Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.TurtlesCell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Potamogetonaceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Iridaceae: A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.VeratrineAmobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Echinochloa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.Protoveratrines: Mixtures of closely related hypotensive alkaloids from Veratrum album (Liliaceae). They have been used in the treatment of hypertension but have largely been replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Adenine NucleotidesAcidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.UtahHot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Pacific OceanScopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.
Parasite Species Summary)" Archived 1 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. "Echinostomum revolutum (Parasite Species Summary ... Krieger K. A. (1985). "Snail distribution in Lake Erie, USA, Canada; the influence of anoxia in the southern central basin ... This species is found on the substrate in fall and winter (including gravel, sand, clay, mud or undersides of rocks) and on ... This species functions as both a scraper and a collector-filterer, grazing on algae on the substrate, as well as using its ...
Some species show a remarkable tolerance for hydrogen sulfide and anoxia. They can be quite abundant in some areas. In an ... Some species may also have a tail or a pair of caudal appendages. The body has a chitinous cuticle that is moulted as the ... About 20 extant species of priapulid worms are known, half of them being of meiobenthic size. Priapulids are cylindrical worm- ... For the species Priapulus caudatus, the 80 µm egg undergoes a total and radial cleavage following a symmetrical and subequal ...
In these sediment layers, anoxia-tolerant species are the most prevalent remains found. The periods indicated by the sediment ...
Human health issues include methemoglobinemia and anoxia, commonly referred to as blue baby syndrome. As a result of these ... of aquatic systems can cause the death of fish and other marine species. Finally, leaching of NO3 from acidic sources can ...
... certain species of fish and birds continue to decline, and the introduction of tenacious exotic species from around the world ... The bay approached sterile conditions at the peak of pollution and algal bloom-induced anoxia. Environmental actions from the ... The crustacean species represented include the blue crab, fiddler crab, green crab, horseshoe crab and spider crab. Clams and ...
This anoxia would have killed off many of the survivors of the first extinction pulse. In all the extinction event of the Late ... This first pulse was the larger of the two and caused the extinction of most of the marine animal species that existed in the ... likely due to the anoxia promoted in these basins. From what we know about tectonic movement, the time span required to allow ... Ordovician saw a loss of 85% of marine animal species and 26% of animal families. Delabroye, A.; Vecoli, M. (2010). "The end- ...
Bottom-trawl surveys and pelagic-species acoustic surveys are used to assess changes in fish biodiversity and abundance in LMEs ... Fish trawls can also collect sediment and inform us about ocean-bottom conditions such as anoxia. Pollution and eutrophication ... Health is assessed on both a population and species level. Observations are made pertaining to bioaccumulation of contaminants ... Measurements pertaining to zooplankton biodiversity and species composition, zooplankton biomass, water-column structure, ...
The brims are thought to have served a respiratory purpose, and the increasing anoxia of waters led to an increase in their ... These latter estimates need to be treated with a degree of caution, as the estimates of species loss depend on surveys of ... David P. G. Bond; Paul B. Wignalla (2008). "The role of sea-level change and marine anoxia in the Frasnian-Famennian (Late ... 97 per cent of vertebrate species disappeared, with only smaller forms surviving. After the event only sharks less than a meter ...
One of the more known examples of a pseudo penis to occur in the insects is found in the species Neotrogla. In this species, ... the first-born often die of anoxia. Female spider monkeys have a clitoris that is referred to as a pseudo-penis because it is ... Only 3% of avian species have a phallus. The most common genital among birds is the cloaca; a direct tract for elimination and ... When this tip inflates, species specific ridges and spines flare up that match up with the walls of the male's seminal duct. ...
It is estimated that there may be found more than 120 species of fish and over 260 species of birds and more than fifty species ... Mangrove plants require a number of physiological adaptations to overcome the problems of anoxia, high salinity and frequent ... Both species are considered invasive species and classified as pests by the University of Hawaii Botany Department. Mangrove ... Therefore, the mix of species is partly determined by the tolerances of individual species to physical conditions, such as ...
Two species are sold as fish bait. In most species the sexes are separate, but all the freshwater species are hermaphroditic. ... This stores oxygen for peak activity or when the animal experiences anoxia, for example while burrowing in oxygen-free ... Most nemertean species have just one pair of nerve cords, many species have additional paired cords, and some species also have ... A few species are scavengers, and a few species live commensally inside the mantle cavity of molluscs. Some species have ...
Adventitious rooting may be a stress-avoidance acclimation for some species, driven by such inputs as hypoxia/anoxia or ... easy to root' species. Adventitious roots and buds usually develop near the existing vascular tissues so they can connect to ... They are a type of natural vegetative reproduction in many species, e.g. many grasses, quaking aspen and Canada thistle. The ... Another ecologically important function of adventitious rooting is the vegetative propagation of tree species such as Salix and ...
This species has shown a potential to adapt to new environments within large lakes, as indicated by its recent history in Lake ... It can tolerate polysaprobic waters, or areas of major pollution and anoxia with high concentrations of organic matter, ... The shell of the species can grow to ~30 mm in height and 25 mm in width as a full grown adult. However, most individuals in a ... This species also has tentacles that are large, flat, lobate, triangular, fan-shaped and wider than they are high. The blood ...
So far there have been no documented effects of the species being present in the Great Lakes. However, this bacterium has been ... anoxia in at least some strata; high turbidity; high incident irradiation; and low macrophyte biomass. The bacterium is thought ... Species - Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii This bacterium is a freshwater cyanobacterium often found in tropical regions but can ... Some strains of this species are able to produce several toxins which affect humans: cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and ...
DNA sequences for ethylene receptors have also been identified in many other plant species and an ethylene binding protein has ... In flooding, roots suffer from lack of oxygen, or anoxia, which leads to the synthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid ... ultimately lowering the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, decreased accumulation of ROS lowers ...
As with percussive stunning, spiking is used to kill one fish at a time and so is mainly used for large species such as tuna ... where they chill and eventually die of anoxia. Because chilling slows metabolic rate and oxygen needs, it may prolong the ... For some fish species, there are automated percussive stunning tools, such as a pneumatic club for salmon. However, building an ... One Dutch study found that it took 55-250 minutes for various species of fish to become insensible during asphyxiation. Fish ...
The few studies that have used calorimetry reveal that some fish species employ metabolic suppression in hypoxia/anoxia (e.g., ... Most tropical and temperate fish species living in stagnant waters engage in ASR during hypoxia. One study looked at 26 species ... The species that employ metabolic suppression are more hypoxia-tolerant than the species that do not, which suggests that ... Some species may hold an air bubble within the mouth during ASR. This may assist buoyancy as well as increase the oxygen ...
... and species dwelling in shallow water were more likely to become extinct than species dwelling in deep water. The analysis of ... The spread of anoxia (the absence of oxygen) greatly affected the organisms that lived in this time period. This complexity may ... Surviving species were those that coped with the changed conditions and filled the ecological niches left by the extinctions. ... Extinction was global during this period, eliminating 49-60% of marine genera and nearly 85% of marine species. Brachiopods, ...
Storey was also responsible for the discovery that some turtle species are freeze tolerant: newly hatched painted turtles that ... Krivoruchko, A.; Storey, K.B. (2015). "Turtle anoxia tolerance: biochemistry and gene regulation". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1850 ... These studies across multiple species also hold key applications for medical science, particularly for preservation ... and anoxia and ischemia tolerance. Control mechanisms include transcription factor changes that alter gene expression, and ...
Other parasites of this species include a species of myxosporean in the genus Kudoa, which infests the skeletal muscles, the ... It is capable of surviving complete anoxia for an hour without ill effects, and at a much higher temperature than most other ... A small species usually under 1 m (3.3 ft) long, the epaulette shark has a slender body with a short head and broad, paddle- ... This species is oviparous, with females depositing eggs from August to December. The female drops the egg capsules two (rarely ...
The crucian carp is also the type species for the genus, which has led to confusion in the taxonomy of species native to East ... Anoxia can be tolerated longest in the coldest water, even down to 0 °C, because colder conditions lower the metabolic rate. ... The crucian carp is a widely distributed European species, its range spanning from England to Russia; it is found as far north ... Johnston, Ian A. & Bernard, Lynne M. Utilization of the Ethanol Pathway in Carp Following Exposure to Anoxia. J. exp. exp. Biol ...
Acyl groups, molecular species and labeling by 14C-glycerol and 3H-arachidonic acid of vertebrate retina glycerolipids. In ... In contrast, mature homeothermic animals, vulnerable to relatively short periods of anoxia, rapidly accumulate arachidonic and ... J Lipid Res 24:620-627, 1983 Aveldano MI, Pasquare de Garcia SJ, Bazan NG: Biosynthesis of molecular species of inositol, ... Biochim Biophys Aca 296:1-9, 1973 Aveldano de Caldironi MI, Bazan NG: Composition and biosynthesis of molecular species of ...
Thaumarchaeotes are abundant in the ocean and some species have a 200 times greater affinity for ammonia than AOB, leading ... which large algal blooms reduce oxygen levels in bodies of water and lead to death in oxygen-consuming creatures due to anoxia ... changes in species diversity, and other undesirable processes. In addition, nitrification inhibitors have also been shown to ... and have been known to cause death and developmental anomalies in affected species. In addition, because they easily leach into ...
... species can grow photoheterotrophically or photoautotrophically (using molecular hydrogen as their electron donor) under anoxia ... Azospira species are heterotrophs that can fix molecular nitrogen (i.e. are diazotrophic) as their source of nitrogen for ... Propionivibrio species grow anaerobically by fermentation of hydrocarbons, yielding fatty acids, specifically propionate. The ...
L. fortunei is a strictly freshwater species, although it can tolerate brackish waters of up to 23 per mil (23 grams of salt ... Perepelizin, P.V.; Boltovskoy, D. (2011). "Resistance of the invasive pest mussel Limnoperna fortunei to anoxia". Journal of ... In South America, adult L. fortunei is preyed upon by at least 50 fish species. Introduction of this mussel in South America ... The native range of the species is China, but it has accidentally been introduced to South America and several Asian countries ...
Colour vision appears to vary from species to species, for example being present in O. aegina but absent in O. vulgaris.[47] ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... The reproduction of octopuses has been studied in only a few species. One such species is the giant Pacific octopus, in which ... The cirrate species are often free-swimming and live in deep-water habitats.[32] No species are known to live in fresh water.[ ...
... anoxia, and increased salinity. Molecular chaperones are known to play a role in stabilizing protein structure and function ... limnaeus and is elevated during diapause II in this species. Constitutive expression of Hsp70 during development may afford ...
Author Exposure Journal Methodology Outcome Risk Factor Species Year Using the Database ... Browse by Outcome: Anoxia (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
reactive oxygen species. RTHDF. rainbow trout hypodermal fibroblasts. TBS-T. TRIS-buffered saline with Tween 20. ... chemical anoxia) and removal of azide (recovery) and (iii) anoxia (PO2,0.1%) and recovery. During both chemical and true anoxia ... In the chemical anoxia model we find that inhibition of p44ERK activity during anoxia is dependent on p38MAPK activity, whereas ... To validate chemical anoxia as a substitute for real oxygen deprivation, the anoxia/recovery experiment was repeated using ...
... levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), related protein expression, ... and upregulating expression of SIRT1 can inhibit the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). ... Following a 2-day culture, the cardiomyocytes were exposed to anoxia induced by adding fresh anoxia medium (NaH2PO4 0.9 mM, ... Following 4 h of anoxia, the anoxia medium was removed from the cells and the reoxygenation medium (KCl 5.0 mM, NaCl 129.5 mM, ...
SPECIES Classification. kingdom Animalia phylum Arthropoda class Insecta order Coleoptera family Melolonthidae genus Anoxia ... Anoxia israelitica Petrovitz, 1971 Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank ...
SPECIES Classification. kingdom Animalia phylum Arthropoda class Insecta order Coleoptera family Melolonthidae genus Anoxia ... Anoxia pauliani Dewailly, 1945 Dataset GBIF Backbone Taxonomy Rank ...
Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 30th January 2017. Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col. Species 2000: ... Anoxia niceaensis Baraud, 1990 References[edit]. Links[edit]. *Schoolmeesters P. 2017. Scarabs: World Scarabaeidae Database ( ... Genus: Anoxia. Species: Anoxia niceaensis Name[edit]. ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title ...
... to re-oxygenation determine a strong imbalance in the cellular redox state involving the production of reactive oxygen species ... All the ascorbate-glutathione related parameters were altered during anoxia but restored during re-oxygenation. Anoxia also ... All the ascorbate-glutathione related parameters were altered during anoxia but restored during re-oxygenation. Anoxia also ... It has been reported that both anoxia and the transition from anoxia ...
Anoxia matutinalis is a species of dung beetle in the family Scarabaeidae. Anoxia matutinalis corsicana Sabatinelli, 1976 ... 1823 Anoxia matutinalis moltonii Sabatinelli, 1976 Anoxia matutinalis suturalis Reitter, 1890 Anoxia matutinalis can reach a ... This species is present in Corsica, Croatia, Greece, Italy and Sicily. Biolib William Ciesla Forest Entomology Fauna europaea. ...
Species Dictionary - Global : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. iSpot is a website aimed at helping anyone identify ... Anoxia hungarica. Anoxia hungarica - Species Dictionary - Global : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. iSpot is a ...
... and anoxia-tolerant species (Nilsson, 1991; Nilsson and Lutz, 1992; Perez-Pinzon et al., 1993; Boutilier, 2001; Lutz et al., ... In contrast to anoxia-tolerant turtles, the crucian carp remains active during anoxia, albeit at a reduced level. In the ... It may survive several months of complete anoxia at temperatures close to 0°C and it tolerates a day or two of anoxia at room ... A consequence of surviving anoxia in an active state is, of course, that the crucian carp has to survive anoxia with the brain ...
Mangrove Sonneratia species are the super halophytes of intertidal habitats due to its ability to cope with salty enviroment. ... Species. Salt Glands. Pneumatophores. Lenticels. Osmotic Adjustment. Anoxia. Compatible Solutes. NaCl. Comparmentation. ... The Sonneratias are considered superior to other species in this aspect being a pioneer species. Other species hid behind ... Prevent Anoxia in the roots by having Pneumatophores and lenticels in the stems that served as breathing organs and for the ...
... some species are able to survive complete anoxia for weeks to months. One known mechanism for this, observed in several species ... Very limited PUFA synthesis was observed under anoxia. Together, our results show that anoxia induced a greatly reduced rate of ... For other species, a state of highly reduced metabolism, essentially a state of dormancy, has been proposed but never ... In contrast, in anoxia, fewer diatoms were initially ingested and these were not assimilated or metabolized further, but ...
Parasite Species Summary)" Archived 1 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine. "Echinostomum revolutum (Parasite Species Summary ... Krieger K. A. (1985). "Snail distribution in Lake Erie, USA, Canada; the influence of anoxia in the southern central basin ... This species is found on the substrate in fall and winter (including gravel, sand, clay, mud or undersides of rocks) and on ... This species functions as both a scraper and a collector-filterer, grazing on algae on the substrate, as well as using its ...
After eggs hatch, the larvae of most blow fly species feed in an aggregation or ... Of species tested, C. macellaria withstood the longest period of anoxia ( LT50 of 9 h at 20oC). In contrast, C. vicina was the ... I tested the anoxia tolerance of four species of calliphorids (Calliphora vicina, Cochliomyia macellaria, Lucilia sericata, and ... After eggs hatch, the larvae of most blow fly species feed in an aggregation or "mass." While in this mass larvae may ...
Moreover, it clearly highlights the surviving species within the copepod or nematode community. As already accepted for ... rose bengal staining: CTG wins by points in distinguishing living from dead anoxia-impacted copepods and nematodes M. Grego1, M ... Abstract. Hypoxia and anoxia have become a key threat to shallow coastal seas. Much is known about their impact on macrofauna, ... In contrast, for nematodes, the methods did not show such a clear difference between anoxia and normoxia. RB overestimated the ...
Vartapetian BB, Andreeva IN (1986) Mitochondrial ultrastructure of three hygrophytes species at anoxia and in anoxic glucose- ... A, Scatter plot showing the correlation between gene modulation under anoxia and under anoxia with exogenous Suc (ANOXIA + SUC ... under anoxia was plotted against the anoxia + Suc fold change. C, Genes significantly induced by anoxia and annotated as coding ... A proportion of the genes modulated by anoxia were genes of unknown function (40.4%, anoxia; 43.3% anoxia + Suc), whereas many ...
Colour vision appears to vary from species to species, for example being present in O. aegina but absent in O. vulgaris.[47] ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... The reproduction of octopuses has been studied in only a few species. One such species is the giant Pacific octopus, in which ... The cirrate species are often free-swimming and live in deep-water habitats.[32] No species are known to live in fresh water.[ ...
Colour vision appears to vary from species to species, for example being present in O. aegina but absent in O. vulgaris.[49] ... This causes death by respiratory failure leading to cerebral anoxia. No antidote is known, but if breathing can be kept going ... Some species differ in form from the typical octopus body shape. Basal species, the Cirrina, have stout gelatinous bodies with ... The reproduction of octopuses has been studied in only a few species. One such species is the giant Pacific octopus, in which ...
Anoxia-Tolerant Species That Suspend Development in Adverse Conditions. Study of the evolved physiological mechanisms in ... Evolution has provided a number of animal species with extraordinary phenotypes. Several of these phenotypes allow species to ... 54 Anoxia-tolerant and hypoxia-tolerant species appear to share several characteristics (eg, higher hemoglobin-O2 saturation, ... 62 In future work with anoxia-tolerant species, it will be important to determine how metabolic depression results in reduced ...
By assessing the relative abundances of these species through the sequence of strata, they were able to determine, on a layer- ... anoxia [27,37,40-41], or to global warming [32,42].. Thus it seems a reasonable point to report upon. I agree that most ... But was anoxia the sole cause on a global scale? That, the authors say, remains equivocal: although records of anoxic events ... As I understand the issue that has been raised about ocean anoxia causing widespread extinction on Earth it is not that all the ...
For some species, this is explained by a switch to facultative anaerobic metabolism (i.e. denitrification). Here we show for ... Experimental evidence for foraminiferal calcification under anoxia M. P. Nardelli1, C. Barras1, E. Metzger1, A. Mouret1, H. L. ... Earlier observations suggest that the disappearance of foraminiferal communities after prolonged anoxia is not due to ... the first time that adult specimens of three benthic foraminiferal species are not only able to survive, but are also able to ...
Belkin DA (1968b) Aquatic respiration and underwater survival of two freshwater turtle species. Respir Physiol 4(1):1-14PubMed ... The adaptation of the crucian carp and the turtle to anoxia represents two contrasting strategies for anoxia survival which may ... Belkin DA (1963) Anoxia: tolerance in reptiles. Science 139(3554):492-493PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hansen AJ (1985) Effect of anoxia on ion distribution in the brain. Physiol Rev 65(1):101-148PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Adolph EF (1951) Responses to hypothermia in several species of infant mammals. Am J Physiol 166:75-91PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Adolph EF (1948) Tolerance to cold and anoxia in infant rats. Am J Physiol 155:366-377PubMedGoogle Scholar ... Hill RW (2000) Anoxia tolerance to oxygen necessity: paradigm shift in the physiology of survival of apneic deep hypothermia in ... Cardiac arrhythmias during arousal from hibernation in three species of rodents. Am J Physiol 254:R102-R108PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
The importance of hypoxia and anoxia in the interpretation of results is discussed. ... of both pumping and non-pumping preparations are described along with techniques necessary for using hearts from larger species ...
  • These diapausing embryos are highly resistant to a number of environmental insults such as high temperature, dehydration, anoxia, and increased salinity. (nih.gov)
  • For this purpose, Arabidopsis cell suspension cultures grown in a stirred bioreactor were subjected to a severe anoxic stress and analyzed during anoxia and re-oxygenation for alteration in ROS and NO as well as in antioxidant enzymes and metabolites. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, the crucian carp does not appear to reduce neuronal ion permeability during anoxia and may primarily rely on more subtle neuromodulatory mechanisms for anoxic metabolic depression. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we combined a 4 weeks feeding experiment, using C-13-enriched diatom biofilm, with correlated TEM and NanoSIMS imaging, plus bulk analysis of concentration and stable carbon isotopic composition of total organic matter and individual fatty acids, to study metabolic differences in the intertidal species Ammonia tepida exposed to oxic and anoxic conditions. (epfl.ch)
  • All species show significant linear relationships between survival time and temperature under anoxic conditions. (unl.edu)
  • These results provide insight into the effects of Suc on the anoxic transcriptome and provide a list of candidate genes that enhance anoxia tolerance of Suc-treated seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Here we show for the first time that adult specimens of three benthic foraminiferal species are not only able to survive, but are also able to calcify under anoxic conditions, at various depths in the sediment, and with or without nitrates. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Our observations of ongoing calcification under anoxic conditions mean that geochemical proxy data obtained from benthic foraminifera in settings experiencing intermittent anoxia have to be reconsidered. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Belkin DA (1968a) Anaerobic brain function: effects of stagnant and anoxic anoxia on persistence of breathing in reptiles. (springer.com)
  • This receptor/channel is strongly associated with anoxic damage in the mammalian brain by permitting a very large flow of calcium ions into the cell during anoxia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Several fish species have evolved the ability to inhabit hypoxic, and even anoxic, environments. (mdpi.com)
  • The animals with the best-developed tolerance to anoxia can respond to a dramatic decline in ambient oxygen by rapidly and reversibly reprogramming their metabolism to adjust glycolysis and ATP consumption in a highly coordinated manner ( Fig. 1 ). (biologists.org)
  • While in this arrested state embryos exhibit the greatest tolerance to anoxia of any characterized vertebrate at 25ºC. (unt.edu)
  • With respect to fish, the effects of anoxia are of great importance to their survival and behaviour because of naturally occurring daily and seasonal fluctuations in oxygen availability ( Nikinmaa, 2002 ), as well as during oxygen deprivation of waters ( Wu, 2002 ). (biologists.org)
  • Addition of exogenous Suc mitigated the effects of anoxia on auxin responsive genes that are repressed under oxygen deprivation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Dithionite has recently been used in experiments studying the mechanism of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in cultured pulmonary artery (PA) myocytes, 7 8 the sensing of oxygen in the carotid body, 9 10 and the effects of anoxia on pH i in cardiac cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • We used the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip containing more than 22,500 probe sets to explore the anaerobic transcriptome of Arabidopsis seedlings kept under anoxia for 6 h in presence or absence of exogenous Suc. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We used anoxia to obtain a rapid anaerobic response and choose seedlings as they represent a very homogeneous plants material at a growth stage at which plants often experience low oxygen conditions ( Perata and Alpi, 1993 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • For some species, this is explained by a switch to facultative anaerobic metabolism (i.e. denitrification). (biogeosciences.net)
  • Dithionite (Na 2 S 2 O 4 ) has been used to create hypoxia, 1 deoxygenate hemoglobin, 2 study the redox potential of mitochondrial cytochromes, 3 evaluate the nitrogenase system, 4 and create anoxia for anaerobic spectrophotometry. (ahajournals.org)
  • Of species tested, C. macellaria withstood the longest period of anoxia ( LT 50 of 9 h at 20 o C). In contrast, C. vicina was the least tolerant (LT 50 of 2.2 h at 40 o C). Overall, survival of P. regina showed the least response and C. macellaria showed the greatest response to temperature. (unl.edu)
  • These anoxia-tolerant vertebrates defend their brain ATP (adenosine triphosphate) levels by matching ATP consumption to glycolytic ATP production. (springer.com)
  • The results showed that rice, a species highly tolerant to anoxia, can readily break down starch under anaerobiosis concomitant with germination, while wheat does not germinate and fails to degrade starch present in the endosperm. (nih.gov)
  • Paper presentation: "NMDA receptor regulation by mitochondrial KATP channels and adenosine receptors in cortical neurons of the anoxia-tolerant western painted turtle," 12:30 p.m.-3 p.m. Sunday April 3, Physiology 381.3/board #A558. (eurekalert.org)
  • I are significantly more tolerant to anoxia and 760 µmol l -1 sulfide than Capitella sp. (int-res.com)
  • These species are thought to be highly tolerant of CO 2 but their behavioural responses to hypercapnia are poorly understood. (springer.com)
  • are some of the most successful invasive species in the Baltic Sea. (ices.dk)
  • Topics to be discussed will include climate change, eutrophication, invasive species, pollutants and the use of macroalgae and microalgae as biofuels will be discussed. (aber.ac.uk)
  • Dear Terrified Yet Fascinated, We have correctly identified your Scarab Beetle as Anoxia orientalis thanks to the Israel's Nature Site , and we verified that identification on The Scarabs of the Levant where it states: "This species is widely distributed in Eastern Europe, Turkey and Levant: Syria, Lebanon (Beirut, Saida) and Israel (Haifa). (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Apoptosis has been shown to be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, and upregulating expression of SIRT1 can inhibit the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether the protective effects of Cap against the injury to the cardiomyocytes are mediated by SIRT1. (hindawi.com)
  • Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury refers to a phenomenon in which ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) myocardial tissues aggravate the injury to myocardial structures and functions [ 1 ], which can lead to arrhythmia, heart hypofunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and other disorders [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Acute anoxia and reoxygenation can lead to phosphorylation of the CHK2 and CHK1 kinases via the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia telangiectasia Rad3-related (ATR) kinases that enact G 1 , S, and G 2 cell cycle checkpoints. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Anemic anoxia results from a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin or RBCs in the blood, which reduces the ability to get oxygen to the tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Affinity anoxia involves a defect in the chemistry of the blood such that the hemoglobin can no longer pick up as much oxygen from the air, even though the quantities are normal, reducing how much is delivered to the tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We generated multiple libraries from head tissues of these two species, at different reproductive stages, for both sexes. (g3journal.org)
  • The researchers saw that in worms a particular species of ceramide, deoxydihydroceramide, accumulated to dangerous levels under anoxia, that is when tissues were completely deprived of oxygen. (news-medical.net)
  • Besides the expected induction of genes encoding enzymes involved in Suc metabolism and alcoholic fermentation, a large number of genes not related to these pathways were affected by anoxia. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The evolved traits exhibited by these animal species involve modifications of common biological pathways that affect metabolic regulation, organ function, antioxidant defenses, and oxygen transport. (ahajournals.org)
  • Anoxia-induced Suc synthases showed a lower induction in presence of exogenous Suc, suggesting that induction of these genes might be related to an anoxia-dependent sugar starvation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A. obliqua and A. fraterculus , aiming to identify fixed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and highly differentiated transcripts, which, considering that these species still experience some level of gene flow, could indicate potential candidate genes involved in their differentiation process. (g3journal.org)
  • We selected unigenes that had Ka/Ks higher than 0.5, or had at least three or more highly differentiated SNPs as potential candidate genes for species differentiation. (g3journal.org)
  • The head transcriptomes described here enabled the identification of thousands of genes hitherto unavailable for these species, and generated a set of candidate genes that are potentially important to genetically identify species and understand the speciation process in the presence of gene flow of A. obliqua and A. fraterculus . (g3journal.org)
  • We also present results of a genome-wide screen for genes affecting glycogen content and localization in the nematode, showing that nematode survival of hyposmotic anoxia depends on a large number of these genes. (genetics.org)
  • A comparative genomics analysis revealed 702 genes present in the bacterial Gram-negative core gene set (92 species analyzed) and 959 genes in the Gram-positive core gene set (93 species analyzed). (uoguelph.ca)
  • The damage to the reefs will have severe repercussions on these species as well as the humans who have incorporated these animals into their life. (greenanswers.com)
  • Its seems just a bit ludicrous that one species even one as "smart" as humans could do damage on the same scale as a 10 kilometer asteroid hitting the planet, but in our own unique way we are doing this. (infobarrel.com)
  • Four species have long been known to cause malaria in humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • In combination, these wiped out most life on Earth, and caused the extinction of a staggering 70 per cent of terrestrial species and 96 per cent of marine species. (minesandcommunities.org)
  • Comparisons of the U-, C-, and Sr-isotope records with a modeled seawater PO 4 3− concentration curve for the Early Triassic suggest that elevated marine productivity and enhanced oceanic stratification were likely the immediate causes of expanded oceanic anoxia. (sciencemag.org)
  • Permian-Triassic Extinction (251 million years ago) - Considered Earth's most severe extinction event, the Permian-Triassic Extinction resulted in the extinction of 90% of all marine species and 70% percent of terrestrial vertebrate species. (greenanswers.com)
  • A report created by the International Program on the State of the Oceans (IPSO) presents grim prospects for the ocean, warning that if the level of damage currently done to the ocean continues, the world's ocean will enter "a phase of extinction of marine species unprecedented in human history. (greenanswers.com)
  • No specific adaptations to the low oxygen environment were found, species from cold seep and normal marine sediments being morphologically similar. (researchgate.net)
  • Rhizosolenia species can be found in marine and brackish water. (kenyon.edu)
  • Rhizosolenia species are found in marine and brackish water and are known to be a eurythermic species. (kenyon.edu)
  • It is most likely that this change was caused by climate warming and marine anoxia during the Carnian Humid Episode. (palass.org)
  • The 27 participants from 18 organisations in 6 countries produced a grave assessment of current threats - and a stark conclusion about future risks to marine and human life if the current trajectory of damage continues: that the world's ocean is at high risk of entering a phase of extinction of marine species unprecedented in human history. (centerforinquiry.net)
  • Eagles DA, Jacques LB, Taboada J, Wagner CW, Diakun TA (1988) Cardiac arrhythmias during arousal from hibernation in three species of rodents. (springer.com)
  • Many different types of catastrophes have been blamed for this event from anoxia in the oceans, rising sea levels and global cooling. (infobarrel.com)
  • During anoxia, the turtle depresses neuronal activity which allows the turtle to significantly reduce its metabolism and enter a comatose-like state. (springer.com)
  • The surplus of organic matter originated from algal biomass, enhanced anoxia. (scirp.org)
  • As a consequence, non-grazed algal biomass was accumulated, and progressive build up of physico- chemical changes enhanced anoxia. (scirp.org)
  • 2001). The removal of predators through fishing in Kenyan reefs resulted in the expansion of sea urchin population, which apparently led to a decrease in live coral and to loss of topographic complexity, species diversity and fish biomass (McClanahan and Muthiga, 1988). (fao.org)
  • In contrast, in anoxia, fewer diatoms were initially ingested and these were not assimilated or metabolized further, but remained visible within the foraminiferal cytoplasm even after 4 weeks. (epfl.ch)
  • Earlier observations suggest that the disappearance of foraminiferal communities after prolonged anoxia is not due to instantaneous or strongly increased adult mortality. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Dear Nature's Appreciative Spectator, Your beauty is a Pandorus Sphinx , a North American species, unlike the Lime Hawkmoth , which is native to Europe, though we did report a North American sighting of a Lime Hawkmoth many years ago. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Evolution has provided a number of animal species with extraordinary phenotypes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Also highlighted are past medical advances achieved through the study of animal species that have evolved extraordinary phenotypes as well as the expectations for new understanding of nature's solutions to heart, lung, blood, and sleep disorders through future research in this area. (ahajournals.org)
  • One successful and often unexploited strategy in biomedical research is to examine naturally occurring variations in animal species that are adapted to extreme environments. (ahajournals.org)
  • Venoms, another evolved strategy in some animal species for self-defense and seeking prey, initially piqued the interest of scientists because of their paralyzing potency. (ahajournals.org)
  • Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction (65.5 million years ago)- This is the famous mass extinction that led to the wipeout of the dinosaurs as well as 50% of all plant and animal species. (greenanswers.com)
  • Nearly all known animal species require oxygen to complete their life cycles, a fact that is easily understood through oxygen's fundamental role in respiration ( Ernster and Schatz 1981 ). (genetics.org)
  • We, as the Adamic species, have a responsibility to protect our animal species too. (keysofenoch.org)
  • Chronic hypoxia and/or anoxia can develop in regions of solid tumors as a function of reduced O 2 diffusion with increasing distance from the vasculature. (aacrjournals.org)
  • More precisely, in hypertrophic lakes/ponds, where phosphate can reach high concentrations, phosphorus cannot be efficiently removed from water bodies with gaseous species (H3P) and is progressively accumulated in sediments, and to a lesser extent in water (Cao et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • and their spatial characteristics of the ecotone (such as area and perimeter) may reflect changes in species richness patterns ( Helzer & Jelinski 1999 ). (wiley.com)
  • Conodonts are reasonably diverse and abundant in the upper Zhuganpo Formation (Julian 1) but decrease sharply in both species richness and diversity towards the Wayao Formation (Julian 2 and younger). (palass.org)
  • End Permian - This extinction event is considered to be the most damaging to the ecological record with over 97% of species disappearing from the Earth. (infobarrel.com)
  • The increases of some species of Rhizosolenia are responsible for lowering the numbers of good phytoplankton in certain seas due to competition of nutrients. (kenyon.edu)