Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Tribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Gryllidae: The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Weevils: BEETLES in the family Curculionidae and the largest family in the order COLEOPTERA. They have a markedly convex shape and many are considered pests.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Periplaneta: A genus in the family Blattidae containing several species, the most common being P. americana, the American cockroach.Wolbachia: A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)Lactosylceramides: Glycosphingolipids which contain as their polar head group a lactose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramide. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in lactosylceramide beta-galactosidase, is the cause of lactosylceramidosis.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Houseflies: Flies of the species Musca domestica (family MUSCIDAE), which infest human habitations throughout the world and often act as carriers of pathogenic organisms.Tenebrio: A genus of beetles which infests grain products. Its larva is called mealworm.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Spodoptera: A genus of owlet moths of the family Noctuidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Insect Viruses: Viruses infecting insects, the largest family being BACULOVIRIDAE.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.G(M3) Ganglioside: A ganglioside present in abnormally large amounts in the brain and liver due to a deficient biosynthetic enzyme, G(M3):UDP-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase. Deficiency of this enzyme prevents the formation of G(M2) ganglioside from G(M3) ganglioside and is the cause of an anabolic sphingolipidosis.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Endotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sperm-Ovum Interactions: Interactive processes between the oocyte (OVUM) and the sperm (SPERMATOZOA) including sperm adhesion, ACROSOME REACTION, sperm penetration of the ZONA PELLUCIDA, and events leading to FERTILIZATION.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.WingPeptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Mice, Inbred BALB CTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Orthoptera: An order of insects comprising two suborders: Caelifera and Ensifera. They consist of GRASSHOPPERS, locusts, and crickets (GRYLLIDAE).Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Photorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Xenorhabdus: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic rod-shaped cells which are motile by peritrichous flagella. Late in the growth cycle, spheroplasts or coccoid bodies occur, resulting from disintegration of the cell wall. The natural habitat is the intestinal lumen of certain nematodes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.Bacillus thuringiensis: A species of gram-positive bacteria which may be pathogenic for certain insects. It is used for the biological control of the Gypsy moth.Nucleopolyhedrovirus: A genus of the family BACULOVIRIDAE, subfamily Eubaculovirinae, characterized by the formation of crystalline, polyhedral occlusion bodies in the host cell nucleus. The type species is Autographa californica nucleopolyhedrovirus.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Integumentary System: The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sf9 Cells: Cell line derived from SF21 CELLS which are a cell line isolated from primary explants of SPODOPTERA FRUGIPERDA pupal tissue.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Diapause, Insect: Seasonal suspension of insect growth development. It can be either induced by environmental cues (e.g., PHOTOPERIOD) or as a facultative part of the life cycle in order to time development with seasonal changes.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
1973 Insect-fungus symbiosis: nutrition, mutualism and commensalisms. Montclair, New Jersey: Allanheld, Osmun & Co. 276 p. 1979 ... Batra is the author of four monographs including World Species of Monilinia. He published more than 130 articles and reviews. ... Ambrosia fungi: extent of specificity in ambrosia beetles. Science 153:193-195. Batra SWT, Batra LR. 1967. The fungus gardens ... of insects. Sci Amer 217:112-20. Batra LR. 1967. Ambrosia fungi: a taxonomic revision and nutritional studies of some species. ...
This specificity depends on the stiffness and the length of the hairs. That is why certain caterpillar species have evolved ... Some insects have hearing organs as well (e.g. the long-horned grasshopper, lubber grasshopper and the cicada); they use sound ... Each species has a range of normal hearing for both amplitude and frequency. Many animals use sound to communicate with each ... In species that use sound as a primary means of communication, hearing is typically most acute for the range of pitches ...
For example, in North America the estimated number of insect species exceeds 163,000, of which only about two thirds are ... considerable pesticide applications kill unintended species by the lack of specificity of most chemical formulations; moreover ... One conservative estimate puts the number of arthropod species in tropical forests alone at six to nine million species. As a ... Estimating the number of threatened arthropod species is extremely difficult, primarily because a vast number of the species ...
Extensive tests of the specificity of these parasitoids on native beetles and other insects were carried out. No-choice ... assays of larval wood-boring insects from China and North America showed they were capable of attacking other species of ... S. agrili was only attracted to select species of Fraxinus and to Salix babylonica. In natural settings, S. agrili will be ... This, in addition to other tests of host specificity, led to approval of the wasp for controlled releases in specific study ...
Clay, Theresa (1966). "A New Species of Strigiphilus`(Philopteridae: Mallophaga)" (PDF). Pacific Insects. 8 (4): 835-847. ... Clayton, Dale H. (1990). "Host Specificity of Strigiphilus Owl Lice (Ischnocera: Philopteridae), with the Description of New ... As of 2017[update], there are approximately fifty species of Strigiphilus. Species include: Strigiphilus garylarsoni Clayton, ... Theresa Clay recognized 29 species and grouped them into the following nine species groups: Strigiphilus rostratus (Burmeister ...
Host Specificity of Five Species of Eugregarinida Among Six Species of Cockroaches (Insecta:Blattodea). Comparative ... The wingspan of these insects is usually 5-6 in. Both males and females bear paired appendages (cerci) on the last abdominal ... The presence of arginine, however, is species-specific to B. giganteus. George Beccaloni, David C. Eades. Blattodea Species ... Some of the organic compounds are free amino acids, and the contents vary by species in terms of which amino acids are present ...
In addition to organism specificity, different species of parasite will have distinct host cell specificity, even if targeting ... Microsporidia are known to produce xenomas in oligochaetes, insects, crustaceans and fish. ... As the species that cause xenomas are spore-forming, it is possible that their spores may release their sporoplasms which ... Other species also infect the digestive tract, reproductive organs and their hepatopancreas. Xenoma-like formations have also ...
Little is known about ecology of ambrosia fungi, as well as about their specificity to ambrosia beetle species. Ambrosia fungi ... 2005): The Evolution of Agriculture in Insects. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 36: 563-569. Malloch, D., and M. ... There are a few dozen species described ambrosia fungi, currently placed in polyphyletic genera Ambrosiella, Rafaellea and ... Dryadomyces (all from Ophiostomatales, Ascomycetes). Probably many more species remain to be discovered. ...
... in the neuromuscular joint of an insect. Mu-agatoxin will have no effect in other species. Omega-agatoxin: in general type IA ... Type IVA has a high affinity and specificity for P- and Q-type calcium channels. Alpha-agatoxin - By injecting alpha-agatoxin ... Because insects have a much smaller repertoire of voltage-gated calcium channels and have a different pharmacology than ... Alpha-agatoxin causes a rapid reversible paralysis in insects, while mu-agatoxin cause a slow long-lasting paralysis. When the ...
Most pathogens instead exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Non-host plant species are often said to express non-host ... Plant pathogens can spread rapidly over great distances, vectored by water, wind, insects, and humans. Across large regions and ... Studied R genes usually confer specificity for particular strains of a pathogen species (those that express the recognized ... The term host resistance is used when a pathogen species can be pathogenic on the host species but certain strains of that ...
Twelve of the 56 Thrinchostoma species are native to Madagascar and exhibit some host-plant specificity. Parathrincostoma ... Within the insect order Hymenoptera, the Halictinae are the largest, most diverse, and most recently diverged of the four ... Lasioglossum species are distinguished by a weakened outer wing venation, while species of Mexalictus resemble Lasioglossum in ... Communal and solitary species are usually limited to short breeding seasons, and facultative eusocial species are represented ...
By eliminating the first colonizing species Silphidae can give an incorrect PMI. Unlike most of the insects used as forensic ... For this purpose, some Parasitidae mites (for example, Poecilochirus species) are used due to their phoront-host specificity. ... Researchers have found that most flight-capable species in this group feed on vertebrate carcasses, whereas flightless species ... The number of species is relatively small and around two hundred. They are more diverse in the temperate region although a few ...
Trichogramma is a species of parasitic wasp whose females lay their eggs in the eggs of their hosts; after killing the host, an ... The toxin is then activated by the insect gut juice, and it begins to break down the gut. Btk is available commercially and is ... is one of the most widely used biological pesticides due to its high specificity; it is effective against lepidopterans, and it ... The authors of the study noted that even though Btk is considered non-toxic to nontarget species, the accumulation and ...
Species of mutalists, parasites, and many free-living insects that have staged life cycles are more likely to be a victim of ... The host Specificity and Life Cycle is a major factor in the risk of coextinction. ... Both psyllid species may be threatened at the same level of their host species with coextinction. Interaction patterns can be ... If the parasites are dependent on only those species than there are parasite species that are at risk of extinction through co- ...
Species in the order Acholeplasmatales can grow in a medium without cholesterol, unlike species in the order Mycoplasmatales. ... Like other mollicutes, they show a high host specificity. In the first taxonomy of Mollicutes, the classification was based on ... link) Phyllis G. Weintraub and LeAnn Beanland Insect vectors of phytoplasmas Annual Review of Entomology; Vol. 51: 91-111 (2006 ... They are parasites or commensals of vertebrates, insects, or plants; some are saprophytes. Phytoplasmas colonize the phloem ...
They occur in places outside of their native range as introduced species. At least 11 species of legumes are natural hosts for ... Journal of Insect Science 9(1), 58. Crudgington, H. S. and Siva-Jothy, M. T. Genital damage, kicking and early death. Nature ... 2005). Ecological factors associated with pest status in Callosobruchus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae): high host specificity of non- ... There are at least 20 species in genus Callosobruchus. Species include: Callosobruchus analis Callosobruchus chinensis ...
Insect viruses have long been valued as biological control agents, since they have few negative effects on ecosystems compared ... Their most important quality is that they require no follow-up or management, while their host specificity is a great advantage ... Other exotic species included Acacia mollissima, Cupressus macrocarpa, Eucalyptus cladocalyx, E. diversicolor, E. globulus, E. ... "A New Group of RNA Viruses from Insects" - Reinganum, Robertson and Tinsley (1978) "The Parasitoids of Southern African Wild ...
The specificity of the Dscam recognition mechanism allows the mosquitoes of this species to differentiate the infection between ... Since then, the DSCAM gene has been duplicated at least once in vertebrates and insects. DSCAM was first identified in an ... In addition to the thousands of isoforms that can be populated from a single DSCAM of one species, DSCAM also demonstrates a ... Translating the result to human cases of heart defects in DS patients require more study due to species-specific variance in ...
Generally, the majority of insects are sensitive and selective to the sex pheromone of their own species. Insects make use of ... It is the variation in the ratios of each compound within a pheromone that yields species specificity. The use of mixtures of ... Insect sex pheromones, usually released by the female to lure a male, are vital in the process by which insects locate each ... Regardless of the species, sex pheromones are often structurally similar and for that reason different species need to be able ...
"Host specificity revisited: New data on Myrmica host ants of the lycaenid butterfly Maculinea rebeli". Journal of Insect ... Lycaenidae species which have a myrmecophilous relationship with the ant genus Myrmica are locked to primary host specificity. ... Like some other species of Lycaenidae, the larval (caterpillar) stage of P. alcon depends on support by certain ants; it is ... The Alcon blue is unusual in this regard in that it uses different host species in different locations throughout Europe, and ...
Flower visitors such as insects and bats detect floral scent thanks to chemoreceptors of variable specificity to a specific VOC ... Flower visitors use floral scent to detect, recognize and locate their host species, and even to discriminate among flowers of ... This is made possible by the high specificity of floral scent, where both the diversity of VOCs and their relative amount may ... Flower scent of most flowering plant species encompass a diversity of VOCs, sometimes up to several hundred different compounds ...
C. fasciculata have low host species specificity and can infect many species of mosquito. C. fasciculata is found in two ... C. fasciculata, like other species of Crithidia have a single host life cycle with insect host, in the case of C. fasciculata ... which cause Leishmaniasis). C. fasciculata parasitizes several species of insects and has been widely used to test new ... As is common with parasitic species C. fasciculata requires a high nutrient content broth (including heme and folic acid) in ...
Beaver, R. A. (September 1979). "Host specificity of temperate and tropical animals". Nature. 281 (5727): 139-141. doi:10.1038/ ... Shaw, Scott Richard; Jocelyn A. Berry (December 2005). "Two new Cryptoxilos species (Hymenoptera : Braconidae : Euphorinae) ... Insect Systematics & Evolution. Brill. 17 (1): 131-135. doi:10.1163/187631286X00189. ISSN 1399-560X. ... The species Cryptoxilos beaveri was named in his honour. Smith, Anthony (1971). Mato Grosso, last virgin land. Michael Joseph. ...
"Differential gene expression and alternative splicing in insect immune specificity". BMC Genomics. 15: 1031. doi:10.1186/1471- ... Other species include C. fasciculata, C. deanei, C. desouzai, C. oncopelti, C. guilhermei and C. luciliae. C. deanei is ... They display very low host-specificity and a single parasite can infect a large range of invertebrate hosts. At different ... They are parasites that exclusively parasitise arthropods, mainly insects. They pass from host to host as cysts in infective ...
... due to the specificity of the sex pheromone of the insect species, has the benefit of only affecting the males of that species ... In many insect species of interest to agriculture, such as those in the order Lepidoptera, females emit an airborne trail of a ... Most pheromones target a single species, so a specific mating disruption formulation controls only the species that uses that ... Conventional pesticide based control methods, kill insects directly, whereas mating disruption confuses male insects from ...
which looks like a straight line on semilog axes, where area is logged and the number of species is arithmetic. In either case, the species-area relationship is almost always decelerating (has a negative second derivative) when plotted arithmetically.[9] Species-area relationships are often graphed for islands (or habitats that are otherwise isolated from one another, such as woodlots in an agricultural landscape) of different sizes.[3] Although larger islands tend to have more species, it is possible that a smaller island will have more than a larger one. In contrast, species-area relationships for contiguous habitats will always rise as areas increases, provided that the sample plots are nested within one another. The species-area relationship for mainland areas (contiguous habitats) will differ according ...
which looks like a straight line on semilog axes, where area is logged and the number of species is arithmetic. In either case, the species-area relationship is almost always decelerating (has a negative second derivative) when plotted arithmetically.[9] Species-area relationships are often graphed for islands (or habitats that are otherwise isolated from one another, such as woodlots in an agricultural landscape) of different sizes.[3] Although larger islands tend to have more species, it is possible that a smaller island will have more than a larger one. In contrast, species-area relationships for contiguous habitats will always rise as areas increases, provided that the sample plots are nested within one another. The species-area relationship for mainland areas (contiguous habitats) will differ according ...
... is one of the most chemically inert biological polymers. It is a major component of the tough outer (exine) walls of plant spores and pollen grains. It is chemically very stable and is usually well preserved in soils and sediments. The exine layer is often intricately sculptured in species-specific patterns (see image at right), allowing material recovered from (for example) lake sediments to provide useful information to palynologists about plant and fungal populations in the past. Sporopollenin has found uses in the field of paleoclimatology as well. Sporopollenin is also found in the cell walls of several taxa of green alga, including Phycopeltis (an ulvophycean) and Chlorella. The chemical composition of sporopollenin is not exactly known, due to its unusual chemical stability and resistance to degradation by enzymes and strong chemical reagents. Analyses have revealed a mixture of biopolymers, containing mainly long chain fatty acids, phenylpropanoids, phenolics ...
... is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species. It differs from molecular phylogeny in that the main goal is not to determine patterns of relationship but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a preexisting classification. Although barcodes are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or assess whether species should be combined or separated, the utility of DNA barcoding for these purposes is subject to debate. The most commonly used barcode region for animals and protists is a segment of approximately 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI or COX1). This differs in the case of fungi, where part of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) between rRNA genes is used, and again in plants, where multiple regions are used. Applications include, for example, identifying plant leaves ...
... (synonyms T5-like phages, T5-like viruses) is a genus of viruses in the order Caudovirales, in the family Siphoviridae. Bacteria serve as the natural host, with transmission achieved through passive diffusion. There are currently eight species in this genus, including the type species Enterobacteria phage T5. Group: dsDNA Order: Caudovirales Family: Siphoviridae Genus: T5likevirus Enterobacteria phage T5 Escherichia phage Akfv33 Escherichia phage Bf23 Escherichia phage Eps7 Escherichia phage H8 Escherichia phage T5 Salmonella phage Spc35 Vibrio phage 149 (type IV) T5likeviruses are nonenveloped, with a head and tail. The head is icosahedral (T=13) and is about 90 nm in diameter. The tail is about 180 nm long, 9 nm wide. It has three long, kinked terminal fibers around 120 nm in length, and a single straight central fiber attached to a conical tip. Genomes are linear, around 121kb in length. The type ...
mir-133 is a type of non-coding RNA called a microRNA that was first experimentally characterised in mice. Homologues have since been discovered in several other species including invertebrates such as the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. Each species often encodes multiple microRNAs with identical or similar mature sequence. For example, in the human genome there are three known miR-133 genes: miR-133a-1, miR-133a-2 and miR-133b found on chromosomes 18, 20 and 6 respectively. The mature sequence is excised from the 3' arm of the hairpin. miR-133 is expressed in muscle tissue and appears to repress the expression of non-muscle genes. It is proposed that Insulin activates the translocation of SREBP-1c (BHLH) active form from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the nucleus and, concomittantly, induces SREPB-1c expression via PI3K signaling pathway. SREBP-1c mediates MEF2C downregulation through a mechanism that remains to be determined. As a ...
Oenanthe crocata and several other species of the water dropwort are extremely poisonous. It has been referred to as the most poisonous of all British plants,[3] and is considered particularly dangerous because of its similarity to several edible plants.[4] The active poison is oenanthotoxin. The poison produces the "sardonic grin" a spasm of the facial muscles that produces what appears to be a grin. The poison was used in ancient Phoenician Sardinia to kill old people who could no longer support themselves.[5] ...
The lack of geographic isolation as a definitive barrier between sympatric species has yielded controversy among ecologists, biologists, and zoologists regarding the validity of the term. As such, researchers have long debated the conditions under which sympatry truly applies, especially with respect to parasitism. Because parasitic organisms often inhabit multiple hosts during a life cycle, evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr stated that internal parasites existing within different hosts demonstrate allopatry, not sympatry. Today, however, many biologists consider parasites and their hosts to be sympatric (see examples below). Conversely, zoologist Michael J. D. White considered two populations sympatric if genetic interbreeding was viable within the habitat overlap. This may be further specified as sympatry occurring within one deme; that is, reproductive individuals must be able to locate one another in the same population in order to be sympatric. Others question the ...
Vibrissae (derived from the Latin "vibrio" meaning to vibrate) typically grow in groups in different locations on an animal. These groups are relatively well conserved across land mammals, and somewhat less well conserved between land and marine mammals (though commonalities are certainly present). Species-specific differences are also found. Vibrissae of different groups may vary in their anatomical parameters and in their operation, and it is generally assumed that they serve different purposes in accordance with their different locations on the body.. Many land mammals, for example rats[4] and hamsters,[5] have an arrangement of cranial (of the skull) vibrissae that includes the supraorbital (above the eyes), genal (of the cheeks), and mystacial (where a moustache would be) vibrissae, as well as mandibular (of the jaw) vibrissae under the snout.[6] These groups, all of which are visible in the accompanying image of the Patagonian fox, are well conserved across land ...
A biovar is a variant prokaryotic strain that differs physiologically or biochemically from other strains in a particular species.[1][2] Morphovars (or morphotypes) are those strains that differ morphologically. Serovars (or serotypes) are those strains that have antigenic properties that differ from other strains. ...
Adults are gray overall; during breeding, their plumage is usually much worn and stained, particularly in the migratory populations, and looks nearly ochre. The average weight of the larger males is 4.57 kg (10.1 lb), while the average weight of females is 4.02 kg (8.9 lb), with a range of 2.7 to 6.7 kg (6.0 to 14.8 lb) across the subspecies.[6][7] Sandhill cranes have red foreheads, white cheeks, and long, dark, pointed bills. In flight, their long, dark legs trail behind, and their long necks keep straight. Immature birds have reddish-brown upperparts and gray underparts.[8][9] The sexes look alike. Sizes vary among the different subspecies; the average height of these birds is around 80 to 136 cm (2 ft 7 in to 4 ft 6 in).[10][11] Their wing chords are typically 41.8-60 cm (16.5-23.6 in), tails are 10-26.4 cm (3.9-10.4 in), the exposed culmens are 6.9-16 cm (2.7-6.3 in) long, and the tarsi measure 15.5-26.6 cm (6.1-10.5 in).[12]. These ...
In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species. Biochemist Linus Pauling stated that "Biological specificity is the set of characteristics of living organisms or constituents of living organisms of being special or doing something special. Each animal or plant species is special. It differs in some way from all other species... biological specificity is the major problem about understanding life."[1]. ...
There is variability in the whole procedure depending largely on the strain from which the stem cells have been derived. Generally cells derived from strain 129 are used. This specific strain is not suitable for many experiments (e.g., behavioural), so it is very common to backcross the offspring to other strains. Some genomic loci have been proven very difficult to knock out. Reasons might be the presence of repetitive sequences, extensive DNA methylation, or heterochromatin. The confounding presence of neighbouring 129 genes on the knockout segment of genetic material has been dubbed the "flanking-gene effect".[6] Methods and guidelines to deal with this problem have been proposed.[7][8]. Another limitation is that conventional (i.e. non-conditional) knockout mice develop in the absence of the gene being investigated. At times, loss of activity during development may mask the role of the gene in the adult state, especially if the gene is involved in numerous processes spanning development. ...
The house fly genome provides a rich resource for enabling work on innovative methods of insect control, for understanding the ... The genome of this species will also serve as a close out-group to Drosophila in comparative genomic studies. ... This represents the first genome sequence of an insect that lives in intimate association with abundant animal pathogens. ... Unfortunately, the ligand specificity of most candidate bitter taste receptors in Drosophila have proven difficult to resolve, ...
Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea. Host ... i,Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea,/i, [ ... Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea. Č. Bud ... Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea - Mgr. ...
Insect, not plant, determines gall morphology in the Apiomorpha pharetrata species-group (Hemiptera: Coccoidea). Authors. *. ... This indicates that it is the insect, not the host, that determines the gall morphology in these taxa. In addition, insects ... L. Kurzfeld-Zexer, S. Lev-Yadun, M. Inbar, One aphid species induces three gall types on a single plant: Comparative histology ... Abstract Scale insects of the genus Apiomorpha Rübsaamen (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) induce sexually dimorphic galls ...
Insect Systematics and Evolution 37: 433-442.. Dick, C. W. 2007. High host specificity of obligate ectoparasites. Ecological ... A new species of Basilia Miranda-Ribeiro (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) from Honduras, parasite of Bauerus dubiaquercus (Van Gelder ... Field Museum Insects Division. Online Insect Collections Database: Vertebrate Ectoparasites, including Bat Flies. Posted at the ... Patterns of species co-occurrence and density compensation: a test for interspecific competition in bat ectoparasite ...
... of single photoreceptor cells in 43 different hymenopteran species were measured intracellularly with the fast spectral scan ... Most of the species have a trichromatic colour vision system. Although the S(lambda) functions are quite similar, the predicted ... The spectral input systems of hymenopteran insects and their receptor-based colour vision J Comp Physiol A. 1992 Jan;170(1):23- ... Four of the hymenopteran insects tested contain an additional R-receptor with maximal sensitivity around 600 nm. The R-receptor ...
Wolbachia are maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria that can spread within insect populations because of their unique ... Insect Proteins / genetics, metabolism. Models, Immunological. Organ Specificity. Oxidative Stress. Reactive Oxygen Species / ... 0/Antioxidants; 0/Cecropins; 0/Defensins; 0/Insect Proteins; 0/Reactive Oxygen Species; 0/Toll-Like Receptors ... Reactive oxygen species elevation is linked to the activation of the Toll pathway, which is essential in mediating the ...
1973 Insect-fungus symbiosis: nutrition, mutualism and commensalisms. Montclair, New Jersey: Allanheld, Osmun & Co. 276 p. 1979 ... Batra is the author of four monographs including World Species of Monilinia. He published more than 130 articles and reviews. ... Ambrosia fungi: extent of specificity in ambrosia beetles. Science 153:193-195. Batra SWT, Batra LR. 1967. The fungus gardens ... of insects. Sci Amer 217:112-20. Batra LR. 1967. Ambrosia fungi: a taxonomic revision and nutritional studies of some species. ...
Host Specificity of Five Species of Eugregarinida Among Six Species of Cockroaches (Insecta:Blattodea). Comparative ... The wingspan of these insects is usually 5-6 in. Both males and females bear paired appendages (cerci) on the last abdominal ... The presence of arginine, however, is species-specific to B. giganteus. George Beccaloni, David C. Eades. Blattodea Species ... Some of the organic compounds are free amino acids, and the contents vary by species in terms of which amino acids are present ...
... four aphid species and five species complexes of the family Adelgidae listed for Lithuanian fauna. Pineus ( Pineus) strobi( ... Foottit RG (1997) Recognition of parthenogenetic insect species. In: Claridge MF, Dawah HA, Wilson MR (eds) Species: the units ... In: New and rare for Lithuania insect species. Records and descriptions of 1992. Vol. 2, Lith Entomol Soc, Inst Ecol, Vilnius ... Summarized information on the distribution and host specificity of adelgid species in Lithuania is presented. The most common ...
... protecting against wildfires and invasive species, and improving the resilience of our lands in the face of climate change. ... biological control, invasive species, Costa Rica, life history, host-specificity. Source:. Environmental Entomology 39(6): 1848 ... Insects that feed on Miconia calvescens in Costa Rica. Research at the University of Costa Rica on potential biological control ... mapping a single focal species amongst a diverse array of other tree species; and (2) detecting.... .hidewebpageurl { display: ...
Hosts (humans, ruminants, rodents, or insects) for each species are indicated. Coph. Corr. = 0.96. For all graphs, error bars ... stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than ... Phylogeny of selected nematode species. Phylogenetic analysis is from Dillman et al., 2012 . Species used in the present study ... n = 6-14 trials for each odorant-species combination. Each species exhibited a unique odor response profile (P,0.0001, two-way ...
... and the mechanisms underlying this specificity are often poorly understood. In Eurasia, the Monotomid beetle Rhizophagus ... Thompson WR (1951) The specificity of host relations in predacious insects. Can Entomol LXXXIII: 83 (10) 262-269Google Scholar ... The three prey species elicited similar oviposition levels in R. grandis, which suggests that this predator could form new ... Tauber CA, Tauber MJ (1987) Food specificity in predacious insects: a comparative ecophysiological and genetic study. Evol Ecol ...
Chemical Baits: Specificity and Effects on Other Ant Species 32. Insect Growth Regulators for Control of the Imported Fire Ant ... Perspectives on Some Queen Pheromones of Social Insects with Special Reference to the Fire Ant 16. Chemical Communication in ...
Insect Systematics & Evolution" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of ... Keywords: host-specificity; insect herbivores; insect-plant interactions; short-range endemic; species loss ... In threat of co-extinction: new species of Acizzia Heslop-Harrison (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) from vulnerable species of Acacia and ... Insect Systematics & Evolution, 45(3), 283-302.. MLA. Taylor, Gary S., and Melinda L. Moir. "Further evidence of the ...
... initiate a defined behavioral sequence leading to shedding of the insect cuticle. We have identified eth, a gene encoding ... Species Specificity Substances * Insect Hormones * Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins * Manduca sexta ecdysis- ... Ecdysis-triggering hormones (ETH) initiate a defined behavioral sequence leading to shedding of the insect cuticle. We have ...
Plant chemicals mediating and conferring specificity to plant-insect relationships. -Biosynthesis and roles of plant organic ... Mechanisms of detoxification of plant compounds in specialist and generalist insects and effects on higher trophic levels. Mini ... The Ecology of Plant Chemistry and How it Drives Multi-Species Interactions. ... Keywords: Multitrophic interactions, chemical defense, chemical signaling, herbivory, metabolomics, parasitoidism, plant-insect ...
Specificity of Cry proteins for some species of insects is a consequence of the bonding with the receptor. Studies on the mode ... Allotetraploid species have in their genome a combination of genomes of two different diploid species(13). Insect resistant and ... Insect Biochem MOI Biol 27: 541-50. 31. Keeton, T. P. & Bulla, L. A., Jr. 1997. Ligand specificity and affinity of BT-R1, the ... Species: Gossypium hirsutum L. Inserted Characteristics: Tolerance to herbicide glyphosate and resistance to insects Method of ...
This specificity depends on the stiffness and the length of the hairs. That is why certain caterpillar species have evolved ... Some insects have hearing organs as well (e.g. the long-horned grasshopper, lubber grasshopper and the cicada); they use sound ... Each species has a range of normal hearing for both amplitude and frequency. Many animals use sound to communicate with each ... In species that use sound as a primary means of communication, hearing is typically most acute for the range of pitches ...
Laboratory studies of species specificity and active range of the sex attractant were carried out. ...
Host specificity is a major consideration in the classical approach to biological control of insect pests, because it ... host specificity (Asiatic species), synchronization with the pest, physiological tolerance to different climatic factors, and ... Host specificity in parasitoids of woodborers and other insects living in concealed places is often determined ecologically ... and habitat similarities will be used to select non-target species for host specificity testing. Both choice and no-choice ...
Most pathogens instead exhibit a high degree of host-specificity. Non-host plant species are often said to express non-host ... Plant pathogens can spread rapidly over great distances, vectored by water, wind, insects, and humans. Across large regions and ... Studied R genes usually confer specificity for particular strains of a pathogen species (those that express the recognized ... The term host resistance is used when a pathogen species can be pathogenic on the host species but certain strains of that ...
In spite of the high level of insect larval specificity and toxicity of B.t.s, some lepidopteran species are not highly ... Insect population is used here to refer to one or more groups or species of aquatic environment insects that breed in any type ... In spite of B.t.is high level of insect larval specificity and toxicity, insects with low receptor levels are naturally less ... of the Cry protein against the insect species that was the source of the receptor but also against other insect species, in ...
We studied the\npollination biology of four shrubby species of Cytiseae (Cytisop... ... All species resulted obliged xenogamous, insect. visits being necessary for successful pollination. Bumblebees and. solitary ... Pollinator specificity. is low, and this may be the reason of the scarce seed set compared. to the number of ovules. Pollen is ... glucose were detected in all species, at the base of vexillum or. on the reproductive column. Nectar production is irregular in ...
Specificity of induced resistance in tomato against specialist Lepidopteran and Coleopteran species. Journal of Chemical ... Plant-insect dialogs: complex interactions at the plant-insect interface. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11(4):457-463. ... The role of insect-derived cues in eliciting indirect plant defenses in tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum. Plant Signaling and ... The host plant as a factor in the synthesis and secretion of salivary glucose oxidase in larval Helicoverpa zea . Arch Insect ...
Insect Vectors/*virology; *Models, Biological; South America/epidemiology; Species Specificity; Yellow Fever/*epidemiology/ ...
  • The house fly has been a model system for studies of insect olfaction [ 13 ],[ 14 ] and (Z)-9-tricosene plays an important role in inter-sex communication and mate selection in house flies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mosquitoes (family Culicidae) are well-known pests of mammals due to the anthropophilic nature of a number of species that brings them to our attention. (mdpi.com)
  • The current paper updates us about the recent progress in the field of myco-biocontrol of insect pests and their possible mechanism of action to further enhance our understanding about the biological control of insect pests. (hindawi.com)
  • Myco-biocontrol is an environmentally sound and effective means of reducing or mitigating insect-pests and its effects through the use of natural enemies. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of these fungi have restricted host ranges, for example, Aschersonia aleyrodes infects only scale insects and whiteflies, while other fungal species have a wide host range, with individual isolates being more specific to target pests. (hindawi.com)
  • Entomopathogens such as M. anisopliae and B. bassiana are well characterized in respect to pathogenicity to several insects and have been used as myco-biocontrol agents for biological control of agriculture pests worldwide. (hindawi.com)
  • They are used to treat haematophagous insect pests and vectors of diseases like mosquitoes and flies. (hindawi.com)
  • This module introduces these two approaches, and a wide variety of biological control agents which can be employed to control insect pests. (coursera.org)
  • By implementing biological control, we can target specific pests and thus mitigate the unintentional harm to non-target species that can result from control tactics with a broader range like insecticides. (coursera.org)
  • and investigate host use and specificity of leafhoppers, true bugs, aphids, scale insects, and related groups that are pests of, or beneficial, to U.S. agriculture. (usda.gov)
  • This publication focuses on the insects more commonly considered to be plant pests. (ct.gov)
  • Monsanto has developed three cotton lines resistant to the larvae of the lepidopteran insect pests which are specific to cotton. (gc.ca)
  • Several of these products, including the active ingredients, hydroprene and methoprene, are used for control of structural pests such as cockroaches, ants, fleas, and stored grain insects and control of vector pests, including mosquitoes. (ufl.edu)
  • Plant quarantine is a legislative measure enforced to regulate the introduction of seeds, plants/ planting materials, plant products, soil, living organisms etc. in order to prevent inadvertent introduction of insect pests, nematodes, pathogens (fungi, bacteria and viruses) and weeds harmful to the agriculture/ state/ region, and if introduced, prevent their establishment and further spread. (nbpgr.ernet.in)
  • A total of 27,465 samples were found infested/ infected/ contaminated with various pests (insects/ mites- 4,400 including 854 with hidden infestation, nematodes- 6,400 fungi/ bacteria- 15,450, viruses- 930 and weeds- 285). (nbpgr.ernet.in)
  • A large number of economically important insects, mites, nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses were intercepted including 42 pests (11 insects, one nematode, one fungus, nine viruses and 20 weeds) not reported from India (Table 1) and 15 pests (two insects, one fungi and 12 viruses) not reported to occur in India on the hosts on which intercepted (Table 2). (nbpgr.ernet.in)
  • Most insect species, including important disease vectors and crop pests, harbor vertically transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • The reason for this is based on the fact that Bt toxins have a high specificity for certain species of pests while insect pests are not affected at all. (gmo-safety.eu)
  • The first major successes in biological control occurred with exotic pests controlled by natural enemy species collected from the country or area of origin of the pest (classical control). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • PhdThesis{ČTVRTEČKA2014thesis, AUTHOR = "ČTVRTEČKA, Richard", TITLE = "Host specificity and species diversity in communities of frugivorous insect in lowland rain forest of Papua New Guinea [online]", YEAR = "2014 [cit. (theses.cz)
  • The two gall types of A. pharetrata sensu lato are allopatric and found on different host eucalypt species. (wiley.com)
  • To test the hypothesis that gall morphology may be determined by the host species on which the female feeds, we reared crawlers of field-collected females from both gall types on eucalypts in a glasshouse. (wiley.com)
  • This indicates that it is the insect, not the host, that determines the gall morphology in these taxa. (wiley.com)
  • High host specificity of obligate ectoparasites. (google.com)
  • 2007. Against all odds: explaining high host specificity in dispersal-prone parasites. (google.com)
  • 2009. Nested distributions of bat flies (Diptera: Streblidae) on Neotropical bats: artifact and specificity in host-parasite studies. (google.com)
  • Assessing host specificity of obligate ectoparasites in the absence of dispersal barriers. (google.com)
  • Infection with this bacterium leads to induction of oxidative stress and an increased level of reactive oxygen species in its mosquito host. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Summarized information on the distribution and host specificity of adelgid species in Lithuania is presented. (springer.com)
  • Six species of Adelgidae inhabit host plants of the genus Picea , three live on Larix , three - on Pinus, two - on Abies , one - on Pseudotsuga . (springer.com)
  • stercoralis and six other nematode species revealed that parasite olfactory preferences reflect host specificity rather than phylogeny, suggesting an important role for olfaction in host selection. (nih.gov)
  • 2) Bioecological studies on promising natural enemies discovered - these include studies on life history and behavior, host specificity (Asiatic species), synchronization with the pest, physiological tolerance to different climatic factors, and establishment of priorities in utilization of promising species based upon their biological characteristics. (usda.gov)
  • Additionally, the present invention provides for a method of controlling or abating a pathogenic microbial population comprising administering to an insect population, which serves as a host for the pathogenic microbial population, a recombinant plant material containing a recombinant protein comprising an bactericidal protein toxin. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Root-associated microbes may trigger physiological changes in the host plant that influence interactions between plants and aboveground insects at several trophic levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are three main ways in which blood parasites can be transmitted from an insect vector to a vertebrate host. (mdpi.com)
  • These include one form of passive transmission in which the parasite is carried by the insect host without engaging in multiplication, and two forms of biological transmission in which the parasite undergoes development or replication in the insect host. (mdpi.com)
  • Neotropical Insect Galls also addresses many important questions in galling studies, such as the role of superhosts, the host plant defenses to galling, and the importance of habitat harshness at the canopy of rain forests, among many other issues. (nhbs.com)
  • This is known as host-specificity and is the most important precondition for an insect to be used as a biocontrol agent. (fws.gov)
  • Researchers must demonstrate a biocontrol agent's host-specificity in order receive a permit for importation into the United States, issued by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection and Quarantine (USDA-APHIS-PPQ). (fws.gov)
  • Potential biocontrol agents often undergo five or more years of rigorous testing to ensure that host-specificity requirements are met. (fws.gov)
  • For example, surveys and host-specificity testing for potential biocontrol agents for purple loosestrife began in Europe in 1986. (fws.gov)
  • Insect enemies may indirectly affect their host by exposing the plant to secondary pathogen infections that can further weaken the plant (Wilson and McCaffrey 1999). (fws.gov)
  • The complex of natural enemies associated with the target plant in its native range may fail to provide suitable candidates for biocontrol for a number of reasons, such as failing to meet host-specificity standards. (fws.gov)
  • We argue that the surprisingly narrow range (0.9-2.1 million) of these four autonomous estimates-derived from host-specificity relationships, ratios with other taxa, plant:beetle ratios, and a completely novel body-size approach-represents a major advance in honing in on the richness of this most significant taxon, and is thus of considerable importance to the debate on how many species exist. (pnas.org)
  • However, it is important to note that the specificity of biological control is dependent on the host breadth of the natural enemy. (coursera.org)
  • The sucking louse ranges in colour from whitish to yellow and shows distinct host specificity. (britannica.com)
  • Many other insects, such as the parasitic wasps, feed as parasites, usually in the bodies of host insects. (ct.gov)
  • We compared folivorous insects from temperate and tropical trees to test the hypothesis that herbivore species coexistence in more diverse communities could reflect narrow host specificity relative to less diverse communities. (sciencemag.org)
  • Host specificity did not differ significantly between community samples, indicating that food resources are not more finely partitioned among folivorous insects in tropical than in temperate forests. (sciencemag.org)
  • Over time, various Ophiocordyceps species have evolved, each targeting a specific host. (reed.edu)
  • each species normally infects one or possibly two host species at most. (reed.edu)
  • There are many disadvantages associated with host specificity. (reed.edu)
  • 2014). This suggests that the fungus can only manipulate the behavior of one or two specific host species because Ophiocordyceps unilateralis cannot produce the correct combination of compounds to successfully alter behavior of numerous species. (reed.edu)
  • 2009. Effect of host tree species on cellulase activity and bacterial community composition in the Anoplophora glabripennis gut. (psu.edu)
  • Likewise, the lack of extreme genome reduction in facultative endosymbionts does not allow the mere existence of a gene to provide prima facie evidence of its importance in a particular host context, as it does in mutualist species with highly-reduced genomes ( Moran and Degnan 2006 ). (g3journal.org)
  • Russian thistle is damaging as a seed contaminant, as a forage weed that may contain toxic levels of soluble oxalates and nitrates, and as an alternative host of several economically significant insect species. (ucr.edu)
  • Mites, moths, and beetles that exhibit sufficient host specificity may potentially be effective natural enemies of this weed. (ucr.edu)
  • Host specificity of this insect was determined by adult no-choice oviposition and larval starvation tests on 31 plant species in 19 families. (cabi.org)
  • Plant galls also host a whole ecology of other insects, including herbivorous inquilines and carnivorous parasitoids like the wasp family Ormyridae, which is found only in plant galls. (ecologycenter.org)
  • Our study will begin with a series of lectures covering gall induction, development, plant host specificity, and inducer life histories using Joyce Gross' excellent photographic images of galls and gall insects. (ecologycenter.org)
  • This type of host specificity is by no means unique to milkweed-feeding insects. (hitchcockcenter.org)
  • This mechanism may apply to other endosymbionts and provides a possible explanation for endosymbiont host specificity. (nih.gov)
  • Because most insect species are herbivores, understanding the evolution of interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants is therefore crucial to comprehend global patterns in terrestrial biodiversity. (wur.nl)
  • The Cymothoe - Rinorea system is especially suitable for untangling processes shaping patterns of insect-host plant associations because of its high level of specificity (mostly monophagous) and the large number of related species involved (33 insect herbivores and 32 hosts). (wur.nl)
  • In Chapter 4 we assessed whether differential rates of net species diversification in the African butterfly sister genera Harma (1 species) and Cymothoe (approximately 82 species) could best be explained by shifts to novel host plants (from Achariaceae to Rinorea ) or by environmental factors such as changing climate. (wur.nl)
  • Leverhulme Trust, London, UK - Species-richness patterns and host-parasite interactions in the Laboulbeniales (Fungi, Ascomycetes). (esf.edu)
  • Natural Environment Research Council, UK - Host-parasite interactions and specificity in the insect-habiting fungi of the Laboulbeniales: implications for phylogeny and estimates of species numbers. (esf.edu)
  • Laboulbeniales on beetles: host utilization patterns and species richness of the parasites. (esf.edu)
  • 1. A baculoviral vector for the production of an exogenous gene product in insect host cells wherein said host cells are incapable of permitting replication of an unmodified baculovirus which comprises an exogenous DNA sequence encoding the gene product wherein transcription of said DNA sequence is controlled by a promoter of an LTR selected from the group consisting of retroviral LTRs and transposable element LTRs. (patents.com)
  • A shift in the use of a new host plant for mating and the laying of eggs could be enough to keep insects that occupy the same area at the same time from mating. (eurekalert.org)
  • Host specificity tests of Gratiana graminea (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a poteneial biological control agent of tropical soda apple, Solanum viarum (Solanaceae). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Centipedes, millipedes, mites, sowbugs, and spiders are non-insect arthropods: all have external skeletons but adults have more than six legs. (ct.gov)
  • Apart from the functional classification, there is also specificity in the toxins affecting Na + channels, in either mammals or arthropods (mostly insects and/or crustaceans). (biologists.org)
  • Using analogous approaches, we also produce independent estimates for all insects, mean: 5.5 million species (range 2.6-7.8 million), and for terrestrial arthropods, mean: 6.8 million species (range 5.9-7.8 million), which suggest that estimates for the world's insects and their relatives are narrowing considerably. (pnas.org)
  • Therefore, because this is a single lineage, an understanding of their global species richness, and that of the insects and other arthropods of which they form a part, is particularly important. (pnas.org)
  • As the most abundant animals on the planet, insects and other arthropods affect our lives in so many ways. (coursera.org)
  • In Bugs 101: Insect-Human Interactions, you will be plunged into the diverse (and sometimes alien) world of arthropods to learn how they work, what they do, and how insects and humans interact every day. (coursera.org)
  • Pepper SHT and THT, which have primary sequences that are 78% identical, were used as models to investigate the structural determinants responsible for their distinct substrate specificities and other enzymatic properties. (plantphysiol.org)
  • D . Ecology of selected nematode species. (nih.gov)
  • The North American D. punctatus and D. valens , which are not sympatric with R. grandis but have a similar ecology as D. micans , could also elicit predator oviposition, which would suggest that specificity in this predator-prey system is constrained by geography. (springer.com)
  • and in this sense no single source of data-be it DNA, morphology, ecology, reproductive isolation or behaviour-can by itself be used to discover species. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Knowing that nets are of limited effectiveness means a new starting point for developing effective control strategies, and a re-examination of the fundamental biology and ecology of the insect in question. (healthcanal.com)
  • Preventing the transmission of viruses can be the chief reason to control certain insects. (ct.gov)
  • Granados, "Replication Phenomena of Insect Viruses", in Miltenburger at pp. 163-184 (1978). (patents.com)
  • The serotype of individual viruses in each species is identified on the basis of neutralisation tests and different strains within a serotype are identified by sequence analysis. (scribd.com)
  • Historically, tests such as agar gel immunodiffusion and indirect enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to detect BTV and EHDV species-specific antibodies, but have the major drawback of being unable to consistently distinguish between antibodies to viruses in the two species. (scribd.com)
  • In plant viruses, vector transmission is the major mode of transmission, used by nearly 80% of species described to date. (asm.org)
  • The specificity of the relationship between aphids and viruses can vary widely depending on the type of virus-vector interaction, but it is generally low for the most frequent noncirculative interactions. (asm.org)
  • Online Insect Collections Database: Vertebrate Ectoparasites, including Bat Flies. (google.com)
  • At the same time, the researchers discovered that the three dragonfly species prey upon practically the same species-and that they share their diet with birds and bats, which are the dominant vertebrate predators. (phys.org)
  • Researchers have found that most flight-capable species in this group feed on vertebrate carcasses, whereas flightless species will feed on soil invertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bluetongue virus (BTV) infection involves domestic and wild ruminants such as sheep, goats, cattle, buffaloes, deer, most species of African antelope and various other Artiodactyla as vertebrate hosts. (scribd.com)
  • is the most damaging insect pest of potato in Canada and, to date, no traditionally bred cultivars have been produced that are resistant to CPB . (gc.ca)
  • In 2005, work on biological control of emerald ash borer at the ARS Beneficial Insects Introduction Research Unit was expanded to include studies on natural enemies of the pest in both the Far East and North America. (usda.gov)
  • Baculoriruses for Insect Pest Control: Safety Considerations", American Society for Microbiology (1975). (patents.com)
  • The use of biological control for the management of pest insects pre-dates the modern pesticide era. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • in biological control, man exploits this 'natural control' to suppress the numbers of pest species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Thus, Brachyscelis (= Apiomorpha ) thorntoni (Froggatt) revised status is removed from synonymy with Brachyscelis (= Apiomorpha ) pharetrata (Schrader), and recognised as a distinct biological species. (wiley.com)
  • The most familiar mechanism of biological transmission of blood parasites is by injection of the infectious agent when the insect bites, a method employed most notably by Plasmodium falciparum Welch, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria. (mdpi.com)
  • Myco-biocontrol is the use of fungi in biological processes to lower the insect density with the aim of reducing disease-producing activity and consequently crop damage [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the last 20 years, eusocial insects, which mostly include ants, termites, as well as some bees and wasps, have provided one of the main biological models to study social immunity [ 7 , 19 - 21 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Russian thistle is an exotic weed species and is a good candidate for biological control. (ucr.edu)
  • Dragonflies are excellent model species for biological research also because they give indications of the state of both terrestrial and aquatic environments. (phys.org)
  • The analysis shows the distribution of organic and inorganic surface species while also hinting at the presence of aragonite at the dorsal protrusion region of the Eudicella gralli head, in line with its biological function. (nature.com)
  • Current studies indicate that genetically modified insect-resistant Bt crops may have no adverse effects on the activity or function of predators or parasitoids used in biological control. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Although originally described as distinct species on the basis of differences in gall morphology, A. pharetrata (Schrader) and A. thorntoni (Froggatt) were subsequently synonymised, primarily because the adult females of the two are morphologically indistinguishable. (wiley.com)
  • Most insects have four distinct stages of growth: (1) egg, (2) larva, commonly called a caterpillar, grub or maggot, (3) pupa, and (4) adult. (ct.gov)
  • In addition to these insects with chewing mouthparts, various beaked insects suck milkweed juices, including large and small milkweed bugs (two distinct species) and at least three species of aphids. (hitchcockcenter.org)
  • Two insect families are found only in plant galls: Cynipidae (gall wasps) and Cecidomyiidae (gall midges or gnats). (ecologycenter.org)
  • One species forms big white pom-poms with red polka dots on white oak twigs, another distorts red oak leaves to produce hollow galls resembling ping-pong balls, while a third produces hard, apple-like galls on the sides of acorns. (hitchcockcenter.org)
  • Functional characterization of the recombinant chimeric proteins revealed that the amino acid residues 129 to 165 of SHT and the corresponding residues 125 to 160 in THT are critical structural determinants for amine substrate specificity. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Finally, a phylogenetic analysis places both OS-E and OS-F within a large family of insect OBPs and OBP-like proteins. (genetics.org)
  • D. melanogaster and D. virilis OS-F proteins show remarkable conservation but diverge notably in two regions: the N terminus and a C-terminal region that exhibits heterogeneity in other insect OBPs. (genetics.org)
  • The BTV species, or serogroup, contains 24 recognised serotypes and EHDV contains at least seven The orbiviral species are differentiated by immunological tests that detect viral proteins that are conserved within each, and hence are distinguishable by serogrouping tests. (scribd.com)
  • The outer layer contains two proteins, one of which, VP2, is the major determinant of serotype specificity. (scribd.com)
  • Since GAPDH is one of the most conserved proteins known, it is likely that the antibody is effective on other species also. (genetex.com)
  • The analysis also revealed that the proteins from both species bind to laminarihexaoses in an identical way, via a characteristic structural motif, suggesting that the entire âGRP family shares a common binding mechanism. (innovations-report.com)
  • Bacellar F, Regnery RL, Nuncio MS, Filipe AR (1995) Genotypic evaluation of rickettsial isolates recovered from various species of ticks in Portugal. (springer.com)
  • Nevertheless, high concentration of individuals in exposed conditions, for mating or oviposition, occurs at least for a few species in the genera Stephanus (V llger 1994), Hemistephanus (personal observation), Parastephanellus (Rodd 1951), and Foenatopus (Cheesman 1932, Gauld 1995). (tolweb.org)
  • Over the last 20 years, this phenomenon (called social immunity) was mostly studied in eusocial insects, with results emphasizing its importance in derived social systems. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • I then provide an up-to-date appraisal of the collective and individual mechanisms of social immunity described in eusocial insects and show that they have counterparts in non-eusocial species and even solitary species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In eusocial insects like honeybees, TgIP would result in a significant improvement of health at individual and colony level. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We studied the pollination biology of four shrubby species of Cytiseae (Cytisophyllum sessilifolium (L.) Lang, Spartium junceum L., Genista radiata (L. (mendeley.com)
  • All species resulted obliged xenogamous, insect visits being necessary for successful pollination. (mendeley.com)
  • In both species, a 70 to 75% pollination-induced decrease in methylbenzoate emission begins only after pollen tubes reach the ovary, a process that takes between 35 and 40 h in snapdragon and ∼32 h in petunia. (plantcell.org)
  • Insect pollination in basal angiosperms is assumed to mostly involve 'generalized' insects looking for food, but direct observations of ANITA grade (283 species) pollinators are sparse. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Pollination by a single midge species predominates, but one species was pollinated by different species at three locations and one by two at the same location. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The reader will find in this book the most updated ecological and evolutionary information on the biogeography of galling insects in the New World Tropics. (nhbs.com)
  • Eichhorn O, Carter CI (1978) Investigation into conifer woolly aphids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Japan, with the descriptions of two new species. (springer.com)
  • Its really a very interesting course to learn the basic knowledge of different type of insects and their interaction with the humans as well. (coursera.org)
  • There are a wide range of uses of pyrethrins, including indoor bug bombs, pet flea sprays, and tick dips, head lice treatment in humans, and garden insect control. (ufl.edu)
  • Due to its economic importance, screwworm was eradicated from North and Central America in perhaps the most successful application of the sterile insect technique or SIT 4 . (nature.com)
  • By highlighting similarities and differences of social immunity across social systems, this review emphasizes the potential importance of this phenomenon in the early evolution of the multiple forms of group living in insects. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In fact, if you visit your local milkweed patch, you'll find all sorts of other milkweed-specific insects, many of them similarly brightly colored to warn predators of their toxicity. (hitchcockcenter.org)
  • Thus, we will not dismiss such areas out of hand, because they might prove to be sources for parasitoids that would attack EAB on Nearctic species of ash. (usda.gov)
  • A survey of the chromosome numbers has been conducted in 20 species of medicinally important Composites of Jammu and Kashmir State distributed under 16 genera. (ias.ac.in)
  • Stephanids are known today from 323 living species, in 11 genera, plus another 8 species and 3 genera represented only in Baltic amber or shale fossils (updated from Aguiar, 2004). (tolweb.org)
  • A total of 54 species and 22 genera could be discriminated reliably through unique combinations of character states within only one mitochondrial gene region (NADH dehydrogenase 1). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adults of Corydalidae are particularly noteworthy for their frequently large size, and, in many species of the genera Corydalus and Acanthacorydalis , for the extremely elongated mandibles of adult males. (tolweb.org)
  • The tribe Asphondyliini, belonging to the family Cecidomyiidae, has 521 species divided into 44 genera with cosmopolitan distribution. (usp.br)
  • Laboratory studies of species specificity and active range of the sex attractant were carried out. (brill.com)
  • This situation was first called to my attention in 1949 by John M. Miller, entomologist at the Berkeley Forest Insect Laboratory. (usda.gov)
  • Researchers from the Universities of Turku and Helsinki, Finland, have discovered the prey species of adult dragonflies and damselflies, as modern laboratory techniques enabled the study of the insects' diet. (phys.org)
  • This non-contagious, insect-borne viral Infection is inapparent in the vast majority of infected animals but causes fatal disease in a proportion of infected sheep, deer and wild ruminants. (scribd.com)
  • Whether this apparent lack of specificity is a viral adaptation to increase the chances of transmission by several vector species remains an open question. (asm.org)
  • Moir, Melinda L. 2014-07-24 00:00:00 Three new species of jumping plant-lice (Psylloidea) are described from Western Australia. (deepdyve.com)
  • These new species of jumping plant-lice are considered rare, and at risk of extinction, or coextinction, as they are recorded from plant species with highly restricted distributions in the south-west of Western Australia. (deepdyve.com)
  • Indeed, the Western Australian State Government recently classified two of the three new jumping plant-lice species as threatened. (deepdyve.com)