Aspergillus ochraceus: An imperfect fungus that produces ochratoxins and contaminates EDIBLE GRAIN and coffee beans.Ochratoxins: Isocoumarins found in ASPERGILLUS OCHRACEUS and other FUNGI. Ochratoxin contaminated FOOD has been responsible for cases of FOODBORNE DISEASES.Aspergillus: A genus of mitosporic fungi containing about 100 species and eleven different teleomorphs in the family Trichocomaceae.Mycotoxins: Toxic compounds produced by FUNGI.Kloeckera: A mitosporic fungal genus used in the fermentation of wine. Teleomorphs are in the genus HANSENIASPORA.Aspergillus nidulans: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Aspergillus niger: An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.Penicillium: A mitosporic Trichocomaceae fungal genus that develops fruiting organs resembling a broom. When identified, teleomorphs include EUPENICILLIUM and TALAROMYCES. Several species (but especially PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM) are sources of the antibiotic penicillin.Aspergillus fumigatus: A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Aspergillus flavus: A species of imperfect fungi which grows on peanuts and other plants and produces the carcinogenic substance aflatoxin. It is also used in the production of the antibiotic flavicin.Starfish: Echinoderms having bodies of usually five radially disposed arms coalescing at the center.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aspergillus oryzae: An imperfect fungus present on most agricultural seeds and often responsible for the spoilage of seeds in bulk storage. It is also used in the production of fermented food or drink, especially in Japan.Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Aspergillosis: Infections with fungi of the genus ASPERGILLUS.Sterigmatocystin: A carcinogenic mycotoxin produced in high yields by strains of the common molds, Aspergillus versicolor, A. nidulans, and an unidentified species of Bipolaris. It causes necrosis of the liver and kidney and has an inhibitory effect on orotic acid incorporation into nuclear RNA.Hyphae: Microscopic threadlike filaments in FUNGI that are filled with a layer of protoplasm. Collectively, the hyphae make up the MYCELIUM.Stachybotrys: A mitosporic fungal genus including one species which forms a toxin in moldy hay that may cause a serious illness in horses.Trichothecenes: Usually 12,13-epoxytrichothecenes, produced by Fusaria, Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other fungi, and some higher plants. They may contaminate food or feed grains, induce emesis and hemorrhage in lungs and brain, and damage bone marrow due to protein and DNA synthesis inhibition.Construction Materials: Supplies used in building.T-2 Toxin: A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Zearalenone: (S-(E))-3,4,5,6,8,10-Hexahydro-14,16-dihydroxy-3-methyl-1H-2-benzoxacyclotetradecin-1,7(8H)-dione. One of a group of compounds known under the general designation of resorcylic acid lactones. Cis, trans, dextro and levo forms have been isolated from the fungus Gibberella zeae (formerly Fusarium graminearum). They have estrogenic activity, cause toxicity in livestock as feed contaminant, and have been used as anabolic or estrogen substitutes.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Citrinin: Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.Peptide Synthases: Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.Polyketide Synthases: Large enzyme complexes composed of a number of component enzymes that are found in STREPTOMYCES which biosynthesize MACROLIDES and other polyketides.Peptide Biosynthesis, Nucleic Acid-Independent: The enzymatic synthesis of PEPTIDES without an RNA template by processes that do not use the ribosomal apparatus (RIBOSOMES).Polyketides: Natural compounds containing alternating carbonyl and methylene groups (beta-polyketones), bioenergenetically derived from repeated condensation of acetyl coenzyme A via malonyl coenzyme A, in a process similar to fatty acid synthesis.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Tyrocidine: An antibiotic mixture produced by Bacillus brevis which may be separated into three components, tyrocidines A, B, and C. It is the major constituent (40-60 per cent) of tyrothricin, gramicidin accounting for the remaining 10-20 per cent active material. It is a topical antimicrobial agent, that is very toxic parenterally.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Captan: One of the phthalimide fungicides.Alternaria: A mitosporic Loculoascomycetes fungal genus including several plant pathogens and at least one species which produces a highly phytotoxic antibiotic. Its teleomorph is Lewia.Colletotrichum: A genus of mitosporic Phyllachoraceae fungi which contains at least 40 species of plant parasites. They have teleomorphs in the genus Glomerella (see PHYLLACHORALES).Flavoring Agents: Substances added to foods and medicine to improve the quality of taste.Echolalia: Involuntary ("parrot-like"), meaningless repetition of a recently heard word, phrase, or song. This condition may be associated with transcortical APHASIA; SCHIZOPHRENIA; or other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485)Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Eugenol: A cinnamate derivative of the shikamate pathway found in CLOVE OIL and other PLANTS.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Electronic Nose: A device used to detect airborne odors, gases, flavors, volatile substances or vapors.Pseudomonas fragi: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It has a characteristic strawberry color and is widely distributed in SOIL and WATER.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Electronics: The study, control, and application of the conduction of ELECTRICITY through gases or vacuum, or through semiconducting or conducting materials. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
  • The conidia (2-5 µm in diameter) may be spherical to elongate and form chains which may radiate (e.g., in Aspergillus versicolor ) or form themselves into compact columns (e.g. (emlab.com)
  • Similarly A. ochraceus also produces the anti-cancer alkaloid (+)-stephacidin A, but the (-)-A stephacidin from the Arctic mold A. versicolor lacks such properties. (uvachemistry.com)
  • The species Alternaria alternata is capable of producing tenuazonic acid and other toxic metabolites which may be associated with disease in humans or animals. (mold-help.org)
  • Alternaria produces large spores having sizes between 20 - 200 microns in length and 7 - 18 microns in width, suggesting that the spores from this fungi are deposited in the nose, mouth, and upper respiratory tract. (mold-help.org)
  • Alternaria produces large spores having sizes between 20 and 200 microns in length and 7 to18 microns in width, suggesing that the spores from this fungi are deposited in the nose, mouth, and upper respiratory tract. (allmoldpro.com)
  • Two hundred and sixty three isolates of filamentous fungi were identified. (scielo.br)
  • A multilocus phylogenetic study was carried out to assess species identity of a set of 34 clinical isolates from Aspergillus section Circumdati from the United States and to determine their in vitro antifungal susceptibility against eight antifungal drugs. (asm.org)
  • Other species identified were A. sclerotiorum (17.6%), A. ochraceus (8.8%), A. subramanianii (8.8%), and A. insulicola and A. ochraceopetaliformis , with two isolates (5.9%) of each. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, to assess the diversity of clinically relevant species within this section, a set of isolates with features characteristic of Circumdati section were identified molecularly. (asm.org)
  • Ochratoxigenic Aspergillus lanosus and A. alliaceus isolates from California tree nut orchards. (springer.com)
  • Objective: To determine mycobiota and levels of Aspergillus section Flavi aflatoxins isolated from 50 samples of phytotherapeutic remedies currently commercialized in São Paulo, Brazil. (bvsalud.org)
  • In nature, Brazil nuts ( Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) that grow in the Amazon forest may get contaminated by fungi and aflatoxins [ 1 - 3 ], as other tree nuts. (hindawi.com)
  • This mycotoxin produced by these toxigenic fungi has been shown to exhibit nephrotoxic, immunosuppressive, teratogenic and carcinogenic properties . (scirp.org)
  • 2010). 'Prevalence of Toxigenic Fungi in Egyptian Smoke-Dried Herring Fish: I- Antifungal Activity of Basil ( Ocimum basilicum L.) Essential oil', Egyptian Journal of Microbiology , 45(1), pp. 113-129. (ekb.eg)
  • This work reports the application of oxygen-(O 2 -) reducing atmosphere methods on stored shelled Brazil nut ( Bertholletia excelsa H.B.K.) packs aiming to evaluate the degree of aflatoxin degradation, nuts lipid oxidative stability, fungi control, and hygienic conditions improvement. (hindawi.com)
  • Aspergillus clavatus is the most common member of the section Clavati , subgenus Clavati , and is easily recognizable by its large, blue-green clavate (club-shaped) heads. (asmscience.org)
  • This class contains the the"sac fungi" and yeasts. (allmoldpro.com)
  • Any eukaryotic metabolite produced during a metabolic reaction in fungi, the kingdom that includes microorganisms such as the yeasts and moulds. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Unlike unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi (e.g. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yeasts are unicellular fungi that have mostly used in the fermentation process for the production of food and alcoholic beverages. (transectscience.org)
  • Yeasts are a polyphyletic group of basidiomycetous and ascomycetous fungi with a unique characteristic of unicellular growth. (transectscience.org)
  • Although the fungi are multicellular, growing as filaments called hyphae, the yeasts or the yeast-like cells have morphological terms that refer to single celled fungi. (transectscience.org)
  • Among the yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been thought to be one of the most important micro-organisms for humans because most of the yeasts applying to various fermentation technologies were identified as the S.cerevisiae which had been secured as safe for foods by experience for a long period. (transectscience.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of isolated ochratoxigenic fungi of coffee grains from organic and conventional cultivation from the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil, as well as to evaluate which farming system presents higher contamination risk by ochratoxin A (OTA) produced by fungi. (bvsalud.org)
  • The frequency of occurrence of these fungi isolated from coffee cherries has been reported by several authors. (scirp.org)
  • Each fungal species is characterized by a specific set of genetic patterns. (emlab.com)
  • This means that there is not a single pattern that defines a fungal species, rather a range of patterns. (emlab.com)
  • Fungal species are able to develop specialized structures allowing them to disseminate and survive adverse environmental conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclohexanic extracts were almost the most active exhibiting a broad spectrum inhibitory action irrespective to the experimented algal extract or fungal species whereas both acetone and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited the lowest antifungal activity. (annexpublishers.co)
  • Some algal extracts did not show recognizable inhibitory actions, and some others enhanced some fungal species. (annexpublishers.co)
  • The experimented fungal species exhibited variable responses to the tested algal extracts depending upon the experimented fungal and algal species as well as the applied extract. (annexpublishers.co)
  • To date, around 200000 fungal species have been identified of which 100 species are pathogenic. (ijpsr.com)
  • Furthermore, analyses of the three fungal species identified homologs to genes associated with high-affinity uptake systems, vacuolar and mitochondrial iron storage, copper uptake and reduction, and zinc assimilation. (frontiersin.org)
  • They select fungal species by influencing spore germination and creating microsites favorable or unfavorable to fungus development (Brown 1995, Tiunov and Scheu 2000). (scribd.com)
  • Polyketide synthase (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPSs) are large multimodular enzymes involved in biosynthesis of polyketide and peptide secondary metabolites produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria and fungi. (mdpi.com)
  • Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are nanomaterials obtained by nanotechnology and due to their antimicrobial properties have a major importance in the control of various species of bacteria, fungi and viruses, with applications in medicine, cosmetics or food industry. (sciendo.com)
  • Antimicrobial activity of AgNPs was variable depending on both species and group of test microorganisms (bacteria or fungi) involved. (sciendo.com)
  • The effectiveness of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria Chromobacterium violaceum with larger zone of inhibition (18 ± 0.69 mm diameter) when compared to those from fungi. (sciendo.com)
  • Studies have reported the use of modified atmospheres (MA) in food storage, extensive to packaging, to reduce O 2 concentration by adding gases such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 ) which lead to microorganisms (fungi, yeast, and bacteria) inhibition, maintenance of lipid stability, and reduction of grains/nuts/vegetable respiration [ 9 - 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • All ascomycetes, members of a group of fungi called Ascomycotina, have this type of spore. (allmoldpro.com)
  • Aspergillus ochraceus group of fungi is widely distributed in dried foods like beans, dried fruits, nuts including peanuts, betal nuts, wide range of cereals including barley, wheat flour and rice (Pitt and Hocking, 1985: Varga et al, 1996). (allindianpatents.com)
  • Genes encoding the 11α-steroid hydroxylase enzymes from Aspergillus ochraceus (11α-SH Aoch ) and Rhizopus oryzae (CYP509C12) transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous constitutive expression in p425TEF. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The progesterone 11α-steroid hydroxylases from A. ochraceus and R. oryzae , both monooxygenase enzymes of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, have been functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • References may be made to the work of Johanson et al (1998), wherein they have reported PCR method for detection of Rhizoctonia solani, R oryzae and R, oryzae sativa using specific primers designed based on the sequence variation in ITS 1 and ITS2 region among these species. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Initial growth of fungi in grains can form sufficient moisture from metabolism to allow for further growth and mycotoxin formation. (romerlabs.com)
  • Table 2 shows these minimum relative humidity levels for common storage fungi.Proper drying lowers the moisture content of grains below the minimum needed for the growth- of fungi. (altoidssurvivalkit.com)
  • However, the water activity studies that are referenced were done by people interested in the growth of fungi on food. (emlabpk.com)
  • Considering only water availability and solute concentration, we would expect very wet gypsum board to support the growth of fungi like Stachybotrys chartarum (as it does). (emlabpk.com)
  • Moreover, the antifungal susceptibility of the most frequent species was determined against eight antifungal drugs. (asm.org)
  • 2001) used ethanol, acetone and methanol-toluene to extract antibiotics from 23 species of marine algae belonging to the Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta and revealed that the strongest antifungal activities were exhibited by the ethanol extract but the least were by the methanol-toluene extract [ 8 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • 2007) screened various fractions of ethanolic extract of Solieria robusta (Rhodophyta) for antifungal activity against five fruit spoiling fungi isolated from fruits and reported that all fractions were able to inhibit fungal growth [ 9 ]. (annexpublishers.co)
  • In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed. (deepdyve.com)
  • Storage fungi Storage fungi usually invade grain or seed during storage and are generally not present in large quantities before harvest in the field. (powershow.com)
  • Conclusion: The method of the PCR-RFLP based on ribosomal DNA gene with the novel restriction enzyme, MwoI enabled us to identify the most medically important Aspergillus species in a short time. (ac.ir)
  • The objective of our study was to evaluate parameters influencing the germination of Aspergillus conidia. (asm.org)
  • Germination of conidia is the most crucial step in the development of Aspergillus , as hyphae represent the invasive form ( 4 , 8 ). (asm.org)
  • Our objective was to establish the ideal inoculum size and to clarify the impact of age of conidia and exposure to Tween 80 (a surface-acting agent that is needed for inoculum preparation) on the germination rate of Aspergillus spp. (asm.org)
  • For the inoculum study, Aspergillus conidia were suspended, in triplicate, in RPMI 1640 medium (Sigma) at a final concentration of 1.4 × 10 5 to 2 × 10 6 conidia · ml −1 . (asm.org)
  • For the temperature study, Aspergillus conidia (5 × 10 5 conidia · ml −1 ) were suspended in RPMI 1640 medium. (asm.org)
  • For the pH study, Aspergillus conidia (5 × 10 5 conidia · ml −1 ) were suspended in RPMI 1640 medium at pH values of 3.5 and 4.5 by using acetic acid (AA), hydrochloric acid (HA), and lactic acid (LA). Controls were prepared in plain RPMI 1640 medium (pH 7.5). (asm.org)
  • Appropriate sampling for analysis is important as hot spots can occur in storage for the growth and ochratoxin production by these fungi. (romerlabs.com)
  • The genus Eurotium is an ascomycete genus characterized by the formation of bright yellow cleistothecia, often enmeshed in yellow, orange, or red hyphae, overlayed by the gray-green (glaucous) Aspergillus heads of the anamorphic state. (asmscience.org)
  • It is cosmopolitan and ubiquitous in nature with over 185 species. (emlab.com)
  • Therefore, together with its ubiquitous nature, these species (anamorphic and teleomorphic) are of great significant impacts on ecosystems, agriculture, food production, biotechnology, and human and animal health. (springer.com)
  • Especies fúngicas degradaron el herbicida en cultivos in vitro, produciendo derivados hidroxilados frecuentes en areas agrícolas. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Succession of fungi in the litter of a lake District oakwood. (springer.com)
  • Much information exists about the succession of fungi, mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi, in conventional two-phase thermogenic composting (Straatsma et al 1994, Ross and Harris 1983, Fermor et al 1979, Chang and Hudson 1967). (scribd.com)