Ricinus: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.Ixodes: The largest genus of TICKS in the family IXODIDAE, containing over 200 species. Many infest humans and other mammals and several are vectors of diseases such as LYME DISEASE, tick-borne encephalitis (ENCEPHALITIS, TICK-BORNE), and KYASANUR FOREST DISEASE.Castor Bean: Common name for Ricinus communis, a species in the family EUPHORBIACEAE. It is the source of CASTOR OIL.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.Arachnid Vectors: Members of the class Arachnida, especially SPIDERS; SCORPIONS; MITES; and TICKS; which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Anaplasma phagocytophilum: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ANAPLASMA, family ANAPLASMATACEAE, formerly called Ehrlichia phagocytophila or Ehrlichia equi. This organism is tick-borne (IXODES) and causes disease in horses and sheep. In humans, it causes human granulocytic EHRLICHIOSIS.Tick-Borne Diseases: Bacterial, viral, or parasitic diseases transmitted to humans and animals by the bite of infected ticks. The families Ixodidae and Argasidae contain many bloodsucking species that are important pests of man and domestic birds and mammals and probably exceed all other arthropods in the number and variety of disease agents they transmit. Many of the tick-borne diseases are zoonotic.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Borrelia burgdorferi Group: Gram-negative helical bacteria, in the genus BORRELIA, that are the etiologic agents of LYME DISEASE. The group comprises many specific species including Borrelia afzelii, Borellia garinii, and BORRELIA BURGDORFERI proper. These spirochetes are generally transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Anaplasmataceae: A family of bacteria which inhabit RED BLOOD CELLS and cause several animal diseases.Babesia microti: A species of protozoa infecting humans via the intermediate tick vector IXODES scapularis. The other hosts are the mouse PEROMYSCUS leucopus and meadow vole MICROTUS pennsylvanicus, which are fed on by the tick. Other primates can be experimentally infected with Babesia microti.Ricin: A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.PolandBabesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Lyme Disease: An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.Castor Oil: Oil obtained from seeds of Ricinus communis that is used as a cathartic and as a plasticizer.Borrelia: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, helical bacteria, various species of which produce RELAPSING FEVER in humans and other animals.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Encephalitis, Tick-Borne: Encephalitis caused by neurotropic viruses that are transmitted via the bite of TICKS. In Europe, the diseases are caused by ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, TICK-BORNE, which give rise to Russian spring-summer encephalitis, central European encephalitis, louping ill encephalitis, and related disorders. Powassan encephalitis occurs in North America and Russia and is caused by the Powassan virus. ASEPTIC MENINGITIS and rarely encephalitis may complicate COLORADO TICK FEVER which is endemic to mountainous regions of the western United States. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp14-5)Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne: A subgroup of the genus FLAVIVIRUS that causes encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers and is found in eastern and western Europe and the former Soviet Union. It is transmitted by TICKS and there is an associated milk-borne transmission from viremic cattle, goats, and sheep.Arthropod Vectors: Arthropods, other than insects and arachnids, which transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Ricinoleic Acids: Eighteen carbon fatty acids that comprise the great majority of CASTOR OIL, which is from the seed of RICINUS.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Dermacentor: A widely distributed genus of TICKS, in the family IXODIDAE, including a number that infest humans and other mammals. Several are vectors of diseases such as TULAREMIA; ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; COLORADO TICK FEVER; and ANAPLASMOSIS.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 22.214.171.124.Receptors, Mitogen: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes, that react with molecules of antilymphocyte sera, lectins, and other agents which induce blast transformation of lymphocytes.Borrelia burgdorferi: A specific species of bacteria, part of the BORRELIA BURGDORFERI GROUP, whose common name is Lyme disease spirochete.Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Borrelia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus BORRELIA.Slovakia: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Wheat Germ Agglutinins: Lectins purified from the germinating seeds of common wheat (Triticum vulgare); these bind to certain carbohydrate moieties on cell surface glycoproteins and are used to identify certain cell populations and inhibit or promote some immunological or physiological activities. There are at least two isoforms of this lectin.Ixodidae: A family of hardbacked TICKS, in the subclass ACARI. Genera include DERMACENTOR and IXODES among others.Czechoslovakia: Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.Acaricides: A pesticide or chemical agent that kills mites and ticks. This is a large class that includes carbamates, formamides, organochlorines, organophosphates, etc, that act as antibiotics or growth regulators.Bartonella Infections: Infections by the genus BARTONELLA. Bartonella bacilliformis can cause acute febrile anemia, designated Oroya fever, and a benign skin eruption, called verruga peruana. BARTONELLA QUINTANA causes TRENCH FEVER, while BARTONELLA HENSELAE is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY) and is also one of the causes of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.Spirochaetales: An order of slender, flexuous, helically coiled bacteria, with one or more complete turns in the helix.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Galactosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Mistletoe: Parasitic plants that form a bushy growth on branches of host trees which are in the order Santalales. It includes the Christmas mistletoe family (VISCACEAE), the showy mistletoe family (LORANTHACEAE) and the catkin mistletoe family (Eremolepidaceae). The composition of toxins, lectins, tyramine, phenethylamines, and other compounds may be affected by the host.Glossitis, Benign Migratory: An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.Bites and StingsAnaplasma: A genus of gram-negative bacteria whose organisms are obligate parasites of vertebrates. Species are transmitted by arthropod vectors with the host range limited to ruminants. Anaplasma marginale is the most pathogenic species and is the causative agent of severe bovine anaplasmosis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Umbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Jatropha: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.Nymphaea: A plant genus of the family NYMPHAEACEAE. The common name of lotus is also used for LOTUS and NELUMBO.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Bartonella: A genus of gram-negative bacteria characteristically appearing in chains of several segmenting organisms. It occurs in man and arthropod vectors and is found only in the Andes region of South America. This genus is the etiologic agent of human bartonellosis. The genus Rochalimaea, once considered a separate genus, has recently been combined with the genus Bartonella as a result of high levels of relatedness in 16S rRNA sequence data and DNA hybridization data.SwitzerlandSalivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.GermanyBartonella henselae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that is the etiologic agent of bacillary angiomatosis (ANGIOMATOSIS, BACILLARY). This organism can also be a cause of CAT-SCRATCH DISEASE in immunocompetent patients.Alphaproteobacteria: A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins: N-Glycosidases that remove adenines from RIBOSOMAL RNA, depurinating the conserved alpha-sarcin loop of 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA. They often consist of a toxic A subunit and a binding lectin B subunit. They may be considered as PROTEIN SYNTHESIS INHIBITORS. They are found in many PLANTS and have cytotoxic and antiviral activity.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.
Most part of species occur in India and Sri Lanka, though one species was described from Israel. ricini group: Olepa clavatus ( ... Witt, T.J., Müller, G.C., Kravchenko, V.D., Miller, M.A., Hausmann, A. & Speidel, W., 2005: A new Olepa species from Israel ( ... ricini Fabricius' (Arctiidae: Arctiinae). Bulletin de la Société Sciences Naturelles de France 50: 9-22, Paris. Orhant, G., ... 1980 Species from South India (Lepidoptera, Arctiidae). Atalanta 42 (1/2): 136-137. Orhant, G., 1986: Deuxieme contribution a ...
Drupa ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010. Drupa clathrata (Lamarck ... Species within the genus Drupa include: Subgenus Drupa (Drupa) Röding, 1798 Drupa albolabris (Blainville, 1832) Drupa aperta ( ... Drupa speciosa (Dunker, 1867). Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010. Drupa anaxeres Duclos in ... Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 25 April 2010. Drupa aspera Lamarck. Retrieved through: World Register ...
It is also a site of mineral storage and in some species, functions in seed dormancy. The aleurone may also express several ... Ricinus communis). The aleurone layer surrounds the endosperm tissue of grass seeds and is morphologically and biochemically ... In most cultivated cereals (wheat species, rye, oats, rice and maize) the aleurone is single-layered, whereas barley has a ...
List of sequenced plant genomes
2010). "Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis". Nature Biotechnology. 28 (9): "951-956". doi:10.1038/ ... This list includes species where sequences are announced in press releases or websites, but not in a data-rich publication in a ... This list of sequenced plant genomes contains plant species known to have publicly available complete genome sequences that ... Phytozome v9.1: Panicum virgatum The draft genome of the fast-growing non-timber forest species moso bamboo (Phyllostachys ...
... is a spirochete bacterium; it routinely infects Ixodes ricinus, and subsequently humans, causing Lyme ... from southern Germany with special respect to the new species Borrelia spielmanii sp. nov". International Journal of Medical ... "Delineation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato species by multilocus sequence analysis and confirmation of the delineation of ...
Marine wildlife of Baa Atoll
FishBase DORIS Marine Species Identification Portal World Register of Marine Species Catalog of Fishes ITIS Sea Life Base. ... Coralliophila neritoidea Drupa ricinus Vasum ceramicum Vasum sp. Pollia fumosa Filifusus filamentosus Oxymeris maculata Terebra ... The marine wildlife of Baa Atoll consists of marine species living in a circular archipelago in the Maldives, inside the ... Trochus maculatus Trochus radiatus Turbo argyrostomus Turbo petholatus An unidentified species of the family Architectonicidae ...
A species of tick, Ixodes ricinus, is the host of B. lusitaniae. It is thought to have originated from Portugal and has since ... the number of plasmids is quite low and the species lacks all the small plasmids described for the other Borrelia species with ... Although I. ricinus ticks infected with B. lusitaniae may be dispersed rapidly over long distances when feeding on mobile hosts ... While B. lusitaniae is distributed throughout countries in Europe and North Africa, it is the sole species of the Lyme ...
It is the only extant species in the genus Nyctereutes. It is considered a basal canid species, resembling ancestral forms of ... Ticks include Dermacentor pictus, Ixodes ricinus, I. persulcatus, I. crenulatus and Acarus siro. It has been speculated that ... Raccoon dogs carry 32 different parasitic worms, including eight trematode species, 17 species of nematodes, seven cestodes and ... A rare, white color phase occurs in this species in Japan and in China. The mating season begins from early February to late ...
The species' maximum life span is 21 years, though it usually only lives up to 13-14 years. Throughout its range, small rodents ... In Transcaucasia, the majority of wildcats are infested by the tick Ixodes ricinus. In some summers, wildcats are infested with ... The species has two thoracic and two abdominal teats. The wildcat has good night vision, having 20 to 100% higher retinal ... The species size varies according to Bergmann's rule, with the largest specimens occurring in cool, northern areas of Europe ( ...
Ticks of domestic animals
Amblyomma species are widespread on domestic animals throughout tropical and subtropical regions. Typical Amblyomma species are ... Ixodes (Ixodes ricinus, the deer tick of Europe; Ixodes scapularis, the black-legged tick of North America; Ixodes holocyclus, ... Within these 10 genera are, very approximately, 100 species of importance to domestic animals. Some of these species are also ... Amblyomma species may also have a three year life-cycle and the adults can live off-host, without feeding for up to two years. ...
Bernard C. Nelson (1972): A Revision of the New World Species of Ricinus (Mallophaga). Occurring on Passeriformes (Aves), ... The family includes the genus Ricinus. Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan (2016). "Chewing lice of genus Ricinus ( ... with description of a new species". Parasite. 23: 7. doi:10.1051/parasite/2016007. ISSN 1776-1042. PMC 4763114 . PMID 26902646 ...
1999). "The Ixodes ricinus complex worldwide: diagnosis of the species in the complex, hosts and distribution". In Glen R. ... The sexual dimorphism of the species is marked, the male being much smaller than the female. Hosts include wild and domestic ... Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia ... persulcatus ticks in an area with no evidence of cocirculation of tick species or TBEV subtypes. Anu E. Jääskeläinen; Elina ...
"Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex". Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases. 7 (5): 992-1003. ... Some species drop off the host to moult in a safe place, whereas others remain on the same host and only drop off once they are ... It comprises a single species, Nuttalliella namaqua, and is the most basal lineage. Ticks are closely related to the ... 18 genera, about 900 species Ticks are arachnids, typically 3 to 5 mm long, part of the order Parasitiformes. Along with mites ...
Tick species known to infest minks include Ixodes hexagonus, Ixodes canisuga, Ixodes ricinus, and Ixodes acuminatus. Flea ... Among the 11 different bird species preyed upon by minks in Altai are dippers and pine grosbeaks. Among fish, small species ... As an invasive species in the United Kingdom, minks have been the subject of at least two novels. Ewan Clarkson's 1968 Break ... The species has been present in Iceland since the 1930s, and has become well established, despite it being heavily hunted since ...
... for various Boloria fritillary species. It is also a favoured haunt of the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus which can carry lyme ... Many of the species only occur on upland moorland, tied to features unique to the habitat. The loss and degradation of such ... World fern species list - Pteridium Independent page devoted to bracken (uses older classification scheme) Alonso-Amelot ME, ... In the past, the genus was commonly treated as having only one species, Pteridium aquilinum, but the recent trend is to ...
It is an undistinguished-looking species on the ground, mainly streaked greyish brown above and white below, and with large ... Parasites of the calandra lark include the chewing louse Ricinus vaderi, described from specimens collected in Azerbaijan. The ... Valan, Miroslav; Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan (2016). "Chewing lice of genus Ricinus (Phthiraptera, Ricinidae) deposited at ... BirdLife International (2012). "Melanocorypha calandra". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International ...
The type of leaf is usually characteristic of a species (monomorphic), although some species produce more than one type of leaf ... e.g. Gossypium, Cucurbita, Carica papaya, Ricinus communis. Ternately (ternate-netted). Three primary veins, as above, e.g. ( ... The shape and structure of leaves vary considerably from species to species of plant, depending largely on their adaptation to ... Some window plants such as Fenestraria species and some Haworthia species such as Haworthia tesselata and Haworthia truncata ...
Toxoplasma gondii - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Gotteland C, Chaval Y, Villena I, Galan M, et al «Species or local environment, what determines the infection of rodents by ... gondii ha estat aïllat a Ixodes ricinus i a Dermacentor reticulatus, unes paparres molt comunes a zones boscoses, fet ... Preliminary study on the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in Ixodes ricinus ticks from north-western Poland with the use of PCR ...
Heliconius, la enciclopedia libre
Some species tend to cause cutaneous leishmaniasis (e.g., L. major and L.tropica), whereas some species tend to cause visceral ... Kaldas RM, El Shafey AS, Shehata MG, Samy AM, Villinski JT (April 2014). "Experimental effect of feeding on Ricinus communis ... In many species (for example, L. major) the lesion often spontaneously heals with atrophic scarring. In some species (for ... Old World species that cause cutaneous leishmaniasis include L. aethiopica, L. infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. With the ...
Babesia species are in the phylum Apicomplexa, which also has the protozoan parasites that cause malaria, toxoplasmosis, and ... In Europe, B. divergens is the primary cause of infectious babesiosis and is transmitted by I. ricinus. ... Babesia canis and B. bigemina are "large Babesia species" that form paired merozoites in the erythrocytes, commonly described ... In bovine species, the organism causes hemolytic anemia, so an infected animal shows pale mucous membranes initially. As the ...
One species of flowering plant, Nuphar polysepala, has been shown to have endosperm that is diploid, resulting from the fusion ... Some mature endosperm tissue stores fats (e.g. castor bean, Ricinus communis) and others (including grains, such as wheat and ... In some other species, such as coffee, the endosperm also does not develop. Instead, the nucellus produces a nutritive ... It is triploid (meaning three chromosome sets per nucleus) in most species. It surrounds the embryo and provides nutrition ...
In species with thin seed coats, light may be able to penetrate into the dormant embryo. The presence of light or the absence ... but may also be oily as in Ricinus (castor oil), Croton and Poppy. The endosperm is called "horny" when the cell walls are ... In some species, the embryo is just a mass of cells when seeds are dispersed; it is not differentiated. Before germination can ... Unlike the native ant species, Argentine ants do not collect the seeds of Mimetes cucullatus or eat the elaiosomes. In areas ...
Even in cases of alleged 10-C-5 species (that is, a carbon with five ligands and a formal electron count of ten), as reported ... the lectin ricin from seeds of the castor oil plant Ricinus communis, cyanide (CN−), and carbon monoxide; and such essentials ... Atomic carbon is a very short-lived species and, therefore, carbon is stabilized in various multi-atomic structures with ... which provide additional stabilization of an otherwise labile species. In 2016, it was confirmed that, in line with earlier ...
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever
Tick species identified as infected with the virus include Argas reflexus, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma ... Ixodes ricinus. *Dermacentor: Dermacentor variabilis. *Dermacentor andersoni. *Amblyomma: Amblyomma americanum. *Amblyomma ... marginatum marginatum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. At least 31 different species of ticks from the genera ...
In plant species from temperate parts of the world, it plays a role in leaf and seed dormancy by inhibiting growth, but, as it ... Ricinus communis) despite diminished delivery of ABA from the roots to shoots in xylem sap". Physiologia Plantarum. 111 (1): 46 ... It was found that the germination of Striga species was stimulated by the presence of a compound exuded by the roots of its ... Karrikins can promote seed germination in many species.  The finding that plants which lack the receptor of karrikin ...
"përmbledhur nga Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (red.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (bot. 3rd ... morrat Trichodectes melis dhe rriqrat Ixodes ricinus , I. canisuga , I. hexagonus , I. reduvius dhe I. melicula . Ata ... "Caroli Linnæi Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis ... Vjedulla Evropiane (Meles meles) ose veç vjedulla apo baldosa, është një specie vjedulle në familjen Mustelidae amtare ...
Median lethal dose
Aconitine main alkaloid in Aconitum napellus and related species rat, intraveneous 80 µg/kg 0.000080 . ... EFSA - Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Ricin (from Ricinus communis) as undesirable substances in animal feed  - ... While most mammals have a very similar physiology, LD50 results may or may not have equal bearing upon every mammal species, ... There can be wide variability between species as well; what is relatively safe for rats may very well be extremely toxic for ...
Fusarium oxysporum - Wikipédia
Introduced into North America. The eri silkmoth from Assam is a subspecies of this moth (S. cynthia ricini). It produces a ... Commercially reared silkworms of the species Bombyx mori (Linnaeus, 1758) are normally killed before the pupae emerge, either ... Wild silkworm Antheraea assamensis produces muga silk, and another wild silkworm Philosamia synthia ricini (= Samia cynthia) ... There are more than 500 species of wild silkworms in the world, although only a few are used to produce cloth. They usually ...
Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis (=I. dammini), I. pacificus, I. ricinus (Europe), I. persulcatus (Asia)) ... Organisms: Borrelia species such as B. hermsii, B. parkeri, B. duttoni, B. miyamotoi ... Vector: deer tick (Ixodes scapularis), Ixodes ricinus (Europe), Ixodes persulcatus (Russia + Asia)) ... Vector: Ornithodoros species. *Regions : Primarily in Africa, Spain, Saudi Arabia, Asia in and certain areas of Canada and the ...
Of the 800 species of ticks, 40-64 species (across 10 genera) have been reported as causing a form of toxosis. ... Ixodes ricinus. *Dermacentor: Dermacentor variabilis. *Dermacentor andersoni. *Amblyomma: Amblyomma americanum. *Amblyomma ... The graphs show seasonal occurrence for one species only i.e. Ixodes holocyclus. The extent to which other species found in the ... A similar tick species, Ixodes cornuatus, appears to cause paralysis in Tasmania. The paralyzing toxin (or toxins) is ...
Nevertheless, in the 2000s, in roe deer in Europe " two species of Rickettsia and two species of Borrelia were identified". A ... In Europe, the vector is Ixodes ricinus, which is also called the sheep tick or castor bean tick. In China, Ixodes persulcatus ... The tendency of this tick species to feed predominantly on host species such as lizards that are resistant to Borrelia ... "The reservoir species that contain the most pathogens are the European roe deer Capreolus capreolus; "it does not appear to ...
It strives to provide a comprehensive curated resource for all major model organism species while attempting to remove ... Ricinus communis (castor bean) Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast) Selaginella ... In addition to general curation of the published literature for the major model species, BioGRID undertakes themed curation ... houses genetic and protein interactions curated from the primary biomedical literature for all major model organism species and ...
Madeiran wall lizard
The Madeiran wall lizard (Lacerta dugesii) is a species of lizard in the Lacertidae family. The species is endemic to Madeira ... 2012). Role of the lizard Teira dugesii as a potential host for Ixodes ricinus tick-borne pathogens. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. ... This lizard is one of many species may be parasitized by ticks and can act as a secondary or alternative reservoir for Lyme ... The taxonomy for the species is unstable: Lacerta dugesii, Teira dugesii, and Podarcis dugesii are synonyms. More citations are ...
The Alnwick Garden
Taxonomic list of viruses
... siliculosus virus 1 Ectocarpus siliculosus virus a Feldmannia irregularis virus a Feldmannia species virus Feldmannia species ... eucalypti virus Darna trima virus Dasychira pudibunda virus Nudaurelia capensis beta virus Philosamia cynthia x ricini virus ... List of virus species List of genera of viruses List of virus families and subfamilies van Regenmortel MH, Mahy BW. Emerging ...
Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis. - PubMed - NCBI
Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis.. Chan AP1, Crabtree J, Zhao Q, Lorenzi H, Orvis J, Puiu D, ... Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises ... approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha ...
Draft genome sequence of the oilseed species Ricinus communis. | J. Craig Venter Institute
Simultaneous Infection of Ixodes ricinus Nymphs by Two Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species: Possible Implications for...
Simultaneous Infection of Ixodes ricinus Nymphs by Two Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species: Possible Implications for ... Simultaneous Infection of Ixodes ricinus Nymphs by Two Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species: Possible Implications for ... Simultaneous Infection of Ixodes ricinus Nymphs by Two Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Species: Possible Implications for ... From these results, it appears that when nymphs are infected with one species, B. afzelii is the most prevalent. This species ...
Differential immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in European wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to...
... immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in European wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to Ixodes ricinus L ... immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in European wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to Ixodes ricinus L ... immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in European wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to Ixodes ricinus L ... immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi in European wild rodent species influence spirochete transmission to Ixodes ricinus L ...
Effects of global changes on the climatic niche of the tick Ixodes ricinus inferred by species distribution modelling |...
Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) was used to reconstruct the climatic niche of I. ricinus, and to project it into the ... In this study we investigated how future climatic changes could affect the climatic niche of Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodida), ... Geographic distribution predicted by species distribution modelling for Ixodes ricinus . (a) Current conditions; (b-c) 2050, ... Additional file 2: Increase of geographic distribution of Ixodes ricinus , predicted by species distribution modelling. The ...
Ixodes ricinus (Common tick)
Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species |...
Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential ... Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir ... related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents ... Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species. *Hein ...
Amphobotrys ricini - Wikipedia
"GSD Species Synonymy: Amphobotrys ricini (N.F. Buchw.) Hennebert". Species Fungorum. CAB International. Retrieved 2015-02-26. ... Amphobotrys ricini is a species of fungus in the family Sclerotiniaceae. It is a plant pathogen that causes disease on several ... Originally described as a species of Botrytis in 1949, it was transferred to the genus Amphobotrys in 1973. " ... species including gray mold blight on Euphorbia milii and poinsettia. ...
Plants Profile for Ricinus communis (castorbean)
RCOM 1077610 - ATP binding protein, putative - Ricinus communis (Castor bean) - RCOM 1077610 gene & protein
Species. Score. Length. Source. B9RM41. Endoribonuclease Dicer homolog 2. ARATH. 1388. UniRef50_Q3EBC8. ... Ricinus communis (Castor bean)Imported. Automatic assertion inferred from database entriesi ... tr,B9RM41,B9RM41_RICCO ATP binding protein, putative OS=Ricinus communis OX=3988 GN=RCOM_1077610 PE=3 SV=1 ...
Table - Borrelia miyamotoi and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania - Volume 22, Number 3-March...
Prevalence of 3 bacterial species in questing Ixodes ricinus in 14 localities, Romania ... Borrelia miyamotoi and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania Zsuzsa Kalmár. , Hein Sprong, Andrei ... Borrelia miyamotoi and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes ricinus Ticks, Romania. ...
Heliconius ricini - Wikipedia
The larvae feed on Passiflora species from the subgenus Granadilla. Full-grown larvae have a yellow body with black spots and a ... Heliconius ricini ricini (northern South America) Heliconius ricini insulanus (Stichel, 1909) (Trinidad) Heliconius ricini at ... Heliconius ricini, the ricini longwing, is a butterfly of the Nymphalidae family. It was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. It ... Markku Savelas Lepidoptera and Some Other Life Forms TOL Heliconius ricini at Heliconius Butterflies. ...
ArboCat Virus: Eyach (EYAV)
ArboCat Virus: Tribec (TRBV)
ITIS Standard Report Page: Acarus ricinus
Proteins matched: Peptidase C1A, papain C-terminal (IPR000668) filtered by species | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
Towards improved, cost-effective surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and associated pathogens using species distribution...
Towards improved, cost-effective surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and associated pathogens using species distribution ... cost-effective surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and associated pathogens using species distribution modelling. Geospatial ... Various ticks exist in the temperate hilly and pre-alpine areas of Northern Italy, where Ixodes ricinus is the more important. ... The two model predictions were similar and provided a greater understanding of ecological requirements of I. ricinus in the ...
Accidental poisoning by castor bean (Ricinus communis) cake in horses
2002) and other animal species (Aslani et al. 2007, Hong et al. 2011, Tokarnia et al. 2012, Albuquerque et al. 2014). ... Castor bean (Ricinus communis) cake is available on the market as a fertilizer in a non-detoxified form, which is toxic to ... Ricinus communis is an oleaginous plant of the family Euphorbiaceae (Borém 2009), popularly known in Brazil as "mamona" or " ... Ricinus communis is a shrub of the family Euphorbiaceae popularly known in Brazil as "mamona" or "carrapateira". It is an ...
Vector Competence of the Tick Ixodes ricinus for Transmission of Bartonella birtlesii
In this study, the authors used a murine model to assess the ability of the tick Ixodes ricinus to transmit Bartonella bacteria ... Results of the study confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella ... To date, 13 Bartonella species or subspecies have been associated with a large spectrum of clinical syndromes in humans ... B. birtlesii in adult I. ricinus. Thirteen female I. ricinus fed at the preceding nymphal life stage upon a B. birtlesii- ...
UC/JEPS: Jepson Manual treatment for CHAMAESYCE nutans
Ricinus ). Reference: [Webster 1967 J Arnold Arbor 48:303 430]. Many species ± highly TOXIC. .. CHAMAESYCE. PROSTRATE SPURGE. ... Species in genus: ± 250 species: dry temp, subtropical worldwide, especially Am. Often treated as subg. of Euphorbia. Etymology ... Genera in family: 300 genera, 7500 species: ± worldwide especially tropical; some cultivated (Aleurites , tung oil; Euphorbia ...
UC/JEPS: Jepson Manual treatment for MERCURIALIS annua
Ricinus ). Reference: [Webster 1967 J Arnold Arbor 48:303 430]. Many species ± highly TOXIC. .. MERCURIALIS. MERCURY. Annual, ... Species in genus: 8 species: Eurasia, n Africa. Etymology: (Greek: Greek God Mercury). Introduced ... Genera in family: 300 genera, 7500 species: ± worldwide especially tropical; some cultivated (Aleurites , tung oil; Euphorbia ...
Biological and Chemical Terrorism:Strategic Plan for Preparedness and Response
Salmonella species, *Shigella dysenteriae, *Escherichia coli O157:H7, *Vibrio cholerae, and *Cryptosporidium parvum. Category C ... ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans); *epsilon toxin of Clostridium perfringens; and *Staphylococcus enterotoxin B ... Brucella species (brucellosis); *Burkholderia mallei (glanders); *alphaviruses, *Venezuelan encephalomyelitis,. *eastern and ...
Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection in a multi-species deer community in the New Forest, England | SpringerLink
The tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilumhas been recorded in a range of mammal species and causes granulocytic ... Kirby AD, Smith AA, Benton TG, Hudson PJ (2004) Rising burden of immature sheep ticks (Ixodes ricinus) on red grouse chicks in ... In Italian with an English summary: Ixodes ricinus, transmitted diseases and reservoirs.). Parassitologia 46:119-122PubMed ... Rizzoli A, Rosà R, Mantelli B, Pecchioli E, Hauffe H, Taghapietra V, Beninati T, Neteler M, Genchi C (2004) Ixodes ricinus, ...
Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia...
Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia species in Slovakia. Together they form a ... Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Haemaphysalis concinna ticks and Rickettsia and Babesia ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Sympatric occurrence of Ixodes ricinus, ...
Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Europe | Applied and...
Detection and identification of Ehrlichia, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, and Bartonella species in Dutch Ixodes ricinus ... ricinus demonstrated the presence of Bartonella DNA in ticks; those that were characterized further appeared to be species ... Prevalence of Bartonella henselae and Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato DNA in Ixodes ricinus Ticks in Europe Florian Dietrich, ... Several Bartonella species (e.g., B. henselae, B. quintana, and B. vinsonii) cause a persistent intraerythrocytic bacteremia in ...
Eurosurveillance | Predicting and mapping human risk of exposure to Ixodes ricinus nymphs using climatic and environmental data...
Aim Our aim was to create a model able to predict the distribution of Ixodes ricinus nymphs in southern Scandinavia and to ... Methods We measured the presence of I. ricinus tick nymphs at 159 stratified random lowland forest and meadow sites in Denmark ... Results Our model predicted the spatial distribution of I. ricinus nymphs with a sensitivity of 91% and a specificity of 60%. ... ricinus nymphs in Scandinavia. To assess the potential public health impact, we combined the predicted tick distribution with ...
Ticks of Europe and North Africa - A Guide to Species Identification | Agustín Estrada-Peña | Springer
This book includes descriptive keys for identifying every stage of all the species of ticks reported in Europe and northern ... Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Figs. 67−69). Pages 189-195. Otranto, D. (et al.) ... together with ink illustrations and distribution maps of more than 60 species of hard and soft ticks. The text for each species ... A Guide to Species Identification. Editors: Estrada-Peña, Agustín, Mihalca, Andrei D, Petney, Trevor (Eds.) ...
Unlike many Heliconius species, H. ricini does not have any sympatric congeners that closely resemble it (although it bears a ... Heliconius ricini ricini (Linnaeus 1758), northern mainland South America. *Heliconius ricini insulanus (Stichel 1909), ... Distribution of Heliconius ricini. © 2002 Margarita Beltran.. (NB: to the best of my knowledge, H. ricini has not been recorded ... Heliconius ricini (Linnaeus 1758) Andrew V. Z. Brower and Margarita Beltrán Click on an image to view larger version & data in ...
Biodefense | New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center
NymphsQuesting Ixodes ricinusLinnaeusBabesiaPrevalenceLymeDistribution of Ixodes ricinusVectorAcariVectorsLarvae feedTick Ixodes ricinusPathogens in IxodesInfectionAnaplasmaEuphorbiaceaeCommunis agglutininPolymerase chain reNymphalAfzeliiDutch IxodesBartonellaSympatricPathogenAdultPathogenicAfricaTransmitHeliconiusSpecimens were collectedRickettsiaTransmissionCastor oilVarietiesPrevalentHostsAbundantInfestationsProteinsExtractsBlood mealReservoirsSalivaryCommon tickBorrelia burgdorferi Sensu LatoParasitesPlant speciesAbioticTOXICHabitatsBacteriaClosely related
- Nineteen nymphs were infected by a single species of Borrelia (four by B. garinii , 15 by B. afzelii ), and six were infected by more than one (two by both B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. garinii , three by B. garinii and B. afzelii , one by B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and B. afzelii ). (cdc.gov)
- From these results, it appears that when nymphs are infected with one species, B. afzelii is the most prevalent. (cdc.gov)
- In infected nymphs, the simultaneous presence of more than one genospecies in unfed nymphs of I. ricinus was not exceptional (24%), and all combinations of two species were observed. (cdc.gov)
- Our aim was to create a model able to predict the distribution of Ixodes ricinus nymphs in southern Scandinavia and to assess how this relates to risk of human exposure. (eurosurveillance.org)
- We measured the presence of I. ricinus tick nymphs at 159 stratified random lowland forest and meadow sites in Denmark, Norway and Sweden by dragging 400 m transects from August to September 2016, representing a total distance of 63.6 km. (eurosurveillance.org)
- Using climate and remote sensing environmental data and boosted regression tree modelling, we predicted the overall spatial distribution of I. ricinus nymphs in Scandinavia. (eurosurveillance.org)
- The behaviour of Ixodes ricinus nymphs was recorded in 10-day experiments using computer-assisted video-tracking, in the absence of any host stimuli. (biologists.org)
- We studied factors governing the alternation of questing and quiescence and the duration of these states by continuously following the behaviours of individual I. ricinus nymphs. (biologists.org)
- Individual I. ricinus L. nymphs that had been collected in the field (Neuchâtel, Switzerland) and held for a minimum of 48 h in a water-saturated atmosphere before testing were placed in vertical plastic channels (100 mm×5 mm×1.2 mm, height × width × depth) delimited by a nylon mesh (500 mm) on one face. (biologists.org)
- Blood was collected from the calves before the first and after the second immunization and fed to I. ricinus females and nymphs using an in vitro artificial tick feeding system. (frontiersin.org)
- Immunization with native I. ricinus TPEs thus conferred a strong immune response in calves and significantly reduced the feeding success of both nymphs and adults. (frontiersin.org)
- In a natural population of I. ricinus that suffers high parasitism rates due to I. hookeri, we used specific PCR primers for both hymenopteran and W. pipientis gene fragments to show that all unfed tick nymphs parasitized by I. hookeri also harbored Wolbachia, while unparasitized ticks were Wolbachia-free. (nih.gov)
- B Female ovipositing in an engorged nymphs of Ixodes ricinus (ovipositor indicated by the arrow). (nih.gov)
- The density of I. ricinus adults, but not nymphs, was lower in areas grazed by cattle than in ungrazed areas. (wur.nl)
- Quantitative and microscopic tracking of Borrelia afzelii transmission from infected Ixodes ricinus nymphs has shown a transmission cycle different from that of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ixodes scapularis. (medworm.com)
- Borrelia afzelii organisms are abundant in the guts of unfed I. ricinus nymphs, and their numbers continuously decrease during feeding. (medworm.com)
Questing Ixodes ricinus3
- To determine whether Bartonella henselae is present in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, we analyzed the prevalence of B. henselae DNA among tick stages compared to the prevalence of DNA from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the pathogen most frequently transmitted by ticks. (asm.org)
- of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. (asm.org)
- Cattle grazing has been suggested to reduce the risk for Lyme borreliosis by decreasing the density of questing Ixodes ricinus infected with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. (wur.nl)
- Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia s.s. from qPCR-positive tick lysates were identified further to the ecotype and species level, respectively, by DNA sequencing. (wur.nl)
- Coincidence of three pathogens (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti) in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Lublin macroregion. (aaem.pl)
- Prevalence of Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Lublin region (eastern Poland). (aaem.pl)
- EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. (ugent.be)
- What is the pathogenic babesia species that infects dogs, and what is the vector? (brainscape.com)
- In particular, rapidly evolving rickettsiae may adapt to different hosts and environmental conditions, and prevalence of currently minor pathogenic species may be favoured by changing environmental conditions [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Here, we present data on the prevalence of B. henselae and Lyme disease spirochetes in 654 questing ticks ( I. ricinus ) collected at four locations in Europe, suggesting that ticks might serve as potential vectors for the transmission of B. henselae to humans. (asm.org)
- A total number of 1804 I. ricinus ticks were collected and the prevalence of the pathogen was determined by species-specific qPCR. (hindawi.com)
- The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic Part II. (eurekamag.com)
- We tested the hypotheses that cattle grazing used in woodland management decreases the density of questing I. ricinus, and that it decreases the nympal infection prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato. (wur.nl)
- Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from southern Poland. (semanticscholar.org)
- Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Ixodes ricinus ticks determined by polymerase chain reaction with two pairs of primers detecting 16S rrna and ankA genes. (aaem.pl)
- Because co-infection might be much more common than previously thought, we evaluated the prevalence of 38 known or neglected tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks. (plos.org)
- Moreover, as it is well established that symbionts can affect pathogen transmission in arthropods, we also evaluated the prevalence of four symbiont species and demonstrated that all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism. (plos.org)
- Recently it has been demonstrated, by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), that DNA from more than one of the three Borrelia species associated with Lyme disease in Europe was present in the biological fluids of Lyme disease patients (3) . (cdc.gov)
- These last primers distinguish the three Lyme disease-associated B. burgdorferi sensu lato species, i.e. (cdc.gov)
- The three-host tick, Ixodes ricinus , is the most common tick in Europe and is responsible for transmission of human Lyme borreliosis (caused by spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). (frontiersin.org)
- Ixodes ricinus is a tick species which is widespread in Europe and can transmit various bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens of medical and veterinary importance, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and babesiosis. (frontiersin.org)
- The recognition of host species for tick larvae and the reservoirs of Borrelia , Rickettsia and Anaplasma species were simultaneously carried out by analysis of the blood meals of 880 questing nymphal I. ricinus ticks collected in forest parks of Szczecin city and rural forests in northwestern Poland that are endemic areas for Lyme borreliosis. (springer.com)
- RESULTS: Patients residing in a Lyme-endemic area of New Jersey with ongoing symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease were evaluated for possible coinfection with Bartonella species. (google.com)
- In The Netherlands 10 to 35% of the Ixodes ricinus ticks are infected with Borrelia burgdorferi , the causative agent of Lyme disease ( 25 , 26 ). (asm.org)
- Stanek G . Lyme borreliosis, ticks and Borrelia species. (meduniwien.ac.at)
- Two Borrelia species that cause Lyme disease and one that causes relapsing fever were identified in the camel blood samples by sequencing. (medworm.com)
- Lyme disease is a spirochetal infection, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ixodes ricinus complex ticks. (uptodate.com)
- The epidemiology of Lyme disease and the ecology of Ixodes species ticks will be reviewed here. (uptodate.com)
- Climate change is regarded as the principal factor behind the observed move of the tick species Ixodes ricinus - the vector of Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis in Europe - to higher latitudes and altitudes. (europa.eu)
- Both species transmit the dreaded Lyme disease . (discovermagazine.com)
Distribution of Ixodes ricinus1
- To investigate whether ticks are infected by different species of the B. burgdorferi complex at the same time, we carried out a survey of the vector Ixodes ricinus during the spring of 1994, in Rambouillet Forest near Paris. (cdc.gov)
- This species is regarded as the most important vector occurring in Eurasian regions since it is a multi-competent vector of bacteria (i.e. (biomedcentral.com)
- We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii . (plos.org)
- These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. (plos.org)
- Results of the study confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. (plos.org)
- In Europe, the tick Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of medically important pathogens (e.g. (wiley.com)
- The main vector Ixodes ricinus is found along the Norwegian coastline as far north as the Arctic Circle. (hindawi.com)
- In Norway, Ixodes ricinus ticks are the main vector for A. phagocytophilum , and although HGA is not a common disease in Norway [ 4 - 6 ], A. phagocytophilum antibodies have been detected in sheep, roe deer, red deer, and moose [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, Ixodes ricinus, the vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season? (semanticscholar.org)
- ECDC publishes today the latest maps on the geographical distribution of exotic mosquitoes, sandlfies and ticks in Europe, the new maps updated with a more detailed classification of the geographical presence of vector species. (europa.eu)
- The relationships between Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes, Clethrionomys and Apodemus rodent reservoirs and the Ixodes ricinus tick vector were investigated during 16 consecutive months in an enzootic area in Switzerland. (nih.gov)
- Ixodes ricinus is a major vector for a range of microbial pathogens and the most prevalent and widely distributed tick species on the European continent, occurring in both natural and urban habitats. (biomedcentral.com)
- The HGE agent is transmitted by Ixodes scapularis , but possibly also by other vectors like I. ricinus . (asm.org)
- It is generally suspected that climate change has played (and will continue to play) a role in the expansion of other disease vectors, notably the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus), which can disseminate several diseases including dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and Phlebotomus species of sandflies, which transmit leishmaniasis. (europa.eu)
- Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. (plos.org)
- The larvae feed on Passiflora species from the subgenus Granadilla. (wikipedia.org)
- The results obtained from the study indicate that I. ricinus larvae feed not only on small or medium animals but also on large animals and they (i.e. roe deer, red deer and wild boars) were the most prevalent in all study areas as the essential hosts for larvae of I. ricinus . (springer.com)
Tick Ixodes ricinus2
Pathogens in Ixodes1
- These data raise questions concerning the relative growth of the Borrelia species after a bite by a dually infected tick, the clinical significance of human infection caused by more than one species of Borrelia , and the origin of these multiple infections. (cdc.gov)
- It is suggested that patterns of habitat use influence infection levels in different deer species. (springer.com)
- The study examined both in vivo and in vitro response of L. major infection to combined therapy of Ricinus communis and Azadirachta indica extracts in BALB/c mice as the mouse model. (springer.com)
- Three years long research study (2011-2013) on population density of Ixodes ricinus and the infection rate of the pathogens that they transmit was conducted in four topographically distant areas in the Czech Republic. (eurekamag.com)
- In this study, 746 questing Ixodes (I.) ricinus ticks from eastern Slovakia and 187 ticks from southern Poland were investigated for infection with Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato and different outer surface protein A (OspA) types by an improved restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the ospA gene. (semanticscholar.org)
- Comparing C. glareolus and A. sylvaticus, each rodent species showed different host infection, different host infectivity and contributed differently to the moulting success of feeding ticks. (nih.gov)
- Babesiosis in cattle is a pathogenic protozoal disease caused by infection by Ixodes ricinus tick. (brainscape.com)
- The tick-transmitted Anaplasma phagocytophilum has been recorded in a range of mammal species and causes granulocytic ehrlichiosis in humans, horses, and companion animals as well as tick-borne fever in ruminants. (springer.com)
- 2010 ). This research also aims to identify the reservoir species for Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Borrelia and Rickettsia and to elucidate any association between B. burgdorferi s.l. species and some vertebrate hosts by analysis of DNA from the midgut of blood-feeding nymphal ticks. (springer.com)
- Castor bean (Ricinus communis) is an oilseed crop that belongs to the spurge (Euphorbiaceae) family, which comprises approximately 6,300 species that include cassava (Manihot esculenta), rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) and physic nut (Jatropha curcas). (nih.gov)
- The castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae. (videoblocks.com)
- This product is the Unconjugated Ricinus Communis Agglutinin II (RCA II, RCA60, ricin) and has sugar specificity against Galactose, N-Acetylgalactosamine, and Lactose. (creativebiomart.net)
- Ricinus communis agglutinin II is an extremely toxic glycoprotein consisting of two disulfide-linked chains of about 28 kDa and 32 kDa, termed A and B chain, respectively. (creativebiomart.net)
Polymerase chain re1
- Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii -infected mouse. (plos.org)
- Questing nymphal and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected (i) at the edge of a forest in Eberdingen near Stuttgart (Germany), (ii) in an alder marsh outside the village Klasdorf located south of Berlin (Germany), (iii) near the town of Lembach in the northern Vosges region of France, and (iv) on pastured meadows on Madeira Island (Portugal) in 2004 by passing a flannel flag over the vegetation. (asm.org)
- DNA analysis of blood meals from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows for the identification of tick host and tick-borne pathogens in the host species. (springer.com)
- DNA analysis of blood meal from unfed nymphal Ixodes ricinus allows identification of the hosts on which the larvae fed as well as tick-borne pathogens in the host species. (springer.com)
- The medical importance and distribution of other sporadically occurred genospecies is also discussed.Key words: Ixodes ricinus - Borrelia afzelii - B. garinii - B. burgdorferi s. s. (eurekamag.com)
- Further identification of 1106 B. burgdorferi sensu lato positive tick samples by reverse line blotting and 125 positive patient samples by nested PCR using species-specific primers revealed the occurrence of B. afzelii, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, B. garinii and B. valaisiana. (prohealth.com)
- These factors influence differentially the pattern of transmission of B. afzelii from Clethrionomys voles and Apodemus mice to I. ricinus ticks. (nih.gov)
- Several Bartonella species (e.g. (asm.org)
- Hybridization of the samples with the oligonucleotide probes on this membrane enabled the simultaneous detection and identification of Ehrlichia , B. burgdorferi , and Bartonella species in 40 different samples. (asm.org)
- In more than 70% of the ticks 16S rRNA gene sequences for Bartonella species or other species closely related to Bartonella were found. (asm.org)
- Unlike many Heliconius species, H. ricini does not have any sympatric congeners that closely resemble it (although it bears a superficial resemblance to the allopatric H. himera and H. clysonymus ). (tolweb.org)
- Although deer and other ruminant species are known to be natural hosts, the distribution among sympatric deer populations is unexplored. (springer.com)
- It is a plant pathogen that causes disease on several species including gray mold blight on Euphorbia milii and poinsettia. (wikipedia.org)
- This probability results from a combination of the intrinsic characteristics of the species involved (e.g., the host species feeding preference of the tick and the ability of the pathogen to infect different host species) and the characteristics of the host community (e.g., the likelihood of contact between ticks and infected reservoir hosts) that vary in time and space. (asm.org)
- Rickettsia helvetica was the most common pathogen detected, and other included species were the B. burgdorferi s.l. group and B. miyamotoi related to relapsing fever group. (springer.com)
- Ticks of domestic animals cause considerable harm to livestock by transmission of many species of pathogen, as well as causing anaemia and damaging wool and hides. (wikipedia.org)
- Therefore, it has been hypothesized that changes in vertebrate assemblage composition can change tick-borne pathogen dynamics and thereby tick-borne disease risk, where a decrease in host species diversity might lead to an increased disease risk, the so-called dilution effect of host species richness hypothesis. (wur.nl)
- I. ricinus has three active life stages: larva, nymph, and adult (Fig. 1 ), and each requires a single blood meal from a vertebrate host. (wiley.com)
- This book is the first to offer keys for more than 60 species of ticks (both immature and adult) in the target territory. (springer.com)
- Ixodes ricinus is the most important tick in terms of human and animal health as it can attach to vertebrate hosts for up to ten days, and takes a blood meal during each of its three life stages of larva, nymph and adult, except adult males who mate with feeding adult females. (plos.org)
- He also showed that the majority of I. ricinus individuals of the three stages (larva, nymph and adult) feed on only a few vertebrate host species (rodents, thrushes and deer, respectively). (wur.nl)
- The second Ehrlichia species pathogenic for humans is the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent (HGE). (asm.org)
- These findings indicate that Ehrlichia species that are pathogenic for humans may be present in Western Europe as well. (asm.org)
- Which species of dirofilaria is pathogenic? (brainscape.com)
- De Uitlandsche Kapellen voorkomende in de drie Waereld-deelen Asia, Africa en America [Papillons Exotiques des Trois Parties du Monde l Asie, l Afrique et l Amerique], Vol. IV. (tolweb.org)
- This book includes descriptive keys for identifying every stage of all the species of ticks reported in Europe and northern Africa. (springer.com)
- The family Nuttalliellidae contains only a single species, Nuttalliella namaqua , a tick found in southern Africa from Tanzania to Namibia and South Africa . (wikipedia.org)
- Ricinus communis , native to northeastern Africa, is cultivated as an ornamental throughout subtropical and temperate North America and is naturalized in the southern United States. (efloras.org)
- A hard tick species occurring in southern Europe, southern Asia and Africa. (europa.eu)
- Heliconius ricini, the ricini longwing, is a butterfly of the Nymphalidae family. (wikipedia.org)
- It prefers more open, savanna-type habitats than most Heliconius species, and ranges from Venezuela and Trinidad along the northern part of South America to the Guianas and northern Brazil. (tolweb.org)
- Heliconius ricini occurs in the Amazon basin. (tolweb.org)
Specimens were collected1
- A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites), by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. (plos.org)
- The evolutionarily closely related tick, Ixodes scapularis , is widely spread in the USA and is implicated in the transmission of local Borrelia species. (frontiersin.org)
- Identification of novel and diverse rotaviruses in rodents and insectivores, and evidence of cross-species transmission into humans. (edu.au)
- This species may actually be prevalent in this study area or may have a greater tropism for dermal tissue and/or for the peripheral circulatory system of the vertebrate than the other two species. (cdc.gov)
- Ixodes ricinus , the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
- We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica , and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae. (biomedcentral.com)
- This tick species feeds on a large range of vertebrate hosts including mammals, birds and reptiles ( Aeschlimann, 1972 ). (biologists.org)
- The present paper is a study concerning molecular identification of I. ricinus hosts and Borrelia hosts by analysis of the blood meal in ticks in northwestern Poland using PCR-RFLP protocol with 12S rDNA gene fragment as molecular target. (springer.com)
- For the differentiation of reservoirs and Borrelia species, Kirstein and Gray ( 1996 ) used the mitochondrially encoded cytb gene as the molecular target and digested the PCR products using the restriction endonucleases HaeIII and DdeI, a protocol that allowed to distinguish 11 animal species. (springer.com)
- Histone H4 isolated from Ixodes ricinus salivary gland extract was identified as a molecule with a dissociating effect on human primary fibroblasts. (medworm.com)
- Delayed induction of transcription of these peptides in the fat body and salivary glands 5-15 days post-activation and the differential expression patterns suggest that the fat body/salivary glands of this species are active in the immune response against pathogens. (nih.gov)
Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato3
- and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) in tick species collected in Corsica. (medworm.com)
- Detection and molecular typing of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks and in different patient samples from southwest Germany. (prohealth.com)
- Detection of three genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks collected in different regions of Poland. (semanticscholar.org)
- Castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) is a myrmecophytic plant species with specialized extrafloral nectar (EFN) glands that serve to attract predatory insects, which in return defend plant-tissues against herbivores. (academicjournals.org)
- Despite their importance and wide usefulness, SSRs genomic distribution studies in plant species are relatively scarce . (thefreelibrary.com)
- Although the use of SDM at a higher resolution should be integrated by a more refined analysis of further abiotic and biotic data, the results presented here suggest that under future climatic scenarios most of the current distribution area of I. ricinus could remain suitable and significantly increase at a continental geographic scale. (biomedcentral.com)
- In the areas of the Ústí nad Labem Region, Olomouc Region, South Bohemian Region, and Highlands Region, 600 m2 plots were selected in the local optimal I. ricinus habitats where tick flagging was performed every year in the spring-summer and autumn seasons of the tick questing activity. (eurekamag.com)
- More than half of these positive ticks carried species with 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to those of E. phagocytophila and the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent. (asm.org)
- Sequencing and phylogenetic reconstructions of the 16S rRNA, glt A, map 1, map 2, and ribonuclease III genes suggest the agent might be a divergent strain of Ehrlichia ruminantium , the agent of heartwater, or a new, closely related species. (bioone.org)
- Sequence comparisons suggest that tap is most closely related to two bHLH genes identified in several vertebrate species, neurogenin and neuroD, which are involved respectively in neural determination and in neuronal differentiation. (labome.org)
- The researchers looked at European wood ticks ( Ixodes ricinus) , which are closely related to American deer ticks. (discovermagazine.com)