HornsPosterior Horn Cells: Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.Anterior Horn Cells: MOTOR NEURONS in the anterior (ventral) horn of the SPINAL CORD which project to SKELETAL MUSCLES.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Spinal Nerve Roots: Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Nerve Fibers, Unmyelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Lumbosacral Region: Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Hyperesthesia: Increased sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation due to a diminished threshold or an increased response to stimuli.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Rhizotomy: Surgical interruption of a spinal or cranial nerve root. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Nociception: Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).Trigeminal Caudal Nucleus: The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.Pregnancy, Animal: The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Sciatic Neuropathy: Disease or damage involving the SCIATIC NERVE, which divides into the PERONEAL NERVE and TIBIAL NERVE (see also PERONEAL NEUROPATHIES and TIBIAL NEUROPATHY). Clinical manifestations may include SCIATICA or pain localized to the hip, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of posterior thigh muscles and muscles innervated by the peroneal and tibial nerves, and sensory loss involving the lateral and posterior thigh, posterior and lateral leg, and sole of the foot. The sciatic nerve may be affected by trauma; ISCHEMIA; COLLAGEN DISEASES; and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1363)Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Medulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.Uterine Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Djibouti: A republic in eastern Africa, on the Gulf of Aden at the entrance to the Red Sea. Djibouti is also the name of its capital.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Glycine Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on glycinergic systems. Glycinergic agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation or uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Formaldehyde: A highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717)Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Uterine Rupture: A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Strychnine: An alkaloid found in the seeds of STRYCHNOS NUX-VOMICA. It is a competitive antagonist at glycine receptors and thus a convulsant. It has been used as an analeptic, in the treatment of nonketotic hyperglycinemia and sleep apnea, and as a rat poison.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tibial Neuropathy: Disease of the TIBIAL NERVE (also referred to as the posterior tibial nerve). The most commonly associated condition is the TARSAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. However, LEG INJURIES; ISCHEMIA; and inflammatory conditions (e.g., COLLAGEN DISEASES) may also affect the nerve. Clinical features include PARALYSIS of plantar flexion, ankle inversion and toe flexion as well as loss of sensation over the sole of the foot. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p32)Receptors, Opioid, mu: A class of opioid receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Mu opioid receptors bind, in decreasing order of affinity, endorphins, dynorphins, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin. They have also been shown to be molecular receptors for morphine.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide: Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Sperm Transport: Passive or active movement of SPERMATOZOA from the testicular SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES through the male reproductive tract as well as within the female reproductive tract.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Peripheral Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Tissue Adhesions: Pathological processes consisting of the union of the opposing surfaces of a wound.Carrageenan: A water-soluble extractive mixture of sulfated polysaccharides from RED ALGAE. Chief sources are the Irish moss CHONDRUS CRISPUS (Carrageen), and Gigartina stellata. It is used as a stabilizer, for suspending COCOA in chocolate manufacture, and to clarify BEVERAGES.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Embryo Implantation: Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Noxae: Agents capable of exerting a harmful effect on the body.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Visceral Afferents: The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.Receptors, Glycine: Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.Vesicular Glutamate Transport Protein 2: A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Sheep, Bighorn: A species of sheep, Ovis canadensis, characterized by massive brown horns. There are at least four subspecies and they are all endangered or threatened.Pseudopregnancy: An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.Endometrium: The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Enkephalins: One of the three major families of endogenous opioid peptides. The enkephalins are pentapeptides that are widespread in the central and peripheral nervous systems and in the adrenal medulla.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Horseradish Peroxidase: An enzyme isolated from horseradish which is able to act as an antigen. It is frequently used as a histochemical tracer for light and electron microscopy. Its antigenicity has permitted its use as a combined antigen and marker in experimental immunology.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Enkephalin, Ala(2)-MePhe(4)-Gly(5)-: An enkephalin analog that selectively binds to the MU OPIOID RECEPTOR. It is used as a model for drug permeability experiments.Mullerian Ducts: A pair of ducts near the WOLFFIAN DUCTS in a developing embryo. In the male embryo, they degenerate with the appearance of testicular ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE. In the absence of anti-mullerian hormone, mullerian ducts give rise to the female reproductive tract, including the OVIDUCTS; UTERUS; CERVIX; and VAGINA.Spinal Cord Injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Corpus Luteum Maintenance: Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Thermoreceptors: Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Dynorphins: A class of opioid peptides including dynorphin A, dynorphin B, and smaller fragments of these peptides. Dynorphins prefer kappa-opioid receptors (RECEPTORS, OPIOID, KAPPA) and have been shown to play a role as central nervous system transmitters.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Vesicular Inhibitory Amino Acid Transport Proteins: A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
Males have horns that are thicker at the ends, longer, and more divergent than those of females. These features of the horns ... a trematode species), Taenia crocutae and T. hyaennae (two tapeworm species). The giant eland has 31 male chromosomes and 32 ... They also use their horns to thresh and throw loose earth on themselves. The horns of older males get worn out due to rubbing ... Prothero, Donald R.; Schoch, Robert M. (2002). "Hollow horns". Horns, tusks, and flippers : the evolution of hoofed mammals. ...
It prefers to burrow, but in the absence of substrate to burrow it will web and make web "tunnels". This species is extremely ... babboon horns? - Arachnoboards Platnick 2008 Platnick, Norman I. (2008): The world spider catalog, version 8.5. American Museum ... "horn", or protuberance, on the carapace. C. brachycephalus is found in Botswana, Zimbabwe and South Africa. Ceratogyrus ...
On pronotum there is a short median horn. Females lack horns. The legs are relatively long with sharp claws. These beetles are ... This species has a Neotropical distribution (Brazil). Illustration of Megasoma anubis (male) Mounted specimen from Brazil ... Megasoma anubis is a species of beetles belonging to the family Scarabaeidae. Megasoma anubis can reach a length of about 90 ... Males are much larger than females and have a medium length and curved horn on the head. ...
Both sexes have horns; lengths of 8.7 to 10.9 cm were measured for the males, and about 5 cm for the females. The dental ... After a revision of the ungulates in 2011 by Colin Groves, it is now regarded as distinct species. The head-body length is ... Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of least concern. Grubb, 1978:pp 373-380 Groves & Grubb, ... The white-legged duiker (Cephalophus crusalbum) is a medium-sized antelope species from the subfamily of duikers (Cephalophinae ...
During the Miocene and Pliocene, they were a diverse and successful group, with many different species. Some had horns with ... with flattened horns that widened to forked tips, Ramoceros, with fan-shaped horns, and Hayoceros, with four horns. Subfamily ... Their horns resemble those of the bovids, in that they have a true horny sheath, but, uniquely, they are shed outside the ... Only one species, the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana), is living today; all other members of the family are extinct. The ...
The Atlas beetle differs from other Chalcosoma species (such as C. caucasus) by the broader end of the cephalic (head) horn. ... Males have three prominent horns. The species is named for Atlas, the giant of Greek mythology who supported the skies. ... The species is the host of a parasitoid, the giant scoliid wasp Megascolia procer, which has a paralysing venom. Chalcosoma ... The Atlas beetle (Chalcosoma atlas) is a very large species of beetle in the family Scarabaeidae, found in Southeast Asia. ...
Horns and Beaks, 49-67. Norman, David B. (January 1998). "On Asian ornithopods (Dinosauria, Ornithischia). 3. A new species of ... Gregory S. Paul, working on a revision of iguanodont species, gave "I." lakotaensis its own genus (Dakotadon) in 2008. ... Paul, Gregory S. (2008). "A revised taxonomy of the iguanodont dinosaur genera and species". Cretaceous Research. 29 (2): 192- ...
The colour varieties of the species have been described as separate species many times. However, they are classified as colour ... horn brown. - The Fauna of British India Including Ceylon and Burma: Moths volume I There are three or more generations in Hong ... Pittaway, A.R. & Kitching, I.J. "Dull forest hawkmoth". Sphingidae of the Eastern Palaearctic species list. Retrieved 5 July ... The larvae have been recorded on Saurauia, Dillenia, Leea, Cayratia, Cissus and Vitis species. Male Male underside Female ...
This species is not threatened, and numbers are stable. Australian wood duck nests in cavities in trees or in nest-boxes above ... Sraml, M.; Christidis, L.; Easteal, S.; Horn, P.; Collet, C. (1996). "Molecular Relationships Within Australasian Waterfowl ( ... This species has benefited from agriculture developments, with creation of dams and pools. It is classified as a game bird, and ... It is the only living species in the genus Chenonetta. Traditionally placed in the subfamily Anatinae (dabbling ducks), it ...
Fieseler, L; Horn, M; Wagner, M; Hentschel, U (June 2004). "Discovery of the novel candidate phylum "Poribacteria" in marine ... They have been found in a large variety of sponge species from diverse geographic origins. The distribution of microorganisms ...
Corrigenda in Hovore, Penrose & Giesbert (1978). Horn, Geo. H. (1874). "Synonymical Notes and Description of New Species of ... George Henry Horn noted there were specimens in the Jardin des plantes which were collected in Southern California. It has been ... Parevander xanthomelas is a species of beetle in the Cerambycidae family. It was described by Félix Édouard Guérin-Méneville in ... Earle Gorton Linsley reported the species was "rather common in Southern and Central Mexico." In Guatemala, it was found in ...
The species is believed to be responsible for a widely reported 2017 scuticociliatosis outbreak on the coast of Northern ... Shaban, Bigad; Witte, Rachel; Horn, Michael. "Thousands of Sharks, Other Sea Life Mysteriously Die in San Francisco Bay". NBC ... Miamiensis avidus is a species of unicellular marine eukaryote that is a parasite of many different types of fish. It is one of ... M. avidus infects a broad range of teleost species, as well as other groups of marine organisms such as seahorses, sharks, and ...
Larva grey and granulose, with a subdorsal yellow spotted line from the head to the horn; the 4th to 10th somites with oblique ... In The Fauna of British India Including Ceylon and Burma: Moths volume I, the species is described as follows: Head, thorax, ... permanent dead link] Pittaway, A.R. & Kitching, I.J. "Mango Hawkmoth". Sphingidae of the Eastern Palaearctic species list. ... yellow lateral stripes; horn tuberculate. - The Fauna of British India Including Ceylon and Burma: Moths volume I Amplypterus ...
The substantial "belly" of the clam is used by some fishermen as bait for striped bass and other species. Horn, Dan. "Sea Clam ... This species is a commercially exploited species, long prized for its sweet flavor. This species is typically harvested from ... The species is exploited commercially as a food item. This common species occurs off the east coast of North America from Nova ... People on the beach often pick up a large empty shell of this species, either to dig in the sand with, or take home to use as a ...
Both sexes have horns. The meat of the Lüneburger Heidschnucke g. U. (a German Grey Heath) is protected within Europe under ... Some breeds are classed as domestic species threatened with extinction so their preservation is subsidised within the European ...
This species can be found in South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Democratic Republic of the Congo and ... Males show large forward-projecting horns. Elytra are black or dark brown with orange spots. The coloration of the thoracic ... Mecynorhina passerinii, the Orange-Spotted Fruit Chafer, is a species of beetles belonging to the family Scarabaeidae, ...
... "horn", translating as "Grandfather without horn". The species name is based on the confluent morphology of the teeth. The ... Most species did not have horns. Rhinoceros fossils are identified as such mainly by characteristics of their teeth, which is ... The largest species is P. confluens, followed P. minuta. The average size of all species, is about equal with a large dog, even ... They were found to be a unique species based on their size and the anatomy of their teeth. The species has been retained in the ...
Horns from the species D. furcatus. Benes, Josef. Prehistoric Animals and Plants. Pg. 240. Prague: Artua, 1979.. ... Dicrocerus elegans (Its name is Greek for "Fork Antler") is an extinct species of deer found in France, Europe (related species ...
Males show large forward-projecting horns. This species can be found in Cameroon, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. De Palma (M.) & ... Mecynorhina harrisi is a species of beetles belonging to the family Scarabaeidae, subfamily Cetoniinae. Mecynorhina harrisi ...
... is a species of spurge native to the western United States, especially California and Oregon. Its common ... The flower has two distinct horns. Jepson Manual Treatment of Euphorbia crenulata USDA Plants Profile for Euphorbia crenulata ...
... "horn", translating as "Grandfather without horn". The species name is based on the confluent morphology of the teeth. The ... Most species did not have horns. Rhinoceros fossils are identified as such mainly by characteristics of their teeth, which is ... They were found to be a unique species based on their size and the anatomy of their teeth. The species has been retained in the ... and that only four species certainly in the genus were valid. Radinsky noted that of all published species, F. totadentata, F ...
Most species did not have horns. Rhinoceros fossils are identified as such mainly by characteristics of their teeth, which is ... transouralicum represents the male of the same species. According to Lucas and Sobus, the type species P. bugtiense from the ... and that it contains at least four discernible species; P. bugtiense (the type species), P. transouralicum, P. prohorovi, and P ... Since the species involved are now known to have been contemporaneous, and that the differences in tusks are perhaps sexually ...
Horn, W. Misc. ent. Band 3, Arbeit 15). Kolenati, F. A.: 1848, Genera et species Trichopterorum. 1. Heteropalpoidea, Pragae, pp ...
New species were described by Ernst Hartert. Rosenberg was a Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society of London. Horn et al., ...
... is an anamorph, ascosporic species of the genus of Penicillium which produces citreoviridin. Horn, B ... List of Penicillium species MycoBank Straininfo of Penicillium ochrosalmoneum UniProt ATCC Gerhard Eisenbrand; Peter Schreier; ... Cinnamopurpureum and two Penicillium species associated with the conidial heads of Aspergillus". Mycologia. 100 (1): 12-9. doi: ...
Van Horn, DJ; Eisenberg D; O'Brien CA; Wolin SL (1995). "Caenorhabditis elegans embryos contain only one major species of Ro ...
In females, the horns are both shorter and narrower.[14] They become fully developed in females in the third year, while horns ... 2005). Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (3rd ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 676. ... Both sexes have strong horns that curve forward, resembling hooks, which are up to 78 cm (31 in) long. The horns have a broad ... the horn buds, appear on the head. These later develop into horns, which reach a length of 200-250 mm (8-10 in) by the fifth ...
The sexual dimorphism of the species is marked, the male being much smaller than the female. Hosts include wild and domestic ... Horn; W. Calvin Welbourn. Acarology IX, Volume 2, Symposia. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio Biological Survey. p. 344. ISBN 978-0- ... Ixodes persulcatus, the taiga tick, is a species of hard-bodied tick distributed from Europe through central and northern Asia ... 1999). "The Ixodes ricinus complex worldwide: diagnosis of the species in the complex, hosts and distribution". In Glen R. ...
... curling horns can grow to 50 inches in length. ... Their horns are not shed annually like the antlers of deer and ... Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep protection status on Endangered Species Act: Endangered. Uncontrolled hunting caused the ... Named for their massive, curling horns (which can grow to 50 inches in length) and known for their agility and perfect balance ... Ram bands have a social hierarchy established by body and horn size. Dramatic head- butting occurs between mature rams to ...
His horns curl three-quarters of the way around a circle, and show that his prime of life is near. Now the band of ewes he is ... While the species has made a modest recovery in the past 50 years, we still do not fully understand its needs, and the changing ... When the two species met at last, disaster was inevitable.. Wild sheep instantly recognized the domestic flocks as their ... Werbelow does not feel this practice has a bad effect on the species. Big rams are past their reproductive years, she says. ...
Type Specimens of Species of Dynastini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) Described by J. L. Leconte and G. H. Horn. ... Jonathan R. Mawdsley, "Type Specimens of Species of Dynastini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) Described by J. L. Leconte ... and G. H. Horn," Psyche, vol. 100, no. 3-4, pp. 173-175, 1993. doi:10.1155/1993/17012 ...
Caenorhabditis elegans embryos contain only one major species of Ro RNP.. Van Horn DJ, Eisenberg D, OBrien CA, Wolin SL. ... Van Horn DJ, Van Horn ML, Barrett JE, Gooseff MN, Altrichter AE, Geyer KM, Zeglin LH, Takacs-Vesbach CD. ... Van Horn DJ, Wolf CR, Colman DR, Jiang X, Kohler TJ, McKnight DM, Stanish LF, Yazzie T, Takacs-Vesbach CD. ... Sinsabaugh RL, Van Horn DJ, Shah JJ, Findlay S.. Microb Ecol. 2010 Nov;60(4):885-93. doi: 10.1007/s00248-010-9696-4. Epub 2010 ...
Leng Y, Shi Y, Yu Q, Van Horn JD, Tang H, Li J, Xu W, Ge X, Tang Y, Han Y, Zhang D, Xiao M, Zhang H, Pang Z, Toga AW, Liu S. ... Van Horn JD, Fierro L, Kamdar J, Gordon J, Stewart C, Bhattrai A, Abe S, Lei X, ODriscoll C, Sinha A, Jain P, Burns G, Lerman ... Van Horn JD, Bhattrai A, Irimia A.. Trends Neurosci. 2017 Jan;40(1):39-59. doi: 10.1016/j.tins.2016.10.007. Epub 2016 Dec 9. ... Xia Z, Trexler M, Wu F, Jean YC, Van Horn JD.. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2014 Feb;89(2):022603. Epub 2014 Feb 24 ...
3D Rhino Horns - Conservation or Exploitation?. Chimpanzee Attack Spurs Call to Ban US Primate.... ... But, for nearly a decade, suspicions have persisted that the forest and savannah elephant are two separate species, and not two ... "For the last 50 years, all African elephants have been treated as the same species," said Alfred Roca from the University of ... "The divergence of the two species took place around the time of the divergence of the Asian elephant and woolly mammoths," ...
The horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Mali and Sudan. It is found in ... 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 9 July 2007.. ...
Horns usually have a curved or spiral shape, often with ridges or fluting. In many species only males have horns. Horns start ... Horns are usually present only in males but in some species, females too may possess horns. It has been theorized by ... In these applications, horn is valued for its hardness, and it has given rise to the expression hard as horn. Horn is somewhat ... Horn may be used to make glue. Horn bows are bows made from a combination of horn, sinew and usually wood. These materials ...
In many species only the males have horns. Horns start to grow soon after birth, and continue to grow throughout the life of ... In these applications, horn is valued for its hardness, and it has given rise to the expression hard as horn. Horn is somewhat ... Horn also may be used to make glue.. Horn bows are bows made from a combination of horn, sinew, and usually wood. These ... These are called horns, though today they are made of metal.. Drinking horns are bovid horns removed from the bone core, ...
Wildlife Foundation President Kaddu Kiwe Sebunya on South Africas decision not to submit a proposal to legalize rhino horn ... Moreover, the ivory industry demonstrates the complications in trying to regulate a legal trade in an endangered species whose ... President Trumps proposed FY20 budget axes critical funding for programs proven to save the worlds most vulnerable species. ... and we are also working with partners like WildAid to reduce demand for rhino horn in countries such as Vietnam and China. ...
Regarding the nose-horns: does anyone know if those particular species have an egg-tooth? Could the nose horn be a a way of ... The nose horns of most species are single, but gaboon vipers possess two, and there is a cluster of little horns in the ... Desert-dwelling species with horns might, it has been suggested, somehow gain protection from sand grains thanks to their horns ... the horns are variable in some species: not all gaboon viper or Latastes viper individuals possess horns, for example (Phelps ...
The shape and number of horns differ from species to species. Erin McCullough of the University of Montana at Missoula and ... ... Study shows rhinoceros beetle horns evolved to accommodate species-specific fighting styles. (Phys.org) -Male rhinoceros ... Rhino horn trafficking up 30-fold: wildlife group. The trafficking of African rhinoceros horn on the black market has surged 30 ... Vietnam cancer-cure horn habit threat to world rhinos. For desperate Vietnamese cancer patients ground rhinoceros horn is ...
... or without horns. They have facial and leg glands for territorial marking and species recognition. This species is the least ... Critically Endangered: 2 species; Endangered: 3 species; Vulnerable: 6 species; Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent: 6 species; ... The IUCN Species Survival Commission: 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN Species Survival Commission. [June 20, ... They are hunted for their fur, meat, and horns. The horns are considered as their most valuable feature. Horns are ground up ...
World cannot afford luxury animal trade in rhino horns, ivory, endangered species. A decade ago, the number of rhinoceros ... Bees Added To Endangered Species List For The First Time. Trouble in paradise for seven species of pollinators native to Hawaii ... Seven species of bees now listed as endangered. HONOLULU, Oct. 1 (UPI) -- The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service added seven ... A little known species driven to the edge of extinction by poaching has gained extra protection at the Cites meeting in South ...
species Rams-horn Snail. Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus, 1758) kingdom Animalia - animals » phylum Mollusca - mollusks » class ... Text function: Rams-horn Snail ([[t:2578;,em,Planorbis planorbis,/em,]]); [[t:2578;Rams-horn Snail]]. Reference: Rams-horn ... IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018-1 [156175] IUCN Red List of Threatened Species [http://www.iucnredlist.org/] [as ... Galli C.: WMSDB - Wolrdwide Mollusc Species Data Base July 10, 2013 [http://www.bagniliggia.it/WMSD/WMSDhome....] [as Planorbis ...
Although species of the α-Protobacteria that are the dominant species in the long-term culture (indicated by arrowheads in Fig ... To determine whether the observed microbiota of the two Hydra species are species-specific, we processed the data using two ... and individuals from both species differed greatly in their microfauna. We also found that the bacterial species richness is ... dark gray shadowed bacterial phylotypes indicate species-specific bacterial species. The branch length indicator displays 0.1 ...
Australia, which has few native dung beetle species, has imported African species to help dispose of cattle dung.. Some of the ... 15 cm) including the horns. Despite their ferocious appearance these beetles are harmless to people.. The term scarab is also ... In most species of this group the males are prominently horned. The Hercules beetles of the S United States may grow 21/2 in. ( ... Other species of scarab beetles feed on living plants. Members of these groups include such major crop and garden pests as the ...
The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)[5] is a species of sheep native to North America[6] named for its large horns. These horns ... Ovis canadensis is one of three species of mountain sheep in North America and Siberia; the other two species being O. dalli, ... Bighorn sheep are named for the large, curved horns borne by the rams (males). Ewes (females) also have horns, but they are ... Mammalian Species. 230: 1-9.. *^ a b Hass, C. C. (1991). "Social status in female bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): expression, ...
Does the dog in your living room have any similarity to those wild species that we are losing from our savanna and forests? ... Predicted long-term drought in the Horn of Africa. Posted Tue, 15 Feb 2011 07:33:00 GMT by Michael Evans ... ID can be useful, especially when you consider some of the exotic species, but apart from allergy, most of us are safe with ... Hopes up for species survival. Posted Mon, 23 May 2011 02:54:01 GMT by Gracie Valena ...
... view images and see past prices for A CARVED IVORY AND LAC-INLAID POWDER HORN, INDIA, RAJASTHAN, ETAWAH, 19TH CENTURY ,. ... Endangered Species Items made of or incorporating plant or animal material, such as coral, crocodile, ivory, whalebone, ... Please also refer to the section on Endangered Species in the information on Buying at Auction.. Monumental. Lots with this ... Lot 275: A CARVED IVORY AND LAC-INLAID POWDER HORN, INDIA, RAJASTHAN, ETAWAH, 19TH CENTURY , ...
Bison and Buffalo are two different species….. Anyway! Im all nostalgic for college now…go Buffs!!! ... Before his wee horn-nubs grow. This brown baby buffalo. Looks cuddly and cute. Though the point will be moot. When he reaches ... Tootin my own horn here:. There once was a bebeh buffalo. Who looked like Janeane Garofalo. There was hullabaloo. From ... mini, mini horn nubs. tryin hard to grow,. pokin out a buffs head. So cute its on C.O. ...
2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/20/2019].. Contact us if you are using data ... 1 result for Marisa cornuarietis (giant rams-horn snail). Download Data. Click here for listing in all states Results per page: ...
2019]. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database. Gainesville, Florida. Accessed [7/22/2019].. Contact us if you are using data ... 23 results for Marisa cornuarietis (giant rams-horn snail). Download Data. Results per page:. 25. 50. 100. 200. 300. Specimen ...
The horn measures nine inches. Cattail Stems Cattail stems and ensheathing leaves of the species Typha. This plant lived during ... Musk Ox Horn Core This horn core was donated by Roy Wangerin of Kensington, Kansas. Roy found this horn on his property ...
Smooth larvae with an anal horn are generally hawkmoths. Four species are commonly found in urban areas.. The Rustic sphinx ( ... Larvae in the genus Manduca have a rough horn Great ash sphinx (Sphinx chersis ). *Adult * Feeds mainly on Ash * Note that the ... The caterpillars for these two species can be hard to tell apart, but the larvae cam be quite common on a wide variety of ... horn is smooth. The tomato and tobacco hornworns -- Carolina sphinx (Manduca sexta) and Five-spotted hawkmoth (Manduca ...
  • Their horns are not shed annually like the antlers of deer and elk, but grow in length and circumference throughout the sheep's life (a pair can weigh nearly 30 pounds). (statesymbolsusa.org)
  • Named for their massive, curling horns (which can grow to 50 inches in length) and known for their agility and perfect balance, Rocky Mountain bighorns (Ovis canadensis) are found only in the Rockies (usually above the timberline) in extremely rugged terrain. (statesymbolsusa.org)
  • While the species has made a modest recovery in the past 50 years, we still do not fully understand its needs, and the changing character of the West itself now further imperils these charismatic animals. (terrain.org)
  • Gaboon vipers, the largest of the African viperids, are among the best known members of the genus Bitis (in which there are about 11 species). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Like several other species in the genus, they're stocky, broad-headed snakes of forest floors, but other species inhabit deserts and even rocky, montane habitats. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A rapid diversification of the family into genus and species occurred possibly due to the formation of savannah habitat in Africa. (encyclopedia.com)
  • They also studied the development of eight beetle species in the laboratory (seven Onthophagus species and one species from the closely related but hornless genus Oniticel lus). (bio-medicine.org)
  • For several years, excitement has been building over the Atlantic presence of Manta birostris and Manta cf birostris/ this is the classification system trying to tell us of a potential new species that is related to genus Manta. (earthtimes.org)
  • Gnetum africanum differs from other studied species of the genus in having smaller supratectal microechini. (springer.com)
  • Paraceratherium means "near the hornless beast", in reference to Aceratherium , the genus in which the type species P. bugtiense was originally placed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The taxonomy of the genus and the species within has a long and complicated history. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most completely-known species is P. transouralicum , so most reconstructions of the genus are based on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • These have been condensed into three recognized species in the Triceratops genus, but some researchers believe that number should be lower still: They suggest there is just one Triceratops , of whom the size and shape of its skull and head ornaments changed as it matured. (livescience.com)
  • Fossilized remains of another species of the genus, Caenopus dakotensis, have been discovered in the White River Formation of Wyoming. (angelfire.com)
  • The earliest known bovids, commonly placed in the genus Eotragus, are small species with short straight horns that are located above the orbits. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The type species (holotype) of the genus Lithothamnion is Lithothamnion muelleri Lenormand ex Rosanoff . (algaebase.org)
  • The creature was only about two inches long and is a new genus and species to science. (redorbit.com)
  • But the American Naturalist report shows that even within sexually dimorphic horned beetle species, both sexes initially form the horns, even if one or both sexes reabsorb the horn tissu e sometime before adulthood. (bio-medicine.org)
  • General characteristics include a cloven hoof and usually at least one of the sexes of a species having a true horn. (wikibooks.org)
  • The horns are of nearly equal size in both sexes, are placed on or near the vertex of the skull, and may be either rounded or angulated, while their direction is more or ​ less outwards, with an upward direction near the tips, and conspicuous knobs or ridges are never developed on their surface. (wikisource.org)
  • Similar growths on other parts of the body are not usually called horns, but spurs, claws or hoofs depending on the part of the body on which they occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Keratins are tough and insoluble fibrous structural proteins that form the chief, hard, nonmineralized structural component of horns, hair , wool , nails , claws, hooves, and other vertebrate tissues (as well as part of various invertebrate structures). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • On of the more immediate and practical consequences of the discovery is rethinking conservation plans for the savannah and forest elephant as two separate species. (planetsave.com)
  • 3D Rhino Horns - Conservation or Exploitation? (planetsave.com)
  • In the early 1990s in an effort to reduce the losses of rhinoceros to poaching, conservation organizations advocated the use of saiga antelope horn in Traditional Chinese Medicine. (hindawi.com)
  • This book chapter discusses a research project to promote biocultural conservation in Cape Horn, Chile. (unt.edu)
  • In an effort to achieve the goal of transdisciplinary integration, the authors used the strategy of identifying a charismatic species, since doing so serves to motivate people towards biodiversity conservation, to communicate ecological concepts, and to integrate both the ecological and social dimensions of sustainability. (unt.edu)
  • The crocodile is leaving its iconic spot to 10 threatened species through a partnership with the International Union for Conservation of Nature. (cnn.com)
  • Traders also exploit legal grey areas, legally importing "trophy" horns from licensed shoots in South Africa that conservation groups say can then disappear into the blackmarket because Vietnam does not conduct follow up checks. (medindia.net)
  • Rhino horn is now well beyond simply a luxury item used as a symbol of status," said Naomi Doak of conservation group TRAFFIC, adding that the horn was also in demand as a cure for a variety of even mundane ailments. (medindia.net)
  • We saw that it had the potential of engaging young people to learn about endangered species conservation. (treehugger.com)
  • We have received letters from teachers, parents and students emphasizing that the contest has given them a special opportunity to learn about endangered species/conservation (for some for the first time). (treehugger.com)
  • In Victorian times, palaeontologists were keen to name new species, and in the excitement of the great 'bone wars' for example, from 1870 to 1890, they rushed into print with new names for every odd leg bone, tooth, or skull cap that came their way. (phys.org)
  • Such horns consist of an extension of the frontal bone , a permanent part of the cranium covered by a horny layer. (britannica.com)
  • Some of you may not want to read about the bone found in the penises of many mammal species. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Tiger Bone & Rhino Horn takes you on a road trip through horror and sorrow but leaves you infused with hope. (islandpress.org)
  • In Tiger Bone & Rhino Horn , Richard Ellis shows just how destructive and unsustainable many of these practices are. (islandpress.org)
  • While both a bony core and a covering of keratinous material constitute the definition of a "true horn," there are many other hard structures projecting from the head of animals that do not meet these requirements and yet are referred to commonly as horns. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Four species are commonly found in urban areas. (arizona.edu)
  • Rhino horns are commonly sold to make analgesics in some forms of Asian medicine. (cnn.com)
  • Horns start to grow soon after birth, and continue to grow throughout the life of the animal (except in pronghorns, which shed the outer layer annually, but retain the bony core). (wikipedia.org)
  • Within Utah:- Trophy animals are poached and their skulls, caps and horns sold. (deseretnews.com)
  • Spencer Lucas, another researcher who wasn't involved in the study, from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, said more samples are needed to prove that these skulls all come from the same species, especially for the less-represented fossils. (livescience.com)
  • President Trump's proposed FY20 budget axes critical funding for programs proven to save the world's most vulnerable species. (awf.org)
  • Make a gift to protect Africa's most vulnerable species. (awf.org)
  • Kids really seem to connect with the contest and understand that our most vulnerable species need safeguards like the Endangered Species Act. (treehugger.com)
  • AWF has long supported reserves with critical rhino populations across Africa, including South Africa, and we are also working with partners like WildAid to reduce demand for rhino horn in countries such as Vietnam and China. (awf.org)
  • HSI has been working with the government of Vietnam since 2013 on a national campaign to reduce demand for rhino horn that is driving the rhino poaching crisis. (hsi.org)
  • Smooth larvae with an anal horn are generally hawkmoths. (arizona.edu)
  • Curious as to whether or not the horns had a function, the scientists destroyed the horn tissue of beetle larvae using electrosurgery: minute voltage arcs that permit precise destruction of targeted cells while nearby tissues are left intact and undamaged. (bio-medicine.org)
  • With the larval horn tissue destroyed, the scientists observed most larvae were unable to break the husks of their larval head capsules, resulting in young adult hatchlings whose heads were tightly (and lethally) encased within larval helmets. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Despite the differences in adult appearance, all four species begin to grow horns as larvae -- regardless of sex, Moczek found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • They are the rarest of five existing rhino species, having dwindled down to 200 in the wild and 10 in captivity. (cnn.com)
  • The upregulation of kinin B 1 R in spinal dorsal horn microglia by pro-inflammatory cytokines is proposed as a crucial mechanism in early pain neuropathy in STZ-diabetic rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Meanwhile, CCL2 expression was increased in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) from 3 days to 21 days after IAMNT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CVM's Office of Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Drug Development (OMUMS for short) works hard to make sure safe and effective drugs are available for minor species, like Santa's reindeer (or are they caribou? (fda.gov)
  • Horns usually have a curved or spiral shape, often with ridges or fluting. (wikipedia.org)
  • These animals have one or occasionally two pairs of horns, which usually have a curved or spiral shape, often with ridges or fluting. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Males have a pair of long, waxy-colored horns with ring-like ridges along their length. (hindawi.com)
  • In the males the horns are usually compressed and triangular, with transverse ridges or knobs, and either curving backwards or spiral. (wikisource.org)
  • The present family doubtless originated in the northern half of the Old World, whence it effected an entrance by way of the Bering Strait route into North America, where it has always been but poorly represented in the matter of genera and species. (wikisource.org)
  • He seems to be able to eat normally, despite having a large horn-like growth protruding from the top of his beak. (feederwatch.org)
  • Species do not include records of infraspecific taxa, if there are more than 1 infraspecific taxon in CA. (berkeley.edu)
  • scarab beetle or scarab, name for members of a large family of heavy-bodied, oval beetles (the Scarabaeidae), with about 30,000 species distributed throughout most of the world and over 1,200 in North America. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Long called " Tetramorium caespitum" , then " Tetramorium species E" once it became clear the Eurasian T. caespitum was a complex of cryptic forms , the pavement ant has spread across the world and is now among most common urban ants in North America. (myrmecos.net)
  • Caenopus occidentalis was a rhinoceros species that lived in North America during the Oligocene. (angelfire.com)
  • Moreover, two closely related species of Hydra , Hydra oligactis ( Fig. 1 B ) and Hydra vulgaris ( Fig. 1 C ), are remarkably different in their stress response ( 7 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • This species is closely related to D. innoxia. (pfaf.org)
  • Comparative genomics analysis with the Dipteran flies Musca domestica L., Drosophila melanogaster , and Lucilia cuprina , show that the horn fly is most closely related to M. domestica , sharing 8,748 orthologous clusters followed by D. melanogaster and L. cuprina , sharing 7,582 and 7,490 orthologous clusters respectively. (g3journal.org)
  • This species is extremely susceptible to the various viruses that afflict the potato family (Solanaceae), it can act as a centre of infection so should not be grown near potatoes or tomatoes. (pfaf.org)
  • The family currently contains about 38 genera and 400 species divided into four subfamilies (Anommatinae, Bothriderinae, Teredinae, and Xylariophilinae). (tolweb.org)
  • The lipid family is composed of a wide range of molecular species that include triacylglycerides, sphingolipids, phosphoglycerides and sterols [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • The Bostrichidae are a family of beetles with more than 700 described species. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, it depends in part on which of the about 50 species of deer you are referring to. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • White-tailed deer, the well-known species of the eastern United States, are not noted for making sounds beyond snorts and grunts, but some deer do produce vocalizations. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • Bull elk in the western United States, which are considered by many mammalogists to be the same species as the red deer of Europe, and fallow deer of the Middle East make a bugling sound during the mating season. (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • What are the largest and smallest species of deer? (tuscaloosanews.com)
  • Reindeer are the only deer species to have hair completely covering their nose. (fda.gov)
  • Reindeer are the only deer species to be widely domesticated. (fda.gov)
  • The saiga horns have been investigated the using of modern analytic methods. (hindawi.com)
  • It could be concluded that basic proteins of the saiga horns are keratins and collagen. (hindawi.com)
  • This work is devoted to the idea of research of alternative to the active components in the horns of Saiga. (hindawi.com)
  • Composition of horns of Saiga is studied for this purpose, in future to find the analogues of active components in the horns of other animals, for example, ram. (hindawi.com)
  • By 2001 the saiga had joined the rhinoceros on the endangered species list. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite having no medicinal properties, the demand for rhino horn for its use in tradicional medicine has driven the poaching crisis. (hsi.org)
  • A few Eurasian viperids have nose horns, including Lataste's viper Vipera latasti and the Nose-horned viper V. ammodytes [shown here, from wikipedia]. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The nose horns of most species are single, but gaboon vipers possess two, and there is a cluster of little horns in the Rhinoceros viper. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The larger front (anterior) horn is typically 15-25 cm long, and the smaller second (posterior) horn is normally much smaller, seldom more than a few cm in length, and often just an irregular knob on the tip of the nose. (savetherhino.org)
  • Insects: Some insects (such as rhinoceros beetles) have horn-like structures on the head or thorax (or both). (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, really weird horn-like structures are present in the Fishing snake Erpeton tentaculatum and in the Madagascan Langaha species. (scienceblogs.com)
  • In all of these snakes, the horns are soft structures make of spikes or scales. (scienceblogs.com)
  • While it's interesting that the majority of horned snakes belong to the same group (Viperidae), the diversity of horn-like structures, and the ecologies and lifestyles of the snakes in question, suggest that horns evolved for diverse reasons. (scienceblogs.com)