Coxiella: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that is widely distributed in TICKS and various mammals throughout the world. Infection with this genus is particularly prevalent in CATTLE; SHEEP; and GOATS.Coxiella burnetii: A species of gram-negative bacteria that grows preferentially in the vacuoles of the host cell. It is the etiological agent of Q FEVER.Q Fever: An acute infectious disease caused by COXIELLA BURNETII. It is characterized by a sudden onset of FEVER; HEADACHE; malaise; and weakness. In humans, it is commonly contracted by inhalation of infected dusts derived from infected domestic animals (ANIMALS, DOMESTIC).Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Sheep Diseases: Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.Rickettsia typhi: The etiologic agent of murine typhus (see TYPHUS, ENDEMIC FLEA-BORNE).Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Rickettsia rickettsii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER. Its cells are slightly smaller and more uniform in size than those of RICKETTSIA PROWAZEKII.Blotting, Southwestern: A method that is used to detect DNA-protein interactions. Proteins are separated by electrophoresis and blotted onto a nitrocellulose membrane similar to Western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) but the proteins are identified when they bind labeled DNA PROBES (as with Southern blotting (BLOTTING, SOUTHERN)) instead of antibodies.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Acetonitriles: Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.Ureaplasma: A genus of gram-negative, nonmotile bacteria which are common parasitic inhabitants of the urogenital tracts of humans, cattle, dogs, and monkeys.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay: An mRNA metabolic process that distinguishes a normal STOP CODON from a premature stop codon (NONSENSE CODON) and facilitates rapid degradation of aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons.Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.RNA Stability: The extent to which an RNA molecule retains its structural integrity and resists degradation by RNASE, and base-catalyzed HYDROLYSIS, under changing in vivo or in vitro conditions.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksRepetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Tick Control: Chemical, biological, or medical measures designed to prevent the spread of ticks or the concomitant infestations which result in tick-borne diseases. It includes the veterinary as well as the public health aspects of tick and mite control.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Phagosomes: Membrane-bound cytoplasmic vesicles formed by invagination of phagocytized material. They fuse with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes in which the hydrolytic enzymes of the lysosome digest the phagocytized material.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Phagocytes: Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.Lysosomes: A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Rickettsia Infections: Infections by the genus RICKETTSIA.Ticks: Blood-sucking acarid parasites of the order Ixodida comprising two families: the softbacked ticks (ARGASIDAE) and hardbacked ticks (IXODIDAE). Ticks are larger than their relatives, the MITES. They penetrate the skin of their host by means of highly specialized, hooked mouth parts and feed on its blood. Ticks attack all groups of terrestrial vertebrates. In humans they are responsible for many TICK-BORNE DISEASES, including the transmission of ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER; TULAREMIA; BABESIOSIS; AFRICAN SWINE FEVER; and RELAPSING FEVER. (From Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, pp543-44)Rickettsia prowazekii: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the etiologic agent of epidemic typhus fever acquired through contact with lice (TYPHUS, EPIDEMIC LOUSE-BORNE) as well as Brill's disease.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Tick Infestations: Infestations with soft-bodied (Argasidae) or hard-bodied (Ixodidae) ticks.
  • Coxiella -like bacteria have been associated with infection cal signs (fever, skin eschar, local lymph node enlargement) in birds ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To explore pathogenicity to humans, we used and if a removed tick was positive for Coxiella -like bacte- molecular techniques targeting Coxiella- like bacteria to ria according to qPCR but no skin biopsy was sampled or retrospectively analyze skin biopsy samples and ticks col- when serologic results were positive. (cdc.gov)
  • Ticks were identified by matrix-assisted la- for the Coxiella -like bacteria associated with R. sanguin- ser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrom- eus , R. turanicus , and H. pusillus ticks to be Candidatus C. etry (Bruker Daltonics, Billerica, USA) ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • and Coxiella burnetii by quanti- tients were infected with Coxiella -like bacteria only: 11 tative PCR (qPCR) ( 2 , 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • On the basis of the aligned rrs (55%) Dermacentor marginatus , 7 (35%) R. sanguineus , gene sequences of Coxiella -like bacteria, we developed 1 (5%) R. bursa , and 1 (5%) Ixodes ricinus ticks. (cdc.gov)
  • Coxiella- a specific qPCR to detect the DNA of all Coxiella spe- like bacteria were found significantly less commonly in I. cies and degenerated primers aimed to amplify a 659-bps ricinus ticks (p = 0.002, relative risk = 0.5). (cdc.gov)
  • Before pasteurization of milk began in the United States in the 1920s, consumption of raw dairy products accounted for a significant proportion of foodborne illnesses among Americans and resulted in hundreds of outbreaks of tuberculosis and infections caused by bacteria, such as Brucella abortus , streptococcal species, and enteric pathogens. (aappublications.org)
  • As both C. burnetii and numerous "Coxiella-like bacteria" have been reported from several species of ticks, we determined the evolutionary relationship between the two bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Abundance of Coxiella -like bacteria in four lab-reared female A. americanum ticks is depicted. (nih.gov)
  • Coxiella ''is an acidophilic bacteria, requiring a pH of 4.5-5 to grow. (kenyon.edu)
  • Coxiella'' bacteria are obligate organisms, meaning they rely on their hosts for nutritional and environmental support. (kenyon.edu)
  • Monkey cell infected containing roughly twenty ''Coxiella burnetii'' bacteria. (kenyon.edu)
  • Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a species of bacteria that is distributed globally. (maine.gov)
  • The genomic content of Daphnia -associated bacteria is largely unknown due to the amplicon sequencing methods used in prior research, and we cannot make statements about the metabolic potential of these bacteria due to the relative scarcity of full genomes for close relative species. (nature.com)
  • Algunhas bacterias patóxenas que chegan ao interior da célula ao seren fagocitadas, poden reproducirse no interior do fagosoma ou mesmo no interior do fagolisosoma, como é o caso da bacteria Coxiella burnetii . (wikipedia.org)
  • The potential for raccoons to carry these bacteria in Europe, where they are an invasive species, has not been explored. (usda.gov)
  • Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. (plos.org)
  • Ticks transmit more pathogens than any other arthropod, and one single species can transmit a large variety of bacteria and parasites. (plos.org)
  • To our knowledge, our study showed for the first time the presence of Babesia vesperuginis in Eptesicus serotinus collected from China, suggesting that Babesia vesperuginis has a broad host species and geographical distribution. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) which kill and digest the pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • In general, these bacterial pathogens are considered "highly clonal," meaning that the overall gene content of each species is very similar. (biologynews.net)
  • Nontyphoidal Salmonella species are globally disseminated pathogens and are the predominant cause of gastroenteritis. (usda.gov)
  • Like many other pathogens, Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, can modulate its gene expression to combat stresses encountered in both aquatic and host environments, including stress posed by reactive oxygen species (ROS). (usda.gov)
  • Leishmania species are insect vector-borne kinetoplastid protozoan pathogens causing a wide spectrum of neglected tropical diseases (the leishmaniases-cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral) in humans across the globe. (hindawi.com)
  • Coxiella burnetti can induce abortion in domestic mammals (cat, dog, rabbit) and ruminants, and these animals represent their main reservoir. (ualberta.ca)
  • Coxiella burnetti is considered by the US government as a possible agent for bioterrorism as it is highly infectious and resistant to heat and drying. (ualberta.ca)
  • Chlamydiae are well known for their species specificity and tissue tropism, and yet the individual species and strains show remarkable genomic synteny and share an intracellular developmental cycle unique in the microbial world. (asm.org)
  • Here we show that chlamydial species associated with human infections, Chlamydia trachomatis and C. pneumoniae , exhibit unique requirements for Src-family kinases throughout their developmental cycle. (asm.org)
  • 1399-1402 Although hospital wastes had a greater number of different bacterial species compared with residential waste, wastes from residences were more heavily contaminated. (cdc.gov)
  • However, the bacterial species present and functions associated with their genomes are not well understood. (nature.com)
  • Here, we use shotgun metagenomics to characterize the bacterial species present in the Daphnia magna microbiota. (nature.com)
  • However, the study said, "The evolution of pathogenic bacterial species from nonpathogenic ancestors is … marked by relatively small changes in the overall gene content. (biologynews.net)
  • Additional reports on the identification of new bacterial species maintained in nature by R. microplus that may be pathogenic to its vertebrate hosts are expected as our understanding of its microbiota expands. (springer.com)
  • A study based on bulk tank milk samples from 120 randomly selected dairy cattle herds was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii seropositive dairy herds, to describe the geographical distribut. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prevalence data in ruminant species are important to support risk assessments regarding public and animal health. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As the name suggest, bTB is typically a disease of cattle-although other species can contract it-and outbreaks can have a disastrous impact on farmers at both a local and national level. (me.uk)
  • Another plasmid, [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/framik.cgi?db=Genome&gi=15234 ''Coxiella burnetii'' plasmid QpDV], was sequenced in 1999. (kenyon.edu)
  • Work has also been done on [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/framik.cgi?db=Genome&gi=293 ''Coxiella burnetii'' RSA (kenyon.edu)
  • One of the more recent developments is the sequencing of [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/framik.cgi?db=Genome&gi=17002 ''Coxiella burnetii'' RSA 493 plasmid pQpH completed in 2003. (kenyon.edu)
  • Overall, results demonstrate that ecologic niche modeling can be a powerful tool in understanding geographic distributions of species and other biologic phenomena such as zoonotic disease transmission from natural reservoir populations. (ajtmh.org)
  • Identification of such a mechanism across different species would suggest a path for the development of transmission blocking strategies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We tested 231 parakeets and found that in both species parasite load was positively influenced by host abundance at local scale, while environmental features such as the amount of natural or urban habitats, as well as richness of native birds, influenced parasite occurrence, load, and richness differently in the two host species. (springer.com)
  • The organism is found in the feces of many species of animals including dogs, cats, rodents and nonhuman primates. (rochester.edu)
  • In order to understand potential functions of these species, we combined 16S rRNA sequencing and shotgun metagenomics to characterize the whole-organism microbiota of Daphnia magna . (nature.com)
  • A single Coxiella burnetii organism may cause disease in a susceptible person. (ualberta.ca)
  • In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified in 75% of northern fur seal placentas from a single rookery in Alaska, but nothing was known about the significance of this organism in the population. (arctichealth.org)