and IGA endomysial antibody immunofluoresence (EMG) are more accurate than antigliadin antibody tests (AGA) which are not very specific or sensitive. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Classic celiac disease can be diagnosed when the above GI symptoms are present and confirmed with a small bowel histology with presence of positive serologic tests (IgA anti-tTG and/or EMA). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- Silent celiac disease presents symptom free with confirmed small bowel histology with presence of positive serological tests (IgA anti tTG and/or EMA). (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- if IgA is not sufficient, test for anti-tTG IgG. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Labs tested 101 specimens for alternate etiologies, and 23% were positive for EBV, 10% for HHV-6, 3% for HPIV2, 1% for HPIV3 and 1% for human bocavirus. (cdc.gov)
- Reactive specimens upon initial testing with the Vironostika HIV-1 Plus O Microelisa System assay should be re-tested in duplicate. (reducetheburden.org)
- To assess the performance of the test with specimens collected from high-risk populations , fifteen hundred and fourteen (1,514) specimens were collected from four high-risk populations, which included prison inmates, STD (sexually transmitted diseases) clinic patients, inner city hospital emergency room patients, and HIV-1 outreach clinic patients . (reducetheburden.org)
- 3. Specimen collection and shipment in Wuhan, China (See: Surveillance case definitions for Rapid collection and testing of appropriate specimens from human infection with novel coronavirus, Interim guidance). (who.int)
- IgM capture ELISA is the most sensitive serologic method detecting 46% -71% of RT- PCR confirmed cases, but has limited availability (Rota et al. (cdc.gov)
- Blood samples from each of the 20 patients were collected on day 1 of hospitalization (2-4 days after onset of fever), and were tested for DENV IgM by a non-serotype-specific dengue dual IgM- and IgG-capture ELISA Kit (PanBio, Windsor, NSW, Australia). (cdc.gov)
- ELISA results showed 16 serum samples were positive for dengue-specific IgM and 3 for dengue-specific IgG. (cdc.gov)
- The tTG-IgA test is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. (lesiday.com)
- EMA are measured by indirect immunofluorescent assay, a more expensive and time-consuming process than ELISA testing. (lesiday.com)
- However, when the ELISA is used to screen populations with a low prevalence of HIV infections, nonspecific reactions may be more common than specific reaction . (reducetheburden.org)
- The samples and controls were tested in duplicate, and the antibody titer was expressed as an ELISA index. (bvsalud.org)
- HIV antibody screening tests include enzyme immunoassays (ELISA/EIA), chemiluminescent immunoassays (CIAs), and rapid tests. (thebodypro.com)
- Testing for Lyme disease is challenging and if done incorrectly can lead to unnecessary treatment. (mdedge.com)
- Two-tiered testing remains the gold standard in diagnosing Lyme disease, although new guidelines may be published soon. (mdedge.com)
- Advances in serodiagnostic testing for Lyme disease are at hand. (mdedge.com)
- Prospective study of serologic tests for Lyme disease. (mdedge.com)
- If a patient is suspected of having early Lyme disease is initially sero-negative, repeat follow-up testing is very useful. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- No evidence of Lyme disease , a "negative" test, is manifested by the absence of significant laboratory findings by antibody capture EIA and by IgG immunoblotting (WB). (longislandlymedisease.com)
- Not all patients with Lyme disease have all symptoms, and many of the symptoms are not specific to Lyme disease, but can occur with other diseases, as well. (wikipedia.org)
- Celiac Disease Symptoms What testing is available for celiac disease? (celiac.com)
- HLA-DQ2/DQ8 genotyping should be used to exclude CD if the individual with CD symptoms has discordant or negative serologic and histologic findings. (asperbio.com)
- Some patients present with no symptoms but have laboratory abnormalities such as elevated transaminase levels on liver profile tests or a depressed HDL on a lipid panel. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Despite negative testing for celiac disease, some subjects note sensitivity to gluten with resolution of symptoms after withdrawal from their diet, and the return of symptoms after resuming gluten. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- These tests are identifying many individuals with nonclassical gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. (nih.gov)
- Diagnosis is more challenging, however, if symptoms are not typical and laboratory testing is indicated. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- These patients may develop symptoms at any age and require a broad evaluation to rule out a previously defined genetic ataxia or acquired systemic trigger for their neurologic degeneration. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- These symptoms were not associated with systemic hypotension, tachycardia, the development of constitutional symptoms, or other specific complaints. (amjmed.org)
- [ Elson: 2004 ] There are apparently subtypes of individuals with celiac disease (e.g., those with gastrointestinal symptoms alone, those with systemic manifestations only, and those with both gastrointestinal and systemic symptoms) and the utility of the serologic testing to diagnose celiac disease in all groups is not known. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- Consider testing also in other individuals with unexplained symptoms such as short stature, iron deficiency anemia, delayed puberty, ataxia, chronic aphthous stomatitis, irritable bowel syndrome, etc. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- As these symptoms are non-specific and the Zika virus is found in the same regions as the dengue and chikungunya viruses, it is difficult to make an accurate diagnosis. (pasteur.fr)
- Such tests can be used for two purposes, namely to allow people who have acquired immunity to return to work safely, and to provide intelligence on the evolution of the epidemic across the population. (oecd.org)
- Despite the fact that a relatively low number of people have so far been infected and thus we are still far from herd immunity, the successful implementation of serologic testing strategies at large scale can help reduce the spread of the virus and complement the TTT strategy. (oecd.org)
- Antibody to M protein gives type-specific immunity to group A streptococci. (nih.gov)
- For one, a serologic test can reveal whether a person might have developed immunity to COVID-19. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- Having a serologic test may provide the opportunity to tell, for example, whether health care workers have developed immunity. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- In this way, four novel autoantigens have been identified, endothelial cell growth factor (ECGF), matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10), apolipoprotein B-100 and annexin A2, as targets of T and B cell responses in patients with antibiotic-refractory LA. Moreover, the antibody responses to these antigens correlate with Th17 immunity and specific aspects of synovial pathology. (massgeneral.org)
Screened for celiac disease1
- Treatment of serum with an agent to remove human IgG antibody, such as Gullsorb ™ or a similar IgG inactivation reagent, is necessary to avoid false-positive IgM test results. (cdc.gov)
- A single serum sample tested for mumps-specific IgG is not useful for diagnosing acute mumps infections. (cdc.gov)
- Laboratory tests for IBD include serum and fecal inflammatory marker and stool culture tests to rule out enteric infections. (arupconsult.com)
- Although the remaining 4 serum samples were negative for dengue-specific IgM, we amplified DENV sequences from them, as described in the next section. (cdc.gov)
- Testing serum folate levels is the preferred method for detecting nutritional folate deficiency. (cap.org)
- Serum folate levels may be preferred over RBC folate testing to assess patient status. (cap.org)
- Although information about the degree of risk for HIV-1 infection and the degree of reactivity of the serum are of value in interpreting the test, a diagnosis should not be based only on this information. (reducetheburden.org)
- 2. Serum for serological testing, acute sample and (https://www.gisaid.org/) and can inform the development of convalescent sample (this is additional to specific diagnostic tests for this emergent coronavirus. (who.int)
- This complimentary members-only resource, compiled by Fellows of the CAP, provides pathologists with essential information about commonly misapplied laboratory tests, often with study data, to address laboratory stewardship through test ordering programs. (cap.org)
- Diagnostic HIV laboratory tests must be performed in full compliance with the New York State Public Health Law . (thebodypro.com)
- Laboratory tests in AIH are usually consistent with a chronic active liver injury pattern. (upmc.edu)
- I have served as a member of the Strategic Advisory Committee for Inova Diagnostics, which is an in vitro diagnostic company that manufactures and sells kits for celiac serology testing. (medpagetoday.com)
- This latter strategy does not require checking a total IgA level because it includes an IgG serology that appears to be highly sensitive and specific. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- Researchers also are interested in developing a type of testing known as serology. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- While the blood test is not used for intial diagnosis, on a large scale, serology also can provide essential information in tracking where the disease has been and forecasting future hot spots. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- The need for a comprehensive central resource for microbe tests other than SARS-CoV-2 has become increasingly evident and in the absence of such a resource, GTR is uniquely positioned to serve as a free an unbiased repository of molecular and serology orderable microbe tests that impact human health and disease. (cdc.gov)
- Serologic grouping is based on antigenic differences in cell wall carbohydrates (groups A to V), in cell wall pili-associated protein, and in the polysaccharide capsule in group B streptococci. (nih.gov)
- 7,8 It remains to be determined whether these mechanisms are also characteristic of MH, and to what extent they may explain apparent genetic and antigenic differences between strains. (aasv.org)
- In that early "window" of an infection, when a patient is sometimes acutely symptomatic, but prior to developing a detectable serologic response, it is possible with PCR technology to detect the DNA of B. burgdorferi in a whole blood specimen. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- Early testing involved collecting cells from the back of the throat or nasal passages of patients to detect genetic material from SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- In the case of COVID-19 testing, the viral RNA is translated into DNA and the test is then able to detect those who are infected. (mayocliniclabs.com)
- HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to detect HIV RNA or DNA, is recommended for establishing the diagnosis of infection in infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers. (thebodypro.com)
- In addition to screening, the tTG test may be used to assess initiation and maintenance of a gluten-free diet. (lesiday.com)
- Authorities claim that testing is important for public health officials to assess if their mitigation efforts shelter in place and social distancing and wearing a mask are making a difference to flatten the curve. (projectavalon.net)
- A positive serological test is supportive of the diagnosis but no single test is 100% specific for CD and the diagnostic accuracy varies a lot between laboratories. (asperbio.com)
- A point of contact serological test was performed on children between 2 and 3 years of age. (lww.com)
- However, no current serological test is sufficiently sensitive or specific to replace culture-based tests for the identification of S. Typhi infections. (cdc.gov)
- 1 The reason the test has a variable sensitivity of 70 to 100 percent may be due in part to the high technical difficulty in performing this test. (lesiday.com)
- The Celiac & Gluten Sensitivity tests for total IgA as well as IgA specific for possible celiac disease or gluten sensitivity. (directlabs.com)
- therefore, serologic testing may aid in risk stratification of patients with CD. (arupconsult.com)
- Led by Ming-Hsi Wang, M.D., Ph.D. , a gastroenterologist and hepatologist at Mayo Clinic's campus in Florida, IBD researchers from Mayo Clinic's campuses in Florida, Minnesota and Arizona provided an analysis of the Mayo IBD biobank's available genotype data, crossing it with phenotype data to identify genetic variants that can predict which patients with inflammatory bowel disease are most likely to respond to TNF-antagonist therapies. (mayoclinic.org)
- Mayo presenters at DDW also discussed their work describing the genetic risk burden affecting patients with IBD and perianal disease and the response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy. (mayoclinic.org)
- Although not routinely indicated, quantitative sensory testing showed abnormal vibratory, thermal, and heat pain thresholds in more than one half of patients with s-IBM in one small series. (medscape.com)
- Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional. (cdc.gov)
- and patients who are already on a gluten-free diet at the time of diagnostic testing. (psychiatryadvisor.com)
- The aim of this study was to outline a specific profile, and to evaluate the natural history and response to gluten-free diet (GFD) of patients with seronegative CD. (bmj.com)
- Conclusions Patients with seronegative CD did not display a specific profile. (bmj.com)
- The genetic sequence of viruses from 3 patients as well as H7N7 viruses from live-bird markets shows adaptation to mammalian hosts (2, 3) . (annals.org)
- In MEN1 no correlation has been found between specific mutations in the MEN1 gene and the phenotype of affected patients. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The prevalence of celiac disease among first degree celiac patients´ relatives was 3.1%, 4.5 times higher than the general Portuguese population (0,7%) witch reinforces the need of extensive diagnostic screening in this specific group. (scielo.br)
- MERS-CoV) via next generation sequencing (NGS) from found in Wuhan, but it would appear samples prepared for cultured virus or directly from samples received from molecular testing could be handled as would samples of several pneumonia patients. (who.int)
- This is of particular importance with tests from pregnant women, newborn children, and patients with suspected acute HIV infection or HIV-2. (thebodypro.com)
- Patients presenting for testing within 36 hours of exposure to HIV should be assessed for post-exposure prophylaxis (see Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Guidelines). (thebodypro.com)
- Patients who test negative for HIV antibody at baseline should receive a follow-up HIV antibody test at 3 months. (thebodypro.com)
- Nexvax2® aims to desensitise patients to the three specific peptides in gluten that we have previously identified as 'toxic' to people with coeliac disease," Dr Anderson said. (edu.au)
- Dr Anderson said the vaccine would be suitable for treating the approximately 90 per cent of coeliac disease patients with the DQ2 genetic form of disease. (edu.au)
- In our Phase 1 trial, we saw a Nexvax2®-specific T-cell response that confirms the desired bioactivity in HLA-DQ2 genotype patients," Dr Anderson said. (edu.au)
- Content is organized in modules that provide information on test selection, ordering, and interpretation to effect change in an evidence-based manner. (cap.org)
- The plethora of tests currently available-many not properly validated-add to clinicians' confusion about their appropriate use and interpretation. (the-rheumatologist.org)
- Exchange of genetic material between strains of amebae can influence zymodeme patterns. (asm.org)
- Multiple lines of evidence indicate that the genetic diversity of TB strains translates into pathobiological consequences, and key molecular mechanisms probably involved in differential pathoadaptation of some main lineages have recently been identified. (asmscience.org)
- We still cannot identify genetic features that would tell us if H7N9 had the ability to mutate and spread efficiently, one of the goals of the controversial "gain-of-function" experiments (4) , in which researchers created strains of influenza A(H5N1) that were transmissible among ferrets (5, 6) . (annals.org)
- IMUGEN offers a comprehensive Lyme Antibody Analysis which includes IgM, IgG, and IgA antibody capture EIA, IgG immunoblotting (WB) on 2 strains of B. burgdorferi , and PCR testing on SF, CSF, and whole blood. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- Limited research indicates that antigenic and genetic variation does exist among MH strains. (aasv.org)
- Heterogeneity was detected by Ro et al 1 using a metabolic inhibition test, by Frey etal 2 using restriction enzyme digestion and field inversion gel electrophoresis, by Artiushin et al 3 using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and by Lin et al 4 using total protein profile, glycoprotein profile, and size differences in the amplified PCR products of field strains of MH. (aasv.org)
- In LA, risk factors for this untoward outcome include infection with certain highly inflammatory strains of B. burgdorferi , excessive joint inflammation characterized by high levels of IFNγ and inadequate IL-10, host genetic factors including a TLR1 polymorphism and certain HLA-DR alleles, and immune dysregulation of the CD4+eff/reg ratio, leading to pathogenic autoimmunity. (massgeneral.org)
- Avian mass mortality events are influenced by geographic and environmental factors, as well as by genetic differences of the WNV strains . (europa.eu)
- Is the same patient having HCV genotyping tests repeated without evidence of a new infection? (cap.org)
- 85% and previously were considered the noninvasive tests of choice for initial documentation of H. pylori infection. (tripdatabase.com)
- This infection elicits a series of predictable host immune responses which provide the basis for current blood tests, the principle laboratory method for documenting Lyme infection. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- The most commonly used tests are relatively insensitive in the very early stages of infection. (longislandlymedisease.com)
- Refer to the NYSDOH Letter: Interim Guidelines on the Use of a New Diagnostic Testing Algorithm for HIV Infection. (thebodypro.com)
- AI) See Diagnosis of Pediatric HIV Infection in HIV-Exposed Infants for more guidance on infant testing. (thebodypro.com)
- Differentiating whether a person is a chronic carrier or is experiencing a new infection often relies on a variety of factors, including advanced laboratory testing (e.g., pulsed-field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], whole genome sequencing [WGS]) to compare the isolate from the previous infection to the new isolate. (cdc.gov)
- Although some genetic variants are associated with specific inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) phenotypes, genetic testing has not been found to be of significant benefit for IBD diagnosis or prognosis. (arupconsult.com)
- Genotyping variants in the human genome has proven to be an efficient method to identify genetic associations with phenotypes. (jove.com)
- First, molecular diagnostic testing (RT-PCR) helps to identify those individuals who are infected at the time of the test. (oecd.org)
- Recent development of faster RT-PCR molecular diagnostic testing, which can be deployed at the point of care, should help scale-up capacity for effective TTT in countries. (oecd.org)
- In 1995, Dr. Engman was appointed attending Molecular Genetic Pathologist at NMH as well as Director of the Northwestern MD-PhD Program (Medical Scientist Training Program - MSTP). (labroots.com)
- What serologic tests are used at CDC to diagnose mumps? (cdc.gov)
- Several types of serologic tests may be used to diagnose your celiac disease. (everydayhealth.com)
- GTR now has tests for microbes like for SARS-CoV-2 to diagnose COVID-19. (cdc.gov)
- ie - You must interpret the test according to risk group (color, economic strata, sexual preference) and the strength of the reaction (because it's certainly not a specific reaction, but, (and this is schizophrenic), you're being told that you can't diagnose them based solely on these criteria. (reducetheburden.org)
- Identifying targets for the development of medical therapies is an obvious application of this new information one that has already been met via development of therapies associated with IL-23R and IL-10.4 Use of genetic information to develop diagnostic tests that could diagnose IBD and/or differentiate CD from UC is another attractive application. (healthanddietblog.info)
- Because celiac disease may present clinically in many different ways, there is no individual test that can diagnose or exclude celiac disease in any one patient. (medicalhomeportal.org)
- This Celiac.com FAQ on celiac disease will guide you to all of the basic information you will need to know about the disease, its diagnosis, testing methods, a gluten-free diet, etc. (celiac.com)
- How long must gluten be taken for the serological tests to be meaningful? (celiac.com)
- Serologic testing methods are only effective in people who have been regularly eating gluten-containing foods. (everydayhealth.com)
- So if a person has stopped eating gluten-containing foods, such as breads, cereals, and pasta, because they suspect they may have celiac disease, they may end up with a false-negative serologic test. (everydayhealth.com)
- Usually the biggest reason [for the genetic test] is that the patient put themselves on a gluten-free diet before getting properly tested. (everydayhealth.com)
- This policy brief discusses the role of testing for COVID-19 as part of any plan to lift confinement restrictions and prepare for a possible new wave of viral infections. (oecd.org)
- This article provides CDC recommendations for the diagnosis of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in persons being tested in settings other than blood centers and CDC/FDA guidelines for serologic testing with combination HIV-1/HIV-2 screening enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). (cdc.gov)
Polymerase chain re2
- Other factors, such as the endemicity of leprosy, exposure outside the residence and genetic characteristics, appeared to have a greater influence on the seropositivity. (bvsalud.org)
- Several species of pathogenic mycoplasmas, for example, M hyorhinis , Mycoplasma bovis, and Mycoplasma gallisepticum, have sophisticated genetic machinery for altering their surface characteristics by mechanisms such as phase variation, size variation, and epitope masking and demasking of surface proteins. (aasv.org)