Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).G(M3) Ganglioside: A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Mice, Inbred BALB CDNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) clotting activity in human plasma in health and disease in various animal plasmas. (1/42092)

Fitzgerald factor (high molecular weight kininogen) is an agent in normal human plasma that corrects the impaired in vitro surface-mediated plasma reactions of blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and kinin generation observed in Fitzgerald trait plasma. To assess the possible pathophysiologic role of Fitzgerald factor, its titer was measured by a functional clot-promoting assay. Mean +/- SD in 42 normal adults was 0.99+/-0.25 units/ml, one unit being the activity in 1 ml of normal pooled plasma. No difference in titer was noted between normal men and women, during pregnancy, or after physical exercise. Fitzgerald factor activity was significantly reduced in the plasmas of eight patients with advanced hepatic cirrhosis (0.40+/-0.09 units/ml) and of ten patients with disseminated intravascular coagulation (0.60+/-0.30 units/ml), but was normal in plasmas of patients with other congenital clotting factor deficiencies, nephrotic syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or sarcoidosis, or under treatment with warfarin. The plasmas of 21 mammalian species tested appeared to contain Fitzgerald factor activity, but those of two avian, two repitilian, and one amphibian species did not correct the coagulant defect in Fitzgerald trait plasmas.  (+info)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolism between rodent liver microsomes and embryonic cells. (2/42092)

Differences in benzo(a)pyrene metabolite pattern have been shown by rodent liver microsomes (Sprague-Dawley) and rodent embryo cells from Syrian hamsters and NIH Swiss mice. Rodent liver induced by methylcholanthrene shows marked quantitative variation between species. Additional pattern changes were found in mouse and hamster embryo secondary cultures with a reduction of the K-region metabolites and a marked increase in 9-hydroxybenzo(a)-pyrene. These results are indicative of a region-specific attack on the carcinogen by the cell monooxygenases which is distinct from the liver attack of microsomal enzymes on benzo(a)pyrene. These results suggest that activation and detoxification of benzo(a)pyrene may be species and tissue variable, and susceptibility and resistence to malignant transformation may be predicted on induction of a fortuitous combination of intermediate metabolic steps.  (+info)

Effect of sex difference on the in vitro and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by the rat. (3/42092)

Hepatic microsome-catalyzed metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to aflatoxin M1 and aflatoxin Q1 and the "metabolic activation" of AFB1 to DNA-alylating metabolite(s) were studied in normal male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, in gonadectomized animals, and in castrated males and normal females treated with testosterone. Microsomes from male animals formed 2 to 5 times more aflatoxin M1, aflatoxin Q1, and DNA-alkylating metabolite(s) than those from females. Castration reduced the metabolism of AFB1 by the microsomes from males by about 50%, whereas ovariectomy had no significant effect on AFB1 metabolism by the microsomes from females. Testosterone treatment (4 mg/rat, 3 times/week for about 6 weeks) of castrated immature males and immature females enhanced the metabolism of AFB1 by their microsomes. A sex difference in the metabolism of AFB1 by liver microsomes was also seen in other strains of rats tested: Wistar, Long-Evans, and Fischer. The activity of kidney microsomes for metabolic activation was 1 to 4% that of the liver activity and was generally lower in microsomes from male rats as compared to those from female rats of Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans strains. The in vitro results obtained with hepatic microsomes correlated well with the in vivo metabolism of AFB1, in that more AFB1 became bound in vivo to hepatic DNA isolated from male rats and from a female rat treated with testosterone than that isolated from control female rats. These data suggest that the differences in hepatic AFB1 metabolism may be the underlying cause of the sex difference in toxicity and carcinogenicity of AFB1 observed in rats.  (+info)

Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes. (4/42092)

Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests.  (+info)

Fecal coliform elevated-temperature test: a physiological basis. (5/42092)

The physiological basis of the Eijkman elevated-temperature test for differentiating fecal from nonfecal coliforms was investigated. Manometric studies indicated that the inhibitory effect upon growth and metabolism in a nonfecal coliform at 44.5 degrees C involved cellular components common to both aerobic and fermentative metabolism of lactose. Radioactive substrate incorporation experiments implicated cell membrane function as a principal focus for temperature sensitivity at 44.5 degrees C. A temperature increase from 35 to 44.5 degrees C drastically reduced the rates of [14C]glucose uptake in nonfecal coliforms, whereas those of fecal coliforms were essentially unchanged. In addition, relatively low levels of nonfecal coliform beta-galactosidase activity coupled with thermal inactivation of this enzyme at a comparatively low temperature may also inhibit growth and metabolism of nonfecal coliforms at the elevated temperature.  (+info)

Features of the immune response to DNA in mice. I. Genetic control. (6/42092)

The genetic control of the immune response to DNA was studied in various strains of mice F1 hybrids and corresponding back-crosses immunized with single stranded DNA complexed to methylated bovine serum albumin. Anti-DNA antibody response was measured by radioimmuno-logical technique. High responder, low responder, and intermediate responder strains were found and the ability to respond to DNA was characterized as a dominant genetic trait which is not linked to the major locus of histocompatibility. Studies in back-crosses suggested that this immune response is under multigenic control. High responder mice produce both anti-double stranded DNA and anti-single stranded DNA 7S and 19S antibodies, while low responder mice produce mainly anti-single stranded DNA 19S antibodies.  (+info)

Lack of genic similarity between two sibling species of drosophila as revealed by varied techniques. (7/42092)

Acrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed on the enzyme xanthine dehydrogenase in sixty isochromosomal lines of Drosophila persimilis from three geographic populations. Sequential electrophoretic analysis using varied gel concentrations and buffers revealed twenty-three alleles in this species where only five had been described previously. These new electrophoretic techniques also detected a profound increase in divergence of gene frequencies at this locus between D. persimilis and its sibling species D. pseudoobscura. The implications of these results for questions of speciation and the maintenance of genetic variability are discussed.  (+info)

Genetic heterogeneity within electrophoretic "alleles" of xanthine dehydrogenase in Drosophila pseudoobscura. (8/42092)

An experimental plan for an exhaustive determination of genic variation at structural gene loci is presented. In the initial steps of this program, 146 isochromosomal lines from 12 geographic populations of D. pseudoobscura were examined for allelic variation of xanthine dehydrogenase by the serial use of 4 different electrophoretic conditions and a head stability test. The 5 criteria revealed a total of 37 allelic classes out of the 146 genomes examined where only 6 had been previously revealed by the usual method of gel electrophoresis. This immense increase in genic variation also showed previously unsuspected population differences between the main part of the species distribution and the isolated population of Bogota population. The average heterozygosity at the Xdh locus is at least 72% in natural populations. This result, together with the very large number of alleles segregating and the pattern of allelic frequencies, has implications for theories of genetic polymorphism which are discussed.  (+info)

Multiple interspecies differences were detected between humans and seven other mammals in 15 of the 24 metabolites measured in the intact crystalline lens and lens perchloric acid extracts. Generally, the number of statistically significant metabolite differences among the various species, relative to the human, increase in the following order: cat or approximately dog greater than pig greater than rat greater than sheep greater than rabbit greater than cow. ...
We have investigated the relationship between sexual isolation and DNA sequence divergence in the transformation (at locus rpoB) of a naturally competent strain of Bacillus subtilis. Using both genomic DNA and a PCR-amplified segment of gene rpoB as donor, we found that the extent of sexual isolation at locus rpoB was closely predicted, over three orders of magnitude, as a log-linear function of sequence divergence at that locus. Because sexual isolation between a recipient and any potential donor may be determined as a general mathematical function of sequence divergence, transformation is perhaps the only sexual system, in either the prokaryotic or the eukaryotic world, in which sexual isolation can be predicted for a pair of species without having to perform the cross. These observations suggest the possibility of a general approach to the indirect prediction of sexual isolation in bacteria recombining principally by natural transformation. ...
Analysis of the apo hQR1 and mQR1 structures shows that the substrate/nicotinamide binding site is a highly hydrophobic pocket with three potential hydrogen-bonding residues (Tyr-126′, Tyr-128′, and His-161) suitable for binding large quinolic compounds. In the hQR1-DQ structure, DQ is bound to this site by hydrophobic interactions, as well as by a water-mediated (W5) bridge from O4 to His-161. In these structures, C2 of the quinone lies almost on top of the N5 of FAD (3.5 Å apart), suggesting a Michael addition of the hydride from the FADH2 to this position of the substrate.. Comparison of all of the available QR1 structures shows that the side chain of Tyr-128 can adopt many different conformations. The different conformations result in opening and closing of the binding site, as well as in different interactions with substrates. For example, comparison of the structures of hQR1 and hQR1-DQ shows that Tyr-128 moves inside the cavity and away from the FAD to make room for the DQ (Fig. 5). ...
Video created by University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign for the course Lactation Biology. Milk is the product of the lactation process. Such a simple statement does not come close to doing justice to the complex nature of this biological ...
Inter and intra species variation in the biofilm production of 54 Trichosporon spp. clinical isolates and 7 reference strains.A- 19 isolates from blood identifi
Exposure to environmental insults generally occurs at low levels, making it challenging to measure bacterial responses to such interactions. Additionally, microbial behaviour and phenotype varies in differing bacterial types or growth phases, likely giving rise to growth- or species-specific responses to environmen
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal. ...
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, and it is locally common with no major threats. The northern subpopulations are much scarcer, but these are likely to be a different subspecies or even a distinct species. Once the taxonomy is resolved the northern species or subspecies may qualify for threatened status ...
Should we be content simply to safeguard as much as we can of the planetary stock of species? Or should we pay equal if not greater attention to safeguarding evolutionary processes at risk (cf. refs. 64-66)? Consider, for instance, biodisparity: to cite Jablonski (49), "If we are concerned with avoiding the loss of particular functional groups, or with maximizing the potential source pool for evolutionary recovery, then biodisparity measures may provide a more appropriate assessment, beyond sheer numbers of taxa, of how priorities should be set.". Following on from these considerations is the question of whether we should seek to maintain the evolutionary status quo by preserving precise phenotypes of particular species, or whether we should prefer to maintain phylogenetic lines that will enable evolutionary adaptations to persist, thereby leading to new species (67, 68). Is it sufficient for us to maintain, for example, just the two elephant species we already have, or should we try to keep ...
Description: A sandwich ELISA for quantitative measurement of Human Crystal proteins a in samples from blood, plasma, serum, cell culture supernatant and other biological fluids. This is a high quality ELISA kit developped for optimal performance with samples from the particular species ...
Intra-species ceBLATs and composite-EvoPrints identify conserved sequences within the input reference DNA that have rearranged in the aligning regions of other
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
Text searches may yield weird results when combined with other filters. If you want to find observation of a particular species, use the taxon filter ...
CC-RIX mice provide a controlled genetically diverse model for studies of infection and immunology that may more closely mirror the diversity of the human response.
Nurses generally do not question the need for medicine to research disease and its treatment yet many cite as irrelevant research done on human responses and treatment of those responses to achieve nurse-sensitive outcomes.
IISERM Colloquia and Seminars - 2013 158. Seminar Dec 24th, 2013 (Tues 11:00 am) Dr. Samit Bhattacharyya "Population dynamic consequences of human response to infectious disease - Theory and Models" 157. Seminar Dec 20th, 2013 (Fri 4:00
Critical Care Nursing : The American Association of Critical Care Nurses defines critical care nursing as the specialty within nursing that deals specifically with human responses to life-threatening problems...responsible for ensuring that acutely and critically ill patients and their families receive optimal care.
So im interrested as im sure everyone is on how to get dense buds? Is it a strain dependant thing,a light thing or a fertalizer thing lol?I only have...
Read that previous post for a full explanation. This is the sort of data wed expect to have the strongest edge/center effects: focal areas with high information, areas large enough to allow searchlights to fit inside the middle of the informative areas. Its also likely that the activations in these areas are all in the same direction (higher activity during the moving stimuli than the non-moving stimuli), creating consistent differences in the amount of BOLD throughout the areas. Normalizing each example within each searchlight removes this consistent BOLD difference, and so classification fails ...
Hi there, Are there any online resources or wikis that would tell me the finer details for growing specific strains? Like some strains want higher...
Lycoperdon echinatum, Spiny Puffball fungus: pictures (images), habitat, edible or poisonous; identification, synonyms; similar species
All the innumerable differences which subsist between different animals may be classed under two heads, corresponding to the two aspects of every living being, morphological and physiological. One ani...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interspecies differences in the kinetic properties of deoxycytidine kinase elucidate the poor utility of a phase I pharmacologically directed dose-escalation concept for 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine. AU - Reichelová, Viera. AU - Juliusson, Gunnar. AU - Spasokoukotskaja, T.. AU - Eriksson, Staffan. AU - Liliemark, Jan. PY - 1995/11. Y1 - 1995/11. N2 - 2-Chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (CdA, Cladribine), is a purine antimetabolite currently under investigation in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Significant differences in CdA toxicity between mice and humans were observed during phase I clinical evaluation. For the elucidation of interspecies differences in drug toxicity the pharmacokinetics of CdA after subcutaneous injection and the kinetic properties of the CdA-phosphorylating enzyme, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), were compared in mice and humans. The ratio of the dose lethal to 10% of mice (LD10) to the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in humans was 50 ...
Question: Most results of restoration efforts are species-specific and/or site-specific and therefore are not general enough to be easily applied to other species and other sites. Our research addresses the issue of species-specific results by investigating the feasibility of using plant traits instead of taxonomic species to characterize species responses to restoration treatments. Specifically, we test the explanatory power of plant traits, one necessary prerequisite for the development of predictive and general plant trait models. Location: Ten remnant bunchgrass prairie sites in the Pacific Northwest of North America (Oregon and Washington, USA; British Columbia, Canada). Methods: We developed two types of quantitative models for each of 10 prairie restoration sites: 1) plant trait models, which related plant traits to species field responses following restoration management treatments, and 2) species identity models, which related species taxonomic identity to species field responses ...
Model organisms have longed played an important role in basic science studies and in the pharmaceutical industry. These organisms, ranging from yeast to worms to flies, share many processes that are similar to those active in humans which have made these and other animals the focus of many lab studies. Similarly, almost all drugs are initially tested on mice making cross species studies a key issue in drug development. However, many of the drugs that work well for mice fail in late stage human trials. Similarly, many interactions between highly conserved proteins in one species are not conserved, even between very close species. In this class we will discuss recent studies that try to compare and contrast genomics and functional genomics data across species with the goal of identifying the conserved and divergent processes that are active in each of the species being studied ...
All eukaryotic cells are covered in a dense layer of carbohydrates that are key to cell-cell communication, development, neurobiology and immune function. In addition, many human viruses interact with cell-surface carbohydrates as receptors on their host cells in order to initiate infection. Carbohydrate structures are expressed in tissue- and species-specific patterns, and the availability of the receptor carbohydrate influences viral tissue tropism and host range. Viruses also encounter carbohydrates in the extracellular matrix and the environment on their way from one host cell to another. Some of these extracellular glycans sequester viruses from cells and are part of innate immunity, while others can render viruses more infectious. In any case, the specificity and affinity of viral proteins for carbohydrates determines viral spread, transmission and pathogenesis. However, protein-carbohydrate interactions are less well understood than protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid interactions. ...
A large number of diverse enzymes have evolved in animals that apparently function only to metabolize foreign chemicals. As will be discussed later, there are such large differences among species in the ability to metabolize xenobiotics, that animal models cannot be solely relied upon to predict how humans will metabolize a drug. Enzymes that metabolize xenobiotics have historically been called drug-metabolizing enzymes, although they are involved in the metabolism of many foreign chemicals to which humans are exposed. Thus, a more appropriate name would be xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.Dietary differences among species during the course of evolution could account for the marked species variation in the complexity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes. Additional diversity within these enzyme systems has also derived from the necessity to detoxify a host of endogenous chemicals that would otherwise prove harmful to the organism, such as bilirubin, steroid hormones, and catecholamines. Many of these ...
Dear Woody,. Generally speaking, the STIs (sexually transmitted infections) we associate with person-to-person sexual contact, including HIV, cannot be transmitted through sexual contact between humans and animals because these infections are species-specific. There are a number of infections that are known to cross the species barrier, but these are not the STIs that concern most humans - for more information, check out the archived response to Bestiality. If you remain worried about potential disease risk with any type of sexual activity, follow safer-sex guidelines - such as wearing a condom - in each and every one of your sexual encounters.. Aside from infections, heres something else to consider: its impossible for animals to consent to sex with humans, and these acts are illegal in most places. If animals become the focus of ones sexual attention and activity, it might be time to call a mental health counselor in your area to explore whats on your mind: concerns, motivations, etc. Have ...
1DXO: Structures of Recombinant Mouse and Human Nad(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductases:Species Comparison and Structural Changes with Substrate Binding and Release
Eurofins comprehensive portfolio of innovative DNA-based fish species determination ensures the overall quality and safety of fish and aquacultural products.
Alterations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were once thought to be predominantly innocuous to cell growth. Recent evidence suggests that mtDNA undergo naturally occurring alterations, including mutations and polymorphisms, which profoundly affect the cells in which they appear and contribute to a variety of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. Furthermore, interplay between mtDNA and nuclear DNA has been found in cancer cells, necessitating consideration of these complex interactions for future studies of cancer mutations and polymorphisms. In this issue of Cancer Research, Vivian and colleagues utilize a unique mouse model, called Mitochondrial Nuclear eXchange mice, that contain the nuclear DNA from one inbred mouse strain, and the mtDNA from a different inbred mouse strain to examine the genome-wide nuclear DNA methylation and gene expression patterns of brain tissue. Results demonstrated there were alterations in nuclear DNA expression and DNA methylation driven by ...
Munich, Europe, January 15, 2013 - Fujitsu today announces a new generation of displays that take desktop ergonomics to a new level, with screens that are clearer, more detailed, and more comfortable to use than ever before. For office-based "desk jockeys" who sit in front of a screen all day, their display is an indispensable interface. Choosing an ergonomic model thats easy on the eye can make a tremendous difference to user comfort and help reduce strain-related illness. ...
An initial list was compiled by Albert Dugal during a one-day visit in 1977. Additional observations were made by other naturalists in the 1980s and 1990s. This has resulted in an impressive but preliminary list of plants. Twenty-eight significant native plant species occur here. Significant species are those regarded as regionally or provincially rare or sparse. These species are shown in boldface.. TREES. ...
Maybe now we can renegotiate the corporate boundaries and interests that overtook those of communities.. (Originally published by YES! Magazine, Jun 29, 2016). The world is abuzz over Brexit, the United Kingdoms decision to exit the European Union (EU). Is it a victory for freedom, democracy, and national integrity? Or is it a racist retreat into xenophobia and isolationism? Will the EU itself survive or is this the beginning of its disintegration? As I reflect on these questions, I realize they raise essential issues that have profound implications far beyond Europe about how we set and manage boundaries.. We are only beginning to come to terms with the reality that we are a global species dependent on one living Earth. Consequently, we now must deal with a far greater degree of interdependence than ever before. We have only begun to recognize, let alone address, the implications of the boundaries within which we manage these relationships.. This lack of understanding is evident in the ...
I use same drying method and for some strains they dont smell spectacular and some do. This blue dream ive been running smelled good but now that its...
(2012) Yao et al. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. The biochemical and toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) have been the subject of intense study for decades. It is now clear that essentially all TCDD-induced toxicities are mediated by DNA-protein interactions involvi...
Recent innovations in sequencing technologies have provided researchers with the ability to rapidly characterize the microbial content of an environmental or clinical sample with unprecedented resolution. These approaches are producing a wealth of information that is providing novel insights into the microbial ecology of the environment and human health. However, these sequencing-based approaches produce large and complex datasets that require efficient and sensitive computational analysis workflows. Many recent tools for analyzing metagenomic-sequencing data have emerged, however, these approaches often suffer from issues of specificity, efficiency, and typically do not include a complete metagenomic analysis framework. We present PathoScope 2.0, a complete bioinformatics framework for rapidly and accurately quantifying the proportions of reads from individual microbial strains present in metagenomic sequencing data from environmental or clinical samples. The pipeline performs all necessary
This is a list of some qualitative laboratory tests that can be used to identify unknowns in lab. These are simple tests leading to the identification of a few anions and cations and some common gases. Also included here is flame test information for selected cations. ...
Molecular mechanisms that allow the Rhesus macaque CMV to cross species barriers shed light on how viruses can replicate in other species.
Twelve individual infections with spp. species have been reported; these cases resulted from contact with monkeys and the agent was identified as (6). The taxonomic status of these uninucleated species over the years has been confusing. They have been identified in CH5132799 various domestic and other animals and have been given separate names such as in cattle in sheep and in pigs in pigs and goats and in monkeys. However the numerous species cannot be distinguished from each other morphologically (3) and whether they occur in humans or are also genetically distinct continues to be to be set up. Burrows (3) recommended the usage of the name for the infectious agent in individual situations until it became feasible to tell apart one types of uninucleated from another. Various other authors prefer to mention many of these uninucleated ameba types (6). Over the last 4 years our lab in Leiden HOLLAND provides received many feces examples (= 1 229 for species-specific medical diagnosis of and ...
cremaster definition: A thin muscle tissue attached to the testicles.; into the pupae of particular species of butterfly, a hook-shaped protuberance from rear of the chrysalis casing, by which the caterpillar…
Recent work examined the repair of ear holes across a number of different mammals and revealed that regeneration appears to be a unique trait
The reasons animal models cannot predict human response to drugs and disease are to be found in a study of evolutionary biology and complex systems. As I have said many times, if someone wishes to understand this issue, she must study these areas. However, the empirical evidence is very strong and anyone willing to take the time to gather and study that evidence can come to the same conclusions.
La Jolla, CA - The ability of the AIDS virus to infect one species and bypass another may hinge on a single amino acid, a Salk Institute study has found. The work builds on the knowledge that HIV, the AIDS virus that infects humans, is relatively harmless to mice and even monkeys. The study furthers understanding of how HIV infects specific species while sparing others, and may help in the eventual development of novel drugs that halt the disease.. ...
Checking Cell Identity: Several different methods are available to detect inter-species and intra-species cross-contamination in cell cultures. Read more about this topic here!
Checking Cell Identity: Several different methods are available to detect inter-species and intra-species cross-contamination in cell cultures. Read more about this topic here!
1. In Dysdercus the abdominal segments are isolated from each other by an intersegmental region which can be distinguished on the basis of morphological and physiological criteria. 2. The...
For documenting flora of India that is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group along with supplementing the working of the group. Efloraofindia (earlier Indiantreepix) is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora.
You must select a strain type and also whether the strain is a mutant or wild-type. To search the gene field for all strains carrying a particular locus, you will need to use the wildcard character *. For example, searching for his-3 finds 126 strains while searching for *his-3* finds 295 strains ...
UK and EU legislation provides certain species and habitats protection in order to safeguard them from activities that may damage or destroy them such as...
MIT biologists find that alternative splicing of RNA rewires signaling in different tissues and may often contribute to species differences.
How to Raise Rabbits. Rabbits are lovely pets to have. A rabbit is tame and playful, and yet also social. However, it does take a lot of work to take care of a rabbit. Like all pets, rabbits need a clean, healthy environment and the right...
How to Care for Disabled Rabbits. If your rabbit is disabled, you will find yourself doing a lot more for your rabbit than either he or you could have imagined. Since rabbits are very independent animals, your rabbits disability will make...
Rabbits are prone to many diseases but some are more common than others. Learn what you can do to prevent and even treat these rabbit problems.
October 15, 2015 - A team of researchers radio-tags various species to learn more about them. The catch: They have to follow them as they fly ...
NOVOA, F. Fernando; RIVERA-HUTINEL, Antonio; ROSENMANN, Mario y SABAT, Pablo. Intraspecific differences in metabolic rate of Chroeomys olivaceus (Rodentia: Muridae): the effect of thermal acclimation in arid and mesic habitats. Rev. chil. hist. nat. [online]. 2005, vol.78, n.2, pp.215-227. ISSN 0716-078X. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2005000200004.. Studies of metabolic capacities in rodents have been largely studied at an inter-specific levels, but physiological capacities of populations belonging to the same species have received lesser attention. Here we studied the maximum and basal metabolic rates of two populations of the rodent Chroeomys olivaceus dwelling in habitats with contrasting temperature and rainfall regimes, and to test if differences in metabolic capacities are due to local adaptation or acclimatization effect. After four weeks of acclimation to 25 ºC and 10 ºC, the BMR and MMR were determined in individuals from the northern population of Caleta Loa, and the southern ...
The occurrence of swollen or hyperostotic bones in skeletal preparations, preserved museum material or whole fresh specimens of marine teleost fishes was identified in 92 species belonging to 22 famil
There is growing agreement that genetic factors play an important role in the risk to develop heroin addiction, and comparisons of heroin addiction vulnerability in inbred strains of mice could provide useful information on the question of individual vulnerability to heroin addiction. This study examined the rewarding and locomotor-stimulating effects of heroin in male C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice. Heroin induced locomotion and sensitisation in C57BL/6J but not in DBA/2J mice. C57BL/6J mice developed conditioned place preference (CPP) to the highest doses of heroin, while DBA/2J showed CPP to only the lowest heroin doses, indicating a higher sensitivity of DBA/2J mice to the rewarding properties of heroin vs C57BL/6J mice. In order to investigate the neurobiological substrate underlying some of these differences, the effect of chronic intermittent escalating dose heroin administration on the opioid, dopaminergic and stress systems was explored. Twofold higher mu-opioid receptor (MOP-r)-stimulated ...
Previous experiments revealed a strain-dependent effect of egg cytoplasm on the developmental potential of androgenetic (two paternal genomes) mouse embryos. Eggs obtained from C57BL/6 mice supported androgenone development to the blastocyst stage at a much higher frequency than eggs from DBA/2 mice. Transient exposure of paternal pronuclei to DBA/2 egg cytoplasm also compromised development, indicating that the DBA/2 egg cytoplasm negatively affected the ability of paternal pronuclei to support blastocyst formation. An essential first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism by which egg modifier factors influence gene expression is to determine the number of loci that are responsible for the strain difference. To do this, (B6D2)F1 hybrid females were backcrossed to DBA/2 males and the eggs from individual female progeny assayed for their ability to support androgenetic development. Approximately one fourth of the backcross females produced eggs that failed to support androgenone ...
Alphaproteobacteria show a great versatility in adapting to a broad range of environments and lifestyles, with the association between bacteria and plants as one of the most intriguing, spanning from relatively unspecific nonsymbiotic association (as rhizospheric or endophytic strains) to the highly species-specific interaction of rhizobia. To shed some light on possible common genetic features in such a heterogeneous set of plant associations, the genomes of 92 Alphaproteobacteria strains were analyzed with a fuzzy orthologs-species detection approach. This showed that the different habitats and lifestyles of plant-associated bacteria (soil, plant colonizers, symbiont) are partially reflected by the trend to have larger genomes with respect to nonplant-associated species. A relatively large set of genes specific to symbiotic bacteria (73 orthologous groups) was found, with a remarkable presence of regulators, sugar transporters, metabolic enzymes, nodulation genes and several genes with unknown
Definition of species difference in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is species difference? Meaning of species difference as a legal term. What does species difference mean in law?
Species differences in ligand binding to Avpr1a have been associated with variation in a polymorphic microsatellite in the non-coding 5′-flanking region of the vole Avpr1a locus (Hammock et al., 2005; Hammock and Young, 2004; Hammock and Young, 2005). Furthermore, differences in microsatellite structure within the prairie vole species have been associated with variation in pair-bonding behavior between individual animals (Hammock and Young, 2002; Hammock and Young, 2004). The proximal 5′-flanking region of the Avpr1a gene is not the only factor to direct species-typical expression profiles as transgenic mice in which homologous recombination was used to replace 3.5 kb of the murine Avpr1a proximal 5′-flanking region with the homologous prairie vole sequence expressed Avpr1a largely in a mouse pattern, indicating that more distal chromosomal elements are necessary to confer species-specific expression patterns (Donaldson and Young, 2013).. As in rodents, analogous polymorphic regions ...
Around half of our genetic content is composed of retrotransposons that are thought to be ancient viruses that have stably integrated into our genomes. These ancient viruses, as mobile genetic elements, have been drivers of evolution, creating new genes and plasticity of genomes, and many of them are species-specific.. Endogenous retroviruses are one type of retrotransposon family that resemble present day retroviruses like HIV, and as such, they are thought to have arisen from germ-line integrations of retroviruses. While these viruses that were once mobile are now mostly inactive through mutation, they have co-evolved with our genes to adopt normal functions in gene regulation. For example, exciting data including ours has shown that endogenous retroviruses retain regulatory sequences that can act as enhancers, repressors or alternative promoters for cellular genes in a temporal or tissue-specific way. Very little is known about which transcription factors and complexes are recruited to ...
in what ways are species more fluid than even 20th century biologists might have believed? to what extent was darwins, Hire Biology Expert, Ask Academics Expert, Assignment Help, Homework Help, Textbooks Solutions
Symbol: This is the official symbol assigned to this strain according to the strain nomenclature guidelines. This is a combination of strain and substrain designations for inbred strains (or symbol and ILAR code for other strain types).. Strain: The official strain symbol.. Substrain: The official substrain symbol - this can be a collection of ILAR lab codes defining the history of this particular strain. Can also be found in pulldown section below with links to the strain report pages.. Full Name: If the strain has a text name then it is displayed here; this is not visible if no name is associated to the strain, as in this example. Ontology ID: The identification number of the strain ontology term assigned by RGD, linked to the term in the ontology browser. In the strain ontology, rat strains are organized in a hierarchical fashion based on the type of strain and the way they were developed.. Also known as: Old symbols and synonyms that were used for the strain. If a strain is renamed to comply ...
This work is a continuation of electrophoretic investigations aimed at revealing a wild relative ofVicia faba. Electrophoretic analysis (PAGE) of seed albumins covered 52 accessions representing eightVicia species of sect.Hypechusa and two species of sect.Peregrinae. Most of the examined species showed an intraspecific variation due to differences between accessions and/or individual variation within accessions. In spite of the intraspecific variation, marked interspecific differences were recorded. However, none of the investigated species displayed electrophoretic seed albumin patterns similar to those reported earlier forV. faba. Contribution of the obtained results to characterization of the examined taxa is discussed.
View Notes - Ch 31 Fungi from BIOL 172 at University of Hawaii, Manoa. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: • medicine • food Ecological value: •
The reliability of identification tools strongly relies on comprehensive sampling. The CBS collection contains a large number of type isolates and other well-studied strains that were used to generate the DNA barcodes. In order to assess the intraspecific variability we included strains from different geographic regions, and clinical as well as environmental strains covering a wide range of habitats and substrates. Understanding interspecific divergence ideally includes all species of a clade, and an underlying phylogenetic hypothesis to define the most closely related extant relatives. In addition to the study of species represented in the CBS collection we therefore cooperate with other institutions to fill the gaps in species coverage. The resulting set of barcodes makes it possible to delineate species and to develop "validated barcodes" (= consensus sequences of all barcodes of a certain species). Our databases will allow the user to perform a BLAST analysis for identification of unknown ...
Animal, Female, Histocompatibility-Antigens, Idoxuridine, Leukemia-L1210: im, Male, Mice, Mice-Inbred-BALB-C, Mice-Inbred-CBA, Mice-Inbred-C3H, Mice-Inbred-DBA, Neutralization-Tests, Pregnancy, Review, Species-Specificity. ...
This paper points out the significant genetic differences that are found throughout every population that must to be taken into account when extrapolating data from animals to humans," said Linda Birnbaum, Ph.D., director of NTP and NIEHS. "The Diversity Outbred mouse is a useful model for predicting the range of response that might be observed in humans following exposure to a chemical.". Benzene was selected by NTP as a case study for testing the mouse model, because there is an abundance of animal and human toxicity data for comparison. Benzene can affect people differently, depending on the level and duration of exposure, making it important to accurately estimate the levels at which it may cause harm to the most susceptible individuals.. "These genetically diverse mice provided a reproducible response to benzene exposure across two independently exposed groups, suggesting that each group of genetically unique mice demonstrated the same range of differential susceptibility, much like what ...
Richard A. Peterson II, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVP; GlaxoSmithKline, Safety Assessment, RTP, USA. The use and translation of animal models of human disease requires a strong understanding of the anatomy, physiology and pathobiology of each specific model. This presentation will provide an overview highlighting key species differences in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, reproductive tract, central nervous system, and skin of commonly utilized laboratory animal models including: rodents, genetically-engineered mice, beagle dogs, non-human primates, and the mini-pig; using an organ system approach. A step-wise correlation of gross anatomic, light microscopic (H&E), and ultrastructural morphology will give the attendees an appreciation of the biological complexity as species-related systemic differences are characterized. The presentation will conclude with a discussion on commonly encountered spontaneous "background" lesions in key laboratory animal species (e.g., chronic progressive ...
Do similar processes govern the "divergence" of artificially inbred strains? Is Drift too strong for background selection to be relevant in such inbred lines? Data [Genetic Analysis of Substrain Divergence in NOD Mice] from a recent study of NOD mice sub-strains might provide some answers. While the study was restricted to sites fixed to homozygosity, it does provide some idea of the major regions that differ between the mouse strains. More detailed analysis of the mouse strains including multiple individuals might be necessary to understand if the diversity landscape of the genome has played any role in shaping the accumulation of genetic differences ...
The 2017 MSE colloquium will be held at UNIST, every Thursday from September 7th to December 7th, 2017. The 2nd lecturer of MSE Colloquium is Dr. Keehoon
ArkDB is a generic, species-independent database built to capture the state of published information on genome mapping in a given species. It stores details of references, markers and loci and genetic linkage and cytogenetic maps which can be drawn using the online map-drawing application. Data from linkage maps held within the ArkDB system can be drawn alongside their corresponding genome sequence maps (extracted from Ensembl). Registered users may upload their own QTL mapping data and export for GridQTL analysis.
Adults, infants and non-human primates are thought to possess similar non-verbal numerical systems, but there is considerable debate regarding whether all vertebrates share the same numerical abilities. Despite an abundance of studies, cross-species comparison remains difficult because the methodology employed and the context of species examination vary considerably across studies. To fill this gap, we used the same procedure, stimuli and numerical contrasts to compare quantity abilities of five teleost fish: redtail splitfin, guppies, zebrafish, Siamese fighting fish, and angelfish. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometrical figures using a food reward. Fish initially were trained on an easy numerical ratio (5 vs. 10 and 6 vs. 12). Once they reached the learning criterion, they were subjected to non-reinforced probe trials in which the set size was constant but numerical ratios varied (8 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 12). They also were subjected to probe trials in which the ratio was
The morphology of each species was quantified by measuring five features. Each sample was first sandwiched between two acrylic sheets and photographed from above with the digital camera. Planform area (±0.01 cm2) was measured from the photograph with ImageJ. Branch lengths (±0.01 mm) were measured in ImageJ from the tip of the alga to the lowest branching point above the stipe (for blade-like species, a branch is equivalent to a blade). Branch width and thickness were measured either with digital calipers (±0.01 mm) or with ImageJ using an image of the cross-section of a branch. Cross-sectional area was then calculated assuming an ellipse for rounded cross-sections, a rectangle for very flat cross-sections, or directly measured with ImageJ for complexly shaped cross-sections. For hollow species (Scytosiphon and Agardhiella), the thickness of one layer of the tissue was used as the measure of branch diameter, and the thickness multiplied by the circumference was used as the measure of ...
An exemplary embodiment providing one or more improvements includes a media analysis apparatus and method in which human mental response to media is objectively determined.
In order to implement affective computing, there have been several studies to elicit human emotion using audio and video stimuli or by recalling previous e
One of the major objectives of the National GAP program is to document the representation of native vertebrate species in regional assesments. In order to meet this objective, we developed a spatial database of predicted species distributions throughout the region. While we dont have the resources to conduct a complete survey for every species, we do have access to a tremendous knowledge base that allows us to model distrubutions based on known range and habitat relationships. The composition and structure of the dominant vegetation is an important and easily described measure of habitat for animals (Scott et al. 1993) and has long been used as an indirect indicator of animal distributions (Austin 1991). Other biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. elevation, wetland type, and distance from standing water) can also play a major role in defining a particular species habitat. Many studies of vertebrate species have been conducted over the years documenting this type of information. In addition, data ...
Its difficult enough to make friends after moving to a new neighborhood but finding love is a whole other can of worms. And when youre not exactly welcome there, the task could seem nigh-impossible. Such is the case for many invasive species, but researchers are finding that these nuisances are meeting at recognizable landmarks to hook up.
I will argue that Drosophila geneticists are not so much interested in finding "speciation genes", but rather interested in understanding the genetics of speciation. To do so requires finding mutations that allow the species boundary to be surmounted. As I have mentioned previously, good species are reproductively isolated, preventing any genetical analysis of the factors that lead to this isolation. Mutations in the "speciation genes" (especially the extremely useful Hybrid Male Rescue mutation), however, allow researchers to cross individuals from different species and study the genetics of speciation.. Geneticists like to find generalities. That is why we study model organisms; they are easy to work with in a laboratory setting and allow us to extend our discoveries regarding molecular biology, cellular function, development, physiology, etc to other related taxa (both closely related and more distant relatives). Wilkins makes a valid point that it is difficult to generalize discoveries ...
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Fiona Roby.. Sentient creatures are ones that have a capacity for feeling; they have the potential to suffer and it is valid to be concerned about their well-being. But the problem with sentience is that it is difficult and problematic to make assumptions about. If we assume that a particular species is sentient, we can be accused of being unparsimonious in our explanations of its behaviour and anthropomorphic in our inferences. If we assume that it isnt, we may find ourselves denying the moral status of an ethically relevant being. In this talk I argue that one pragmatic assumption can and should be made about sentience - that it evolved. Taking this simple step allows us to think about sentience as a biological phenomenon that is present in humans and is likely to have antecedents in other animal species. Even if a completely human-like sentience is not a part of the biological make up of many animals, facets of sentience may be present, ...
DNA barcoding is short genetic sequences used to identify a particular species. With the rapid growth and ease of sequencing, DNA barcodes have been recorded for many higher order species. This means that if we can obtain a small piece of tissue from a taxonomically ambiguous organism we can extract, amplify and sequence their DNA to read their barcode. This barcode can then be uploaded to ...
With the completion of the human and a few model organisms?f genomes, and the genomes of many other organisms waiting to be sequenced, it has become increasingly important to develop faster computational tools which are capable of easily identifying the structures and extracting features from DNA sequences. One of the more important structures in a DNA sequence is repeat-related. Often they have to be masked before protein coding regions along a DNA sequence are to be identified or redundant expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are to be sequenced. Here we report a novel recurrence time based method for sequence analysis. The method can conveniently study all kinds of periodicity and exhaustively find all repeat-related features from a genomic DNA sequence. An efficient codon index is also derived from the recurrence time statistics, which has the salient features of being largely species-independent and working well on very short sequences. Efficient codon indices are key elements of successful gene ...
sometimes a species may have different kings or breeds that show great variation but the individuals still belong to the same species. different breeds of pedigree dogs are like this.. Similar species tend to live in similar habitats, and are closely related in evolutionary terms. They are likely to share a relatively recent ancestor. Closely related species living in different types of habitat may have different characteristics. You can use keys to identify organisms according to their features.. A species is defined as organisms that produce fertile offspring but this is sometimes limited as some organisms do not always reproduce sexually, and some hybrids are fertile.. ...
Toxicity can be measured by the effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxin, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of toxin is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection factor may be used for ...
Toxicity can be measured by its effects on the target (organism, organ, tissue or cell). Because individuals typically have different levels of response to the same dose of a toxic substance, a population-level measure of toxicity is often used which relates the probabilities of an outcome for a given individual in a population. One such measure is the LD50. When such data does not exist, estimates are made by comparison to known similar toxic things, or to similar exposures in similar organisms. Then, "safety factors" are added to account for uncertainties in data and evaluation processes. For example, if a dose of a toxic substance is safe for a laboratory rat, one might assume that one tenth that dose would be safe for a human, allowing a safety factor of 10 to allow for interspecies differences between two mammals; if the data are from fish, one might use a factor of 100 to account for the greater difference between two chordate classes (fish and mammals). Similarly, an extra protection ...
Author Summary Speciation, the process by which one species splits into two, involves reproductive barriers between previously interbreeding populations. The question of how speciation occurs has rightly occupied the attention of biologists since before Darwins
It isnt clear what the quality is of this DNA. But sequencing of lots of poor quality DNA samples of the same species might allow reconstruction of sequence of sufficient quality as to allow bringing back such a species to life.. Im less worried about bringing back really large species since they can easily be hunted down and killed if they cause unexpected problems. But restored small species are much more problematic if they live in ways that make them hard to track and kill. A 3 meter high elephant bird that eats vegetation isnt going to get out of control.. ...
Abstract: We consider the system of PDEs which models the non-Fickian anomalous (viscoelastic) diffusion of a penetrant liquid in a polymer. We are going to present recent results on existence, uniqueness and attractors for various types of generalized solutions to the corresponding BVPs ...
Abstract: The two-phase Stefan problem is expected to exhibit waiting time phenomena; in other words, an initial Lipschitz free boundary might remain just Lipschitz for some positive time. On the other hand, adding a Gibbs-Thomson correction term to the model is believed to stabilize the interface and make it more regular. I will present a partial result in this direction, namely I will show that free boundaries which are Lipschitz in space and time are actually C2,α in space and become so instantaneously. This will follow first from observing that the De Giorgi-Moser-Nash theory for parabolic equations works even when one has a singular right hand side and secondly from the regularity theory for almost-minimal boundaries of Almgren, De Giorgi and Tamanini ...
A ToL page object contains a specification of other objects to be harvested together and formatted into the page to be presented to the web browser. For example, the page object for the Beetles ToL page, specifies the harvesting of the tree structure to be displayed on the page, along with text sections and other objects that are attached to the beetles node, providing information about the group as a whole. In order to illustrate the diversity represented in the group, this material would then be supplemented by additional objects harvested from descendent nodes, e.g., images, sound files, descriptions of life cycles for particular species.. ...
The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000. ...
Last year during my Death Valley trip, Cryptanthas drove me crazy. There are something like 120 different species, many of which can only be reliably distinguished by examining the minute nutlets. I saw plenty of Cryptanthas in Anza-Borrego, too, and decided not to bother much with them. Neat little flowers, but I…
Epilogue…Seven Years later. -Its been several years since the original outbreak...years on the run, for the few who escaped the city, it was already too late. Years of being on the run…this being a few of your stops, Malton or what was left of the city. Staying alive was the only thing could do; after years of travel; eventually cities and towns began to come together pulling barricades, and armed by armed support. Like yourself; years of travel bodies, infected undead; and mutations of god. Those of cross species had to be watched; you never knew how they would attack / adapted. No one is how or to most of anyones knowledge is sure how it spread to get this bad; but like other dispatched teams dispersed in the city. As a scavenger / survivor split from your team searching a local Nero tech. The arched metal entrance an expanding building that stretched out in a ...The experiences from Malton is well known everywhere, as specially the quarantine seven years back, passing through the rooms; ...
Using multiplex CRISPR-Cas9 editing of human hematopoietic, or blood-forming, stem cells followed by transplantation in mice, researchers designed customized mouse models for the progression of leukemia. In a number of different experiments, the animal models successfully reflected human responses to a therapeutic agent commonly used to treat blood cancers.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cross-species analysis of nicotine-induced proteomic alterations in pancreatic cells. AU - Paulo, Joao A.. AU - Urrutia, Raul. AU - Kadiyala, Vivek. AU - Banks, Peter. AU - Conwell, Darwin L.. AU - Steen, Hanno. PY - 2013/5. Y1 - 2013/5. N2 - Toxic compounds in tobacco, such as nicotine, may adversely affect pancreatic function. We aim to determine nicotine-induced protein alterations in pancreatic cells, thereby revealing links between nicotine exposure and pancreatic disease. We compared the proteomic alterations induced by nicotine treatment in cultured pancreatic cells (mouse, rat, and human stellate cells and human duct cells) using MS-based techniques, specifically SDS-PAGE (gel) coupled with LC-MS/MS and spectral counting. We identified thousands of proteins in pancreatic cells, hundreds of which were identified exclusively or in higher abundance in either nicotine-treated or untreated cells. Interspecies comparisons of stellate cell proteins revealed several ...
Staphylococcus aureus is well adapted to the human host. Evasion of the host phagocyte response is critical for successful infection. The staphylococcal bicomponent pore-forming toxins Panton-Valentine leukocidin LukSF-PV (PVL) and γ-hemolysin CB (HlgCB) target human phagocytes through interaction with the complement receptors C5aR1 and C5aR2. Currently, the apparent redundancy of both toxins cannot be adequately addressed in experimental models of infection because mice are resistant to PVL and HlgCB. The molecular basis for species specificity of the two toxins in animal models is not completely understood. We show that PVL and HlgCB feature distinct activity toward neutrophils of different mammalian species, where activity of PVL is found to be restricted to fewer species than that of HlgCB. Overexpression of various mammalian C5a receptors in HEK cells confirms that cytotoxicity toward neutrophils is driven by species-specific interactions of the toxins with C5aR1. By taking advantage of ...
We analyzed a large data set of laboratory experiments to examine the effects of cyanobacteria containing or lacking intracellular toxic metabolites and of different morphology on zooplankton population growth rates across multiple genera and species of cladocerans, rotifers and cyanobacteria. Twenty-one of the 29 zooplankton species maintained positive growth rates when fed a diet containing cyanobacteria even though cyanobacteria were a poor food source for half of the zooplankton species tested relative to a diet containing only green algae and/or flagellates. Differences among zooplankton species could not be explained by grazer species body lengths, even when experiments were restricted to those that used only filamentous cyanobacteria. Single-celled cyanobacteria were more detrimental to a larger number of zooplankton species compared to filamentous or chroococcoid colonial cyanobacteria. We also found no clear effect of putative cyanobacterial toxins on the growth of seven zooplankton ...
Female Fischer 344 (F344) rats have been shown to display increased serotonin transporter (5-HTT) gene expression in the dorsal raphe, compared to female Lewis (LEW) rats. Herein, we explored, by means of synaptosomal preparations and in vivo microdialysis, whether central, but also peripheral, 5-HTT protein expression/function differ between strains. Midbrain and hippocampal [3H]paroxetine binding at the 5-HTT and hippocampal [3H]serotonin (5-HT) reuptake were increased in male and female F344 rats, compared to their LEW counterparts, these strain differences being observed both in rats of commercial origin and in homebred rats. Moreover, in homebred rats, it was found that these strain differences extended to blood platelet 5-HTT protein expression and function. Saturation studies of midbrain and hippocampal [3H]paroxetine binding at the 5-HTT, and hippocampal and blood platelet [3H]5-HT reuptake, also revealed significant strain differences in Bmax and Vmax values. Although F344 and LEW rats ...
Previous studies examining the effect of different fatty acids on insulin action have reported improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance in rodents fed high-fat diets rich in MCFAs compared with LCFAs (11,18,19). Our current study reveals the tissues responsible for the favorable effect of MCFAs on whole-body glucose metabolism, as well as a mechanistic basis for these effects. We have made the intriguing observation that insulin action in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue is preserved at the level of low-fat-fed controls when animals consume a high-fat diet rich in MCFAs. In muscle, the lack of induction of insulin resistance with MCFA high-fat feeding is associated with a substantial increase in mitochondrial oxidative capacity, which is sufficient to prevent lipid accumulation in this tissue. However, the liver of MCFA-fed animals accumulated greater amounts of triglycerides, likely due to upregulation of lipogenic pathways, and as such, hepatic insulin action was reduced after MCFA ...
We present the genome sequences of a new clinical isolate of the important human pathogen, Aspergillus fumigatus, A1163, and two closely related but rarely pathogenic species, Neosartorya fischeri NRRL181 and Aspergillus clavatus NRRL1. Comparative genomic analysis of A1163 with the recently sequenced A. fumigatus isolate Af293 has identified core, variable and up to 2% unique genes in each genome. While the core genes are 99.8% identical at the nucleotide level, identity for variable genes can be as low 40%. The most divergent loci appear to contain heterokaryon incompatibility (het) genes associated with fungal programmed cell death such as developmental regulator rosA. Cross-species comparison has revealed that 8.5%, 13.5% and 12.6%, respectively, of A. fumigatus, N. fischeri and A. clavatus genes are species-specific. These genes are significantly smaller in size than core genes, contain fewer exons and exhibit a subtelomeric bias. Most of them cluster together in 13 chromosomal islands, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the LINE-like I element in the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup. AU - Sezutsu, Hideki. AU - Nitasaka, Eiji. AU - Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. N2 - LINE-like retrotransposons, the so-called I elements, control the system of I-R (inducer-reactive) hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. I elements are present in many Drosophila species. It has been suggested that active, complete I elements, located at different sites on the chromosomes, invaded natural populations of D. melanogaster recently (1920-1970). But old strains lacking active I elements have only defective I elements located in the chromocenter. We have cloned I elements from D. melanogaster and the melanogaster subgroup. In D. melanogaster, the nucleotide sequences of chromocentral I elements differed from those on chromosome arms by as much as 7%. All the I elements of D. mauritiana and D. sechellia are more closely related to the chromosomal I elements of D. melanogaster ...
species myosin isoform or muscle type assay type IC50 Dictyostelium discoideum myosin II motor domain basal ATPase 2.96 ± 0.45 ... Myosin specificity[edit]. Blebbistatin is a potent inhibitor of nonmuscle myosin IIA and IIB, cardiac myosin, skeletal myosin ... Limouze J, Straight AF, Mitchison T, Sellers JR (2004-01-01). "Specificity of blebbistatin, an inhibitor of myosin II". Journal ... The blebbistatin scaffold has been modified in several ways to optimize myosin isoform specificity or to improve the inhibitory ...
They infect many species, but with some specificity. The Brucella belongs to the Rhizobiales group, in the Alphaproteobacteria ... The different species of Brucella are genetically very similar, although each has a slightly different host specificity. Hence ... Brucella species have been found primarily in mammals: Pathogenic Brucella species can cause abortion in female animals by ... The specificity was >99%. In a study including 75 patients with brucellosis, five patients with positive ELISA had a negative ...
There are three steps to fertilisation that ensure species-specificity: *Chemotaxis. *Sperm activation/acrosomal reaction ... In some species, self-fertilisation has persisted over many generations. Capsella rubella is a self-fertilisating species that ... One primitive species of flowering plant, Nuphar polysepala, has endosperm that is diploid, resulting from the fusion of a ... A fern is a member of a group of roughly 12,000 species of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor ...
Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis, and Leuconostoc species.[32][33] ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species known to produce toxins in mammals, it must be tested for toxin production ... Third, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain ...
These encompass two (gastric and enterohepatic) groups, showing different organ specificity. Importantly, some species, such as ... Species H. acinonychis. H. ailurogastricus[1]. H. anseris. H. aurati. H. apri[1]. H. baculiformis. H. bilis. H. bizzozeronii. H ... Enterohepatic species e.g., H. hepaticus, H. bilis, and H. ganmani, have been detected by PCR, but still are not isolated from ... Gastric species such as H. suis (most often), H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, and H. salomonis have been associated with chronic ...
Million M, Raoult D (February 2013). "Species and strain specificity of Lactobacillus probiotics effect on weight regulation". ... If the strain under evaluation belongs to a species that is a known mammalian toxin producer, it must be tested for toxin ... Thirdly, the probiotic candidate must be a taxonomically defined microbe or combination of microbes (genus, species, and strain ... In Europe, the EFSA has adopted a premarket system for safety assessment of microbial species used in food and feed productions ...
Depending on the species, one or several types can appear simultaneously on the organism. The specific representation of cnidae ... Such specificity has been used to create new medicines and bioinsecticides, and biopesticides. ... Venom from animals such as cnidarians, scorpions and spiders may be species-specific. A substance that is weakly toxic for ... Despite being morphologically simple, lacking a skeleton and many species being sessile, cnidarians prey on fish and ...
Kendrew, JC; Parrish, RG; Marrack, JR; Orlans, ES (Nov 1954). "The species specificity of myoglobin". Nature. 174 (4438): 946-9 ...
Host specificity. *Interactions between factors. Symmetric and asymmetric cleavage[edit]. In the molecular chain between the ... Species of carotene. *Molecular linkage. *Amount in the meal. *Matrix properties. *Effectors ...
Nonconservative substitution in the large subunit alters species specificity of protein interaction.. „The Journal of ...
Immunoblots with adult worm microsomal antigens are species-specific, so a positive reaction indicates the infecting species. ... Specificity of this assay for detecting schistosome infection is 99%. Because test sensitivity with the FAST-ELISA is reduced ... The long-term manifestations are dependent on the species of schistosome, as the adult worms of different species migrate to ... Tissue biopsy (rectal biopsy for all species and biopsy of the bladder for S. haematobium) may demonstrate eggs when stool or ...
This species contains antioxidants and may partially inhibit the enzyme cyclooxygenase.[13] An extract of maitake inhibited ... Lys-N is used for proteomics experiments because of its protein cleavage specificity.[16] ... water extract inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis through inhibition of reactive oxygen species ...
Host Specificity of Five Species of Eugregarinida Among Six Species of Cockroaches (Insecta:Blattodea). Comparative ... The presence of arginine, however, is species-specific to B. giganteus. George Beccaloni, David C. Eades. Blattodea Species ... Some of the organic compounds are free amino acids, and the contents vary by species in terms of which amino acids are present ... better source needed] This species is endemic to Central America and northern South America, and can be found in the ...
... and clinical significance of haemophilus and aggregatibacter species with host specificity for humans". Clinical Microbiology ... However, taxonomic rearrangements have changed the A to Aggregatibacter species and the H to Haemophilus species to reflect the ... Most common species in the Kingella genus. Kingella denitrificans All of these organisms are part of the normal oropharyngeal ... Most common species in the Cardiobacterium genus. Cardiobacterium valvarum Eikenella Eikenella corrodens Kingella Kingella ...
... species were originally classified into subgenera based on their morphology, location, and host specificity. However ... Plasmodium species have been reported from over 3200 species of lizard and 29 species of snake. Only three species - P. pessoai ... In general each species of Plasmodium infects one to a few species of birds. Each species is also generally transmitted by a ... Different species of Plasmdodium generally infect different species of mosquito, although some mosquito species can carry ...
Other fungal species hydrolyze tomatine to the less toxic aglycon tomatidine by removing all the sugar residues. Tomatidine can ... Keukens, Erik AJ, et al; Dual specificity of sterol-mediated glycoalkaloid induced membrane disruption; Biochimica et ... "Bioactivities of glycoalkaloids and their aglycones from Solanum species." Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 59.8 ( ... Andersson, Christer.; Glycoalkaloids in tomatoes, eggplants, pepper and two Solanum species growing wild in the Nordic ...
It is also a major determinant of species-specificity in ribosomal RNA gene transcription. Research suggests that UBF and SL1 ... This transcription factor, SL1, showed species specificity. That is, it could distinguish between the human and mouse rRNA ... Hempel WM, Cavanaugh AH, Hannan RD, Taylor L, Rothblum LI (1996). "The species-specific RNA polymerase I transcription factor ... "Purification and characterization of a transcription factor that confers promoter specificity to human RNA polymerase I" (PDF ...
He also examined host specificity of species. Hale found that there are different communities at the base of the tree compared ... Hale was one of the first lichen experts to use chemical tests to study species delineations. He learned the techniques from ... These books contained keys to genera and species such as How to know the Lichens and Lichens of California. An important ... The following are a partial list of species named after Mason Hale. The list focuses primarily on North American taxa: ...
This plant has a narrow environmental specificity; it is found in (and serves as an indicator species of) old-growth forest. It ... The plant is on the U.S. Forest Service Pacific Southwest Region Sensitive Species list, and has a NatureServe California State ... Therefore, the loss of old-growth habitats poses another threat to this species. The leaves with many lobes divided into ... At the southern end of its range (Oregon and California) this species is distinctly restricted to middle elevation forests. Its ...
... species vary in their host specificity. This can lead to non-target hosts being parasitized. This in turn can ... Currently the number of Trichogramma species is over 200, but as of 1960 only some 40 species of Trichogramma had been ... Transmission of the bacterium through horizontal transfer has been observed within the same species and among different species ... Trichogramma minutum is one of the most commonly found species in Europe and was first mass reared in 1926 on eggs of Sitotroga ...
Notabley, PreP degrades several functionally relevant Aβ species, the aggregates of which are toxic to the neuron and play a ... substrate specificity and mitochondrial targeting". Biochemistry. 48 (13): 2868-77. doi:10.1021/bi8016125. PMC 2765508 . PMID ... "Targeting capacity and conservation of PreP homologues localization in mitochondria of different species". Journal of Molecular ...
While the species, as defined by Snyder and Hansen, has been widely accepted for more than 50 years, more recent work indicates ... Evolution of host specificity in Fusarium oxysporum. Pages 70-82 in: Fusarium: Paul E. Nelson Memorial Symposium. B.A. ... The species concept in Fusarium. Amer. J. Bot. 27:64-67. Gordon, T.R., Okamoto, D. and Jacobson, D.J. 1989. Colonization of ... The species concept in Fusarium. Amer. J. Bot. 27:64-67. Wollenweber, H.W. and Reinking, O.A. 1935. Die Fusarien, ihre ...
Differential characteristics Serologic specificity demonstrated by immunodiffusion. Related to Mycobacterium fortuitum: can be ... Mycobacterium flavescens is a species of the phylum actinobacteria (Gram-positive bacteria with high guanine and cytosine ... Although growth rate is intermediate, metabolic and physiologic properties are more like rapidly growing species. ...
Many species within the order are also human pathogens. Species within the Stenotrophomonas genus are multidrug resistant ... 2002). "Comparison of the genomes of two Xanthomonas pathogens with differing host specificities". Nature. 417 (6887): 459-463 ... These species are thus currently labelled as incartae sedis. The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the National Center ... All other species were transferred to Nevskiales, which did not share CSIs with Xanthomonadales, but remain close relatives ...
Between species, these ARS sequences are variable, but their A, B, and C domains are well conserved. Any alterations in the DUE ... No other sequence specificity involved in this interaction. Confirmed by inducing mutations along length of DUE-B sequence, but ... But, activity can be rescued by re-addition of the DUE-B's, even from a different species. This is because DUE-B's are ... DUE-B sequence homologs found among a variety of animal species- fish, amphibians, and rodents. DUE-B's have disordered C- ...
... 's specificity makes it an ideal tool in biochemical applications; a fusion protein containing a C-terminal ... most of these are conserved in other species. The heavy chain has a hydrophobic section near the N-terminus that supports the ... Lu D, Yuan X, Zheng X, Sadler JE (December 12, 1997). "Bovine proenteroptidase is activated by trypsin, and the specificity of ... Purification, specificity and some molecular properties". Biochemistry. 16 (15): 3354-60. doi:10.1021/bi00634a011. PMID 889800 ...
Bears are an exception to this rule; species in the family Ursidae are famous for their ability to survive unfavorable ... specificity is gained by coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular ...
Species Profile- New Zealand Mud Snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States ... Food choice behaviour may promote habitat specificity in mixed populations of clonal and sexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum. ... The parasites of this species include at least 11 species of Trematoda.[6][56] Common parasites of this snail include ... Invasive species of New Zealand origin. References[edit]. *^ Van Damme, D. (2013). "Potamopyrgus antipodarum". The IUCN Red ...
Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity. M. N. Thang, D. C. Thang, M. K. ... Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity. M. N. Thang, D. C. Thang, M. K. ... Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity. M. N. Thang, D. C. Thang, M. K. ... Human leukocyte interferon: Relationship between molecular structure and species specificity Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Niche differentiation with respect to habitat has been hypothesized to shape patterns of diversity and species distributions in ... Habitat specificity and diversity of tree species in an African wet tropical forest. ... In addition, we tested for species-habitat associations for 272 species (with more than 50 individuals in the plot) using Torus ... The majority of associations were with low depressions (75 species) and the fewest with ridge tops (8 species). The large ...
... Öffentlicher Abendvortrag von ... In this lecture, Victor Torres will discuss his studies exploring the species specificity of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and ... they have generated a new murine model to facilitate studies of species-specific host-pathogen interactions.. Victor Torres ...
Single mutation to a sex pheromone receptor provides adaptive specificity between closely related moth species. Greg P. Leary, ... Single mutation to a sex pheromone receptor provides adaptive specificity between closely related moth species ... Receptor mutation provides adaptive specificity. Greg P. Leary, Jean E. Allen, Peggy L. Bunger, Jena B. Luginbill, Charles E. ... Receptor mutation provides adaptive specificity. Greg P. Leary, Jean E. Allen, Peggy L. Bunger, Jena B. Luginbill, Charles E. ...
Species-specificity and individual variation in the song of male Nathusius pipistrelles (Pipistrellus nathusii). ... Species-specificity and individual variation suggests that the songs of male P. nathusii have the potential to play a role in ... Jones G, van Parijs SM (1993) Biomodal echolocation in pipistrelle bats: are cryptic species present? Proc R Soc Lond B Biol ... Channing A, Moyer D, Burger M (2002) Cryptic species of sharp-nosed reed frogs in the Hyperolius nasutus complex: advertisement ...
The specificity of a range of heterocyclic product analogues against DHDPS from three pathogenic species, Bacillus anthracis, ... Inhibiting dihydrodipicolinate synthase across species: towards specificity for pathogens?. Mitsakos V1, Dobson RC, Pearce FG, ... The results suggest that the development of species-specific inhibitors of DHDPS as potential antibacterials is achievable. ...
Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity.. Symons JA1, ... has broad species specificity, binding to human, rabbit, bovine, rat, and mouse type I IFNs. This may have aided VV replication ... in multiple host species during evolution. A VV B18R deletion mutant is attenuated in a murine intranasal model. This type I ...
Organ Specificity. Palmitic Acid / analysis. Species Specificity. Spinal Cord / chemistry. Tilapia / metabolism*. Xenopus ...
... but not against IgG from other tested species or other classes of immunoglobulins, thereby linking the substrate specificity to ... Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. ... The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting ... The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from ...
Is there really a species specificity in the adherence to human and canine skin? A very interesting study from Scotland! ... Source: SIMOU, CHRISI, HILL, PETER B., FORSYTHE, PETER J. & THODAY, KEITH L. (2005): Species specificity in the adherence of ... Is there really a species specificity in the adherence to human and canine skin? A very interesting study from Scotland!. ... Are human and canine staphylococci species specific? It seems so - staphylococcus intermedius is by far the most common ...
Mobile elements, polydactyl proteins and the species-specificity of human biology. Add to your list(s) Download to your ... polydactyl proteins and the species-specificity of human biology ...
We show that the pan- and core-domainome of mycoplasma species is closed. A comparison with the proteome of the ... We show that the pan- and core-domainome of mycoplasma species is closed. A comparison with the proteome of the ... An in-depth analysis of the functional capabilities of mycoplasma species is fundamental to understand how some of simplest ... We examined the pan- and core-domainome and studied predicted functional capability in relation to host specificity and ...
Since cross reactivity between Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania species is well known in serological tests, and minimizing of ... and the specificity at a titer of 1:32 was 98%. Although the sensitivity of the amastigote forms was close to 100% at a similar ... titer, the specificity at a titer of 32 using the L. d. chagasi amastigotes was 91% and using L. mexicana amastigotes was only ... Abstract This study was designed to determine which morphologic form and species of Leishmania is most suitable for detection ...
Specificity of Infection-Induced Immunity amongBorrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species. Stephen W. Barthold ... Specificity of Infection-Induced Immunity amongBorrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species Message Subject (Your Name) has ... The purpose of this study was to carefully investigate the species specificity of low-dose infection-induced protective and ... Borrelia species.Selected members of variousBorrelia species were used in this study. The index B. burgdorferi sensu stricto ...
... Nat Rev Microbiol. 2018 Nov 28 submited by kickingbird at ... The host range of an influenza A virus is determined by species-specific interactions between virus and host cell factors. ... Influenza A viruses cause pandemics when they cross between species and an antigenically novel virus acquires the ability to ... on crossing the species barrier, the virus mutates to establish new interactions with the human host. This knowledge is used to ...
Determining the boundaries that dictate species specificity. Based on the Y21 and CA25 results shown in Figure 3(A), a series ... Some evidence of species specificity amongst different GPI-T orthologues has also been reported. For example, early work ... One of the challenges faced in evaluating something like the species specificity of GPI-T is that the methods to observe and ... By comparing Y21 with the two human signal sequences CA25 and UP30, quantitative evidence for species specificity was obtained ...
Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.. A P Johnson, D Taylor-Robinson, Z A ... Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ... Species specificity of attachment and damage to oviduct mucosa by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. ...
"Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis. Ilya Gadjev , Sandy ... "Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Arabidopsis." 141.2 (2006)436.. EndNote ... Ilya Gadjev, S.T.C.I.V.K.D.R.A. (2006). Transcriptomic Footprints Disclose Specificity of Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in ...
This pattern was clearly different from the species spectrum of IgG binding of protein A. Differences between the two receptors ... Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal ... Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal ... Specificity of Fc receptors induced by herpes simplex virus type 1: comparison of immunoglobulin G from different animal ...
Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus.. J A ... Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. ... Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. ... Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. ...
However, miracidia of both Brazilian strains did not differentiate between SCW from three of the snail species; only the ... Miracidia of the Egyptian strain significantly preferred their suitable host B. alexandrina versus the other snail species with ... differing chemical characteristics of the signaling glycoconjugates could be the basis for the observed host specificity in ... Schistosoma mansoni miracidial host-finding: Species specificity of an Egyptian strain. @article{Kalbe1996SchistosomaMM, title ...
Studies on the developmental and species difference of cardiac function : physiological specificity of mouse and generalization ... Journal Article] Species difference in myocardial excitation-contraction coupling featuring the mouse.2003. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Species difference in myocardial excitation-contraction coupling featuring the mouse.2003. *. Author(s). ... Journal Article] Species difference in myocardial excitation-contractin coupling featuring the mouse2003. *. Author(s). Tanaka ...
Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea. Host ... i,Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea,/i, [ ... Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea. Č. Bud ... Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea - Mgr. ...
Home , Journals , PAULINE M. H. MAZUMDAR, Species and Specificity. An interpretation of the history of immunology, Cambridge, ... PAULINE M. H. MAZUMDAR, Species and Specificity. An interpretation of the history of immunology, Cambridge, Cambridge ... ISBN 0-521-43172-7). , PAULINE M. H. MAZUMDAR, Species and Specificity. ... ...
We collected a total of 125 bat flies from three Pteropus species (Pteropus vampyrus, P. hypomelanus, and P. lylei) from eight ... Specifically, we suggest that Pteropus vampyrus may facilitate movement of bat flies between the three Pteropus species in the ... and used phylogenetic and haplotype network analyses to quantify parasite genetic structure across host species and localities ... and morphological variation observed in Cyclopodia horsfieldi is most likely due to frequent contact between flying fox species ...
  • The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a High Resolution Melting assay identifying the eight most noxious and common broomrape species ( Phelipanche aegyptiaca , Orobanche cernua , O. crenata, O. cumana , O. foetida , O. hederae , O. minor , and P. ramosa ) from a single seed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The described assay fulfills its objectives and allows an accurate identification of the targeted broomrape species. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this nucleic acid probe assay, specific DNA probes are hybridized to the ribosomal RNA of Candida species, G vaginalis , and T vaginalis . (questdiagnostics.com)
  • Since the inception of the assay, we have assessed the accuracy of identification of MTBC strains to the species level, concordance with culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST), and turnaround time. (asm.org)
  • Furthermore, the relative concentrations of these oxidants in a particular P450 isozyme may contribute to substrate specificity and govern the type of reaction catalyzed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Are human and canine staphylococci species specific? (vetcontact.com)
  • Is there really a species specificity in the adherence to human and canine skin? (vetcontact.com)
  • Source: SIMOU, CHRISI, HILL, PETER B., FORSYTHE, PETER J. & THODAY, KEITH L. (2005): Species specificity in the adherence of staphylococci to canine and human corneocytes: a preliminary study. (vetcontact.com)
  • In this Review, we examine the host barriers that influenza A viruses of animals, especially birds, must overcome to initiate a pandemic in humans and describe how, on crossing the species barrier, the virus mutates to establish new interactions with the human host. (flu.org.cn)
  • Two human GPI-T signal sequences were also tested and each showed diminished extracellular INV activity, consistent with lower levels of GPI anchoring and species specificity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Human/fungal chimaeric signal sequences identified a small region of five amino acids that was predominantly responsible for this species specificity. (portlandpress.com)
  • Specificity of human anti-NOR antibodies, a distinct species of "natural" anti-alpha-galactosyl antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The species specificity maps to the LFA-1 alpha subunit, because mouse x human hybrid cells expressing the human alpha subunit associated with a mouse beta subunit bind to human ICAM-1, whereas those with a human beta subunit associated with a murine alpha subunit do not. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Current projects in the lab include molecular phylogenetic analyses of familial and ordinal level relationships in the arthrodontous mosses, studies of hybridization using molecular and morphological markers, and investigations of cryptic speciation within geographically widespread species. (duke.edu)
  • Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. (nih.gov)
  • Is the 110K glycoprotein the only receptor for MHV and does its expression determine species specificity? (elsevier.com)
  • Curcumin and RL197 inhibited RKO and SW480 colon cancer cell growth and induced apoptosis, and this was accompanied by downregulation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 and Sp-regulated genes including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET), survivin, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and NFκB (p65 and p50). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Niche differentiation with respect to habitat has been hypothesized to shape patterns of diversity and species distributions in plant communities. (springer.com)
  • Species composition and diversity varied along the topographical gradient from low flat to ridge top habitats. (springer.com)
  • The low depression and low flat habitats were characterized by high diversity and similar species composition, relative to slopes, high gullies and ridge tops. (springer.com)
  • The large number of species-habitat associations and the pronounced contrast between low (valley) and elevated (ridgetop) habitats in the Korup plot shows that niche differentiation with respect to edaphic variables (e.g., soil moisture, nutrients) contributes to local scale tree species distributions and to the maintenance of diversity in African forests. (springer.com)
  • As this field progresses, this synthesis of functional biology and evolutionary studies will provide insight into the molecular basis of the species barriers that maintain the enormous diversity seen in flowering plants. (valpo.edu)
  • We sought to determine whether the analysis of species abundance distributions and individual size distributions could support more detailed inferences than diversity indices while remaining sufficiently general to identify fundamental ecological responses in multiple ecosystems. (edu.au)
  • We compared analyses of distributions with analyses of five diversity indices and with a distance-based multivariate analysis of species composition. (edu.au)
  • Analyses of species abundance distributions and individual size distributions identified environmental associations that were not found in analyses of diversity indices, and revealed common associations with shrubs in bird communities on different continents and with temperature in communities of birds and fishes. (edu.au)
  • We sought to determine whether the analysis of species abundance distributions and individual size distributions could support more detailed inferences than diversity indices while remaining sufficiently general to identify fundamental ecological responses in multiple ecosystems.LocationThe United States and south-eastern Australia.MethodsWe analysed changes in species abundance distributions and individual size distributions along environmental gradients. (edu.au)
  • 1997. Orbital forcing of deep-sea benthic species diversity. (usgs.gov)
  • However, the extent of chromosomal variation among the populations of both A. pharetrata and A. thorntoni suggests that there may be further cryptic species present. (wiley.com)
  • Many species and populations of native fishes have declined in recorded history and some now occur as isolated remnants of what once were larger more complex systems. (usda.gov)
  • Invasive species can quickly transform biological communities due to their high abundance and strong impacts on native species, in part because they can be released from the ecological forces that limit native populations. (mendeley.com)
  • These may include: Intraspecific antagonism, when individuals of the same species are hostile to one another Intraspecific competition, when individuals or groups of individuals from the same species compete for the same resource in an ecosystem Intraspecific hybridization Intraspecific mimicry Two or more individual organisms, populations, or taxa are conspecific if they belong to the same species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract Scale insects of the genus Apiomorpha Rübsaamen (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) induce sexually dimorphic galls on Eucalyptus, but the Apiomorpha pharetrata species-group is unusual in that nymphal males aggregate on the surface of the maternal gall where they induce a compound structure. (wiley.com)
  • I have a special interest in the genetic structure of both rare and widespread species. (duke.edu)
  • Interestingly, in C. glomerata , the males were repelled by mated females, as well as by males of their own species. (mdpi.com)
  • Interestingly, the CpG motifs appear to be species-specific. (idtdna.com)
  • Fungal endophytes were isolated from the inner bark segments of ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal tree species, namely Terminalia arjuna, Crataeva magna, Azadirachta indica, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia chebula, and Butea monosperma (11 individual trees), growing in different regions of southern India. (isharonline.org)
  • Forty-eight fungal species were recovered from 2200 bark segments. (isharonline.org)
  • However, the species specificity of the interaction between IgE and FcεRI has not been clearly explained. (currentpharmaceuticalbiotechnology.com)
  • This review described the characteristics and the interaction mechanism in the allergic reaction of IgE and FcεRI and summarized the species specificity between IgE and FcεRI. (currentpharmaceuticalbiotechnology.com)
  • On the species specificity of the interaction of LFA-1 with intercellular adhesion molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Summary: Cytoplasmic and cell-wall antigens and antisera were prepared from four Phytophthora species, and cell-wall antigens were prepared from two Pythium species. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Immunodiffusion of the Pythium and Phytophthora cell-wall antigens showed that the two Pythium species did not cross-react with the Phytophthora cell-wall antisera. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Baltzer JL, Davies SJ, Bunyavejchewin S, Noor NSM (2008) The role of desiccation tolerance in determining tree species distributions along the Malay-Thai Peninsula. (springer.com)
  • In this paper we compare the selectivities, recoveries of total bifidobacteria, and species distributions on three different randomly selected media which are among the ones that have been used in the literature for enumeration of bifidobacteria. (asm.org)
  • We analysed changes in species abundance distributions and individual size distributions along environmental gradients. (edu.au)
  • Individual size distributions were associated more closely with environmental variables than were species abundance distributions. (edu.au)
  • Species restrictions in immune cell interactions have been demonstrated both in Ag-specific responses of T lymphocytes and the phenomenon of natural attachment. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Species Specificity in Pollen-Pistil Interactions" by Rob Swanson, Anna F. Edlund et al. (valpo.edu)
  • Is the Subject Area "Species interactions" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Although originally described as distinct species on the basis of differences in gall morphology, A. pharetrata (Schrader) and A. thorntoni (Froggatt) were subsequently synonymised, primarily because the adult females of the two are morphologically indistinguishable. (wiley.com)
  • We examined patterns of structural and floristic differences among five topographically defined habitats for 494 species with stems ≥1 cm dbh in a 50-ha plot in Korup National Park, Cameroon. (springer.com)
  • In many species, sex differences in EOD frequency are stable enough to unambiguously distinguish males from females. (biologists.org)
  • Each discrete step taken by pollen tubes en route to the ovules is a potential barrier point to ovule access and waste by inappropriate mates. (valpo.edu)
  • EODs in both A. leptorhynchus and A. albifrons can be modulated to produce discrete signals that are often sexually dimorphic and species-specific. (biologists.org)
  • Chirps are produced most often in response to social stimulation and vary in structure both within and between species. (biologists.org)
  • Where different species can interbreed and their gametes compete, the conspecific gametes take precedence over heterospecific gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using METATRYP, an open-source Python toolkit, we examined the number of shared (redundant) tryptic peptides in representative marine microbes, with the number of tryptic peptides shared between different species typically being 1% or less. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • Thus, Brachyscelis (= Apiomorpha ) thorntoni (Froggatt) revised status is removed from synonymy with Brachyscelis (= Apiomorpha ) pharetrata (Schrader), and recognised as a distinct biological species. (wiley.com)
  • The antonym of conspecificity is the term heterospecificity: two individuals are heterospecific if they are considered to belong to different biological species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling is a powerful tool for detecting invasive and native aquatic species. (usda.gov)
  • Here we document a marked decline in its phytotoxin production and a consequent decline in their impact on three native species, across a 50+ year chronosequence of Alliaria petiolata invasion. (mendeley.com)
  • These patterns are consistent with the finding of slowing A. petiolata population growth and rebounding native species abundance across a separate chronosequence in Illinois, U.S. These results suggest that this invader is developing evolutionary limits in its introduced range and highlight the importance of understanding the long-term processes that shape species invasions and their impacts. (mendeley.com)
  • Species-specificity and individual variation suggests that the songs of male P. nathusii have the potential to play a role in mate attraction and mate assessment. (springer.com)
  • In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species. (wikipedia.org)
  • These communities were sampled over 10-20 years and included 298 species of birds and 488 species of fishes. (edu.au)
  • Two species, Apophallus muehlingi (Jägerskiöld, 1899) and A. donicus (Skrjabin & Lindtrop, 1919), are known to occur in Hungarian fishes. (mtak.hu)
  • We havc the working hypothesis th:lt the high species richness of lowland tropical forcsts is maintained in lllajor part by the herbivore COllllllllllity. (acguanacaste.ac.cr)
  • In Ostrinia species the amino acid residue corresponding to position 148 in transmembrane domain 3 of OR3 is alanine (A), except for ACB OR3 that has a threonine (T) in this position. (pnas.org)
  • Five decades after the discovery of the first moth sex pheromone, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pheromone communication between closely related species. (pnas.org)
  • Examples such as this, in which the function of a communication signal has changed in closely related species, are rare. (biologists.org)
  • In the laboratory, mosquitoes of both species have been shown to be efficient vectors ( 14 , 18 - 20 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Journal Article] Species difference in myocardial excitation-contraction coupling featuring the mouse. (nii.ac.jp)