The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).
A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/42092)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells. (2/42092)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (3/42092)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (4/42092)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (5/42092)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (6/42092)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. (7/42092)

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura. (8/42092)

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

Multiple interspecies differences were detected between humans and seven other mammals in 15 of the 24 metabolites measured in the intact crystalline lens and lens perchloric acid extracts. Generally, the number of statistically significant metabolite differences among the various species, relative to the human, increase in the following order: cat or approximately dog greater than pig greater than rat greater than sheep greater than rabbit greater than cow. ...
We have investigated the relationship between sexual isolation and DNA sequence divergence in the transformation (at locus rpoB) of a naturally competent strain of Bacillus subtilis. Using both genomic DNA and a PCR-amplified segment of gene rpoB as donor, we found that the extent of sexual isolation at locus rpoB was closely predicted, over three orders of magnitude, as a log-linear function of sequence divergence at that locus. Because sexual isolation between a recipient and any potential donor may be determined as a general mathematical function of sequence divergence, transformation is perhaps the only sexual system, in either the prokaryotic or the eukaryotic world, in which sexual isolation can be predicted for a pair of species without having to perform the cross. These observations suggest the possibility of a general approach to the indirect prediction of sexual isolation in bacteria recombining principally by natural transformation. ...
Analysis of the apo hQR1 and mQR1 structures shows that the substrate/nicotinamide binding site is a highly hydrophobic pocket with three potential hydrogen-bonding residues (Tyr-126′, Tyr-128′, and His-161) suitable for binding large quinolic compounds. In the hQR1-DQ structure, DQ is bound to this site by hydrophobic interactions, as well as by a water-mediated (W5) bridge from O4 to His-161. In these structures, C2 of the quinone lies almost on top of the N5 of FAD (3.5 Å apart), suggesting a Michael addition of the hydride from the FADH2 to this position of the substrate.. Comparison of all of the available QR1 structures shows that the side chain of Tyr-128 can adopt many different conformations. The different conformations result in opening and closing of the binding site, as well as in different interactions with substrates. For example, comparison of the structures of hQR1 and hQR1-DQ shows that Tyr-128 moves inside the cavity and away from the FAD to make room for the DQ (Fig. 5). ...
Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course Lactation Biology. Milk is the product of the lactation process. Such a simple statement does not come close to doing justice to the complex nature of this biological ...
Mondhe, M and Chessher, A and Goh, S and Good, L and Stach, J E M (2014) Species-Selective Killing of Bacteria by Antimicrobial Peptide-PNAs. PLoS One, 9 (2). e89082. ...
Inter and intra species variation in the biofilm production of 54 Trichosporon spp. clinical isolates and 7 reference strains.A- 19 isolates from blood identifi
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex-specific and lineage-specific alternative splicing in primates. AU - Blekhman, Ran. AU - Marioni, John C.. AU - Zumbo, Paul. AU - Stephens, Matthew. AU - Gilad, Yoav. PY - 2010/2. Y1 - 2010/2. N2 - Comparative studies of gene regulation suggest an important role for natural selection in shaping gene expression patterns within and between species. Most of these studies, however, estimated gene expression levels using microarray probes designed to hybridize to only a small proportion of each gene. Here, we used recently developed RNA sequencing protocols, which sidestep this limitation, to assess intra- and interspecies variation in gene regulatory processes in considerably more detail than was previously possible. Specifically, we used RNA-seq to study transcript levels in humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques, using liver RNA samples from three males and three females from each species. Our approach allowed us to identify a large number of genes whose expression levels ...
Exposure to environmental insults generally occurs at low levels, making it challenging to measure bacterial responses to such interactions. Additionally, microbial behaviour and phenotype varies in differing bacterial types or growth phases, likely giving rise to growth- or species-specific responses to environmen
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal. ...
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, and it is locally common with no major threats. The northern subpopulations are much scarcer, but these are likely to be a different subspecies or even a distinct species. Once the taxonomy is resolved the northern species or subspecies may qualify for threatened status ...
Should we be content simply to safeguard as much as we can of the planetary stock of species? Or should we pay equal if not greater attention to safeguarding evolutionary processes at risk (cf. refs. 64-66)? Consider, for instance, biodisparity: to cite Jablonski (49), If we are concerned with avoiding the loss of particular functional groups, or with maximizing the potential source pool for evolutionary recovery, then biodisparity measures may provide a more appropriate assessment, beyond sheer numbers of taxa, of how priorities should be set.. Following on from these considerations is the question of whether we should seek to maintain the evolutionary status quo by preserving precise phenotypes of particular species, or whether we should prefer to maintain phylogenetic lines that will enable evolutionary adaptations to persist, thereby leading to new species (67, 68). Is it sufficient for us to maintain, for example, just the two elephant species we already have, or should we try to keep ...
Youre right, humans and dogs cant reproduce. So you wont get anything like Barf the Mog from Spaceballs. A half man/half dog wouldnt get very far past a single cell (assuming the egg and sperm could even come together!). This is because dogs and people have very different sets of instructions in their DNA ...
Students compare different subspecies of a California salamander on a grid map of California to focus on patterns of their distribution, their likely evolutionary relationships, and probable sequence of formation from the ancestral salamander.. Author/Source: ...
Sometimes, unexpected research results are simply due toexperimental error. Other times, its the opposite - the scientistshave uncovered a new phenomenon that reveals an even more accurateportrayal of our bodies and our universe, overturningwell-established assumptions. Indeed, many great biologicaldiscoveries are made when results defy expectation. A few yearsago, researchers in the Burge lab were comparing the genomicevolution of several different mammals when they noticed a strangepattern. Whenever a new nucleotide sequence appeared in the RNA ofone lineage, there was generally an increase in the total amount ofRNA produced from the gene in that lineage. Now, in a new paper,the Burge lab finally has an explanation, which redefines our
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Crystal proteins a in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species ...
Intra-species ceBLATs and composite-EvoPrints identify conserved sequences within the input reference DNA that have rearranged in the aligning regions of other
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
CC-RIX mice provide a controlled genetically diverse model for studies of infection and immunology that may more closely mirror the diversity of the human response.
Nurses generally do not question the need for medicine to research disease and its treatment yet many cite as irrelevant research done on human responses and treatment of those responses to achieve nurse-sensitive outcomes.
IISERM Colloquia and Seminars - 2013 158. Seminar Dec 24th, 2013 (Tues 11:00 am) Dr. Samit Bhattacharyya "Population dynamic consequences of human response to infectious disease - Theory and Models" 157. Seminar Dec 20th, 2013 (Fri 4:00
Critical Care Nursing : The American Association of Critical Care Nurses defines critical care nursing as the specialty within nursing that deals specifically with human responses to life-threatening problems...responsible for ensuring that acutely and critically ill patients and their families receive optimal care.
So im interrested as im sure everyone is on how to get dense buds? Is it a strain dependant thing,a light thing or a fertalizer thing lol?I only have...
Read that previous post for a full explanation. This is the sort of data wed expect to have the strongest edge/center effects: focal areas with high information, areas large enough to allow searchlights to fit inside the middle of the informative areas. Its also likely that the activations in these areas are all in the same direction (higher activity during the moving stimuli than the non-moving stimuli), creating consistent differences in the amount of BOLD throughout the areas. Normalizing each example within each searchlight removes this consistent BOLD difference, and so classification fails ...
Hi there, Are there any online resources or wikis that would tell me the finer details for growing specific strains? Like some strains want higher...
Lycoperdon echinatum, Spiny Puffball fungus: pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; identification, synonyms; similar species
All the innumerable differences which subsist between different animals may be classed under two heads, corresponding to the two aspects of every living being, morphological and physiological. One ani...
A large proportion of the emerging viral pathogens that have affected humans in the last decades are purported to have originated from various animal species.
Humans will have to cope with less food and shrink to the size of hobbits if they are to survive in a warmer world, according to scientists.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The return of the variance. T2 - Intraspecific variability in community ecology. AU - Violle, Cyrille. AU - Enquist, Brian J.. AU - McGill, Brian J.. AU - Jiang, Lin. AU - Albert, Cécile H.. AU - Hulshof, Catherine. AU - Jung, Vincent. AU - Messier, Julie. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Despite being recognized as a promoter of diversity and a condition for local coexistence decades ago, the importance of intraspecific variance has been neglected over time in community ecology. Recently, there has been a new emphasis on intraspecific variability. Indeed, recent developments in trait-based community ecology have underlined the need to integrate variation at both the intraspecific as well as interspecific level. We introduce new T-statistics (T for trait), based on the comparison of intraspecific and interspecific variances of functional traits across organizational levels, to operationally incorporate intraspecific variability into community ecology theory. We show that a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interspecies differences in the kinetic properties of deoxycytidine kinase elucidate the poor utility of a phase I pharmacologically directed dose-escalation concept for 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine. AU - Reichelová, Viera. AU - Juliusson, Gunnar. AU - Spasokoukotskaja, T.. AU - Eriksson, Staffan. AU - Liliemark, Jan. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - 2-Chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (CdA, Cladribine), is a purine antimetabolite currently under investigation in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Significant differences in CdA toxicity between mice and humans were observed during phase I clinical evaluation. For the elucidation of interspecies differences in drug toxicity the pharmacokinetics of CdA after subcutaneous injection and the kinetic properties of the CdA-phosphorylating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), were compared in mice and humans. The ratio of the dose lethal to 10% of mice (LD10) to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in humans was 50 ...
In view of the Tnfa gene location within the major histocompatibility (MHC) region and reports of its importance in disease protection activity, this paper examines the TNF a genes of a number of different mouse strains which were known to be of different disease response phenotypes. Twelve inbred mouse strains were studied. In a separate study, the repeat length in the (CA) n microsatellite located within the Tnfa promoter region of these 12 inbred mouse strains was determined, High relative molecular mass genomic (chramosomal) DNA of the inbred mouse strains was obtained from the Jackson Laboratory. The results of the study shows that pCR-RFLps were not detected in the promoter region. Two haplotypes were defined in the first intron and three haplotypes could be defined in 3 UTR in the 12 strains based on PCR-RFLP genotypes and, moreover, these were not strictly concordant with serologically defined H2 haplotypes ...
Question: Most results of restoration efforts are species-specific and/or site-specific and therefore are not general enough to be easily applied to other species and other sites. Our research addresses the issue of species-specific results by investigating the feasibility of using plant traits instead of taxonomic species to characterize species responses to restoration treatments. Specifically, we test the explanatory power of plant traits, one necessary prerequisite for the development of predictive and general plant trait models. Location: Ten remnant bunchgrass prairie sites in the Pacific Northwest of North America (Oregon and Washington, USA; British Columbia, Canada). Methods: We developed two types of quantitative models for each of 10 prairie restoration sites: 1) plant trait models, which related plant traits to species field responses following restoration management treatments, and 2) species identity models, which related species taxonomic identity to species field responses ...
3/15/19 It is commonly accepted that the Skin Surface Area over Body weight ratio (SA/BW) of infants and children is higher as compared with that in adults. Regarding the safety assessment process of cosmetic ingredients, Toxicological Reference Values (TRV) are expressed as mg/kg bw and the change in the ratio of surface area/body weight compared with an adult would give, according to A.G. Renwick (1998), a discrepancy of 2.3-fold for children at birth (except premature infants). Such inter individual variation is already covered by the generally accepted default value of 100 calculated for individual ingredients which is composed of 10 for interspecies variations (4.0 for toxicokinetics) and 10 for human variability, covering toxicokinetic (3.2) and toxicodynamic (3.2) differences between children and adults (A.G. Renwick (1998) and SCCS (2018)). Scheuplein et al. (2002) estimate that an uncertainty factor of 10 applied to this intra-species variability is a sufficiently powerful parameter to ...
Model organisms have longed played an important role in basic science studies and in the pharmaceutical industry. These organisms, ranging from yeast to worms to flies, share many processes that are similar to those active in humans which have made these and other animals the focus of many lab studies. Similarly, almost all drugs are initially tested on mice making cross species studies a key issue in drug development. However, many of the drugs that work well for mice fail in late stage human trials. Similarly, many interactions between highly conserved proteins in one species are not conserved, even between very close species. In this class we will discuss recent studies that try to compare and contrast genomics and functional genomics data across species with the goal of identifying the conserved and divergent processes that are active in each of the species being studied ...
For common people they have availed a web portal called www.aging.ai where by providing the blood test results, the AI can predict the age of subject with surprising high accuracy. It clearly shows the advances in the computational biology towards developing deeper and complex correlations between disease and biomolecules. In Silico Inc. is currently making considerable effort in developing deep learning solutions in the field of regenerative medicine, embryonic development, cross species comparison and new drug discovery program ...
Either way, it offers an alternative approach for rcc wasrst described as having three layers the lamina rara interna and externa attach the levitra reynoldsburg endothelial layer en foot process fusion, where the problems are more aggressive than uk ones and are just after a days a week because it can also cause some background effects we have addressed earlier in chicken croisille the caudal growth and elongation has not been described krd keller pax neu mutant mice e kidneys that has been used in rapid sequence induction anaesthetic fitness for anaesthesia and its receptors in the heart, lungs, and extremities among. To top it all, about, people expire each year most patients fluid administration in the metanephros develops into bowmana s space hydraulic pressures and the opportunities this accessibility affords for in part to a risk of needlestick injury after the sedative effect has worn off the practice is to give some fluid back. Paradoxically, there is considerable interspecies variation ...
All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. Viruses also encounter carbohydrates in the extracellular matrix and the environment on their way from one host cell to another. Some of these extracellular glycans sequester viruses from cells and are part of innate immunity, while others can render viruses more infectious. In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. ...
Theunissen L. Whole-body kinematics of insect locomotion: step classes, spatial coordination, and interspecific comparison. Bielefeld; 2014 ...
A large number of diverse enzymes have evolved in animals that apparently function only to metabolize foreign chemicals. As will be discussed later, there are such large differences among species in the ability to metabolize xenobiotics, that animal models cannot be solely relied upon to predict how humans will metabolize a drug. Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics have historically been called drug-metabolizing enzymes, although they are involved in the metabolism of many foreign chemicals to which humans are exposed. Thus, a more appropriate name would be xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.Dietary differences among species during the course of evolution could account for the marked species variation in the complexity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes. Additional diversity within these enzyme systems has also derived from the necessity to detoxify a host of endogenous chemicals that would otherwise prove harmful to the organism, such as bilirubin, steroid hormones, and catecholamines. Many of these ...
Dear Woody,. Generally speaking, the STIs (sexually transmitted infections) we associate with person-to-person sexual contact, including HIV, cannot be transmitted through sexual contact between humans and animals because these infections are species-specific. There are a number of infections that are known to cross the species barrier, but these are not the STIs that concern most humans - for more information, check out the archived response to Bestiality. If you remain worried about potential disease risk with any type of sexual activity, follow safer-sex guidelines - such as wearing a condom - in each and every one of your sexual encounters.. Aside from infections, heres something else to consider: its impossible for animals to consent to sex with humans, and these acts are illegal in most places. If animals become the focus of ones sexual attention and activity, it might be time to call a mental health counselor in your area to explore whats on your mind: concerns, motivations, etc. Have ...
1DXO: Structures of Recombinant Mouse and Human Nad(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductases:Species Comparison and Structural Changes with Substrate Binding and Release
Eurofins comprehensive portfolio of innovative DNA-based fish species determination ensures the overall quality and safety of fish and aquacultural products.
The problem is this: which tree are you talking about, and what does it mean to move up? In taxonomic terms, the vertical dimension of the tree is associated with generality vs. specificity of shared characteristics; it makes no sense to talk about how far up a particular species or genus or phylum or order is, because by definition every species is at the same level, every genus is at the same level, etc. . In genealogical terms, the vertical dimension of the tree is associated with earlier vs. later generations, so all currently living organisms are near the leaves. A particular species, phylum etc. may be farther up or down the tree in the sense that it came into being more or less recently, or went extinct, but this is an artifact of history and has no particular association with the characteristics of the species ...
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were once thought to be predominantly innocuous to cell growth. Recent evidence suggests that mtDNA undergo naturally occurring alterations, including mutations and polymorphisms, which profoundly affect the cells in which they appear and contribute to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Furthermore, interplay between mtDNA and nuclear DNA has been found in cancer cells, necessitating consideration of these complex interactions for future studies of cancer mutations and polymorphisms. In this issue of Cancer Research, Vivian and colleagues utilize a unique mouse model, called Mitochondrial Nuclear eXchange mice, that contain the nuclear DNA from one inbred mouse strain, and the mtDNA from a different inbred mouse strain to examine the genome-wide nuclear DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of brain tissue. Results demonstrated there were alterations in nuclear DNA expression and DNA methylation driven by ...
Munich, Europe, January 15, 2013 - Fujitsu today announces a new generation of displays that take desktop ergonomics to a new level, with screens that are clearer, more detailed, and more comfortable to use than ever before. For office-based desk jockeys who sit in front of a screen all day, their display is an indispensable interface. Choosing an ergonomic model thats easy on the eye can make a tremendous difference to user comfort and help reduce strain-related illness. ...
An initial list was compiled by Albert Dugal during a one-day visit in 1977. Additional observations were made by other naturalists in the 1980s and 1990s. This has resulted in an impressive but preliminary list of plants. Twenty-eight significant native plant species occur here. Significant species are those regarded as regionally or provincially rare or sparse. These species are shown in boldface.. TREES. ...
Maybe now we can renegotiate the corporate boundaries and interests that overtook those of communities.. (Originally published by YES! Magazine, Jun 29, 2016). The world is abuzz over Brexit, the United Kingdoms decision to exit the European Union (EU). Is it a victory for freedom, democracy, and national integrity? Or is it a racist retreat into xenophobia and isolationism? Will the EU itself survive or is this the beginning of its disintegration? As I reflect on these questions, I realize they raise essential issues that have profound implications far beyond Europe about how we set and manage boundaries.. We are only beginning to come to terms with the reality that we are a global species dependent on one living Earth. Consequently, we now must deal with a far greater degree of interdependence than ever before. We have only begun to recognize, let alone address, the implications of the boundaries within which we manage these relationships.. This lack of understanding is evident in the ...
By Bronsted-Lowry theory, bases are species (of chemicals) that accept H+ ions in aqueous solutions. By Lewis theory, bases are species that donate electron pairs to other species. Most likely a Lewis acid (electron pair acceptor) which will accept the pair and form new molecules. Def. a substance capable of accepting or neutralizing hydrogen ions is called a base. ...
I use same drying method and for some strains they dont smell spectacular and some do. This blue dream ive been running smelled good but now that its...
APRAs executive general manager Suzanne Smith said superannuation funds should expect the pace of regulatory change to continue into 2020 as she addressed the 2019 ASFA conference in Melbourne.
(2012) Yao et al. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. The biochemical and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) have been the subject of intense study for decades. It is now clear that essentially all TCDD-induced toxicities are mediated by DNA-protein interactions involvi...
Recent innovations in sequencing technologies have provided researchers with the ability to rapidly characterize the microbial content of an environmental or clinical sample with unprecedented resolution. These approaches are producing a wealth of information that is providing novel insights into the microbial ecology of the environment and human health. However, these sequencing-based approaches produce large and complex datasets that require efficient and sensitive computational analysis workflows. Many recent tools for analyzing metagenomic-sequencing data have emerged, however, these approaches often suffer from issues of specificity, efficiency, and typically do not include a complete metagenomic analysis framework. We present PathoScope 2.0, a complete bioinformatics framework for rapidly and accurately quantifying the proportions of reads from individual microbial strains present in metagenomic sequencing data from environmental or clinical samples. The pipeline performs all necessary
This is a list of some qualitative laboratory tests that can be used to identify unknowns in lab. These are simple tests leading to the identification of a few anions and cations and some common gases. Also included here is flame test information for selected cations. ...
Molecular mechanisms that allow the Rhesus macaque CMV to cross species barriers shed light on how viruses can replicate in other species.
Twelve individual infections with spp. species have been reported; these cases resulted from contact with monkeys and the agent was identified as (6). The taxonomic status of these uninucleated species over the years has been confusing. They have been identified in CH5132799 various domestic and other animals and have been given separate names such as in cattle in sheep and in pigs in pigs and goats and in monkeys. However the numerous species cannot be distinguished from each other morphologically (3) and whether they occur in humans or are also genetically distinct continues to be to be set up. Burrows (3) recommended the usage of the name for the infectious agent in individual situations until it became feasible to tell apart one types of uninucleated from another. Various other authors prefer to mention many of these uninucleated ameba types (6). Over the last 4 years our lab in Leiden HOLLAND provides received many feces examples (= 1 229 for species-specific medical diagnosis of and ...
cremaster definition: A thin muscle tissue attached to the testicles.; into the pupae of particular species of butterfly, a hook-shaped protuberance from rear of the chrysalis casing, by which the caterpillar…
Recent work examined the repair of ear holes across a number of different mammals and revealed that regeneration appears to be a unique trait
The reasons animal models cannot predict human response to drugs and disease are to be found in a study of evolutionary biology and complex systems. As I have said many times, if someone wishes to understand this issue, she must study these areas. However, the empirical evidence is very strong and anyone willing to take the time to gather and study that evidence can come to the same conclusions.
Stress is an essential human response. It is part of our human survival kit. The way that we react to stress is very individual as it is based on our own perception of a situation. What one person finds stressful may have zero effect on another. Therefore, it is important for us to be able…
La Jolla, CA - The ability of the AIDS virus to infect one species and bypass another may hinge on a single amino acid, a Salk Institute study has found. The work builds on the knowledge that HIV, the AIDS virus that infects humans, is relatively harmless to mice and even monkeys. The study furthers understanding of how HIV infects specific species while sparing others, and may help in the eventual development of novel drugs that halt the disease.. ...
One specimen was still alive after 6.8 years in captivity [0669]. Considering the longevity of similar species, however, maximum longevity in these animals could be underestimated. It has, in fact, been reported that these animals can live up to 23.7 years in captivity [0979], which is possible but has not been verified. ...
Checking Cell Identity: Several different methods are available to detect inter-species and intra-species cross-contamination in cell cultures. Read more about this topic here!
Checking Cell Identity: Several different methods are available to detect inter-species and intra-species cross-contamination in cell cultures. Read more about this topic here!
1. In Dysdercus the abdominal segments are isolated from each other by an intersegmental region which can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and physiological criteria. 2. The...
For documenting flora of India that is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group along with supplementing the working of the group. Efloraofindia (earlier Indiantreepix) is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora.
You must select a strain type and also whether the strain is a mutant or wild-type. To search the gene field for all strains carrying a particular locus, you will need to use the wildcard character *. For example, searching for his-3 finds 126 strains while searching for *his-3* finds 295 strains ...
UK and EU legislation provides certain species and habitats protection in order to safeguard them from activities that may damage or destroy them such as...
MIT biologists find that alternative splicing of RNA rewires signaling in different tissues and may often contribute to species differences.
New regulatory changes have just opened up an incredibly lucrative asset class ... a look at the wealth created in this sector ... an invitation to an event with Matt McCall to learn more
How to Raise Rabbits. Rabbits are lovely pets to have. A rabbit is tame and playful, and yet also social. However, it does take a lot of work to take care of a rabbit. Like all pets, rabbits need a clean, healthy environment and the right...
How to Care for Disabled Rabbits. If your rabbit is disabled, you will find yourself doing a lot more for your rabbit than either he or you could have imagined. Since rabbits are very independent animals, your rabbits disability will make...
Rabbits are prone to many diseases but some are more common than others. Learn what you can do to prevent and even treat these rabbit problems.
High-quality B7-2 proteins from ACROBiosystems. Various species and tags of B7-2 proteins. Minimal Batch-to-Batch Variation. Bulks in stock.
October 15, 2015 - A team of researchers radio-tags various species to learn more about them. The catch: They have to follow them as they fly ...
species myosin isoform or muscle type assay type IC50 Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II motor domain basal ATPase 2.96 ± 0.45 ... Myosin specificity[edit]. Blebbistatin is a potent inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB, cardiac myosin, skeletal myosin ... Limouze J, Straight AF, Mitchison T, Sellers JR (2004-01-01). "Specificity of blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II". Journal ... The blebbistatin scaffold has been modified in several ways to optimize myosin isoform specificity or to improve the inhibitory ...
"Species: Pesticidal crystal protein (IPR038979)". InterPro. "Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Nomenclature". Bt toxin specificity ... A gene mostly found on plasmids, delta-entotoxins sometimes show up in genomes of other species, albeit at a lower proportion ... Some insects populations have started to develop resistance towards delta endotoxin, with five resistant species found as of ... Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria. They are useful ...
Functional and Species Specificity. Biology Bulletin. 41 (4): 1147-157. doi:10.1134/s1062359014040098. S2CID 13339979. Grzimek ... As a species, Pallas's pika is common. However, O. p. hamica, O. p. helanshanensis and O. p. sundica are rated as "critically ... Hoffman, R.S.; Smith, A.T. (2005). "Order Lagomorpha". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A ... Pallas's pika (Ochotona pallasi), also known as the Mongolian pika, is a species of small mammals in the pika family, ...
They infect many species, but with some specificity. The Brucella belongs to the Rhizobiales group, in the Alphaproteobacteria ... The different species of Brucella are genetically very similar, although each has a slightly different host specificity. Hence ... Brucella species have been found primarily in mammals: Pathogenic Brucella species can cause abortion in female animals by ... The specificity was >99%. In a study including 75 patients with brucellosis, five patients with positive ELISA had a negative ...
2004). "Host specificity, plant communities". The European and North-American species of Sarcoscypha. Retrieved 2010-08-22. ... Phylogenetic analysis shows the species to be most closely related to other Sarcoscypha species that contain numerous small oil ... The type species of the genus Sarcoscypha, S. coccinea has been known by many names since its first appearance in the ... The species is said to be edible, inedible, or "not recommended", depending on the author. Although its insubstantial fruit ...
Kendrew, JC; Parrish, RG; Marrack, JR; Orlans, ES (November 1954). "The species specificity of myoglobin". Nature. 174 (4438): ...
Serologic specificity demonstrated by immunodiffusion. Related to Mycobacterium fortuitum: can be distinguished by its intense ... Mycobacterium flavescens is a species of the phylum Actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine ... Although growth rate is intermediate, metabolic and physiologic properties are more like rapidly growing species. ...
It had been shown that specificity of the self-incompatibility response in this family is controlled by a single locus called ... By analyzing self-incompatibility in Brassica species and building on the immunochemical identification of stigma proteins that ... Immunological Specificities". Genetics. 100 (4): 649-657. ISSN 0016-6731. PMC 1201839. PMID 17246075. Nasrallah, J. B.; Stein, ... The introduction of several SI specificities into A. thaliana allowed in planta functional analysis of in vitro-generated ...
Host specificity. *Interactions between factors. Symmetric and asymmetric cleavage[edit]. In the molecular chain between the ... Species of carotene. *Molecular linkage. *Amount in the meal. *Matrix properties. *Effectors ...
There are three steps to fertilisation that ensure species-specificity: *Chemotaxis. *Sperm activation/acrosomal reaction ... In some species, self-fertilisation has persisted over many generations. Capsella rubella is a self-fertilisating species that ... One primitive species of flowering plant, Nuphar polysepala, has endosperm that is diploid, resulting from the fusion of a ... A fern is a member of a group of roughly 12,000 species of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor ...
It is also a major determinant of species-specificity in ribosomal RNA gene transcription. Research suggests that UBF and SL1 ... This transcription factor, SL1, showed species specificity. That is, it could distinguish between the human and mouse rRNA ... Hempel WM, Cavanaugh AH, Hannan RD, Taylor L, Rothblum LI (1996). "The species-specific RNA polymerase I transcription factor ... "Purification and characterization of a transcription factor that confers promoter specificity to human RNA polymerase I". ...
... in particular to feed on the plant species containing cardenolides, while all other species of the genus feed on plant species ... 2016). "Host specificity of Asian Chrysochus Chevr. in Dej. (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae: Eumolpinae) and their potential use for ... The following species, all from the Oriental realm, were formerly included in Chrysochus. They were transferred to the genera ... There are at least eight described species in Chrysochus. Six are found in the Palearctic realm, and only two are found in ...
He also examined host specificity of species. Hale found that there are different communities at the base of the tree compared ... Hale was one of the first lichen experts to use chemical tests to study species delineations. He learned the techniques from ... These books contained keys to genera and species such as How to know the Lichens and Lichens of California. An important ... The following are a partial list of species named after Mason Hale. The list focuses primarily on North American taxa: ...
This plant has a narrow environmental specificity; it is found in (and serves as an indicator species of) old-growth forest. It ... The plant is on the U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region Sensitive Species list, and has a NatureServe California State ... Therefore, the loss of old-growth habitats poses another threat to this species. The leaves with many lobes divided into ... At the southern end of its range (Oregon and California) this species is distinctly restricted to middle elevation forests. Its ...
Today 50+ species have been identified and more are possible if another classification system based on biovars were to be used ... Host specificity is not yet fully understood. Originally pathovar groups were documented according to the hosts from which they ... The host range of D. dadantii continues growing as new susceptible species are continuously being documented. It has also been ... Thus a differential media is used to culture Dickeya species and isolate or identify D. dadantii. Researchers at Fu Jen ...
... species vary in their host specificity. This can lead to nontarget hosts being parasitized. This, in turn, can ... Currently, the number of Trichogramma species is over 200, but as of 1960, only some 40 species of Trichogramma had been ... Transmission of the bacterium through horizontal transfer has been observed within the same species and among different species ... T. minutum is one of the most commonly found species in Europe and was first mass reared in 1926 on eggs of Sitotroga ...
Notabley, PreP degrades several functionally relevant Aβ species, the aggregates of which are toxic to the neuron and play a ... substrate specificity and mitochondrial targeting". Biochemistry. 48 (13): 2868-77. doi:10.1021/bi8016125. PMC 2765508. PMID ... "Targeting capacity and conservation of PreP homologues localization in mitochondria of different species". Journal of Molecular ...
While the species, as defined by Snyder and Hansen, has been widely accepted for more than 50 years, more recent work indicates ... Kistler HC (2001). "Evolution of host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum". In Nelson PE, Summerell BA (eds.). Fusarium: Paul E. ... melonis and other species of Fusarium". Phytopathology. 79 (10): 1095-1100. doi:10.1094/Phyto-79-1095. Katan J (1971). " ... ISBN 978-0-85198-046-1. OCLC 281402.[page needed] Nelson PE, Toussoun TA, Marasas WF (1983). Fusarium species: an illustrated ...
Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc species.[32][33] ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species known to produce toxins in mammals, it must be tested for toxin production ... Third, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain ...
These encompass two (gastric and enterohepatic) groups, showing different organ specificity. Importantly, some species, such as ... Species H. acinonychis. H. ailurogastricus[1]. H. anseris. H. aurati. H. apri[1]. H. baculiformis. H. bilis. H. bizzozeronii. H ... Enterohepatic species e.g., H. hepaticus, H. bilis, and H. ganmani, have been detected by PCR, but still are not isolated from ... Gastric species such as H. suis (most often), H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis have been associated with chronic ...
Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species that is a known mammalian toxin producer, it must be tested for toxin ... Thirdly, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain ... In Europe, the EFSA has adopted a premarket system for safety assessment of microbial species used in food and feed productions ...
Other fungal species hydrolyze tomatine to the less toxic aglycon tomatidine by removing all the sugar residues. Tomatidine can ... Keukens, Erik AJ, et al; Dual specificity of sterol-mediated glycoalkaloid induced membrane disruption; Biochimica et ... "Bioactivities of glycoalkaloids and their aglycones from Solanum species." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 59.8 ( ... Andersson, Christer.; Glycoalkaloids in tomatoes, eggplants, pepper and two Solanum species growing wild in the Nordic ...
Between species, these ARS sequences are variable, but their A, B, and C domains are well conserved. Any alterations in the DUE ... No other sequence specificity involved in this interaction. Confirmed by inducing mutations along length of DUE-B sequence, but ... But, activity can be rescued by re-addition of the DUE-B's, even from a different species. This is because DUE-B's are ... DUE-B sequence homologs found among a variety of animal species- fish, amphibians, and rodents. DUE-B's have disordered C- ...
... an area based on species composition (the term "floristic province" being used when plant species are considered), or also as ... but missing Holdridge's greater specificity. Whittaker based his approach on theoretical assertions and empirical sampling. He ... Trends in the diversity of structure follow trends in species diversity; alpha and beta species diversities decrease from ... Physiognomy: the apparent characteristics, outward features, or appearance of ecological communities or species. Biome: a ...
... mites are a host specific species, meaning they have a few major host species that they prefer, as well as a few ... Baulechner D, Becker NI, Encarnação JA (August 2013). "Host specificity in spinturnicid mites: do parasites share a long ... In short, these mites will not infect any bat species. Their selection of host tends to align with the host species that lives ... They have been seen on bat species from North America to Asia to Europe to Africa. Studies have shown that Spinturnix mites are ...
... 's specificity makes it an ideal tool in biochemical applications; a fusion protein containing a C-terminal ... most of these are conserved in other species. The heavy chain has a hydrophobic section near the N-terminus that supports the ... Lu D, Yuan X, Zheng X, Sadler JE (December 12, 1997). "Bovine proenteroptidase is activated by trypsin, and the specificity of ... Purification, specificity and some molecular properties". Biochemistry. 16 (15): 3354-60. doi:10.1021/bi00634a011. PMID 889800 ...
There could be low-sequence specificity and or structural specificity due to sequence-dependent DNA conformation or DNA ... Azam TA, Ishihama A (November 1999). "Twelve species of the nucleoid-associated protein from Escherichia coli. Sequence ... IHF preferentially binds to a specific DNA sequence even though the specificity arises through the sequence-dependent DNA ... "A single molecule analysis of H-NS uncouples DNA binding affinity from DNA specificity". Nucleic Acids Research. 46 (19): 10216 ...
Immunoblots with adult worm microsomal antigens are species-specific, so a positive reaction indicates the infecting species. ... Specificity of this assay for detecting schistosome infection is 99%. Because test sensitivity with the FAST-ELISA is reduced ... The long-term manifestations are dependent on the species of schistosome, as the adult worms of different species migrate to ... Tissue biopsy (rectal biopsy for all species and biopsy of the bladder for S. haematobium) may demonstrate eggs when stool or ...
Apparently the archaeal species unable to synthesize purines are able to acquire exogenous purines for growth., and are thus ... "Substrate specificity of glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase from chicken liver". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 ( ... The biochemical pathway of synthesis is very similar in eukayotes and bacterial species, but is more variable among archaeal ... However, also identified were seven archaeal species with entirely, or nearly entirely, absent purine encoding genes. ...
Logan DW, Marton TF, Stowers L (2008). Vosshall LB (ed.). "Species specificity in major urinary proteins by parallel evolution ... There are reference genomes for multiple species of viruses, bacteria, fungus, plants, and animals. For example, the human ... assembled by scientists as a representative example of the set of genes in one idealized individual organism of a species. As ...
Cholic acid, 3α,7α,12α-trihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid, the most abundant bile acid in humans and many other species, was ... Thistle JL, Hofmann AF (September 1973). "Efficacy and specificity of chenodeoxycholic acid therapy for dissolving gallstones ... Synthesis of bile acids is a major route of cholesterol metabolism in most species other than humans. The body produces about ... Chenodeoxycholic acid is made by many species, and is the prototypic functional bile acid.[2][3] ...
Bears are an exception to this rule; species in the family Ursidae are famous for their ability to survive unfavorable ... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ...
PET technology can be used to trace the biologic pathway of any compound in living humans (and many other species as well), ... indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and radiolabeled compounds known apriori to bind with specificity to ...
A particularly telling case of this effect is host specificity in pathogenic ascomycetes and specifically, in venturia, the ... By imitating the traits of all-infertile hybridized species, they noticed that the fertilization of eggs was prevented in all ...
Tanahashi H, Tabira T (February 1999). "Isolation of human delta-catenin and its binding specificity with presenilin 1". ...
Precursor proteins also have an effect on VPg-CRE specificity and stability. The upper RNA stem loop, to which VPg binds, has a ... For example, poliovirus receptor is glycoprotein CD155 which is special receptor for human and some other primate species. For ... MP and VPg interact to provide specificity for the transport of viral RNA from cell to cell. To fulfill energy requirements, MP ... "Interaction of Sesbania Mosaic Virus Movement Protein with VPg and P10: Implication to Specificity of Genome Recognition". PLoS ...
Ebner S, Sharon N, Ben-Tal N (October 2003). "Evolutionary analysis reveals collective properties and specificity in the C-type ...
Many different organisms are used as models for studying ALS, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae (a species of yeast),[79] ... both sets of criteria had a specificity of about 98%.[83] The El Escorial criteria were designed to standardize patient groups ...
These variations in specificity are the result of interatomic contacts with local residues near the active sites of each ... "Regulation of late G1/S phase transition and APC Cdh1 by reactive oxygen species". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 26 (12): ... The specific response to ARF derepression is thought to be mediated by specificity in the pairing of individual ARF and Aux/IAA ... The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate specificity is ...
7 Pathogen-specificity. *8 Immune evasion *8.1 Viruses. *9 In other species *9.1 Prokaryotes ... Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian species including plants, birds, fish, and some species ... Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the infected species, bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, and insects can all ...
de Queiroz K (2007) Species concepts and species delimitation. Syst Bio. 56:879-86 ... Santos SR, Shearer TL, Hannes AR, Coffroth MA (2004) Fine scale diversity and specificity in the most prevalent lineage of ... 33,0 33,1 33,2 LaJeunesse TC, Thornhill DJ (2011) Improved resolution of reef-coral endosymbiont (Symbiodinium) species ... 32,0 32,1 Sampayo E, Dove S, LaJeunesse TC (2009) Cohesive molecular genetic data delineate species diversity in the ...
"CD30 contains two binding sites with different specificities for members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated ...
... only parasitise species with low immune responses. In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species ... Each species of flea is more or less a specialist with respect to its host animal species: many species never breed on any ... Fleas normally specialise in one host species or group of species, but can often feed but not reproduce on other species. ... Some 600 species (a quarter of the total) are known from a single record from a single host. Over 94% of species are associated ...
New species of insects are continually being found.[9] Estimates of the total number of species range from 2 million to 30 ... "Low host specificity of herbivorous insects in a tropical forest". Nature. 416 (6883): 841-844. Bibcode:2002Natur.416..841N. ... They are more than half of all known living species.[4][4][5][6][7] They may be over 90% of animal species on Earth.[8] ... The most species live in tropical areas. Some people call all insects "bugs", but this is not correct. Only some insects are ...
This leads to specificity of downstream signaling. It has been shown that the sis oncogene is derived from the PDGF B-chain ... through the PI3K pathway or through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated activation of the STAT3 pathway.[11] Downstream ... receptors define three immunoglobulin-like domains of the alpha-PDGF receptor that determine PDGF-AA binding specificity". J. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the Ser/Thr protein kinase family. This protein is highly similar to the gene products of S. cerevisiae cdc28 and S. pombe cdc2. It is a catalytic subunit of the protein kinase complex that is important for cell cycle G1 phase progression. The activity of this kinase is restricted to the G1-S phase, which is controlled by the regulatory subunits D-type cyclins and CDK inhibitor p16INK4a. This kinase was shown to be responsible for the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma gene product (Rb).[5] Ser/Thr-kinase component of cyclin D-CDK4 (DC) complexes that phosphorylate and inhibit members of the retinoblastoma (RB) protein family including RB1 and regulate the cell-cycle during G1/S transition. Phosphorylation of RB1 allows dissociation of the transcription factor E2F from the RB/E2F complexes and the subsequent transcription of E2F target genes which are responsible for the progression through the G1 phase. Hypophosphorylates RB1 in early G1 phase. ...
Spiny forest at Ifaty, Madagascar, featuring various Adansonia (baobab) species, Alluaudia procera (Madagascar ocotillo) and ... Forests can be classified in different ways and to different degrees of specificity. One such way is in terms of the biome in ... As a general rule, forests dominated by angiosperms (broadleaf forests) are more species-rich than those dominated by ... Forests sometimes contain many tree species within a small area (as in tropical rain and temperate deciduous forests), or ...
2005). Lysobacter species have also been isolated from soils suppressive to Rhizoctonia solani. Clay soils with natural ... Purification, bacteriolytic activity, and specificity of β-lytic protease from Lysobacter sp. IB-9374. Journal of Bioscience ... Two novel species, Lysobacter daejeonensis sp. nov. and Lysobacter yangpyeongensis sp. nov., isolated from Korean greenhouse ... in the rhizosphere of two coastal sand dune plant species, Calystegia soldanella and Elymus mollis. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 90: ...
The chemical theory applies only for species that have formed a chemical bond with the surface, so it cannot explain the ... Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... In 1977, two groups independently noted that the concentration of scattering species could not account for the enhanced signal ... This chemical mechanism involves charge transfer between the chemisorbed species and the metal surface. The chemical mechanism ...
Because of this specificity, medical microbiologists must consider the effectiveness of certain antimicrobial drugs when making ... Not all medical microbiologists study microbial pathology; some study common, non-pathogenic species to determine whether their ... some drugs are specific to a certain genus or species of organism, and will not work on other organisms. ... even when it is typically effective against the species. These strains, termed resistant strains, present a serious public ...
... infects many animal species, and transfer of viral strains between species can occur. Birds are thought to be the ... and specificity of 90-95% when compared with viral culture.[30] ... As influenza is caused by a variety of species and strains of ... A fourth family of influenza viruses was identified in 2016 - Influenza D.[39][40][41][42][43][44][45] The type species for ... This genus has only one species, influenza D virus, which infects pigs and cattle. The virus has the potential to infect humans ...
It also differs between species. Orthologues of the 4 loci have been mapped in various species.[3][4] Each locus can produce a ... TCRs have very high degree of antigen specificity, despite of fact that the affinity to the peptide/MHC ligand is in the ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ... Extracellularly, the TCR co-receptor defines the specificity of the TCR to MHC class I or II molecule, and increases binding ...
A CAP-RAST has greater specificity than RAST; it can show the amount of IgE present to each allergen.[48] Researchers have been ... These include: Is the donor species known to be allergenic? Does the amino acid sequence of the transferred proteins resemble ... milk of all species of mammalians, almonds, hazelnuts, cashew nuts, Brazil nuts, macadamia nuts, walnuts, pecan nuts, ... Another concern is that genes transferred from one species to another could introduce an allergen in a food not thought of as ...
2-oleoyl species of PS were used.[23] Thus it seems that, though PA and DAG are interconvertible, the different species of ... Whatever the mechanism is, such specificity is possible. It is seen in the pig testes DAGK that is specific for polyunsaturated ... However, it is worth noting that in vitro, the various acyltransferases exhibit different substrate specificities with respect ... DAG[21] and in two rat hepatocyte LPPs that dephosphorylate different PA species with different activities.[22] Moreover, the ...
... is produced by a wide range of species throughout the plant and animal kingdoms, including humans;[13][15][16] ... "The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66 (16): 2743-57 ... examination of enzymes in brain and liver mitochondria of eight species". J. Neurochem. 36 (3): 1298-301. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ...
Anopheles cracens has also been reported as a vector of P. knowlesi. Both species of mosquitoes have been shown to contain as ... Rapid diagnostic tests kits may or may not recognize P. knowlesi because of their specificity. ... In 1957, it was suggested by Garnham et al.[8] that P. knowlesi could be the fifth species capable of causing endemic malaria ... Garnham, PCC (1963) A new sub-species of Plasmodium knowlesi in the long-tailed macaque. J Trop Med & Hyg 66 : 156-158 ...
... is spread through bites from Aedes mosquitoes, and the species A. aegypti was identified as the most common vector ... "A single mutation in chikungunya virus affects vector specificity and epidemic potential". PLOS Pathogens. 3 (12): e201. doi ... Other species potentially able to transmit Chikungunya virus include Ae. furcifer-taylori, Ae. africanus, and Ae. luteocephalus ... an invasive species) as a vector in addition to the more strictly tropical main vector, Aedes aegypti.[75] Enhanced ...
"The ligand specificity of the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR34". The Biochemical Journal. 443 (3): 841-50. doi:10.1042/ ...
Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity are evolutionarily closer to one another than to aaRSs of another specificity. However ... In addition, aaRS paralogs within the same species show a high degree of divergence between them. These are clear indications ... Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity also belong to a single class. However, there are two distinct versions of the LysRS ...
Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity. M. N. Thang, D. C. Thang, M. K. ... Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity. M. N. Thang, D. C. Thang, M. K. ... Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity. M. N. Thang, D. C. Thang, M. K. ... Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Species specificity of cholecystokinin in gut and brain of several mammalian species. E Straus and R S Yalow ... Species specificity of cholecystokinin in gut and brain of several mammalian species ... Species specificity of cholecystokinin in gut and brain of several mammalian species ... Species specificity of cholecystokinin in gut and brain of several mammalian species ...
Niche differentiation with respect to habitat has been hypothesized to shape patterns of diversity and species distributions in ... Habitat specificity and diversity of tree species in an African wet tropical forest. ... In addition, we tested for species-habitat associations for 272 species (with more than 50 individuals in the plot) using Torus ... The majority of associations were with low depressions (75 species) and the fewest with ridge tops (8 species). The large ...
We took advantage of this species specificity to gain further insight into the mechanism of activation of Xer recombination at ... We mapped the region of FtsK implicated in species specificity to the extreme 140-amino-acid C-terminal residues of the protein ... Species specificity in the activation of Xer recombination at dif by FtsK ...
... Öffentlicher Abendvortrag von ... In this lecture, Victor Torres will discuss his studies exploring the species specificity of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and ... they have generated a new murine model to facilitate studies of species-specific host-pathogen interactions.. Victor Torres ...
Species-specificity and individual variation in the song of male Nathusius pipistrelles (Pipistrellus nathusii). ... Species-specificity and individual variation suggests that the songs of male P. nathusii have the potential to play a role in ... Jones G, van Parijs SM (1993) Biomodal echolocation in pipistrelle bats: are cryptic species present? Proc R Soc Lond B Biol ... Channing A, Moyer D, Burger M (2002) Cryptic species of sharp-nosed reed frogs in the Hyperolius nasutus complex: advertisement ...
The specificity of a range of heterocyclic product analogues against DHDPS from three pathogenic species, Bacillus anthracis, ... Inhibiting dihydrodipicolinate synthase across species: towards specificity for pathogens?. Mitsakos V1, Dobson RC, Pearce FG, ... The results suggest that the development of species-specific inhibitors of DHDPS as potential antibacterials is achievable. ...
... "species," I associate Dickinsons specificity with the species debate of the mid-nineteenth century to explore how her way of ... "Because I see-New Englandly-": Seeing Species in the Nineteenth-Century and Emily Dickinsons Regional Specificity ... "Because I see-New Englandly-":Seeing Species in the Nineteenth-Century and Emily Dickinsons Regional Specificity ... This is the English application of the word.In the United States, a bird with a red breast, a species of Turdus. ...
Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity.. Symons JA1, ... has broad species specificity, binding to human, rabbit, bovine, rat, and mouse type I IFNs. This may have aided VV replication ... in multiple host species during evolution. A VV B18R deletion mutant is attenuated in a murine intranasal model. This type I ...
Organ Specificity. Palmitic Acid / analysis. Species Specificity. Spinal Cord / chemistry. Tilapia / metabolism*. Xenopus ...
... but not against IgG from other tested species or other classes of immunoglobulins, thereby linking the substrate specificity to ... Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. ... The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting ... The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from ...
... Y. Tosa , H. Tamba , K. ... to elucidate mechanisms of their parasitic specificity on wheat. When the pathogenicity of their F 1 cultures (hybrids between ...
Is there really a species specificity in the adherence to human and canine skin? A very interesting study from Scotland! ... Source: SIMOU, CHRISI, HILL, PETER B., FORSYTHE, PETER J. & THODAY, KEITH L. (2005): Species specificity in the adherence of ... Is there really a species specificity in the adherence to human and canine skin? A very interesting study from Scotland!. ... Are human and canine staphylococci species specific? It seems so - staphylococcus intermedius is by far the most common ...
Mobile elements, polydactyl proteins and the species-specificity of human biology. Add to your list(s) Download to your ... polydactyl proteins and the species-specificity of human biology ...
Reproductive isolation between species is the major factor responsible for the evolution of species-specificity in ... Konishi, Masakazu (1970) Evolution of Design Features in the Coding of Species-Specificity. American Zoologist, 10 (1). pp. 67- ... Konishi, M.. (1970). Evolution of Design Features in the Coding of Species-Specificity. American Zoologist, 10(1), 67-72. http ...
We show that the pan- and core-domainome of mycoplasma species is closed. A comparison with the proteome of the ... We show that the pan- and core-domainome of mycoplasma species is closed. A comparison with the proteome of the ... An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest ... We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and ...
The specificity of this interaction for 19 human and animal influenza isolates was examined using human erythrocytes en … ... Receptor specificity appeared, to some extent, to be dependent on the species from which the virus was isolated. In particular ... differences in receptor specificity of the H3 hemagglutinin based on species of origin Virology. 1983 Jun;127(2):361-73. doi: ... The observed receptor specificities were not significantly influenced by the viral neuraminidases as shown by the use of the ...
Since cross reactivity between Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species is well known in serological tests, and minimizing of ... and the specificity at a titer of 1:32 was 98%. Although the sensitivity of the amastigote forms was close to 100% at a similar ... titer, the specificity at a titer of 32 using the L. d. chagasi amastigotes was 91% and using L. mexicana amastigotes was only ... Abstract This study was designed to determine which morphologic form and species of Leishmania is most suitable for detection ...
Because of MDA, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for classical diagnostic tests are reduced. In any disease situation ... and compared its sensitivity and specificity with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred eleven urine samples collected ... A pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of four species of soil-transmitted helminths. Am J Trop ... Sensitivity and specificity of multiple Kato-Katz thick smears and a circulating cathodic antigen test for Schistosoma mansoni ...
Specificity of Infection-Induced Immunity amongBorrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species. Stephen W. Barthold ... Specificity of Infection-Induced Immunity amongBorrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species Message Subject (Your Name) has ... The purpose of this study was to carefully investigate the species specificity of low-dose infection-induced protective and ... Borrelia species.Selected members of variousBorrelia species were used in this study. The index B. burgdorferi sensu stricto ...
... Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Nov 28 submited by kickingbird at ... The host range of an influenza A virus is determined by species-specific interactions between virus and host cell factors. ... Influenza A viruses cause pandemics when they cross between species and an antigenically novel virus acquires the ability to ... on crossing the species barrier, the virus mutates to establish new interactions with the human host. This knowledge is used to ...
Curcumin and synthetic analogs induce reactive oxygen species and decreases specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors by ... Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein ... Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein ... Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Inhibit Rhabdomyosarcoma by Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Targeting of Specificity Protein ...
Overcoming the species specificity of the MRSA toxin LukAB with a novel mouse model establishes a role for LukAB in vivo. ... Overcoming the species specificity of the MRSA toxin LukAB with a novel mouse model establishes a role for LukAB in vivo. ... Several of the most deadly and common pathogens to mankind display species specificity and can only infect humans or closely ... Here, we defined the molecular determinants of the species specificity exhibited by the LukAB toxin and used this information ...
A real-time PCR assay with improved specificity for detection and discrimination of all clinically relevant Bordetella species ... Findings: We designed a PCR based on IS1002, another IS element that is present among Bordetella species, and exploited it as a ... Both IS elements are more widely spread among Bordetella species. Both Bordetella holmesii, and B. bronchiseptica can harbour ... IS481, and IS1001 based PCR thus lacks specificity when used for detection of specific Bordetella spp. ...
Determining the boundaries that dictate species specificity. Based on the Y21 and CA25 results shown in Figure 3(A), a series ... Some evidence of species specificity amongst different GPI-T orthologues has also been reported. For example, early work ... One of the challenges faced in evaluating something like the species specificity of GPI-T is that the methods to observe and ... By comparing Y21 with the two human signal sequences CA25 and UP30, quantitative evidence for species specificity was obtained ...
Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.. A P Johnson, D Taylor-Robinson, Z A ... Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
"Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis. Ilya Gadjev , Sandy ... "Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis." 141.2 (2006)436.. EndNote ... Ilya Gadjev, S.T.C.I.V.K.D.R.A. (2006). Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in ...
Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site and species specificity of common bacterial ... Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site and species specificity of common bacterial ... Abstract: Invasive species management can be the the subject of debate in many countries due to conflicting ecological, ethical ... Is curiosity the best way to kill a cat? The significance of social factors in planning and implementing an invasive species ...
This pattern was clearly different from the species spectrum of IgG binding of protein A. Differences between the two receptors ... Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal ... Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal ... Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal ...
Analysis of Host Species Specificity of Magnaporthe grisea Toward Wheat Using a Genetic Cross Between Isolates from Wheat and ... Analysis of Host Species Specificity of Magnaporthe grisea Toward Foxtail Millet Using a Genetic Cross Between Isolates from ... Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus.. J A ... Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. ...
  • Tissue and developmental specificity of a polysialo-ganglioside species in the amphibian Xenopus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Based on the protein domain composition, we could separate mycoplasma species infecting blood and tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and phylogenetic distance. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specificity factors of purified Rubisco from 24 species of C3 plants found in diverse habitats with a wide range of environmental growth limitations by both water availability and temperature in the Balearic Islands were measured at 25°C. The results suggest that specificity factors are more dependent on environmental pressure than on phylogenetic factors. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Irrespective of phylogenetic relationships, higher specificity factors were found in species characteristically growing in dryer environments and in species that are hemideciduous or evergreen. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Despite these prominent ecological differences, protist microbiome structure aligned with phylogenetic relatedness of termite host species. (edu.sa)
  • The failure to detect intact cholecystokinin in extracts from monkey or dog by using an antiserum developed by immunization with porcine cholecystokinin is presumed to be due to marked species differences in the NH2-terminal portion of the molecule. (pnas.org)
  • We examined patterns of structural and floristic differences among five topographically defined habitats for 494 species with stems ≥1 cm dbh in a 50-ha plot in Korup National Park, Cameroon. (springer.com)
  • This study investigated the hypothesis that there are species differences in adherence of Staphylococcus intermedius (the most common isolate from dogs) and Staphylococcus aureus (the most common isolate from humans) to canine and human corneocytes. (vetcontact.com)
  • This pattern was clearly different from the species spectrum of IgG binding of protein A. Differences between the two receptors were also found when animal IgG subclasses were tested. (asm.org)
  • The amino acid sequences of the AhR, in both human and rat are quite similar but may play a significant role in the differences observed between species. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • This thesis provides information on the AhR species differences between human and rat that can be applied to risk assessment. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The results are discussed in terms of selection pressures leading to the differences in specificity factors and the value of the observations for identifying useful genetic manipulation to change Rubisco polypeptide subunits. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In many species, sex differences in EOD frequency are stable enough to unambiguously distinguish males from females. (biologists.org)
  • Although originally described as distinct species on the basis of differences in gall morphology, A. pharetrata (Schrader) and A. thorntoni (Froggatt) were subsequently synonymised, primarily because the adult females of the two are morphologically indistinguishable. (wiley.com)
  • Intraspecific variations are differences in behavior or biology within a species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of those essential protein domains, essential Domains of Unknown Function (DUFs) and essential hypothetical proteins are not persistent across mycoplasma genomes suggesting that mycoplasma species support alternative domain configurations that bypass their essentiality. (frontiersin.org)
  • The mechanism of action is thought to be the same in both species and the associated proteins are both comparable. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Because of MDA, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for classical diagnostic tests are reduced. (ajtmh.org)
  • We have evaluated the positive infection for S. mansoni from filtered urine samples collected from Zambian school children after MDA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared its sensitivity and specificity with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). (ajtmh.org)
  • 6, 2019 (HealthDay News) -- Incorporating focused cardiac ultrasonography (FoCUS) into clinical examination has greater sensitivity, but not greater specificity , than clinical assessment alone for identifying left ventricular dysfunction and aortic or mitral valve disease, according to a review published Aug. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Multiple logistics regression analysis was done and sensitivity and specificity were tested through Pearson chi square test. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sensitivity, specificity , positive predictive value and negative predictive value were calculated using SPSS v 20. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The VecTest antigen-capture assay on This goal was achieved by quantifying the sensitivity and oropharyngeal secretions from crows is a reliable and rapid diagnostic test that appears suitable for incorporation into a specificity of this antigen-capture assay to detect WNV in WNV surveillance program. (cdc.gov)
  • Moreover, he will highlight how by combining evolutionary studies with biochemical, cellular biology and gene-editing, they have generated a new murine model to facilitate studies of species-specific host-pathogen interactions. (idw-online.de)
  • This may have aided VV replication in multiple host species during evolution. (nih.gov)
  • This study provides a concise overview of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species, which can be used as a basis to further understand host-pathogen interaction or to design synthetic minimal life. (frontiersin.org)
  • The specificity of infection-induced immunity in mice infected with cultured or host-adapted Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the agent of Lyme disease, was examined. (asm.org)
  • The host range of an influenza A virus is determined by species-specific interactions between virus and host cell factors. (flu.org.cn)
  • In this Review, we examine the host barriers that influenza A viruses of animals, especially birds, must overcome to initiate a pandemic in humans and describe how, on crossing the species barrier, the virus mutates to establish new interactions with the human host. (flu.org.cn)
  • Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. (plantcell.org)
  • Miracidia of the Egyptian strain significantly preferred their suitable host B. alexandrina versus the other snail species with their behavior patterns of host location and their responses after contact with the host. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PhdThesis{ČTVRTEČKA2014thesis, AUTHOR = "ČTVRTEČKA, Richard", TITLE = "Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea [online]", YEAR = "2014 [cit. (theses.cz)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Serotech \ RECOMBINANT SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN (aa1_76), Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity SARS ENVELOPE PROTEIN , Target Species Viral, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Gentaur Molecular :Serotech \ RECOMBINANT MOUSE TNF ALPHA, Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity TNF ALPHA, Target Species Mouse, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • mus musculus murine RECOMBINANT MOUSE TNF ALPHA, Product Type Recombinant Protein, Specificity TNF ALPHA, Target Species Mouse, Host N_A, Format Rec. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • In conclusion, PPE and EPE strains appear to have different host-specificities for hamsters and rabbits, respectively. (elsevier.com)
  • Their diversity of hosts suggests little or no host- specificity in this group. (lookformedical.com)
  • 2008) suggest that virus-host specificity maybe caused by unique interactions between a viral ligand and a host receptor. (lookformedical.com)
  • Statistical analyses explored the distribution of larvae in relation to host species. (lsu.edu)
  • thus even though there is evidence for preferential feeding by larvae on some rust species, there is no evidence of host-specificity between clades of larvae and their hosts. (lsu.edu)
  • The two gall types of A. pharetrata sensu lato are allopatric and found on different host eucalypt species. (wiley.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that gall morphology may be determined by the host species on which the female feeds, we reared crawlers of field-collected females from both gall types on eucalypts in a glasshouse. (wiley.com)
  • To ensure that introductions of exotic parasitoids would have minimum impact on non-target species, we tested host specificity of all candidates for introduction. (usda.gov)
  • These data sets provide results of no-choice laboratory experiments on host specificity of 13 populations in seven species from three species complexes in the genus Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). (usda.gov)
  • They also provide results of experiments on the mechanisms of host specificity in three parasitoid species with narrow host ranges. (usda.gov)
  • These data were collected to measure the host specificity of parasitic Hymenoptera in the genus Aphelinus that are candidates for introduction from Asia to control the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the United States. (usda.gov)
  • The data on host specificity are from no-choice laboratory experiments and thus do not capture all aspects of host specificity in the field. (usda.gov)
  • The different species of Brucella are genetically very similar, although each has a slightly different host specificity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was designed to determine which morphologic form and species of Leishmania is most suitable for detection of antibody in sera from American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) patients by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). (ajtmh.org)
  • Species specificity was improved by using indirect fluorescent antibody techniques and by the use of cross-absorbed sera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The receptor has high affinity (KD, 174 pM) for human IFN alpha and, unlike other type I IFN receptors, has broad species specificity, binding to human, rabbit, bovine, rat, and mouse type I IFNs. (nih.gov)
  • Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal species. (asm.org)
  • Home / Androgen Receptors / Pharmaceutical inhibitors of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases demand high species and family specificity. (esrab.org)
  • Are human and canine staphylococci species specific? (vetcontact.com)
  • Is there really a species specificity in the adherence to human and canine skin? (vetcontact.com)
  • Source: SIMOU, CHRISI, HILL, PETER B., FORSYTHE, PETER J. & THODAY, KEITH L. (2005): Species specificity in the adherence of staphylococci to canine and human corneocytes: a preliminary study. (vetcontact.com)
  • Specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor is overexpressed in human RMS tumors, and other Sp family members, including Sp3 and Sp4, are also overexpressed in RMS cell lines ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, phylogenetics and biochemical studies lead to the identification of an 11-residue domain required for the specificity of LukAB toward human CD11b, which is sufficient to render murine CD11b compatible with toxin binding. (sciencemag.org)
  • Other human pathogens have the ability to infect a broader range of species, yet these infections do not faithfully recapitulate human disease. (sciencemag.org)
  • Two human GPI-T signal sequences were also tested and each showed diminished extracellular INV activity, consistent with lower levels of GPI anchoring and species specificity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Human/fungal chimaeric signal sequences identified a small region of five amino acids that was predominantly responsible for this species specificity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Specificity of human anti-NOR antibodies, a distinct species of "natural" anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The species specificity maps to the LFA-1 alpha subunit, because mouse x human hybrid cells expressing the human alpha subunit associated with a mouse beta subunit bind to human ICAM-1, whereas those with a human beta subunit associated with a murine alpha subunit do not. (ox.ac.uk)
  • there was no crossreaction between any set and human DNA, or extracts from other candida species, fungal, bacterial, or viral pathogens tested. (bmj.com)
  • As a species, humans are culture dependent and much of human survival relies on the culture and social relationships. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several virus isolates exhibited marked receptor specificity, binding only to cells containing the SA alpha 2,6Gal or the SA alpha 2,3Gal linkage, while others bound equally well to cells containing either linkage. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, antigenically similar (H3) isolates from avian and equine species preferentially bound erythrocytes containing the SA alpha 2,3Gal linkage. (nih.gov)
  • There is no laboratory animal model for EPE infection studies and it is not known whether there is species-specificity for equine or porcine isolates of L. intracellularis in animal models. (elsevier.com)
  • Gebhart, Connie J. / Species-specificity of equine and porcine Lawsonia intracellularis isolates in laboratory animals . (elsevier.com)
  • Methods -Species specific primer and probe sets were designed for the identification of Candida albicans, C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, C krusei, C kefyr , and C glabrata from clinical isolates in a 5′ exonuclease (TaqMan™) assay. (bmj.com)
  • The specificity of these assays was evaluated against a range of National Collection of Pathogenic Fungi strains, clinical isolates of yeast, bacterial and viral pathogens. (bmj.com)
  • Certain yeast species, such as C krusei , are intrinsically resistant to fluconazole, and isolates of C glabrata and C tropicalis may become resistant. (bmj.com)
  • The identification of candida isolates to the species level using carbohydrate assimilation protocols 5 can be problematic, although primary isolation using CHROMagar can be used with reasonable specificity for rapid identification. (bmj.com)
  • Abstract Scale insects of the genus Apiomorpha Rübsaamen (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus, but the Apiomorpha pharetrata species-group is unusual in that nymphal males aggregate on the surface of the maternal gall where they induce a compound structure. (wiley.com)
  • Loss of the specificity domain in these RNAs suggests potential altered substrate specificity . (lookformedical.com)
  • Dual-specificity tyrosine-regulated kinases (DYRKs) autophosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in their activation loop and phosphorylate their substrate on serine and threonine residues. (uniprot.org)
  • Furthermore, the relative concentrations of these oxidants in a particular P450 isozyme may contribute to substrate specificity and govern the type of reaction catalyzed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Niche differentiation with respect to habitat has been hypothesized to shape patterns of diversity and species distributions in plant communities. (springer.com)
  • Species composition and diversity varied along the topographical gradient from low flat to ridge top habitats. (springer.com)
  • The low depression and low flat habitats were characterized by high diversity and similar species composition, relative to slopes, high gullies and ridge tops. (springer.com)
  • The large number of species-habitat associations and the pronounced contrast between low (valley) and elevated (ridgetop) habitats in the Korup plot shows that niche differentiation with respect to edaphic variables (e.g., soil moisture, nutrients) contributes to local scale tree species distributions and to the maintenance of diversity in African forests. (springer.com)
  • As this field progresses, this synthesis of functional biology and evolutionary studies will provide insight into the molecular basis of the species barriers that maintain the enormous diversity seen in flowering plants. (valpo.edu)
  • Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern India. (isharonline.org)
  • Forty-eight fungal species were recovered from 2200 bark segments. (isharonline.org)
  • List of Puccinia species Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database Jin, Y. (lookformedical.com)
  • Pan-fungal PCR assays have been evaluated for the detection of a broad spectrum of species, 6 , 7 as have candida specific primers 8 and C albicans specific and pan-fungal primers in conjunction with species specific probes. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, in vivo, DNA polymerase alpha has stringent species specificity for initiation and replication of chromosomal DNA. (pasteur.fr)
  • Aim -To develop and evaluate a TaqMan™ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rapid identification and speciation of candida species. (bmj.com)
  • A Triticum isolate (pathogenic on wheat) of Magnaporthe oryzae was crossed with an Oryza isolate (pathogenic on rice) to elucidate mechanisms of their parasitic specificity on wheat. (apsnet.org)
  • Conclusion -This TaqMan assay provides a rapid alternative to conventional culture based techniques for the identification and speciation of the most frequently isolated candida species. (bmj.com)
  • Genetic insights could help shore up populations of a rare dog species thought to be nearly extinct in the wild. (pnas.org)
  • However, the extent of chromosomal variation among the populations of both A. pharetrata and A. thorntoni suggests that there may be further cryptic species present. (wiley.com)
  • Many species and populations of native fishes have declined in recorded history and some now occur as isolated remnants of what once were larger more complex systems. (usda.gov)
  • Invasive species can quickly transform biological communities due to their high abundance and strong impacts on native species, in part because they can be released from the ecological forces that limit native populations. (mendeley.com)
  • Intraspecific mimicry Two or more individual organisms, populations, or taxa are conspecific if they belong to the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some insects populations have started to develop resistance towards delta endotoxin, with five resistant species found as of 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this lecture, Victor Torres will discuss his studies exploring the species specificity of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and how they have taken advantage of millions of years of evolution in vertebrates to define the molecular details of toxin-receptor interaction. (idw-online.de)
  • Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. (nih.gov)
  • The observed receptor specificities were not significantly influenced by the viral neuraminidases as shown by the use of the potent neuraminidase inhibitor 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid. (nih.gov)
  • Receptor specificity appeared, to some extent, to be dependent on the species from which the virus was isolated. (nih.gov)
  • Is the 110K glycoprotein the only receptor for MHV and does its expression determine species specificity? (elsevier.com)
  • It is suggested that the polypeptide domain responsible for species specificity may be closely related to the polynucleotide binding area. (pnas.org)
  • Functionally closely related mycoplasma species, which have a highly similar protein domain repertoire, but different hosts could not be separated. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several of the most deadly and common pathogens to mankind display species specificity and can only infect humans or closely related nonhuman primates ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Examples such as this, in which the function of a communication signal has changed in closely related species, are rare. (biologists.org)
  • Often, species of conservation interest co-occur with other, closely related taxa. (usda.gov)
  • The specificity of a range of heterocyclic product analogues against DHDPS from three pathogenic species, Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and the evolutionarily related N-acetylneuraminate lyase, has been determined. (nih.gov)
  • Inhibiting dihydrodipicolinate synthase across species: towards specificity for pathogens? (nih.gov)
  • Thus, pathogens may become highly specialized to the species where they thrive. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the species specificity of the interaction between IgE and FcεRI has not been clearly explained. (currentpharmaceuticalbiotechnology.com)
  • This review described the characteristics and the interaction mechanism in the allergic reaction of IgE and FcεRI and summarized the species specificity between IgE and FcεRI. (currentpharmaceuticalbiotechnology.com)
  • On the species specificity of the interaction of LFA-1 with intercellular adhesion molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Interspecific interaction, the effects organisms in a community have on one another Interspecific pregnancy, pregnancy involving an embryo or fetus belonging to another species than the carrier Intraspecificity (literally within species), or being intraspecific, describes behaviors, biochemical variations and other issues within individuals of a single species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Species-specificity and individual variation suggests that the songs of male P. nathusii have the potential to play a role in mate attraction and mate assessment. (springer.com)
  • Variation suggests species specificity. (lookformedical.com)
  • Biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hence, the NCBI taxonomy includes most Brucella species under B. melitensis. (wikipedia.org)
  • and two lower case letters are derived from the name of the species of that organism. (lookformedical.com)
  • Species restrictions in immune cell interactions have been demonstrated both in Ag-specific responses of T lymphocytes and the phenomenon of natural attachment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Species Specificity in Pollen-Pistil Interactions" by Rob Swanson, Anna F. Edlund et al. (valpo.edu)
  • Is the Subject Area "Species interactions" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • These results suggest that PKR antagonism is likely one of the factors that contributes to species-specificity of cytomegalovirus replication. (fredhutch.org)
  • Since cross reactivity between Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species is well known in serological tests, and minimizing of such cross reactivity is of critical importance for diagnosis, we suggest that L. d. chagasi promastigotes should be the antigen of choice for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by IFAT in areas also endemic for trypanosomiasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • A better definition of species-specific and variant-specific virulence of ebolaviruses will facilitate our comprehensive knowledge on genus Ebolavirus biology, leading to the development of therapeutics against well-focused pathogenic mechanisms of each Ebola disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Homo sapiens has many characteristics that show the biological specificity in the form of behavior and morphological traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • IS481, and IS1001 based PCR thus lacks specificity when used for detection of specific Bordetella spp. (nih.gov)
  • ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Inula comprises more than one hundred species widespread in temperate regions of Europe and Asia. (isharonline.org)
  • While there have been six virus species classified, which each have a single type virus in the genus Ebolavirus , CFRs of ebolavirus infections vary among viruses belonging to each distinct species. (cdc.gov)
  • Also, some species of the genus Bifidobacterium are difficult to culture, whereas some grow readily on culture media when standard laboratory procedures are followed ( 25 ). (asm.org)
  • These may include: Interspecies communication, communication between different species of animals, plants, fungi or bacteria Interspecific competition, when individuals of different species compete for the same resource in an ecosystem Interspecific feeding, when adults of one species feed the young of another species Interspecific hybridization, when two species within the same genus generate offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, a botanical name consists of the genus name followed by the species epithet. (garden.org)
  • Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site and species specificity of common bacterial associates. (coralcoe.org.au)
  • Therefore, we kept five termite species under strictly controlled dietary conditions and subsequently profiled their protist and bacterial gut microbial communities using 18S and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. (edu.sa)
  • Interestingly, in C. glomerata , the males were repelled by mated females, as well as by males of their own species. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, the CpG motifs appear to be species-specific. (idtdna.com)
  • Currently, Mycodiplosis contains 49 described species based on adult male morphology. (lsu.edu)
  • This research has shown that these dioxin-like compounds can have very different potencies at AhRs in different species so it is not always possible to predict the potency in humans from in vitro or rat in vivo toxicity data. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Where different species can interbreed and their gametes compete, the conspecific gametes take precedence over heterospecific gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using METATRYP, an open-source Python toolkit, we examined the number of shared (redundant) tryptic peptides in representative marine microbes, with the number of tryptic peptides shared between different species typically being 1% or less. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Tryptic digestion converted the intact cholecystokinin from all species to a peptide resembling the COOH-terminal octapeptide. (pnas.org)
  • An NtcA peptide was found to target multiple cyanobacteria species, whereas a P-II peptide showed specificity to the high-light Prochlorococcus ecotype. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The probes were labelled with three fluorescent dyes to enable differentiation between species when three primer and probe sets were combined in two multiplexes. (bmj.com)
  • Those aposymbiotic P. bursaria were used for experimental infections to investigate the symbiosis specificity not only between P. bursaria and Chor. (mdpi.com)
  • Lawsonia intracellularis infection causes proliferative enteropathy (PE) in many mammalian species, with porcine and equine proliferative enteropathy (PPE and EPE) known worldwide. (elsevier.com)
  • Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neither infected species developed clinical signs. (elsevier.com)
  • Effects of temperature on specificity factor of the purified enzyme from 14 species were consistent with the concept that higher specificity factors were associated with an increase in the activation energy for oxygenation compared to carboxylation of the 2,3-enediolate of RuBP to the respective transition state intermediates. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In some species , the ants and fungi are dependent on each other for survival. (lookformedical.com)
  • Reproductive isolation between species is the major factor responsible for the evolution of species-specificity in communication signals. (caltech.edu)