Isoptera: An order of insects, restricted mostly to the tropics, containing at least eight families. A few species occur in temperate regions of North America.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Hierarchy, Social: Social rank-order established by certain behavioral patterns.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Siphonaptera: An order of parasitic, blood-sucking, wingless INSECTS with the common name of fleas.BooksFeathers: Flat keratinous structures found on the skin surface of birds. Feathers are made partly of a hollow shaft fringed with barbs. They constitute the plumage.Flea Infestations: Parasitic attack by members of the order SIPHONAPTERA.Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.Ctenocephalides: A genus of FLEAS in the family Pulicidae. It includes the cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis), one of the most common species on earth.Protestantism: The name given to all Christian denominations, sects, or groups rising out of the Reformation. Protestant churches generally agree that the principle of authority should be the Scriptures rather than the institutional church or the pope. (from W.L. Reese, Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion, 1999)Spiders: Arthropods of the class ARACHNIDA, order Araneae. Except for mites and ticks, spiders constitute the largest order of arachnids, with approximately 37,000 species having been described. The majority of spiders are harmless, although some species can be regarded as moderately harmful since their bites can lead to quite severe local symptoms. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p508; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, pp424-430)Arthropods: Members of the phylum Arthropoda, composed of organisms having a hard, jointed exoskeleton and paired jointed legs. It includes the class INSECTS and the subclass ARACHNIDA, many species of which are important medically as parasites or as vectors of organisms capable of causing disease in man.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)GeorgiaGeorgia (Republic)Coprophagia: Eating of excrement by animal species.Spider Bites: The effects, both local and systemic, caused by the bites of SPIDERS.
  • Comparative study of egg parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) on two squash bug species Anasa tristis and Anasa armigera (Hemiptera: Coreidae). (usda.gov)
  • Revision of the European Lysiphlebus species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) on the basis of COI and 28SD2 molecular markers and morphology. (senckenberg.de)
  • Nuclear and mitochondrial markers suggest new species boundaries in Alloxysta (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea: Figitidae). (senckenberg.de)
  • Macrotermes convulsionarius, is a species of termite of the genus Macrotermes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Label the drawings with common names and genus or species level names. (wikibooks.org)
  • All pictures should be in focus, close-ups and properly labeled, showing where photographed, the date photographed, common names and genus or species level names. (wikibooks.org)
  • A new genus of Berothidae from tropical America, with two new species. (springer.com)
  • Fungi of the genus Termitomyces (Basidiomycota) are cultivated by termite species of the subfamily Macrotermitinae (Isoptera). (wur.nl)
  • Here we investigate the evolutionary processes shaping continental species richness disparities of the pantropical, epiphytic and mostly TRF-dwelling orchid mega-genus Bulbophyllum ( c. 1948 spp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Insufficient descriptions, poor museum specimens, and lack of diagnostic characters place the identity of these species in doubt and underscore the need for a taxonomic revision of the genus. (ufl.edu)
  • A new genus and species of pemphredonine wasp is described and figured in Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Santonian) amber from Vendée, in northwestern France. (ku.edu)
  • A new species of the extinct genus Microphorites Hennig (Dolichopodidae: Microphorinae) is described from a single male preserved in Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Santonian) Vendean amber (NW France). (ku.edu)
  • Integrative taxonomy of genus Electrogena (Ephemeroptera: Heptageniidae): the role of innovative morphological analyses for species delimitation. (senckenberg.de)
  • Genetic structure and distributional patterns of the genus Mastigodiaptomus (Copepoda) in Mexico, with the description of a new species from the Yucatan Peninsula. (senckenberg.de)
  • Notes on the hymenopterous genus Megalyra Westwood, with descriptions of new species. (scielo.org.za)
  • In some cases this involves differences in size, asymmetry and simplification, which may arise as physical isolating mechanisms and is useful in distinguishing otherwise very similar species, particularly in the genus Mesalina (p. 1253). (lacerta.de)
  • Of the species that lived in the Eocene epoch, approximately one in ten genera survive to the present. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Formicinae is one of 16 subfamilies of the family Formicidae and contains some 48 recent genera and approximately 3,000 described species ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • The behavior and biochemical adaptations of 3 generalist insect species ( Tettigonia viridissima L., Ruspolia nitidula Scopoli, and Conocephalus discolor Thunberg) and 3 specialists ( Galeruca tanaceti L., Chrysolina geminata Payrtull, and Cloantha perspicillaris Boisduval) to the hypericin-containing leaves of Hypericum perforatum were investigated in southwestern France. (bioone.org)
  • In almost all termite species, soldiers play defensive roles in their colonies, and their morphology and behavior are largely different from workers (or pseudergates). (biomedcentral.com)
  • These adjustments to coexistence become relevant in the context of endemic species in a highly isolated basin under intense threat (dams, species introduction, deforestation, and pollution) as is the case for the Iguaçu River basin. (scielo.br)
  • While species have at times been considered highly endemic and hypothesized to have poor dispersal abilities, increasingly individual species are being discovered to have larger geographic ranges than previously understood (e.g. (tolweb.org)
  • So far, no endemic South American species of terrestrial isopods have been investigated for Wolbachia infection. (scielo.br)
  • From molecular hypotheses to valid species: description of three endemic species of Baetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from the Canary Islands. (senckenberg.de)
  • Only one, very preliminary attempt has been made to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among zorapteran species (Engel, 2003b). (tolweb.org)
  • AMOVA analyses showed that most of the genetic variance was distributed among populations of each species rather than between species, and the phylogenetic analysis suggested that Wolbachia strains from Balloniscus cluster within Supergroup B, but do not form a single monophyletic clade, suggesting multiple infections for this group. (scielo.br)
  • Previously placed in the Deuteromycota along with asexual species from other fungal taxa, asexual (or anamorphic ) ascomycetes are now identified and classified based on morphological or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa , and by phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic tree inference is a fundamental tool to estimate ancestor-descendant relationships among different species. (beds.ac.uk)
  • However, why species richness varies amongst the Earth's major TRF regions remains poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Species richness disparities amongst these four TRF lineages are best explained by a time-for-speciation (i.e. clade age) effect rather than differences in net diversification or diversity-dependent diversification due to present or past spatial-bioclimatic limits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, both species diversity (richness) and TRF area are not evenly distributed among those regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Like many other organisms, ants present a latitudinal gradient of species richness, with the highest richness found within the tropical regions. (els.net)
  • Ant species richness tends to decrease with elevation, and become extremely scarce for an elevation above 2500 m, but can be present up to 4800 m. (els.net)
  • Species richness, distribution and genetic diversity of Caenorhabditis nematodes in a remote tropical rainforest. (cnrs.fr)
  • Five D. cinerea invaded sites, each approximately one hectare in size were assessed for the effects of D. cinerea on native herbaceous species diversity, richness, basal cover, litter cover, top hamper and plant vigour. (wur.nl)
  • Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is a pervasive chemical stimulus that plays a critical role in insect life, eliciting behavioral and physiological responses across different species. (peerj.com)
  • The egg-laying habits of the different species vary. (everythingabout.net)
  • Different species of mammals have evolved to live in nearly all terrestrial and aquatic habitats on Earth. (eol.org)
  • Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species in which one, the parasite, benefits from a prolonged, close association with the other, the host , which is harmed. (statemaster.com)
  • In this work, populations from two species of Balloniscus ( B. sellowii and B. glaber ) were studied through a diagnostic PCR assay. (scielo.br)
  • Wolbachia found in both species were generally specific to one population, and five populations hosted two different Wolbachia 16S rDNA sequences. (scielo.br)
  • Prevalence was higher in B. glaber than in B. sellowii , but uninfected populations could be found in both species. (scielo.br)
  • For each well-sampled lineage (Madagascar, Africa, Neotropics), we inferred high rates of speciation and extinction over time (i.e. high species turnover), yet with the origin of most extant species falling into the Quaternary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All species of Formicidae are eusocial, i.e., their colonies have members that are behaviorally and often highly morphologically specialized for reproduction, foraging, tending larvae, and defense. (pnas.org)
  • Species feed principally on fungal hyphae and spores but can also be general scavengers or predators, victimizing nematodes, mites, or other tiny arthropods. (tolweb.org)
  • A Streptomyces species with in vivo antimicrobial activity against fungal entomopathogens was isolated from the nest material of multiple termite colonies. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Earlier studies convey that several fungal species like Trichoderma reesei, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Fomitopsis palustris, Orpinomyces sp etc, were found to degrade cellulose by inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts of several ruminating animals [ 11 , 12 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Arizona has the highest diversity of ants in the United States, with over 300 known species. (tolweb.org)
  • Not likely considering the number of species and diversity of morphs involved. (myrmecos.net)
  • Our results highlight the importance of studying Wolbachia prevalence and genetic diversity in Neotropical species and suggest that South American arthropods may harbor a great number of diverse strains, providing an interesting model to investigate the evolution of Wolbachia and its hosts. (scielo.br)
  • Tropical rainforests (TRFs) harbour almost half of the world's vascular plant species diversity while covering only about 6-7% of land. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This data set also contains a comparison of the termite species composition of low- and high-diversity agroforestry systems with primary forest. (ornl.gov)
  • Anderson, J.M. ( 1975 ) The enigma of soil animal species diversity. (wiley.com)
  • Revisiting the genetic diversity and population structure of the critically endangered leatherback turtles in the South-west Atlantic Ocean: insights for species conservation. (edu.au)
  • The greatest diversity occurs in tropical locations, such as in Malaysia, where 88 species were heard chirping from a single location near Kuala Lumpur . (wikipedia.org)
  • Ovipositional preferences of two squash bug species, Anasa tristis, and Anasa armigera (Heteroptera: Coreidae), for different cultivars and species of Cucurbitaceae. (usda.gov)
  • c) Workers of a Neotropical species of Pheidole bringing back a prey item (here a Coleoptera) to their nest. (els.net)
  • Variaciones de las agregaciones de escarabajos coprófagos (Coleoptera : Scarabaeidae) en dos hábitats del bosque tropical en la Guayana Francesa. (cnrs.fr)
  • Insecticidal Activities of Extracts of Three Lichen Species on Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). (uefs.br)
  • As the Madagascan, African and Neotropical lineages display constant-rate evolution since their origin (early-to-mid-Miocene), Quaternary environmental change might be a less important cause of their high species turnover than intrinsic features generally conferring rapid population turnover in tropical orchids (e.g., epiphytism, specialization on pollinators and mycorrhizal fungi, wind dispersal). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neotropical Perenniporia : a new species, Perenniporia subovoidea, from Costa Rica, new records of little known species, and a key to the species with a resupinate basidiome. (cnrs.fr)
  • The foreign species has threatened soybean production and interbred with native ants to create hybrid species of fire ants. (georgiaencyclopedia.org)
  • More than 12 500 species of ants are presently described, distributed within 21 subfamilies, with a large majority of the species belonging to only four subfamilies. (els.net)
  • In most ecosystems the ecological importance of ants, involved in numerous interactions with organisms ranging from bacteria, plants, fungi, arthropods to vertebrates, plays a critical role in the survival or control of many species. (els.net)
  • More than 12 500 species of ants are known today, with many species still unknown, and most of the current species belong to four subfamilies: the Myrmicinae, Formicinae, Ponerinae and Dolichoderinae. (els.net)
  • There are about 22,000 species of ants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Permutational analysis of variance showed the species had different diets, and similarity percentage analysis indicated that fruit/seed and terrestrial plant contributed the most to this differentiation. (scielo.br)
  • Terrestrial isopod species (Crustacea, Oniscidea) are widely infected with Wolbachia with prevalence reaching ~61% (~36 infected species) in this group (Bouchon et al . (scielo.br)
  • Most are terrestrial herbivores and many species have powerful hind legs that are well-adapted for jumping. (thoughtco.com)
  • Despite covering only about c. 6-7% of the Earth's land surface ( c. 8.3 × 10 8 ha in total), tropical rainforests (TRFs) are by far the most species-rich terrestrial ecosystems, with about 175,200 species of vascular plants [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent analyses of spirochetal 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-encoding genes (16 S rDNA) amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from termite guts revealed that they were affiliated with the treponemes, but none were closely related to any known species of Treponema ( 2 , 4 , 5 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • 97% sequence similarity ( 10 )] to any known species of Treponema . (sciencemag.org)
  • This species has several nicknames, including "Darning Needle" for its speed, "Mosquito Hawk" for its predatory habits, and "Lord of June" for its abundance during the summer season. (wikibooks.org)
  • Reported are (1) the termite species occurrence and areal abundance of mounds, (2) characterization of the mound soil microbiological community, root biomass, seedling emergence success, soil respiration, nitrogen mineralization, and (3) the characterization of the termite mound soil physical, chemical, and hydraulic properties. (ornl.gov)
  • The dispersal of the polyphagous aphid-feeding coccinellid, Coccinella septempunctata, has been associated with reduced abundance of two indigenous coccinellid species in South Dakota and possible adverse effects on the biological control of the alfalfa weevil in Utah (Elliot et al. (umn.edu)
  • Provided mutations to selfish asexuality are extremely rare, sex may be favoured because sexual species survive and proliferate more than asexual species ( Nunney 1989 ). (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Other species are sometimes found in localized infestations in Canada: two small colonies of Cryptotermes brevis have been found in British Columbia, one infesting a wooden case imported from Peru ( Port McNeill , BC), another infesting a cupboard in Vancouver , while a large colony of Incisitermes minor was found in 1989 infesting a home in Toronto. (thecanadianencyclopedia.ca)
  • AQS, along with the species' ecology and lifestyle, influences their population sex ratio. (els.net)
  • Finally, despite the tremendous efforts to understand ant biology over the past decades, the ecology of most species is still poorly understood and many new species are expected to be discovered. (els.net)
  • Every chapter provides a complete account of species occurrence, their status and gaps in research. (nhbs.com)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the similarity between nine species of green manure regarding the occurrence of epiedaphic macrofauna. (bireme.br)
  • The altruistic, cooperative allele spreads in the species as colonies without a high occurrence (gene frequency) of this allele become extinct. (brembs.net)
  • The tropical fire ant ( Solenopsis geminata ) and the southern fire ant ( Solenopsis xyloni ) are established species in the state but are often overshadowed by Solenopsis invicta , an invasive species from South America. (georgiaencyclopedia.org)
  • Barklice and booklice (Psocoptera) - There are about 3,200 species of barklice and booklice alive today. (thoughtco.com)