DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic: Techniques for standardizing and expediting taxonomic identification or classification of organisms that are based on deciphering the sequence of one or a few regions of DNA known as the "DNA barcode".Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).MuseumsClassification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Costa RicaCytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Polygonaceae: The only family of the buckwheat order (Polygonales) of dicotyledonous flowering plants. It has 40 genera of herbs, shrubs, and trees.DNA, Intergenic: Any of the DNA in between gene-coding DNA, including untranslated regions, 5' and 3' flanking regions, INTRONS, non-functional pseudogenes, and non-functional repetitive sequences. This DNA may or may not encode regulatory functions.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Manitoba: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. Its capital is Winnipeg. Taking its name from Lake Manitoba, itself named for one of its islands, the name derived from Algonquian Manitou, great spirit. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p724 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p332)Cycadophyta: A division of GYMNOSPERMS which look like palm trees (ARECACEAE) but are more closely related to PINUS. They have large cones and large pinnate leaves and are sometimes called cycads, a term which may also refer more narrowly to cycadales or CYCAS.Comoros: A group of Indian Ocean Islands, the islands of Great Comoro, Anjouan, Mayotte, and Moheli, lying between northeast Mozambique and northwest Madagascar. The capital is Moroni. In 1914 they became a colony attached to Madagascar administratively and were made a French overseas territory in 1947. Except for Mayotte which remained French, Comoros became an independent republic in 1975. Comoros represents the Arabic qamar, moon, said by some scholars to be linked with the mystical Mountains of the Moon said to be somewhere in equatorial Africa. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p283 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p122)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Reptiles: Cold-blooded, air-breathing VERTEBRATES belonging to the class Reptilia, usually covered with external scales or bony plates.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Catfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Aquatic Organisms: Organisms that live in water.Pteridaceae: A plant family of the order Polypodiales, class Filicopsida, division Pteridophyta (FERNS).Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Campanulaceae: A plant family of the order Campanulales, subclass Asteridae, class MagnoliopsidaStaphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Reptilian Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Pleistophora: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Pleistophoridae that infects humans.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Arecaceae: The palm family of order Arecales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Nocardia: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria whose species are widely distributed and are abundant in soil. Some strains are pathogenic opportunists for humans and animals.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Mycobacterium: A genus of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria. Most species are free-living in soil and water, but the major habitat for some is the diseased tissue of warm-blooded hosts.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Mycology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of fungi, and MYCOSES.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Arthrodermataceae: A family of ascomycetous fungi, order Onygenales, characterized by smooth ascospores. Genera in the family include Arthroderma, Keratinomyces, and Ctenomyces. Several well-known anamorphic forms are parasitic upon the skin.RNA, Ribosomal, 28S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.RNA, Ribosomal, 5.8S: Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5.8S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Mycobacterium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus MYCOBACTERIUM.Trichomonas: A genus of parasitic flagellate EUKARYOTES distinguished by the presence of four anterior flagella, an undulating membrane, and a trailing flagellum.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Forensic Sciences: Disciplines that apply sciences to law. Forensic sciences include a wide range of disciplines, such as FORENSIC TOXICOLOGY; FORENSIC ANTHROPOLOGY; FORENSIC MEDICINE; FORENSIC DENTISTRY; and others.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Microsporidiosis: Infections with FUNGI of the phylum MICROSPORIDIA.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Cercozoa: A group of amoeboid and flagellate EUKARYOTES in the supergroup RHIZARIA. They feed by means of threadlike pseudopods.Whales, Pilot: The genus Globicephala, in the family Delphinidae, consisting of two species of DOLPHINS. They are mostly black with a stocky shape and bulbous foreheads.RNA, Ribosomal, 18S: Constituent of the 40S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 18S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
DNA barcoding, or species identification tools. Databases are essential for bioinformatics research and applications. Many ... Pan genome is the complete gene repertoire of a particular taxonomic group: although initially applied to closely related ... Promoter analysis involves the identification and study of sequence motifs in the DNA surrounding the coding region of a gene. ... A comparison of genes within a species or between different species can show similarities between protein functions, or ...
DNA barcoding in Mucorales: an inventory of biodiversity. Persoonia, 30(1), 11-47. Kendrick, Bryce. 2000. The Fifth Kingdom. ... Species can be isolated using Czapek medium incubated for 3-4 days at 28-31C. A few species are known human pathogens. Family ... A Taxonomic Review with Keys: Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi. Academic Press. New York. pg. 187-217. http://zygomycetes.org/ ... index.php?id=42 Alexopoulos C. J., C. W. Mims, & M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, ...
Taxonomic studies of the faunal components collected. Status survey of Threatened and Endemic species. Preparation of Red Data ... Chromosomal Mapping and DNA Barcoding. Environmental Impact Studies. Maintenance of Musea at Headquarters and Regional Centres ... The fauna volumes provide identification keys and distribution ranges of the species and genera belonging to a particular ... Taxonomic Studies; iii. Status Survey of Endangered species; iv. Publication of Results through Departmental Journals; v. ...
Trewick, Steven A. (2007). "DNA Barcoding is not enough: mismatch of taxonomy and genealogy in New Zealand grasshoppers ( ... The species was named after the late Peter Child of Alexandra, who first collected it from Graveyard Gully in 1967. Sigaus ... Distribution and Taxonomic status of New Zealand endangered grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae). Department of Conservation, ... Morris, S.J. Grasshopper Identification Sheet - Sigaus childi. Department of Conservation, Alexandra. Morris, S.J. 2003. ...
Automated species identification DNA barcoding "Convention on Biological Diversity: the Global Taxonomic Initiative". Wheeler, ... The world-wide shortage of this important taxonomic information, the gaps in our taxonomic knowledge, and the shortage of ... It is argued that some initiatives that aim to bypass the bottleneck of insufficient taxonomic expertise continue to draw funds ... Guiding authors to reliably use taxonomic names. Trends Ecol. Evol. 27, 418. Bortolus, A., 2012b. Good habits come first in ...
... have led to the application of DNA barcoding using the cytochrome c oxidase I gene (COI) for identification purposes. A team of ... Both species have large suckers on each end of their bodies. The sucker on the anterior is not distinguishable from the neck. ... The difficulties in applying common taxonomic techniques to identify leeches, especially to mature specimens, ... Species of Ozobranchus spp. can be very small (down to a few millimeters in length), making them morphologically difficult to ...
DNA barcoding Type species Holotype Chakrabarty, Prosanta (2010). "Genetypes: a concept to help integrate molecular systematics ... Genetypes is a taxonomic concept proposed in 2010 to describe any genetic sequences from type specimens. This nomenclature ... that due to their direct link to type specimens will be more credible than standard sequences whose species identification may ... a new species of smooth-head (Otocephala: Alepocephalidae) from the Mid Atlantic Ridge" (PDF). Zootaxa. 2876: 49-56. ...
A DNA sequence-based approach to the identification of shark and ray species and its implications for global elasmobranch ... Ward R D, Holmes B H, White W T, Last P R (2008): DNA barcoding Australasian chondrichthyans: results and potential uses in ... Last, P.R., White, W.T. & Séret, B. (2016): Taxonomic status of maskrays of the Neotrygon kuhlii species complex (Myliobatoidei ... Diagnostic description and geographic distribution of four new cryptic species of the blue-spotted maskray species complex ( ...
"Molecular Identification of Birds: Performance of Distance-Based DNA Barcoding in Three Genes to Delimit Parapatric Species" ( ... The variable plumages of the South Asian species and a confused taxonomic history has left their distribution ranges in doubt. ... The suggested taxonomic sequence of the mud-building swallows has been recommended by at least two European taxonomic ... the Nepalese species is the smallest (15 g, 0.53 oz) and has the squarest tail. Distinctive species plumage features are the ...
DNA and RNA tests were further developed using DNA barcoding to differentiate different species of organisms from each other, ... Furthermore, visual taxonomic identification of specific animal species by those who are not expert taxonomists, even if they ... "DNA-based Seafood Identification", published on 10/28/2011 "Specious Species: Fight against Seafood Fraud Enlists DNA Testing ... Three molecular targets to test for species identification exist: protein, DNA, and RNA. However, for forensic testing using ...
Vilgalys, R (2003). "Taxonomic misidentification in public DNA databases". New Phytol. 160: 4-5. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003. ... identification can provide unbiased assumptions of genetic drift and time since reproductive isolation within and among species ... Seifert, KA (2009). "Progress towards DNA barcoding of fungi". Mol Ecol Resour. 9: 83-89. doi:10.1111/j.1755-0998.2009.02635.x ... Other species concepts include phylogenetic species concept which describes a species as the smallest identifiable monophyletic ...
Morphological similarity makes identification difficult.DNA barcoding is increasingly used to identify species. List of genera ... A few bristles are on the legs, but bristles on tibia 2, are of taxonomic significance. Tibiae are without a dorsal preapical ... A number of species are of particular importance, especially Liriomyza and Ophiomyia species. Species belonging to the genera ... The shape of the mine is often characteristic of the species and therefore useful for identification. For some of the ...
The atpF-atpH noncoding spacer was chosen as a universal DNA barcoding marker for species-level identification of duckweeds. ... and displace native species such as sawgrass. The duckweeds have long been a taxonomic mystery, and usually have been ... To identify different duckweed genomes, a DNA-based molecular identification system was developed based on seven plastid- ... Wang, Wenqin; Wu, Yongrui; Yan, Yiheng; Ermakova, Marina; Kerstetter, Randall; Messing, Joachim (2010). "DNA barcoding of the ...
... or DNA-based methods such as molecular phylogenetics or DNA barcoding. The existence of extremely similar species may cause ... and species flock for a group of closely related species living in the same habitat. As informal taxonomic ranks, species group ... Evidence from the identification of cryptic species has led some[who?] to conclude that current estimates of global species ... cryptic species for two or more species hidden under one species name, sibling species for two cryptic species that are each ...
Identification of DNA sequence from useful candidate genes It has 5 applications in fisheries and aquaculture: Species ... taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, ... Identification and fingerprinting of genotypes. Estimating distances between species and offspring. Identifying location of ... RAPD's may only need 0.02g of DNA while an RFLP marker may require 10g of DNA extracted from it to produce identifiable results ...
DNA barcoding has been proposed as a way to distinguish species suitable even for non-specialists to use. The so-called barcode ... taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist. A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals ... Species identification is made difficult by discordance between molecular and morphological investigations; these can be ... Species (journal) Barcoding of species Catalogue of Life European Species Names in Linnaean, Czech, English, German and French ...
In 2017, Mendoza and Francke applied DNA barcoding to some Mexican species of Brachypelma. In this approach, a portion of about ... with definition of the taxonomic features for identification of female Sericopelma Ausserer, 1875 (Araneae, Theraphosidae)", ... and the use of DNA barcodes to assist in the identification and conservation of CITES-listed species", Invertebrate Systematics ... Some species have brightly colored legs, with red or orange marks and rings. The taxonomy of the genus and its species has been ...
MLST should not be confused with DNA barcoding. The latter is a taxonomic method that uses short genetic markers to recognize ... particular species of eukaryotes. It is based on the fact that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) or some parts of the ribosomal DNA ... A series of profiles can then be the identification marker for strain typing. Sequences that differ at even a single nucleotide ... The procedure characterizes isolates of microbial species using the DNA sequences of internal fragments of multiple ...
By using the taxonomic approach, hidden diversity throughout the species was discovered. Golden frogs are small to medium-sized ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Buji, S.D. (2014). "DNA barcoding, phylogeny and systematics of Golden-backed frogs ( ... Rainforest Rescue International (2009). A Field Key for the Identification of Amphibians at Hiniduma (PDF). Neo Offset Printers ... Hylarana aurantiaca, commonly known as the golden frog, is a species of frog endemic to the Western Ghats of India. The species ...
It was first described in 2012 on the basis of systematic DNA barcoding of specimens from the genus Brunfelsia. Specimens ... archived at the Internet Archive) Treebase entry with the data underlying the phylogeny Species ID. ... who had worked on neotropical plants of ethnobotanic importance and provided the first and only comprehensive taxonomic ... The new species differs from all other species of Brunfelsia at several nucleotide positions in the plastid ndhF gene and in ...
In an application of DNA barcoding to the identification of species of Protocalliphora flies, several distinct morphospecies ... March 2007). "Taxonomic status of the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia pipientis". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 57 (Pt 3): ... "DNA barcoding cannot reliably identify species of the blowfly genus Protocalliphora (Diptera: Calliphoridae)". Proceedings of ... Outside of insects, Wolbachia infects a variety of isopod species, spiders, mites, and many species of filarial nematodes (a ...
Many of them are very similar to each other, but male genital characters and DNA barcoding allow a safe identification. In ... Taxonomic and faunistic overviews on the insect species living in Papua and West-Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). The Papua ... That paper described 24 new species and indicated the potential for more research into undescribed Australian species within ... agreeing with previous studies and a systematic barcoding study that many more species have yet to be described. The center of ...
The theoretical possibility of a practical method for identification of plant species and commercial varieties by DNA barcoding ... where unidentified plants are placed into taxonomic groups (e.g. family, genus and species) by making a series of choices ... Species boundaries in plants may be weaker than in animals, and cross species hybrids are often possible. A familiar example is ... Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are ...
2013). "DNA barcoding and evolutionary relationships in Accipiter Brisson, 1760 (Aves, Falconiformes: Accipitridae) with a ... an identification guide to 67 species of southern African raptors. Knysna, South Africa: Korck Pub. ISBN 978-0620245364. OCLC ... Similar results of southern origin in other taxonomic groups can be found in the literature.[16][17][18] ... Some names have not generalised, and refer to single species (or groups of closely related (sub)species): merlin (Falco ...
2013). "DNA barcoding and evolutionary relationships in Accipiter Brisson, 1760 (Aves, Falconiformes: Accipitridae) with a ... an identification guide to 67 species of southern African raptors. Knysna, South Africa: Korck Pub. ISBN 0620245360. OCLC ... Similar results of southern origin in other taxonomic groups can be found in the literature. Distribution and biogeographic ... and refer to single species (or groups of closely related (sub)species): merlin (Falco columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus ...
... is a taxonomic method that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to identify it as belonging to a particular species. It differs from molecular phylogeny in that the main goal is not to determine patterns of relationship but to identify an unknown sample in terms of a preexisting classification. Although barcodes are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or assess whether species should be combined or separated, the utility of DNA barcoding for these purposes is subject to debate. The most commonly used barcode region for animals and protists is a segment of approximately 600 base pairs of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI or COX1). This differs in the case of fungi, where part of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) between rRNA genes is used, and again in plants, where multiple regions are ...
... (born 28 September 1974), is an Indian biologist and as of January 2018[update] the principal scientist at the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, India. Verma is primarily known for his contributions to the development of "universal primer technology", a DNA barcoding method, that can identify any bird, fish, reptile or mammal from a small biological sample, and satisfy legal evidence requirements in a court of law. This technology has revitalised the field of wildlife forensics and is now routinely used across India to provide a species identification service in cases of wildlife crime. Verma received his D.Phil. in medical oncology from the University of Oxford, and has worked in the areas of signal transduction in cancer and on molecular biology applications in wildlife conservation. He is the recipient of several national awards, including the 2008 CSIR Technology Award, the 2009 ...
Currently the barcodes on a book's back cover (or inside a mass-market paperback book's front cover) are EAN-13; they may have a separate barcode encoding five digits called an EAN-5 for the currency and the recommended retail price.[52] For 10-digit ISBNs, the number "978", the Bookland "country code", is prefixed to the ISBN in the barcode data, and the check digit is recalculated according to the EAN-13 formula (modulo 10, 1x and 3x weighting on alternating digits). Partly because of an expected shortage in certain ISBN categories, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to migrate to a 13-digit ISBN (ISBN-13). The process began on 1 January 2005 and was planned to conclude on 1 January 2007.[53] As of 2011[update], all the 13-digit ISBNs began with 978. As the 978 ISBN supply is exhausted, the 979 prefix was introduced. Part of the 979 prefix is reserved for use with the Musicland code for musical scores with an ISMN. The 10-digit ISMN codes differed visually as they ...
Churchill has written on American Indian history and culture, and speaks about genocide inflicted on the indigenous people of the Americas by European settlers and what he describes as the repression of native peoples that continues to be an active issue. According to the University of Colorado investigation, "His academic publications are nearly all works of synthesis and reinterpretation, drawing upon studies by other scholars, not monographs describing new research based on primary sources." The investigation also noted that "he has decided to publish largely in alternative presses or journals, not in the university presses or mainstream peer-reviewed journals often favored by more conventional academics."[4] In addition to his academic writing, Churchill has written for several general readership magazines of political opinion. In 1986, Churchill wrote an essay titled Pacifism as Pathology: Notes on an American Pseudopraxis criticizing pacifist politics within the U.S. left as being ...
A molecular marker is a molecule contained within a sample taken from an organism (biological markers) or other matter. It can be used to reveal certain characteristics about the respective source. DNA, for example, is a molecular marker containing information about genetic disorders, genealogy and the evolutionary history of life. Specific regions of the DNA (genetic markers) is are used to diagnose the autosomal recessive genetic disorder cystic fibrosis, taxonomic affinity (phylogenetics) and identity (DNA Barcoding). Further, life forms are known to shed unique chemicals, including DNA, into the environment as evidence of their presence in a particular location. Other biological markers, like proteins, are used in diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease. Non-biological molecular markers are also used, for example, in environmental studies. In genetics, a ...
The Galliformes are a clade of bird species of cosmopolitan distribution that, with the Anseriformes, belong to the branch Galloanserae. The group have more than 270 living species and includes the megapodes, chachalacas, guans, curassows, turkeys, grouse, New World quails, pheasants, partridges and guineafowl. They are, with Neoaves, the two main lineages of Neognathae. Extinct species assignment follows the Mikko's Phylogeny Archive and Paleofile.com websites. Living Galliformes based on the work by John Boyd. †Genus Megavitiornis Worthy 2000 Noble megapode/deep-billed megapode, Megavitiornis altirostris (Worthy 2000) †Genus Sylviornis Poplin 1980 New Caledonian giant megapode, Sylviornis neocaledoniae Poplin 1980 †Genus Mwalau Worthy et al. 2015 Lini's megapode †Mwalau walterlinii Worthy et al. 2015 †Genus Ngawupodius Boles & Ivison 1999 †Ngawupodius minya Boles & Ivison 1999 Tribe Megapodiini Genus ...
... (SMBC) is a webcomic by Zach Weinersmith. It features few recurring characters or storylines, and has no set format; some strips may be a single panel, while others may go on for ten panels or more. Recurring themes in SMBC include atheism, God, superheroes, romance, dating, science, research, parenting and the meaning of life. SMBC is published daily. Weinersmith's webcomic was recognized in 2006 and 2007 with the Web Cartoonists' Choice Award for Outstanding Single Panel Comic, and received nominations in 2003 and 2008. The comic was character-based in a previous incarnation, focusing on the romantic and academic endeavors of several college students. That strip (referred to as Classic SMBC on the site's archives) ran from January 28, 2002 to September 3, 2002. The comic went through three other renderings between Classic SMBC and the current version. The current version of the strip began on September 5, 2002 and has updated daily since. The first 480 comics ...
There is no definitive date for the Polynesian discovery of Hawaii. However, high-precision radiocarbon dating in Hawaii using chonometric hygiene analysis, and taxonomic identification selection of samples, puts the initial first settlement of the Hawaiian Islands sometime between 1219 and 1266 AD, originating from earlier settlements first established in the Society Islands around 1025 to 1120 AD, and in the Marquesan Islands sometime between 1100 and 1200 AD. The frequently hypothesized model of constant population growth is that once people first arrived the population growth was constant until James Cook's arrival and thus halted by disease and then rapidly decreased. This theory though relies on a hypothetical settlement date that radiocarbon dating in Hawai'i has since refuted as well as linear growth on the islands. Notwithstanding this, this theory is still used to support an estimate of between 800,000 and 1,000,000 people in 1778. The constant ...
... , Inc. (NASDAQ: NSTG) is a publicly held biotech company that specializes in development of cancer diagnostics tools. The company's technology enables a wide variety of basic research, translational medicine and in vitro diagnostics applications. The company was founded by Krassen Dimitrov, Amber Ratcliffe, and Dwayne Dunaway in 2003, and is based in Seattle, Washington. NanoString's "nCounter Analysis System" is based on a digital molecular barcoding technology invented by Dimitrov and Dunaway in Leroy Hood's lab at the Institute for Systems Biology (ISB), and became commercially available in 2008. NanoString received a CE-mark designation for selling the Prosigna™ Breast Cancer Prognostic Gene Signature Assay (PAM50-based breast cancer test) in Israel and EU in September 2012, and in September 2013, NanoString received FDA 510(k) clearance for Prosigna. NanoString's nCounter technology is a variation on the DNA microarray and was invented and patented by Krassen ...
... ing is a bacteriological laboratory technique[4] used to differentiate bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative) based on the physical properties of their cell walls.[5][page needed] Gram staining is not used to classify archaea, formerly archaeabacteria, since these microorganisms yield widely varying responses that do not follow their phylogenetic groups.[6] The Gram stain is not an infallible tool for diagnosis, identification, or phylogeny, and it is of extremely limited use in environmental microbiology. It is used mainly to make a preliminary morphologic identification or to establish that there are significant numbers of bacteria in a clinical specimen. It cannot identify bacteria to the species level, and for most medical conditions, it should not be used as the sole method of bacterial ...
Den 39.utgaven som utkom 25. november 2004 i Storbritannia og 24. november 2004 i USA., er også tilgjengelig på CD-ROM. Forlaget Churchill Livingstone utgir læreboka i Storbritannia mens C.V. Mosby (Churchill Livingstone in the U.S.) utgir den i New York. Nå er bøkene nesten identiske, men med enkelte forskjeller på grunn av forskjell i engelsk og amerikansk medisinsk terminologi. Det er også utgitt en studentutgave i 2004 som er fullstendig omskrevet og kun deler navnet med den fullstendige teksten. På internett kan man finne tallrike tilbud på 1901 utgaven av verket i nylig trykkede versjoner. De kan ha en interesse som kunst, men de egner seg dårligere som anatomisk detaljert beskrivelse. Henry Gray skrev den første utgaven med sikte på studenter og leger, spesielt kirurger. Siden verket etterhvert er blitt en klassiker og sannsynligvis den mest anerkjente boka i Anatomi på engelsk, har senere redaktører brukt store ressurser for å bevare bokas prestisje. Strategien for å ...
The Rapateaceae are a family of flowering plants. The botanical name has been recognized by most taxonomists. The APG II system of 2003 also recognizes this family, and assigns it to the order Poales in the clade commelinids, in the monocots. This represents a slight change from the APG system, 1998, which left the family unplaced as to order, but placed it in the same clade (although it used the spelling "commelinoids"). The family is divided into 16 genera with a total of about 94 known species,[2] found in tropical South America and tropical west Africa. The Cronquist system of 1981 also recognized this family and placed it in the order Commelinales in the subclass Commelinidae in class Liliopsida in division Magnoliophyta. ...
Larson, H.K. i E.O. Murdy 2001. Gobiidae. Gobies. p. 3578-3603. A K.E. Carpenter i V. Niem (eds.) FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 6. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae). FAO, Roma, Itàlia ...
Plant DNA barcoding research is shifting beyond performance comparisons of different DNA regions towards practical applications ... barcoding has sparked a renaisence of interest in taxonomic studies. * 9. DNA barcodingDNA barcoding is a technique for ... Use of DNA barcoding and its role in the plant species/varietal Identification * 1. DNA Barcode: species/varietal ... Plant Barcoding China: DNA barcoding of 5000 Chinese plant species Kunming Institute of Botany• All-genera: DNA barcoding of ...
... wildlife conservation Animal morphology Genetic aspects Bar codes Cytochrome oxidase DNA sequencing Methods Mitochondrial DNA ... New Genetic Evidence from Three Keel-Backed Liza Species Based on DNA Barcoding Confirms Morphology-Based Identification.( ... DNA barcoding is poised to contribute to taxonomic research, population genetics, and phylogenetics (Herbert et al., 2003; ... DNA barcoding using the COI gene is recognized as an effective and reliable molecular method for identification of species ( ...
Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with ... This could be interpreted as indicative of multiple cryptic species. However, nuclear DNA sequences (n = 77 specimens) revealed ... Here we examined mitochondrial DNA barcodes in a global urban pest, the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). Our ... formed a monophyletic lineage separate from other Periplaneta species. We found three distinct P. americana haplogroups with ...
Identification of new species. Assignment to taxonomic levels in general. Varieties of barcoding. Motivation. Slideshow 3928216 ... A Bayesian method for DNA barcoding. Kasper Munch, Wouter Boomsma, Eske Willerslev, Rasmus Nielsen, University of Copenhagen. ... Identification of new species. Assignment to taxonomic levels in general. Varieties of barcoding. Motivation. ... A Bayesian method for DNA barcoding. An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content ...
Automated species identification DNA barcoding "Convention on Biological Diversity: the Global Taxonomic Initiative". Wheeler, ... The world-wide shortage of this important taxonomic information, the gaps in our taxonomic knowledge, and the shortage of ... It is argued that some initiatives that aim to bypass the bottleneck of insufficient taxonomic expertise continue to draw funds ... Guiding authors to reliably use taxonomic names. Trends Ecol. Evol. 27, 418. Bortolus, A., 2012b. Good habits come first in ...
DNA Barcoding for Identifying Native Bee Species The Challenge: Traditionally, bee identification has relied on taxonomic ... The Challenge: The Canada Goose Branta canadensis was historically a highly migratory species. However, this species has ... are critically endangered bird species endemic to high elevation ohia forests on the Hawaiian island of Kauai. Both species ... However, for many species, separate keys are required for identifying adult males and females and immature life stages. These ...
Using DNA barcoding to improve invasive pest identification at U.S. ports-of-entry. Interception of potential invasive species ... Ash tree species in North America are under mortal threat from the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB), now in 35 states and five Canadian ... Needlecast and needle blight are terms applied to a variety of foliage disorders of many coniferous species. These diseases are ... Science and Actions for Species Protection. Noahs Arks for the 21st Century ...
Using DNA barcoding to improve invasive pest identification at U.S. ports-of-entry. Interception of potential invasive species ... Science and Actions for Species Protection. Noahs Arks for the 21st Century ...
DNA barcoding, or species identification tools. Databases are essential for bioinformatics research and applications. Many ... Pan genome is the complete gene repertoire of a particular taxonomic group: although initially applied to closely related ... Promoter analysis involves the identification and study of sequence motifs in the DNA surrounding the coding region of a gene. ... A comparison of genes within a species or between different species can show similarities between protein functions, or ...
Here we test the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for the identification and discovery of species of Lepidoptera in the species- ... We found that 97.9% of the 521 species recognized by prior taxonomic work possess distinctive cytochrome c oxidase I barcodes ... If these results are general, DNA barcoding will significantly aid species identification and discovery in tropical settings. ... Identification systems based on DNA have the potential to facilitate both the identification of known species and the discovery ...
In these cases, DNA identification may help reduce the time and effort for identification, or may help identify cryptic species ... Since species-level taxonomic identifications were not always possible, we defined OTUs for these specimens using the uclust ... 2004 Ten species in one: DNA barcoding reveals cryptic species in the neotropical skipper butterfly Astraptes fulgerator. Proc ... Since only small quantities of DNA are required, barcoding methods in general have broad application for species identification ...
... that may represent cryptic species that had gone unnoticed and possibly correspond to undescribed new species. We present a ... We also studied the mtDNA lineages within six morphospecies of Parabathynellidae, five species belonging to Iberobathynella, a ... its usefulness solving taxonomic problems; and 2) evaluate the extent of cryptic speciation in a morphologically constrained ... and was initially identified as a single species by morphological evaluation: Vejdovskybathynella edelweiss Camacho, 2007. ...
DNA barcoding translation, English dictionary definition of DNA barcoding. n. A method for identifying the species of a ... based on comparing the DNA barcode of the specimen to the DNA barcodes of known species ... Define DNA barcoding. DNA barcoding synonyms, DNA barcoding pronunciation, ... In recent years, a new means of molecular identification, termed DNA barcoding, has made species identification readily ...
... suggest that character-based DNA barcoding is well suited to the identification of genetic entities at different taxonomic ... In the context of species identification, DNA barcoding does not rely on a species concept. In fact, species identification ... Since species identification requires that species be defined a priori to the determination of DNA identifiers, DNA barcoding ... Desalle R. Species discovery versus species identification in DNA barcoding efforts: response to Rubinoff. Conserv. Biol. 2006; ...
Recent genetic barcoding studies have revealed that species identification errors are common among larvae surveys that use ... Richardson DE, Vanwye JD, Exum AM, Cowen RK, Crawford DL (2006) High-throughput species identification: from DNA isolation to ... Evaluating the accuracy of morphological identification of larval fishes by applying DNA barcoding. PLoS ONE 8(1):e53451 ... Next-generation DNA barcoding: using next-generation sequencing to enhance and accelerate DNA barcode capture from single ...
We show that although DNA barcoding can provide rapid species identifications, there are some situations where DNA barcoding ... potential circumvention of traditional taxonomic specialists and argue that the use of a single gene region for identification ... We show in this example that although a DNA barcoding approach can in many cases provide rapid species identifications, it is ... DNA barcoding is a method of identifying species based on the mitochondrial DNA sequence that each individual carries. We used ...
DNA barcoding has similarly assisted in the identification of many African species of Biomphalaria, and resolved redundancies ... Establishing the taxonomic status of B. choanomphala. In the case of B. choanomphala we may need to use the full arsenal of ... Species recognized by Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: April 2013:. *Animalia +*Mollusca +*Gastropoda +*Hygrophila +* ... Traditional identification methods. Of the 30 or so described species of Biomphalaria, about two-thirds live in the New World ( ...
... is a compilation of data in several formats that assists with the accurate identification of fish species. It was developed by ... and DNA sequence patterns (DNA Barcoding). ... chemical taxonomic data, tissue protein profiles (Isoelectric ... identification, and/or quantification of specific DNA sequences in food, feed, cosmetics, and veterinary products. ... Isolation and Identification of Campylobacter from Raw Milk. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. Raw milk. ...
Taxonomic identification of biological specimens on basis of DNA sequence information (DNA barcoding) is becoming more and more ... Species-level identification by DNA barcoding is usually adapted by the recovery of a short DNA sequence from a standard part ... DNA barcoding is a fast, accurate, and standardized method for species level identification, by using short DNA sequences. In ... DNA barcoding is an obligatory tool for species detection and specimen identification [5]. Using standardized identification ...
... taxonomic analysis is needed to produce a taxonomically-comprehensive database of barcode sequences for all species of marine ... DNA barcoding of marine copepods: assessment of analytical approaches to species identification. June 23, 2014 1:51 PM. ... DNA barcoding of marine copepods: assessment of analytical approaches to species identification. PLOS Currents Tree of Life. ... of the strengths and weaknesses of DNA barcoding and confirms the value of DNA barcodes for species identification of copepods ...
We study the phylogenetics and ecology of wild bees and provide taxonomic keys and galleries of the worlds exotic bees. ... DNA barcoding the bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) of Chile: species discovery in a reasonably well known bee fauna with the ... "Taxonomic methods, identification keys and the importance of imaging." BeeCon2 Southern Ontario Bee Researchers Symposium, ... An aberrant bee of the species Lasioglossum (Dialictus) disparile (Cresson) with brief taxonomic notes on the species. Journal ...
DNA barcoding employs sequence diversity in short, standardized genomic regions as a tool for species identification and ... Sequence diversity in this region has proven very effective for identification of animal species in a wide range of taxonomic ... Most families are in need of revision and many species await description. DNA barcoding will allow the resolution of this ... A key feature of the use of DNA barcodes for species identification is their integration within a universally accessible system ...
... for DNA sequence analyses and rapid species identification. BOLD may also help to link the user to taxonomic expertise and give ... Balakrishnan R. (2005). Species concepts, species boundaries and species identification: a view from the Tropics. Syst. Biol. ... in developing barcoding as a global standard for DNA-based species identification. CBOL promotes FISH-BOL as an international ... 20 A purely DNA taxonomy approach (e.g. Blaxter21), not to be confused with DNA barcoding,22 is too simplistic in our view. DNA ...
DNA barcoding in Mucorales: an inventory of biodiversity. Persoonia, 30(1), 11-47. Kendrick, Bryce. 2000. The Fifth Kingdom. ... Species can be isolated using Czapek medium incubated for 3-4 days at 28-31C. A few species are known human pathogens. Family ... A Taxonomic Review with Keys: Basidiomycetes and Lower Fungi. Academic Press. New York. pg. 187-217. http://zygomycetes.org/ ... index.php?id=42 Alexopoulos C. J., C. W. Mims, & M. Blackwell. 1996. Introductory Mycology. Fourth Edition. John Wiley & Sons, ...
Molecular identification of mosquito species: Evaluation of a rapid DNA extraction method together with DNA barcoding as a tool ... Since Watson and Crick presented their model of the double-helix DNA in 1953, a new era of molecular based taxonomic studies ... s for every species. This thesis shows how a fast DNA extraction method could be combined with DNA barcoding to get a 658-bp ... DNA barcoding is one of the promising methods for molecular identification. A small segment of a gene, approximately 400-1000 ...
  • A 313 bp region of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was amplified from extracted DNA using specific primers for Caribbean reef fish. (int-res.com)
  • Here we apply multiple parallel amplification primers, multiple DNA barcode markers, 454-pyrosequencing, and Illumina MiSeq sequencing to the same sample to maximize recovery of the arthropod macrobiome and the bacterial and other microbial microbiome of a bulk arthropod sample. (nih.gov)
  • The eDNA is amplified by PCR using primers either specific for a target species or generic for multiple-taxon analysis and then sequenced (Thomsen et al . (nc3rs.org.uk)
  • Copying of a certain geneomic region (DNA Barcode) via general primers or specifically developed molecular probes. (sinsoma.com)
  • In terms of biodiversity fungi are one of the least described groups of multicellular eukaryotes even though they comprise 2.2-3.8 million species ( Hawksworth and Lücking, 2017 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Schmid-Egger C, van Achterberg K, Neumeyer R, Morinière J, Schmidt S (2017) Revision of the West Palaearctic Polistes Latreille, with the descriptions of two species - an integrative approach using morphology and DNA barcodes (Hymenoptera, Vespidae). (eurekalert.org)
  • Harms-Tuohy CA, Schizas NV, Appeldoorn RS (2016) Use of DNA metabarcoding for stomach content analysis in the invasive lionfish Pterois volitans in Puerto Rico. (int-res.com)
  • In Chapter 4 we assessed whether differential rates of net species diversification in the African butterfly sister genera Harma (1 species) and Cymothoe (approximately 82 species) could best be explained by shifts to novel host plants (from Achariaceae to Rinorea ) or by environmental factors such as changing climate. (wur.nl)
  • The family Melastomataceae consists of about 166 genera and more than 4000 species distributed worldwide. (conicyt.cl)
  • DNA Barcoding has been promoted since 2003 as a new, fast, digital genomics-based means of identifying natural species based on the idea that a small standard fragment of any organism's genome (a so-called 'micro-genome') can faithfully identify and help to classify every species on the planet. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • The fear that species are becoming extinct before they have ever been known fuels barcoders, and the speed, scope, economy and 'user-friendliness' claimed for DNA barcoding, as part of the larger ferment around the 'genomics revolution', has also encouraged promises that it could inspire humanity to reverse its biodiversity-destructive habits. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • Barcoding Nature will be of interest to students and scholars of sociology of science, science and technology studies, politics of the environment, genomics and post-genomics, philosophy and history of biology, and the anthropology of science. (taylorfrancis.com)
  • DNA extraction and amplification") as reported by W. John Kress and David L. Erickson, DNA barcodes: Genes, genomics, and bioinformatics (PNAS. (colorbasepair.com)
  • We therefore propose the nuclear internal transcribed spacer region and the plastid trnH-psbA intergenic spacer as potentially usable DNA regions for applying barcoding to flowering plants. (biology-online.org)
  • Based on the performance of seven plastid DNA regions (afpF-atpH, matK, rbcL, rpoB, rpoC1, psbK-psbI, and psb A -trn H), the Plant Working Group of the Consortium for the Barcode of Life recommended the combination of rbcL and matK as the plant barcode. (conicyt.cl)
  • Our result indicates that single-locus ITS or combined with plastid regions (matK) showed the best species discrimination with distinctive barcoding gaps. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Allele-specific primer pairs for ITS and trnQ-rps16 were designed to amplify diagnostic products from the genomic DNA of X. sibiricum. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Genomic libraries for 6 fish species constructed for microsatellite identification. (nbfgr.res.in)
  • 2008). Being maternally inherited, mt-DNA is better as compared to genomic DNA such as quick evolution, less exposure to recombination, high copy number, high conservation, little duplications and negligible intergenic regions (Waugh J 2007, Xu J 2005). (edu.pk)
  • Among the tested approaches, the best close match analysis resulted in accurate identification of all individuals to species, with no errors (false positives), and out-performed automated tree-based or BLAST based analyses. (bios.edu)
  • There are 2 common approaches to feeding ecology through gut content analysis: morphological identification to the lowest possible taxonomic rank and/or DNA barcoding of individual prey components in the stomach. (int-res.com)
  • It does not require further adapter ligation steps after amplification.This study thus offers improvements for the laboratory and bioinformatical workflow to existing approaches regarding data quantity and quality as well as processing effort and cost-effectiveness.Although only tested for pollen samples, it is furthermore applicable to other research questions requiring plant identification in mixed and challenging samples. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings highlight the need for comprehensive reference databases in DNA barcoding studies, especially when dealing with invasive populations that might be derived from multiple genetically distinct source populations. (nature.com)
  • Such a pattern of introduction may complicate the identification of invasive species via DNA barcodes and may require more extensive sampling to establish a reliable reference library. (nature.com)
  • Interception of potential invasive species at ports-of-entry is essential for effective biosecurity and biosurveillance programs. (publicgardens.org)
  • We apply a DNA barcoding approach to outbreak populations of invasive leafminer pests in the Philippines. (usda.gov)
  • Specifically, this burgeoning three-year-old scientific field could, among many other things, help get illegal fish and timber out of global markets, slow the spread of invasive pests, reduce bird-plane collisions, and uncover the hideouts of medically-important species of mosquito. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Habitat loss, pollution, overfishing, invasive species and now global climate change are rapidly damaging the Seto Inland Sea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2013 ), other invasive alien and indigenous species have been discovered where human activity has led to the development of industrial areas along the coast (Iwasaki et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The plant DNA barcodes have been endorsed by the Consortium for the Barcoding of Life and have led to multiple applications ranging from facilitating biodiversity inventories, helping authentication of material (herbal medicine) for trade control in Malaysia, South Africa, India and Nigeria, and combating invasive species and smuggling in Africa. (ref.ac.uk)
  • This study is the first to broadly explore the metazoan biodiversity of freshwater systems with DNA barcodes to construct a reference library that represents the first step for future programs which aim to monitor ecosystem health, track invasive species, or improve knowledge of the ecology and distribution of freshwater zooplankton. (ecosur.mx)
  • Background: The introduction of invasive alien species (IAS), whether by accident or deliberately, can have serious negative consequences in their new territory when they manage to establish viable populations. (africamuseum.be)
  • The 18S rRNA gene is highly conserved among the different species and not suitable as a target for specific diagnostic oligonucleotides. (uzh.ch)
  • The study on 5s IGS region of different species of Vigna subgenus Ceratotropis was found to be phylogenetically informative to detect intragenic relationship. (conicyt.cl)
  • As the different species of Nepenthes are higly endemic and endangered, it would be a useful study to understand the evolutionary relationship, sketched in emigration, mislabeling and can be a probable assessment for its biodiversity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA barcoding follows the same principle as does the basic taxonomic practice of associating a name with a specific reference collection in conjunction with a functional understanding of species concepts (i.e., interpreting discontinuities in interspecific variation). (biology-online.org)
  • Identification of fish species still stands high as one of the most basic but important issues in fisheries management (Walters and Holling, 1990). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Most fish species are marketed under their common names, which vary among regions and even within regions (Keskin and Atar, 2013). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Thirty-nine fish species from 16 families were identified (35 each in the digested and tissue fractions), including members of Pomacentridae, Acanthuridae, Gobiidae, Apogonidae, and Scaridae. (int-res.com)
  • The Regulatory Fish Encyclopedia (RFE) is a compilation of data in several formats that assists with the accurate identification of fish species. (fda.gov)
  • The RFE includes for each of a number of commercially relevant fish species for sale in the U.S. market high-resolution photographs as their scanned digital images (jpeg format) of whole fish and their marketed product forms (including fillets, steaks, or whole crustaceans) which may be used for visual comparison to a whole fish in question (or its marketed product form). (fda.gov)
  • The estuary also provides essential habitats for many anadromous, commercial, and recreational fish such as striped bass ( Morone saxatilis ), Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ), and several endangered fish species such as the delta smelt ( Hypomesus transpacificus ) (Sommer et al. (springeropen.com)
  • Salminus brasiliensis is a potamodromous fish species that occurs in southern South American rivers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Discovered forty three new fish species during explorations of ecologically diverse habitats in India during last 10 years, in collaboration with other partner organizations. (nbfgr.res.in)
  • Also developed breeding protocols for six endangered fish species for conservation and sustainable utilization. (nbfgr.res.in)
  • Developed sperm cryopreservation protocols for 30 fish species, which can provide support to captive breeding technology in the propagation assisted rehabilitation of the target species in its natural habitat. (nbfgr.res.in)
  • Promoted a new concept of 'State Fish', which led to declaration of 14 fish species as State Fish by 17 States. (nbfgr.res.in)
  • Developed cell lines from 16 commercially important food and ornamental fish species, which will have application in disease diagnosis. (nbfgr.res.in)
  • Out of 33,100 fish species identified worldwide as per Fish Base organization report published in April 2015 (http://www.fishbase.org). (edu.pk)
  • Unfortunately, ancient herbarium samples have both time and conservation related DNA damages, besides exogenous DNA contamination, that make nucleic acid extraction and amplification challenging. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although the length of the full matK gene is 1554-1557 bp for Gnetum ( Won and Renner, 2006 ), portion of the gene, which contains enough informative sites for species recognition, can be utilized as barcoding marker. (e-kjpt.org)
  • Specifically, Professor Savolainen combined results from research in Costa Rica and Africa and, together with Professor Barraclough, demonstrated the feasibility of DNA barcoding plants using the matK locus. (ref.ac.uk)
  • a ) Species used in this study versus the total known for ACG, Costa Rica, and the world ( http://janzen.sas.upenn.edu and I. Kitching, personal communication). (pnas.org)
  • Herbal supplement manufacturer MediHerb recently led a research study that Identified major shortcomings in the use of DNA barcoding to authenticate botanical materials in finished products. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • DNA barcoding study has been assisted by the barcode of life data system (BOLD), an online resource available to the scientific community ( http://www.boldsystems.org ). (hindawi.com)
  • This study introduces next-generation sequencing to lionfish feeding ecology, employing DNA metabarcoding to analyze all components of the gut contents, including the previously unidentifiable portion. (int-res.com)
  • Due to its species-richness and global distribution, Cortinariaceae is an ideal model with which to study diverse questions at different levels of evolutionary history. (kew.org)
  • The current study focused on molecular analysis of cyanobacterial species from two ecosystems that are ecologically and economically important in California. (springeropen.com)
  • Therefore, it has become imperative to study the mechanisms of species diversification of Memecylon species. (conicyt.cl)
  • In response, the use of DNA 'barcodes' has been increasingly adopted for the study of biodiversity. (marinebon.org)
  • Testing the utility of DNA barcoding in South African Hemiptera : using eThekwini species as a case study. (ukzn.ac.za)
  • Therefore, in order to update the existing knowledge, this review will outline efforts on collection, identification and study of medicinal properties of edible mushrooms growing wild in Iran. (alliedacademies.org)