Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Pinnipedia: The suborder of aquatic CARNIVORA comprising the WALRUSES; FUR SEALS; SEA LIONS; and EARLESS SEALS. They have fusiform bodies with very short tails and are found on all sea coasts. The offspring are born on land.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Cetacea: An order of wholly aquatic MAMMALS occurring in all the OCEANS and adjoining seas of the world, as well as in certain river systems. They feed generally on FISHES, cephalopods, and crustaceans. Most are gregarious and most have a relatively long period of parental care and maturation. Included are DOLPHINS; PORPOISES; and WHALES. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp969-70)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ShrewsInsectivora: An order of insect eating MAMMALS including MOLES; SHREWS; HEDGEHOGS and tenrecs.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Seals, Earless: The family Phocidae, suborder PINNIPEDIA, order CARNIVORA, comprising the true seals. They lack external ears and are unable to use their hind flippers to walk. It includes over 18 species including the harp seal, probably the best known seal species in the world.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.ArtiodactylaEchidna: An oviparous burrowing mammal of the order Monotremata native to Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea. It has hair mingled with spines on the upper part of the body and is adapted for feeding on ants.Dolphins: Mammals of the families Delphinidae (ocean dolphins), Iniidae, Lipotidae, Pontoporiidae, and Platanistidae (all river dolphins). Among the most well-known species are the BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHIN and the KILLER WHALE (a dolphin). The common name dolphin is applied to small cetaceans having a beaklike snout and a slender, streamlined body, whereas PORPOISES are small cetaceans with a blunt snout and rather stocky body. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp978-9)MonotremataSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Body Size: The physical measurements of a body.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Hibernation: The dormant state in which some warm-blooded animal species pass the winter. It is characterized by narcosis and by sharp reduction in body temperature and metabolic activity and by a depression of vital signs.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.PrimatesFishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Mole Rats: Any of several burrowing rodents of the families MURIDAE and Bathyergidae, found in eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia. They have short limbs, small eyes with permanently closed lids, and no tail. Three genera SPALAX (Muridae), Heterocephalus (Bathyergidae) and Cryptomys (Bathyergidae) are used frequently as experimental animals in biomedical research. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed)Lagomorpha: An order of small mammals comprising two families, Ochotonidae (pikas) and Leporidae (RABBITS and HARES). Head and body length ranges from about 125 mm to 750 mm. Hares and rabbits have a short tail, and the pikas lack a tail. Rabbits are born furless and with both eyes and ears closed. HARES are born fully haired with eyes and ears open. All are vegetarians. (From Nowak, Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p539-41)Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Anatomy, Comparative: The comparative study of animal structure with regard to homologous organs or parts. (Stedman, 25th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Amphibians: VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.X Chromosome Inactivation: A dosage compensation process occurring at an early embryonic stage in mammalian development whereby, at random, one X CHROMOSOME of the pair is repressed in the somatic cells of females.Bottle-Nosed Dolphin: The species Tursiops truncatus, in the family Delphinidae, characterized by a bottle-shaped beak and slightly hooked broad dorsal fin.Otters: Fish-eating carnivores of the family MUSTELIDAE, found on both hemispheres.Monodelphis: A genus of short-tailed OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae found in South American, chiefly Brazil. They are opossums least well-adapted to arboreal life.LizardsReproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sea Lions: A group comprised of several species of aquatic carnivores in different genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to FUR SEALS, they have shorter, less dense hair.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Didelphis: A genus of large OPOSSUMS in the family Didelphidae, found in the Americas. The species Didelphis virginiana is prominent in North America.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Moles: Any of numerous burrowing mammals found in temperate regions and having minute eyes often covered with skin.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Phoca: A genus in the family of EARLESS SEALS (Phocidae) and collectively the most abundant PINNIPEDS in the Northern Hemisphere.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Takifugu: A genus of pufferfish commonly used for research.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Sirenia: An order of heavy-bodied, slow-moving, completely aquatic, herbivorous mammals. The body is fusiform, plump, and hairless, except for bristles on the snout. Hindlimbs are absent, the forelimbs are modified to flippers, and the tail is a horizontal fluke. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Carnivory: The consumption of animal flesh.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Porpoises: Mammals of the family Phocoenidae comprising four genera found in the North Pacific Ocean and both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean and in various other seas. They differ from DOLPHINS in that porpoises have a blunt snout and a rather stocky body while dolphins have a beak-like snout and a slender, streamlined body. They usually travel in small groups. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, pp1003-4)Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Trichechus: A genus of the order Sirenia comprising what are commonly called manatees. The distinguishing characteristics include a tail that is not notched, a short nasal cavity, the absence of nasal bones, and enamel-covered teeth. Members of this genus are found in marine bays and/or sluggish rivers, usually in turbid water. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Tetraodontiformes: A small order of primarily marine fish containing 340 species. Most have a rotund or box-like shape. TETRODOTOXIN is found in their liver and ovaries.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: An ovoid densely packed collection of small cells of the anterior hypothalamus lying close to the midline in a shallow impression of the OPTIC CHIASM.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Vomeronasal Organ: An accessory chemoreceptor organ that is separated from the main OLFACTORY MUCOSA. It is situated at the base of nasal septum close to the VOMER and NASAL BONES. It forwards chemical signals (such as PHEROMONES) to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, thus influencing reproductive and social behavior. In humans, most of its structures except the vomeronasal duct undergo regression after birth.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Alligators and Crocodiles: Large, long-tailed reptiles, including caimans, of the order Loricata.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cheirogaleidae: A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Animals, ZooMice, Inbred C57BLPopulation Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Zebrafish Proteins: Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).Pseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Sex Determination Processes: The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gonads: The gamete-producing glands, OVARY or TESTIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Synteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Sex Differentiation: The process in developing sex- or gender-specific tissue, organ, or function after SEX DETERMINATION PROCESSES have set the sex of the GONADS. Major areas of sex differentiation occur in the reproductive tract (GENITALIA) and the brain.Embryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Dugong: A genus of the order Sirenia characterized by a notched tail, the presence of nasal bones and a long nasal cavity, and large columnar teeth lacking enamel. Dugongs inhabit the coastal waters of the Indian Ocean, Red Sea, and the Malay Archipelago. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Photoperiod: The time period of daily exposure that an organism receives from daylight or artificial light. It is believed that photoperiodic responses may affect the control of energy balance and thermoregulation.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sex Chromosomes: The homologous chromosomes that are dissimilar in the heterogametic sex. There are the X CHROMOSOME, the Y CHROMOSOME, and the W, Z chromosomes (in animals in which the female is the heterogametic sex (the silkworm moth Bombyx mori, for example)). In such cases the W chromosome is the female-determining and the male is ZZ. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Hedgehogs: The family Erinaceidae, in the order INSECTIVORA. Most are true hedgehogs possessing a coat of spines and a very short tail. Those members of the family found in Southeast Asia (moonrats or gymnures) have normal body hair and a long tail.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Vocalization, Animal: Sounds used in animal communication.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.TurtlesNuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Octodon: A genus of diurnal rats in the family Octodonidae, found in South America. The species Octodon degus is frequently used for research.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Dosage Compensation, Genetic: Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Genes, X-Linked: Genes that are located on the X CHROMOSOME.RNA, Untranslated: RNA which does not code for protein but has some enzymatic, structural or regulatory function. Although ribosomal RNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) and transfer RNA (RNA, TRANSFER) are also untranslated RNAs they are not included in this scope.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.South America
Species Location Stratigraphic Position Abundance Notes Nemegtia An ostracod. Mammals. Genus Species Location ...
Aquatic mammals. Cetaceans. Of all the cetacean species, USWS has been found to be exhibited in the following ... Many species of birds and marine mammals have advantages due to their unihemispheric slow-wave sleep capability, including, but ... Certain species may thus avoid a need to make frequent stops along the way. Certain bird species are more likely to utilize ... Species exhibiting USWS. Although humans show reduced left-hemisphere delta waves during slow-wave sleep in an unfamiliar ...
Other mammals. Main article: List of Alaska mammals. Fish. Alaska has quite a variety of fish species. Its lakes, ... a b c d e f g h i Alaska Department of Fish & Game Division of Wildlife Conservation: State of Alaska Endangered Species List. ... Another sub-species of bison, the wood bison (b. b. athabascae) was once Alaska's most common large land mammal. The combined ... Endangered species. Alaska has one of the smallest endangered species lists. According to the Alaska Department of Fish ...
Berta A. and Churchill M. (2012). Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies. Mammal. pp. 207-234. (in Spanish) ... Seventeen land and sea-bird species breed on the islands. The island has three endemic bird species, and two endemic subspecies ... are the predominant species in the tree-fern forests. An endemic species of sandalwood, Santalum fernandezianum, was ... This species was nearly exterminated in the sixteenth to nineteenth century, but it was rediscovered in 1965. A census in 1970 ...
894-1531 in Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds. Johns Hopkins ... Mammals of the World A Checklist. New Haven, Yale University Press. Kays, R. W., and D. E. Wilson. 2002. Mammals of North ... Wiley, R. W. (1980). "Neotoma floridana". Mammal. Species. 139: 1-7. doi:10.2307/3503989. "Desert Woodrats" at DesertUSA.com " ... Each species of pack rat is generally restricted to a given type of habitat within its range. Pack rats live anywhere from low ...
Hoffman, R. S.; Smith, A. T. (2005). Prolagus sardus in Wilson, D. E.; Reeder, D. M. Mammal Species of the World (3rd ed.). ... There are about eighty-seven species of lagomorph, including about twenty-nine species of pika, twenty-eight species of rabbit ... The burrowing species, in contrast, are short-lived, gregarious and have multiple large litters during the year. These species ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 185-211. ISBN ...
Patterson, B. & Solari, S. (2008). "mammal". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2009.2. International Union for ... 2007). Mammals of South America. 1. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. pp. 12-4. ISBN 978-0-226-28242-8. Larry, Marshall ... Differences from Marmosa species (mouse opossums) include smaller ears, longer and narrower rostrum, and greater erectness in ... Anthony, H. E. (1926). "Preliminary report on Ecuadorean mammals. No. 7". American Museum Novitates. 240: 1-6. hdl:2246/4158 . ...
This species may have fed in shallow lagoons and reefs. The first historical mention of the Caribbean monk seal is recorded in ... It is possible the mammal still exists, but some biologists strongly believe the sightings are of wandering hooded seals, which ... In 1994 the species was officially declared extinct in the United States after an exhaustive search for the seals which lasted ... Like other monk seals, this species had a distinctive head and face. The head was rounded with an extended broad muzzle. The ...
Mammal Hotline. 1-888-256-9840. Violations of the Marine. Mammal Protection Act or. Endangered Species Act. NOAA Fisheries ... The Hawaiian monk seal is one of two remaining monk seal species; the other is the Mediterranean monk seal. A third species, ... and is now protected by the Endangered Species Act and the Marine Mammal Protection Act. It is illegal to kill, capture or ... Ellis, Richard (2004). No Turning Back: The Life and Death of Animal Species. New York: Harper Perennial. p. 195. ISBN 0-06- ...
"In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins ... Berta, A. & Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi ... It is the only living species in the genus Histriophoca, although a possible fossil species, H. alekseevi, has been ... and declined to list the species. Instead, it became a U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service Species of Concern. The US ...
Bird species. 204. Mammal species. 105. Geography. Country. United States. ... Sixty-three of these species have been identified as species of conservation concern due to contracting natural habitats (for ... This "island" phenomenon produces many endemic species - species that have evolved while isolated on a particular mountain peak ... Endangered species. The topography of the Great Basin desert ("island" mountain tops separated from one another by vast ...
Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi: ... In the United States, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits the killing of any marine mammals and most local ... "Marine Mammal Science. 33: 154-171. doi:10.1111/mms.12350.. *^ Newby, T.C. (1978). Pacific Harbor Seal pp 184-191 in D. Haley, ... "IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2008. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 29 January 2009.. ...
Fictional mammal speciesEdit. Kine of ArawEdit. White oxen that lived near the inland Sea of Rhûn, called thus by the men of ... Fictional bird speciesEdit. CrebainEdit. Crebain (singular: craban) were a large species of crow that inhabited the land of ... Real-world speciesEdit. This section provides a list of the diverse range of animal species from the real world that are ... Fictional reptilian speciesEdit. Some fictional species occur in Tolkien's writings that may be either a kind of reptile, or ...
2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0- ... The striped ground squirrel is a common species throughout most of its wide range. It is an adaptable species and no particular ... Striped ground squirrels live alone, or in pairs, and greet other members of their species by sniffing each other nose-to-nose ... This is a common species with a wide range and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation ...
Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi: ... All species are polygynous; i.e. successful males breed with several females. In most species, males arrive at breeding sites ... They comprise 15 extant species in seven genera (another species became extinct in the 1950s) and are commonly known either as ... Review of currently recognized species and subspecies, and evidence used for their description". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-34 ...
... evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2907.2011.00193.x. "Phoca". Integrated ... It now contains just two species, the common seal and the spotted seal (or largha seal). Several species formerly listed under ...
Gardner, A.L. (2005). "Order Paucituberculata". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Mammal Study. 28: 145-8. Data related to Caenolestes convelatus at Wikispecies South America portal Animals portal Mammals ... 2007). Mammals of South America. 1. Chicago, US: University of Chicago Press. pp. 121; 124-6. ISBN 978-0-226-28242-8. Ojala- ... Patterson, B.D.; Gallardo, M.H. (1987). "Rhyncolestes raphanurus" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 286: 1-5. Lunde, D.P.; Pacheco, V ...
Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi: ... Handbook of Marine Mammals, vol. 2 Seals. Academic Press, London. Sergeant, D.E. (1973). "Transatlantic migration of a Harp ... Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2nd ed.). 30 Corporate Drive, Burlington Ma. 01803: Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-373553-9. " ... Frankis, M. P., Davey, P. R., & Anderson, G. Q. A. (1997). "Harp Seal: a new mammal for the Northumberland fauna". Trans. Nat. ...
Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi: ... The genus Arctophoca is a proposed genus of pinnipeds, containing most species of fur seal. Usually, all fur seals are included ... while the genus Arctophoca is resurrected for the remaining species. This split is however not yet official. Yonezawa, T.; et ...
Mammal Review. doi:10.1111/mam.12060. Amey Jayesh Kambli (2004). "Geophagy by three species of crows near carcass dumping ... The invasive potential for the species is great all over the tropics. This species is able to make use of resources with great ... although some species such as Trypanosoma corvi have been first described from this species. Pathologist T.R. Lewis expressed ... House crows feed largely on refuse around human habitations, small reptiles and mammals, and other animals such as insects and ...
Grubb, P. (2005). "Order Artiodactyla". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... This species was first described by Swedish zoologist Carl Linnaeus in the 12th edition of Systema Naturae (1766). Linnaeus ... Demand for the horns has wiped out the population in China, where the saiga antelope is a Class I protected species, and drives ... At one point, some conservation groups, such as the World Wildlife Fund, encouraged the hunting of this species, as its horn ...
312-529 in Wilson, D.E., and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. ... 312-529 in Wilson, D.E., and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. ... The threat of invasive species to bats: a review. Mammal Review. de Ruiter, Maarten (January-February 1999). "Endangered Flying ... This species has been kept at Tama Zoological Park in Tokyo in the past. One individual died in 1998 and another in 1999, and ...
Patton, J.L. (2005). "Family Geomyidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic ... one species of fossil porcupine (Neosteiromys pattoni), one species of neotropical bat (Lonchophylla pattoni), one species of ... Patton, J.L. (2005). "Family Heteromyidae". In Wilson, D.E.; Reeder, D.M. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Patton, J. L.; Da Silva, M. N. F.; Malcolm, J. Y. R. (2000). "Mammals of the Rio Juruá and the Evolutionary and Ecological ...
The species was described in 1935 by Ernst Mayr who noticed that earlier observers had overlooked it, thinking it was a ... Mammal Review. Heinsohn 2000, pp. 245-246. Wink, Heidrich & Fentzloff 1996. Note that Wink et al.'s reservation about the high ... As in other sea eagle species pairs, the other taxon is white-headed. These two are genetically very close, it seems; their ... Uniquely among sea eagles, this species has an entirely dark tail throughout its life. The breeding season is from August to ...
Berta, A.; Churchill, M. (2012). "Pinniped Taxonomy: evidence for species and subspecies". Mammal Review. 42 (3): 207-234. doi: ... In the United States, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits the killing of any marine mammals and most local ... Marine Mammal Center - Harbor Seal Smithsonian Institution - North American Mammals: Phoca vitulina. ... Marine Mammal Science. 33: 154-171. Newby, T.C. (1978). Pacific Harbor Seal pp 184-191 in D. Haley, ed. Marine Mammals of ...
... is both a recreation area and a wildlife sanctuary that is home to hundreds of bird species, mammals, reptiles, and aquatic ... species. Houston Raceway is a motorsports complex featuring National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) races and a weekly drag ...
Marine mammals of the world, FAO species identification guide. United Nations Environment Program, Food and Agriculture ... Marine Mammal Science 14:232-244.. Calkins, D. G., and J. A. Curatolo. 1980. Marine mammals of Lower Cook Inlet and the ... in J. W. Lentfer (ed.). Selected Marine Mammals of Alaska: Species Accounts with Research and Management Recommendations., ... Report to Marine Mammal Commission, contract no. MMC-75/01, Marine Mammal Commission, Washington D.C., Available Natl. Tech. ...
The Hawaiian monk seal is one of the most endangered seal species in the world. The population overall has been declining for ... Hawaiian monk seals are protected under the Endangered Species Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and State of Hawaii law. ... About The Species. The Hawaiian monk seal is one of the most endangered seal species in the world. The population overall has ... Hawaiian monk seals are protected under the Endangered Species Act, the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and Hawaii state law. ...
To determine best practices for protecting the species, NOAA researchers, with the help of volunteers like Schilling, monitor ... In 2003, she came to the New England Aquarium as a marine mammal volunteer, trying her hand at the behind-the-scenes jobs that ... Her love for marine mammals has also led her to study the vulnerable northern fur seal population, both in our New Balance ... Soon enough, she joined our team as a full-time assistant marine mammal trainer, and today she is proud to be the departments ...
... the Marine Mammal Protection Act as a depleted species. It is estimated there are about 666,000 in the wild, but that number is ... Commander will soon meet Ursula, a 16-year-old female northern fur seal, one of the species last reproductively viable females ... England Aquarium marine mammals curator. "This will give him enough time to adapt to his new home and engage in courtship ... curator of mammals and birds at the Seattle Aquarium. "Biological data collected from northern fur seals in human care ...
The species has declined at approximately 11% per year since 1989 and is the most endangered U.S. marine mammal. Factors which ... The Hawaiian Monk Seal was listed as an endangered species in 1976 under the Federal Endangered Species Act. Critical habitat ... Their enemies include humans, sharks, diseases, attacks from their own species, and marine debris such as lost fishing nets and ...
All about steller sea lions from the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium. ... The North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research Consortium. In 1993 the North Pacific Universities Marine Mammal Research ... Threatened Species. More than 80% of the Steller sea lion population disappeared from Russian and most Alaskan waters (Gulf of ... Steller sea lions are mammals, so they need to come to the surface to breathe air. They spend a portion of their time on the ...
in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor ... in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor ... in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor ... in marine mammals. One report describes the isolation of a new species, Campylobacter insulaenigrae sp. nov., from three harbor ...
The puma, a member of the family Felidae, has the widest distribution of any New World mammal, with a range extending from ... P. concolor is the only species of the genus Puma. Until 1995 pumas were classified in the genus Felis, which formerly included ... The puma, a member of the family Felidae, has the widest distribution of any New World mammal, with a range extending from ... When feeding on a large mammal, it minimizes spoilage and loss to scavengers by dragging the carcass to a secluded cache site ...
Active Server Pages error ASP 0113 Script timed out /msw3/search.asp The maximum amount of time for a script to execute was exceeded. You can change this limit by specifying a new value for the property Server.ScriptTimeout or by changing the value in the IIS administration tools. ...
LSU Museum of Natural Science Curator of Mammals Jake Esselstyn and his international collaborators have discovered a new genus ... and species on a remote, mountainous island in Indonesia. This new discovery is the third new genus described by this group of ... LSU Museum of Natural Science Curator of Mammals Jake Esselstyn BATON ROUGE - LSU Museum of Natural Science Curator of Mammals ... It was obviously a new species. We came back to camp and were both surprised that the other one had it as well," Esselstyn said ...
Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions ... "Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference". Google Scholar. Retrieved 2 September 2015. Wilson, Don E ... Mammal Species of the World - A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (Print) (Third ed.). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins ... Site hosted by Bucknell University search hosted by Bucknell University Mammal Species of the World at Google Books. ...
Marine mammals comprise over 130 living and recently extinct species in three taxonomic orders. The Society for Marine ... Cetacean Species and Taxonomy. iucn-csg.org "The Society for Marine Mammalogys Taxonomy Committee List of Species and ... the largest international association of marine mammal scientists in the world. See Cetartiodactyla and Marine mammal articles ... nereis - southern sea otter NE) Marine otter, Lontra felina EN Sea mink, Neovison macrodon EX List of mammals List of cetaceans ...
Multiple new species of large, living mammal (part II). More on Marc van Roosmalens new Amazonian mammals: in the previous ... Multiple new species of large, living mammal (part III). Yet more on the multiple new Amazonian mammals that have been ... Multiple new species of large, living mammal (part IV). Yet more on Marc van Roosmalens new Amazonian mammals, first disclosed ... Mammalian Species 481, 1-8.. Patterson, B. D. 2000. Patterns and trends in the discovery of new Neotropical mammals. Diversity ...
Peru (55 threatened mammal species). Peru has a list of 55 threatened mammal species living in its forests and mountains. ... 6. China (74 threatened mammal species). China has its own set of 74 threatened mammal species in its denuded forests and ... 8. Colombia (56 threatened mammal species). Colombia has a list of 56 threatened mammal species in its mountains and forests. ... 7. Malaysia (70 threatened mammal species). Malaysia is beset by its prevalence of 70 threatened mammal species, which are ...
Mammals. Overview Top 100 Focal Species Potential EDGE Species Top 10 ED Species Recent Extinctions Possibly Extinct Search ... Species of Natalus are characterized by funnel-like ears and a tail about equal in length to the head and body. N. primus is ... This species occurs in a hot cave": a cave with poor ventilation and nearly constant high temperatures (26-40°C) and humidity ... In particular, the ears of N. primus are very large relative to those of other species (20.2-21.2 mm length). Males of N. ...
Mammals. Overview Top 100 Focal Species Potential EDGE Species Top 10 ED Species Recent Extinctions Possibly Extinct Search ... The species generally occurs at elevations of 2,800-4,250 m in open pine forests with a dense undergrowth of zacaton and rocky ... The species is endemic to central Mexico, and found on the slopes of only four volcanoes across the Tansverse Neovolcanic Belt ... The species is predominantly nocturnal, with most activities taking place just before dawn or after dusk. At these times the ...
Mammal Species of the World: Information on sungorus ...
"Countries Compared by Environment > Threatened species > Mammal. International Statistics at NationMaster.com", Jacaranda Atlas ... "Countries Compared by Environment > Threatened species > Mammal. International Statistics at NationMaster.com, Jacaranda Atlas ... Countries Compared by Environment > Threatened species > Mammal. International Statistics at NationMaster.com, Jacaranda Atlas ... "Countries Compared by Environment > Threatened species > Mammal. International Statistics at NationMaster.com", Jacaranda Atlas ...
Interesting observations about Environment , Threatened species , Mammal. *Brazil ranked first for threatened species , mammal ... Russia ranked first for threatened species , mammal amongst Europe in 1997.. *Australia ranked first for threatened species , ... mammal amongst High income OECD countries in 1997.. *China ranked first for threatened species , mammal amongst Cold countries ... United States ranked first for threatened species , mammal amongst Heavily indebted countries in 1997. ...
Sand Dunes 10 Crazy-Looking New Deep-Sea Creatures New Giant Lizard Discovered in the Philippines New Titi Monkey Species ... Discovered In Amazon A Third of Extinct Mammals May Still Be Alive ... New Species of Frogs Disappearing as Fast as Theyre Found Giant Spider Species Discovered in Middle Eastern ... 200 New Species of Frogs, Spiders, Mammals and More Discovered. In just two months of searching through a remote, mountainous ...
... to give a wealth of information about hundreds of mammal species living in North America. How to find, identify, measure, and ... 2003 National Outdoor Book Award Winner - Detailed track and trail data for 135 species with actual-size track illustrations in ... interpret the clues mammals leave behind--explained and illustrated like never before. Includes essays that contextualize ...
Families with new species. Genera with new species. New species. New species with restricted distribution. New species probably ... Patterns of distribution in new species of mammals. (A) Species richness, n = 408. (B) Restricted-range species, n = 221. (C) ... Taxonomic composition of the new species of mammals (excluding marine species) discovered since 1993 ... Discoveries of new mammal species and their implications for conservation and ecosystem services. Gerardo Ceballos and Paul R. ...
... could be the first mammal species to go extinct due to climate change induced by humans. ... They finally concluded the Bramble Cay melomys is very likely extinct, and is possibly the first mammal species to perish ... Species restricted to small, low lying islands, or those with very tight environmental requirements are likely to be the first ... Over the course of six nights, the scientists set up 150 mammal traps a night, and came up empty. They also ran 60 camera traps ...
World is the classic reference book on the taxonomic classification and distribution of the more than 5400 species of mammals ... work belongs in public and academic libraries throughout the world and on the shelf of every biologist who works with mammals. ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and ... Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 2. Don E. Wilson,DeeAnn M. Reeder. No preview ...
... marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ... have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, ... marine mammals, or both. We issue these permits under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA). ... Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Issuance of Permits. A Notice by the Fish and Wildlife Service on 05/12/2011. ...
ConservationPopulationsFisheriesEngland AquariumElephantMolecularStudyExtinctionReptilesEndemicCurator of MammalsLargest mammalsMarine Mammal CommissionKnown mammal speciesBiodiversityOttersScientistsList of mammGroup of mammalsMammalian speciesHabitatWild mammalsGenusRodentsTaxonomicTerrestrialPlacental mammalsBirdsExtantWildlifeEcosystemsTrapsLarge2016World's speciesFoundEcosystemCretaceousSpecimensGloballyPrimarilyLive mammalsManateesDeerVertebratesWorldNative mammalsDesert mammalsDinosaursPredatorsHttpsAmphibianCetaceanFossilsCanid speciesLarvae1994GeneraWhales and dolphins
- Sustaining a population of northern fur seals in high profile facilities like the Seattle Aquarium and the New England Aquarium allows visitors to learn more about this amazing species, and creates the human/animal bond necessary to inspire conservation," said Traci Belting, curator of mammals and birds at the Seattle Aquarium. (businesswire.com)
- In 2003, she came to the New England Aquarium as a marine mammal volunteer, trying her hand at the behind-the-scenes jobs that keep our exhibits running and our animals healthy, which is "the best way to get an understanding of what it's like to work here," she says. (neaq.org)
- Commander will be introduced to our colony of fur seals well before breeding season, which begins in the summer," said Kathy Streeter, New England Aquarium marine mammals curator. (businesswire.com)
- nov., from three harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) and a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) in Scotland, and the other describes the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter lari, and an unknown Campylobacter species from northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) in California. (elsevier.com)
- This study demonstrates the inability of phenotypic characterization to correctly identify all Campylobacter species and emphasizes the importance of molecular characterization via 16S rRNA sequence analysis or MLST for the identification of Campylobacter isolates from marine mammals. (elsevier.com)
- Her love for marine mammals has also led her to study the vulnerable northern fur seal population, both in our New Balance Foundation Marine Mammal Center and on the Alaskan islands they call home. (neaq.org)
- In this study, 72 presumptive C. lari and unknown Campylobacter species strains were characterized using standard phenotypic methods, 16S rRNA PCR, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). (elsevier.com)
- Although the species remains relatively abundant in its only known cave roost, it has a high extinction potential due to its probable limited capacity for dispersal. (edgeofexistence.org)
- We protect wildlife in Britain and around the world by bringing our most threatened species back from the brink of extinction. (ptes.org)
- We strive to bring our most threatened species in the UK and around the world back from the brink of extinction. (ptes.org)
- Many large animal species have a high risk of extinction. (sciencemag.org)
- In a broad-scale analysis of extinction risk in mammals, we find two additional patterns in the size selectivity of extinction risk. (sciencemag.org)
- Second, whereas extinction risk in smaller species is driven by environmental factors, in larger species it is driven by a combination of environmental factors and intrinsic traits. (sciencemag.org)
- Of the 129 species of marine mammals on Earth, including seals, dolphins and polar bears, approximately one-quarter are facing extinction, the study said. (enn.com)
- To pinpoint areas of the ocean where conservation could protect the maximum number of species and the ones most vulnerable to extinction, the researchers overlaid maps of where each marine mammal species is found. (enn.com)
- The researchers identified the 20 conservation sites based on three main criteria: how many species were present, how severe the risk of extinction was for each species and whether any of the species were unique to the area. (enn.com)
- It is also the first recorded extinction of a mammal anywhere in the world thought to be primarily due to human-caused climate change. (theguardian.com)
- An expert says this extinction is likely just the tip of the iceberg, with climate change exerting increasing pressures on species everywhere . (theguardian.com)
- The authors said the IUCN lists one other mammal that was driven to extinction, partly by extreme weather - the Little Swan Island hutia - but introduced cats on the island were considered the main driver of extinction. (theguardian.com)
- With extinction rates increasing, it's extremely important to be able to find new species before they disappear if we want to be able to understand the world that we're living in," said lead author Molly Fisher, a doctoral student in the Odum School of Ecology. (uga.edu)
- Some of the species that are present in the Park are rare and at risk of extinction. (parconazionaledelvesuvio.it)
- Plotted out, they note, the data shows a hump shaped curve in extinction probability when predators are taken into account, because they tend to target medium-sized prey-smaller mammals are too hard to catch, and the larger ones are too difficult to bring down. (phys.org)
- The team's results are the first to link medium-sized mammals with an increased risk of extinction due to predation in a changing environment. (phys.org)
- Globally, elevated extinction risk in mammals is strongly associated with large body size. (phys.org)
- However, in regions where introduced predators exert strong top-down pressure on mammal populations, the selectivity of extinctions may be skewed towards species of intermediate body size, leading to a hump-shaped relationship between size and extinction risk. (phys.org)
- Here, we test the hypothesis of a hump-shaped body size-extinction relationship, using a database of 927 island mammal populations. (phys.org)
- These findings suggest that it will be difficult to use predictable generalizations about extinction patterns, such as a positive body size-extinction risk association, to anticipate future species declines and plan conservation strategies accordingly. (phys.org)
- To hunt a species to extinction is not logical. (guardianlv.com)
- The 1986 publication included a list of 36 species and subspecies of land mammals native to California determined by the author and the Department to be potentially threatened with extinction in the State. (ca.gov)
- However, as a result of overexploitation for consumption of its meat and scales, this species is now moving closer to extinction, which is having a devastating impact on the world's remaining pangolins. (iucn.org)
- Canada has many mammalian species that are at risk of extinction primarily due to loss of habitat. (worldatlas.com)
- While most of the world finds that mammals are the predominant land animals, the Galapagos Islands' land animals are dominated by reptiles. (adventure-life.com)
- Unlike mammals, reptiles are able to survive long periods without water, which equipped them with the ability to make the epic 620-mile journey to the volcanic islands from the mainland millions of years ago. (adventure-life.com)
- In fact, the Islands draw such inspiration from these gentle reptiles that the archipelago was even named after one of its most famous species - the giant tortoise. (adventure-life.com)
- But ironically, there are a very limited number of mammals on the islands - instead the Galapagos' land animals are predominately reptiles. (adventure-life.com)
- But most importantly to us, a strange group of animals called the Mammal-like Reptiles. (earthlife.net)
- The Mammal-like Reptiles, or Therapsids, first appeared about 285 million years ago - near the beginning of the Permian (which is well before the dinosaurs). (earthlife.net)
- Warm-bloodedness is believed to have first evolved among the cynodonts, a late but successful group of mammal-like reptiles, from which the mammals evolved. (earthlife.net)
- The cynodonts were the only mammal-like reptiles to survive to the Jurassic. (earthlife.net)
- In contrast, many fish species and reptiles, for example, grow new teeth continually throughout their lives. (eurasiareview.com)
- All such prohibited mammals, birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), amphibians, and reptiles, and the eggs or offspring therefrom, shall be promptly exported or destroyed at the expense of the importer or consignee. (cornell.edu)
- Use this checklist as a guide to the presence and abundance of the park's mammals , reptiles, and amphibians. (sputtr.com)
- The genus Natalus is represented in the Greater Antilles today by three distinct species, each endemic to a single island (Cuba, Hispaniola and Jamaica), which were formerly thought to be conspecific before detailed morphometric and genetic analyses were carried out. (edgeofexistence.org)
- The species is endemic to central Mexico, and found on the slopes of only four volcanoes across the Tansverse Neovolcanic Belt (TNB) - Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl (Sierra Nevada), and El Pelado and Tlaloc (Sierra Chichinautzin). (edgeofexistence.org)
- Human-caused climate change appears to have driven the Great Barrier Reef's only endemic mammal species into the history books, with the Bramble Cay melomys , a small rodent that lives on a tiny island in the eastern Torres Strait, being completely wiped-out from its only known location. (theguardian.com)
- It had the most isolated and restricted range of any Australian mammal, and was considered the only mammal species endemic to the Great Barrier Reef . (theguardian.com)
- Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge (Ash Meadows NWR), a spring-fed wetlands and alkaline desert system located in the Mojave Desert in Nye County, Nevada, supports 25 species of endemic plants and animals (5 currently listed as federally endangered). (secheresse.info)
- Restoration projects are currently being developed because of the endangered endemic species. (secheresse.info)
- 38 Atlas of the Biodiversity of California Mammal Species Endemic to California By Monica Parisi So often when the term "wild animal" is used, it is a mammal which immediately comes to mind. (sputtr.com)
- BATON ROUGE - LSU Museum of Natural Science Curator of Mammals Jake Esselstyn and his international collaborators have discovered a new genus and species on a remote, mountainous island in Indonesia. (lsu.edu)
- On the second morning of their field season in 2013, Esselstyn and Museum Victoria Senior Curator of Mammals Kevin Rowe set out in opposite directions from their field camp to check their traps. (lsu.edu)
- Don E. Wilson is the curator of mammals and a senior scientist at the Smithsonian Institution. (google.co.uk)
- The discovery of the olinguito shows us that the world is not yet completely explored, its most basic secrets not yet revealed," said Kristofer Helgen, curator of mammals at the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History and leader of the team reporting the new discovery. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
- It's been kind of hiding in plain sight for a long time" despite its extraordinary beauty, said Kristofer Helgen, the Smithsonian's curator of mammals. (thehour.com)
- The largest mammals that every lived became an endangered species when, from 1900 to the mid-1960s, about 360,000 blue whales were slaughtered. (guardianlv.com)
- Although they are the top of the food chain, the largest mammals that ever lived, blue whales have become an endangered species. (guardianlv.com)
- Desert Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis nelsoni ) aresome of the largest mammals found in the North American deserts. (livescience.com)
- The following is a list of largest mammals by family. (wikipedia.org)
- It is one of the best locations in the world to see greater one-horned rhinos and is also home to India's other largest mammals, including Asian elephants and Asian water buffaloes. (usatoday.com)
- 1% of the total federal funding: Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program and Environmental Security Technology Certification Program ($950K), National Park Service ($640K), Smithsonian Institution ($600K), US Coast Guard ($230K), US Army Corps of Engineers ($230K), Marine Mammal Commission ($170K), Bureau of Land Management ($150K), Army ($50K), and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy ($10K). (mmc.gov)
- They then subtracted the number of known mammal species to come up with the estimate of 303 yet to be discovered. (uga.edu)
- Connor started keeping a list of known mammal species when he was 16," said Upham, who was introduced to an 18-year-old Burgin by Don Wilson, curator at the Smithsonian Natural History Museum in Washington, DC. (healthmedicinet.com)
- Thus, the disadvantages of large size are greater than generally recognized, and future loss of large mammal biodiversity could be far more rapid than expected. (sciencemag.org)
- Globally, as many as 1 million species are threatened currently, making this time in history the most precarious for animal life and biodiversity on earth. (worldatlas.com)
- ScienceDaily â€" Preserving just 4 percent of the ocean could protect crucial habitat for the vast majority of marine mammal species, from sea otters to blue whales, according to researchers at Stanford University and the National Autonomous University of Mexico. (enn.com)
- The toxin accumulates in shellfish, mussels, anchovies, sardines and herring, and can sicken marine mammals including sea lions, sea otters and fur seals who feed on these living organisms. (lmtonline.com)
- Numerous marine mammals are listed under the ESA including manatees, sea otters, and several pinnipeds (e.g., seals and sea lions) and cetaceans (e.g., whales and dolphins). (mmc.gov)
- Responsibility for the other marine mammals (manatees, polar bears, sea otters, and walruses) belongs to the Interior Department's U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), which provided $1.67M (2%) and $4.93M (5%), respectively. (mmc.gov)
- With extremely large ears, long hind legs that may be used for hopping, long white incisors and very long urogenital hairs, the Hog-nosed rat is so genetically different from any other species that the scientists described it as a new genus. (lsu.edu)
- The scientists found that the new species eats earthworms and beetle larvae. (lsu.edu)
- After sequencing the DNA from the specimens, the scientists had the molecular evidence to confirm the species' unique distinctions. (lsu.edu)
- Over the course of six nights, the scientists set up 150 mammal traps a night, and came up empty. (inhabitat.com)
- Described as a cross between a house cat and a teddy bear, scientists announced the identification of a new mammal species, the olinguito. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
- In the raccoon family, Bassaricyon neblina is the first mammalian carnivore species to be added in the Americas in 35 years, scientists at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington said. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
- The scientists also considered habitats of special importance to marine mammals, such as breeding grounds and migration routes. (enn.com)
- Because it is not logistically possible to count all the world's species based on direct observation, scientists use statistical models to calculate their numbers. (uga.edu)
- The model is based on the relationship between the number of species descriptions published and the number and efficiency of taxonomists-the scientists who describe and classify species-working at a given time. (uga.edu)
- More recently, a comparative genomic analysis of six species of yeast prompted scientists to significantly revise their initial catalog of yeast genes and to predict a new set of functional elements thought to play a role in regulating genome activity. (booktalk.org)
- books.google.com - Marine Mammals: Fisheries, Tourism and Management Issues brings together contributions from 68 leading scientists from 12 countries to provide a comprehensive, up-to-date review on the way we manage our interactions with whales, dolphins, seals and dugongs. (google.com)
- Marine Mammals is an invaluable and accessible resource for all those involved with marine mammals, including scientists, managers, policy makers, industry representatives and students. (google.com)
- Marsupials or metatherians are a group of mammals that are distinct in giving birth to young at early stages of development and in having a prolonged investment in lactation. (peerj.com)
- Towards the end of the Jurassic, a group of mammals known as 'multituberculates' appeared. (earthlife.net)
- The fact that a single premolar is all that is left of Brasilestes and that it is incomplete prevented the researchers from distinguishing with absolute confidence the group of mammals to which the species belonged. (eurasiareview.com)
- Deforestation-related habitat loss due to human activities, shown here on Borneo, is a major threat to mammals across Indonesia. (worldatlas.com)
- If you're an open-habitat species that used to occupy the mammoth steppe, and now the mammoth steppe has gone away, you might inhabit, say, open grassland areas that are surrounded by forests," Lyons said. (eurekalert.org)
- And if those patches of open habitat are spread farther apart, you might expand your geographic range and potentially your climate range, but you would co-occur with fewer species. (eurekalert.org)
- Little information, however, is available on the impact of habitat variability on density of small mammal prey species at broad spatial scales. (usda.gov)
- Sciurid and leporid species exhibited mixed responses to vegetation, such that changes to native habitat will likely affect prey species differently. (usda.gov)
- It is listed as a critically endangered species due to habitat loss. (allrefer.com)
- Habitat losses and the extremely large-scale incidences of poaching are serious threats to the species' survival. (allrefer.com)
- This unique habitat is home to a wide variety of species, from colorful flamingos and comical blue-footed boobies, to showy frigate birds and bizarre cormorants. (adventure-life.com)
- Changes in habitat and landscape characteristics due to land-use change can have a significant effect on species presence, abundance, and distribution. (scielo.br)
- Multi-scale approaches have been used to determine the proper spatial scales at which species and communities are responding to habitat transformation. (scielo.br)
- The composition of the mammal community was related with local habitat variables, and landscape variables measured at seven spatial scales. (scielo.br)
- Environmental change such as habitat loss and toxins in the ocean also threaten the massive marine mammals. (guardianlv.com)
- Small mammal trap lines were set in 18 qualitatively different habitat types during 6 sampling seasons (2 each in spring, summer, and fall) in 2008-2009. (secheresse.info)
- Habitat characteristics were quantified for each habitat type then joined to individual small mammal traps in ArcMap 9.3. (secheresse.info)
- A CCA (canonical correspondence analysis) was conducted to assess small mammal habitat associations. (secheresse.info)
- Small mammals were primarily associated with shrub dominated and graminoid dominated habitat associations. (secheresse.info)
- New species evolved rapidly to fill this empty habitat. (earthlife.net)
- The array of wildlife in Canada also means that there are many species that are becoming threatened, mainly from loss of habitat. (worldatlas.com)
- Found exclusively in the Okanagan region of southern BC, Pallid Bats are a threatened species in Canada because the habitat in which they like to roost and breed is very rare. (worldatlas.com)
- infection in ectoparasites of wild mammals. (vdu.lt)
- In total 118 ectoparasites were collected (110 ticks and 8 fleas) from wild mammals (European hare, raccoon dog, European polecat, European badger and red fox). (vdu.lt)
- and the terms "wildlife" and "wildlife resources" include those resources that comprise wild mammals, wild birds, fish (including mollusks and crustacea), and all other classes of wild creatures whatsoever, and all types of aquatic and land vegetation upon which such wildlife resources are dependent. (cornell.edu)
- The volcano rabbit is monotypic (the only species in its genus). (edgeofexistence.org)
- The researchers originally started out to create the first comprehensive study of olingos, several species of tree-living carnivores in the genus Bassaricyon. (goodnewsnetwork.org)
- It is the only extant species of the genus Dicerorhinus. (allrefer.com)
- For example, the Platypus Ornithorhynchus anadinus is the sole species in the family Ornithorhynchidae, and one of only five species in the order Monotremata, whereas the Cactus Mouse Peromyscus eremicus is one of 56 species in its genus, one of 692 species in the family Cricetidae and one of 2280 species in the order Rodentia [ 13 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Interestingly, this species has lost the two things that we think made rodents successful," Esselstyn said. (lsu.edu)
- Research here had led to the description of multiple new opossums, shrews, bats, rodents and primates, with the recognition of multiple new species of the latter group perhaps receiving most attention. (scienceblogs.com)
- Almost all the species have crepuscular and nocturnal habits, the most common ones are represented by rodents and insectivores, which constitute the fundamental trophic resource for predators. (parconazionaledelvesuvio.it)
- Rodents and some other small mammals were trapped and examined for ectoparasitic chigger mites in 29 investigation sites in Yunnan during 2001-2013. (springer.com)
- Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference is a standard reference work in mammology giving descriptions and bibliographic data for the known species of mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- Wilson and Reeder's Mammal Species of the World is the classic reference book on the taxonomic classification and distribution of the more than 5400 species of mammals that exist today. (google.co.uk)
- Taxonomic classification and distribution of the more than 5400 species of mammals. (google.it)
- We focus on mammals because they are among the best-known taxa, and by degrading the available taxonomic and phylogenetic information in various ways we can simulate the more imperfect state of knowledge of less-known groups. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- To update the count of global mammal species, the researchers reviewed more than 1,200 taxonomic publications appearing after the end-2003 cutoff date for Mammal Species of the World. (healthmedicinet.com)
- Mammals have lagged behind other groups in their taxonomic record-keeping," said Upham, "which is surprising given their relevance as models for disease and human origins. (healthmedicinet.com)
- Arguably the most exciting concept in the entire field of zoology is the thought that new large terrestrial tetrapod species await discovery. (scienceblogs.com)
- New terrestrial mammals, such as those listed above, have come from SE Asia, tropical Africa and New Guinea, but one of the most notable hotspots has been Amazonia. (scienceblogs.com)
- On this issue, few living people have contributed so much to the discovery and documentation of new terrestrial mammal species as Dutch primatologist Dr Marc van Roosmalen [shown at left: but not the little furry chap, that's a woolly monkey]. (scienceblogs.com)
- The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. (go.jp)
- Some examples of such species, both terrestrial and aquatic, have been mentioned below to understand the variety of threats facing Canada's mammals. (worldatlas.com)
- The first corresponded to the divergence of monotreme mammals (platypus and echidna) from the rest, and the second to the divergence of marsupials from placental mammals (including humans). (cosmosmagazine.com)
- In a paper published in BioEssays , I propose that drastic sex chromosome changes could have played a direct role in separating our lineage (placental mammals), first from the egg-laying monotremes, then from marsupials. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- In humans and other placental mammals, such as mice, dogs and elephants, sex is determined by a pair of chromosomes. (cosmosmagazine.com)
- Marsupials and placental mammals ( cats , dogs, you and me) did not evolve for another 70 million years. (earthlife.net)
- Few people are aware that hunting the species is illegal, and the rabbits are often killed for food by the local people or used as target practice by hunters looking for game birds. (edgeofexistence.org)
- The distinct features of the birds make for easy identification even for the novice birder, while the savvy will be pleased to spot the rare and treasured species found only in the Galapagos Islands. (adventure-life.com)
- These carnivorous hunters prefer to hunt at night and their diet is primarily other desert mammals, but they will surely eat both birds and eggs. (livescience.com)
- Over 30 species of birds have been identifiefd from the Fossil Butte Member (FBM). (nps.gov)
- The theoretical framework on the evolution of brain, cognition, and behavior in birds and mammals should be reconsidered with these biases in mind. (frontiersin.org)
- In particular, in birds and mammals, in which most research has been conducted, there are no satisfactory answers to the following questions: Which factors control species differences in brain size and composition and what is, if any, the role of body size? (frontiersin.org)
- Examining the literature on birds and mammals, the present paper exposes definitive reasons for abandoning whole-class analyses in comparative studies and highlights the importance of a detailed taxon-cerebrotype approach in brain evolution studies. (frontiersin.org)
- Nothing in this subsection shall restrict the importation of dead natural-history specimens for museums or for scientific collections, or the importation of domesticated canaries, parrots (including all other species of psittacine birds), or such other cage birds as the Secretary of the Interior may designate. (cornell.edu)
- So the 2004 news that what appears to be another large extant peccary species was really really interesting, to say the least. (scienceblogs.com)
- Marsupials are an old lineage thought to have diverged from early therian mammals some 160 million years ago in the Jurassic, and have a remarkable evolutionary and biogeographical history, with extant species restricted to the Americas, mostly South America, and to Australasia. (peerj.com)
- Here we present the first Methaterian species-level phylogeny to include 80% of the extant marsupial species and five nuclear and five mitochondrial markers obtained from Genbank and a recently published retroposon matrix. (peerj.com)
- and then diversified with over 200 extant species in the region. (peerj.com)
- We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have issued the following permits to conduct certain activities with endangered species, marine mammals, or both. (federalregister.gov)
- People's Trust for Endangered Species was set up in 1977 to save our wildlife. (ptes.org)
- In fact, we are home to 23 species of cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) and four species of sea turtles.Seeing killer whales and other marine wildlife in their natural environment is a thrilling experience. (comoxvalleyrecord.com)
- The Canadian Government maintains the List of Wildlife Species At Risk in Canada under this Act and it can be viewed at Species at Risk Registry website. (worldatlas.com)
- The 'cat-fox,' a mysterious feline that roams the French island of Corsica, may be a new species, according to wildlife officials. (usatoday.com)
- In the Asco forest in Corsica, two agents of the National Hunting and Wildlife Office (ONCFS) show AFP what they think is a new feline species. (usatoday.com)
- If connectedness among species makes ecosystems more stable, what this suggests is that we've already lost a lot of those links. (eurekalert.org)
- We examined the relationship between small mammal density and remotely-sensed environmental covariates in shrub-steppe and grassland ecosystems in Wyoming, USA. (usda.gov)
- It's important to protect marine mammals if you want to keep the ocean's ecosystems functional," said study co-author Paul Ehrlich, professor of biology and senior fellow at the Woods Institute for the Environment at Stanford. (enn.com)
- There are more than 4,000 species of mammals living in the many ecosystems and environments found across the Earth. (livescience.com)
- In addition to the Marine Mammal Protection Act , other important legislation and agreements have been enacted to protect and conserve marine mammals and their ecosystems. (mmc.gov)
- When feeding on a large mammal, it minimizes spoilage and loss to scavengers by dragging the carcass to a secluded cache site and covering it with leaves and debris. (britannica.com)
- In particular, the ears of N. primus are very large relative to those of other species (20.2-21.2 mm length). (edgeofexistence.org)
- This species occurs in a ''hot cave": a cave with poor ventilation and nearly constant high temperatures (26-40°C) and humidity (>90%), which typically contain large bat communities. (edgeofexistence.org)
- The aftermath saw the disappearance of many famously large mammal species: mammoths, mastodons, saber-toothed cats, dire wolves and ground sloths, among others. (eurekalert.org)
- Researchers Thursday announced a rare discovery of a new species of a mammal that belongs to the grouping of large creatures that include dogs, cats and bears: the olinguito. (thehour.com)
- Most people believe there are no new species to discover, particularly of relatively large charismatic animals," said Case Western Reserve University anatomy professor Darin Croft. (thehour.com)
- It is the smallest rhinoceros, although it is still a large mammal. (allrefer.com)
- The large number of probes per target used by Affymetrix microarrays represents an advantage for cross species analyses with respect to other microarray platforms, such as those based on cDNA probes. (biomedcentral.com)
- Coyotes are known to gather and hunt in packs when they are stalking large mammals such as deer. (livescience.com)
- The largest members of the camel family are either the bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ), which is still wild in the steppe of central Asia, or the similarly sized dromedary ( Camelus dromedarius ), which no longer exists as a purely wild species but is widespread in the Middle East as a domestic animal, with a large introduced feral population in Australia. (wikipedia.org)
- Another distinct characteristic of the Hog-nosed rat is that it lacks a jaw muscle attachment point found in most mammals called the coronoid process on the dentary bone. (lsu.edu)
- For each permit for an endangered species, we found that (1) The application was filed in good faith, (2) The granted permit would not operate to the disadvantage of the endangered species, and (3) The granted permit would be consistent with the purposes and policy set forth in section 2 of the ESA. (federalregister.gov)
- DNA of this species was found only in hybrid individuals Erinaceus europaeus x Erinaceus roumanicus (Albov et al. (gbif.org)
- Surviving mammal species often responded by distancing themselves from their neighbors, the study found, potentially reducing how often they interacted as predators and prey, territorial competitors or scavengers. (eurekalert.org)
- The proportion of aggregating pairs generally declined following the extinctions, and the strength of associations often dropped even among species that continued to aggregate, the researchers found. (eurekalert.org)
- We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. (go.jp)
- While new species are found regularly, usually they are tiny and not mammals, the warm-blooded advanced class of animals that have hair, live births and mammary glands in females. (thehour.com)
- Up until now, it was believed that this species was only found from Argentina to western Panama! (kidssavingtherainforest.org)
- Using simulated data sets, the researchers ran thousands of tests of both models and found that theirs was more likely to arrive at the correct number of species. (uga.edu)
- There may be more cryptic species in the tundra/taiga of the Palearctic than previously assumed or found," she said. (uga.edu)
- Rickettsia DNA were found in 23.1% (3/13) Dermocentor reticulatus ticks and 13.4% (13/97) Ixodes ricinus ticks, as well in 12.5% (1/8) fleas of Chaetopsylla globiceps species. (vdu.lt)
- We found 14 mammal species in forest, 11 species in plantation, and 7 mammal species in grassland. (scielo.br)
- Two hero shrew species ( Scutisorex ) can be found in the palm forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. (sciencenews.org)
- Brasilestes stardusti is the name given to the oldest known mammal found in Brazil. (eurasiareview.com)
- Our results support the idea of more northerly refuge areas in Europe, indicating that boreal species would have found suitable living conditions over much of southern central and eastern Europe and the Russian Plain. (ingentaconnect.com)
- Temperate species would have primarily found suitable conditions in the traditional southern refuge areas, but interestingly also in much of the southern Russian Plain. (ingentaconnect.com)
- 3. *Give one or more identifying characteristics of each of the following orders of mammals , and name one or more species of mammals found in each order: a. (sputtr.com)
- In Texas the species is known primarily from the oak-hickory, pine-oak, and longleaf pine forest regions, with recent records extending the range westward to Hunt, Dallas, Coryell, and Williamson counties. (ttu.edu)
- The cetaceans (whales and dolphins), are the largest and most diverse order of marine mammals and consist of two suborders, the Odontoceti (toothed whales) and the Mysteceti (baleen or rorqual whales), which are separated primarily on the basis of their feeding strategies and the morphological differences that characterize these. (iziko.org.za)
- Visualising reactive oxygen species in live mammals and revealing of ROS-related system. (medworm.com)
- While carrying out your bird surveys, please count all live mammals seen during your Early and Late BBS visits, and make notes of any signs of mammals. (bto.org)
- C C ounts of live animals during your Early or Late BBS visit (please count all live mammals seen). (bto.org)
- Throughout its range its primary prey is hoofed mammals ( ungulate s, especially deer) larger than itself. (britannica.com)
- A study suggests a putative gene-expression hallmark common to monogamous male vertebrates of some species, namely cichlid fishes, dendrobatid frogs, passeroid songbirds, common voles, and deer mice, and identifies 24 candidate genes potentially associated with monogamy. (pnas.org)
- The most common species are the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766, the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 and the gray brocket deer Mazama gouazoubira G. Fischer, 1814 which are generalist species. (scielo.br)
- The larger mammals, such as mule deer and mountain sheep stay close enough to springs to be able to drink daily. (nps.gov)
- The puma, a member of the family Felidae, has the widest distribution of any New World mammal , with a range extending from southeastern Alaska to southern Argentina and Chile. (britannica.com)
- This makes the country seventh in the world ranking of countries with the most threatened species. (worldatlas.com)
- This indispensable reference work belongs in public and academic libraries throughout the world and on the shelf of every biologist who works with mammals. (google.co.uk)
- Mammal species, threatened in Mauritius was reported at 7 in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. (tradingeconomics.com)
- Mauritius - Mammal species, threatened - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the World Bank on August of 2020. (tradingeconomics.com)
- Isolated from the mainland for thousands of years, some of the most unusual species in the world have evolved here, including giant tortoises, marine iguanas, blue-footed boobies, and even the world's only equatorial penguin. (adventure-life.com)
- Every ocean in the world is home to this endangered species. (guardianlv.com)
- Mammal Species of the World (opens in a new window). (si.edu)
- Previous sporadic releases of the Mammal Species of the World series, the latest edition of which was published in 2005, have resulted in the major time gap among estimates of mammal species number. (healthmedicinet.com)
- Thus, few desert mammals use perspiration or panting as their main method of keeping cool. (nps.gov)
- A few desert mammals, such as the round-tailed ground squirrel, a diurnal rodent, enter a state of aestivation when the days become too hot and the vegetation too dry. (nps.gov)
- Most desert mammals are herbivores and derive water directly from the plants they eat. (nps.gov)
- This urban bobcat ( Lynx rufus ) is just one of many desert mammals that truly make these North American lands a living desert. (livescience.com)
- Although they occasionally occupy burrows dug by other species, they spend most of their time at the surface, where the dense zacaton keeps them hidden from predators. (edgeofexistence.org)
- Other fascinating underwater species you might come across include all manner of rays, from manta to golden to stingrays, a veritable rainbow of tropical fish, sea turtles, corals, seahorses, and their hungry avian predators that plunge into the seas to snag their next meal from high above. (adventure-life.com)
- Their study suggests, they note, that future efforts to protect endangered species take both size and predators into consideration. (phys.org)
- Caitlin Birdsall, research assistant for the BC Cetacean Sightings Network, will give a presentation at the Fanny Bay Hall at 2 p.m. this Sunday about marine mammal species common to this part of Vancouver Island, threats to these animals, and information on how you can participate in the sightings network.This event is sponsored by the Fanny Bay Community Association. (comoxvalleyrecord.com)
- Iziko S.A. Museum's Marine Mammal Collection includes a comprehensive collection of cetacean and Cape fur seal skeletal material. (iziko.org.za)
- Originally described from fossils that have been discovered across mainland Cuba and the neighbouring Isle of Pines, a living population of the species was only discovered in 1992 in a single "hot cave", the remote Cueva La Barca, located on the Guanahacabibes Peninsula at the western tip of Cuba within one of the largest remaining tracts of Cuban lowland forest. (edgeofexistence.org)
- These animals Esselstyn and his colleagues have described are new species within new genera, because the animals could not be placed within any existing group. (lsu.edu)
- The updated tabulation details 1,251 new species recognitions, at least 172 unions, and multiple major, higher-level changes, including an additional 88 genera and 14 newly recognized families. (healthmedicinet.com)