Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Spatial Behavior: Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.Memory, Short-Term: Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Memory, Episodic: Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Amnesia, Retrograde: Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.CA1 Region, Hippocampal: One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Mice, Inbred C57BLOrientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Scopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Cheirogaleidae: A family of the order PRIMATES, suborder Strepsirhini (PROSIMII), containing five genera. All inhabitants of Madagascar, the genera are: Allocebus, Cheirogaleus (dwarf lemurs), Microcebus (mouse lemurs), Mirza, and Phaner.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Amnesia, Anterograde: Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.Anterior Thalamic Nuclei: Three nuclei located beneath the dorsal surface of the most rostral part of the thalamus. The group includes the anterodorsal nucleus, anteromedial nucleus, and anteroventral nucleus. All receive connections from the MAMILLARY BODY and BRAIN FORNIX, and project fibers to the CINGULATE BODY.Theta Rhythm: Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Korsakoff Syndrome: An acquired cognitive disorder characterized by inattentiveness and the inability to form short term memories. This disorder is frequently associated with chronic ALCOHOLISM; but it may also result from dietary deficiencies; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NEOPLASMS; CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; ENCEPHALITIS; EPILEPSY; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1139)Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.CA3 Region, Hippocampal: A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Learning Disorders: Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Verbal Learning: Learning to respond verbally to a verbal stimulus cue.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Sensory Gating: The ability of the BRAIN to suppress neuronal responses to external sensory inputs, such as auditory and visual stimuli. Sensory filtering (or gating) allows humans to block out irrelevant, meaningless, or redundant stimuli.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Fornix, Brain: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Homing Behavior: Instinctual patterns of activity related to a specific area including ability of certain animals to return to a given place when displaced from it, often over great distances using navigational clues such as those used in migration (ANIMAL MIGRATION).Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Receptors, Dopamine D5: A subtype of dopamine D1 receptors that has higher affinity for DOPAMINE and differentially couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor: A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Long-Term Synaptic Depression: A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Neurobiology: The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Reversal Learning: Any situation where an animal or human is trained to respond differentially to two stimuli (e.g., approach and avoidance) under reward and punishment conditions and subsequently trained under reversed reward values (i.e., the approach which was previously rewarded is punished and vice versa).Dendritic Spines: Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Cholinesterase Inhibitors: Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.Blueberry Plant: Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Perforant Pathway: A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Acid Sensing Ion Channel Blockers: A subclass of sodium channel blockers that are specific for ACID-SENSING SODIUM CHANNELS.Rotarod Performance Test: A performance test based on forced MOTOR ACTIVITY on a rotating rod, usually by a rodent. Parameters include the riding time (seconds) or endurance. Test is used to evaluate balance and coordination of the subjects, particular in experimental animal models for neurological disorders and drug effects.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Dronabinol: A psychoactive compound extracted from the resin of Cannabis sativa (marihuana, hashish). The isomer delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is considered the most active form, producing characteristic mood and perceptual changes associated with this compound.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Septum Pellucidum: A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Bromodeoxyuridine: A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Nerve Tissue ProteinsDenervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Anterior Temporal Lobectomy: A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).Repression, Psychology: The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Genes, Immediate-Early: Genes that show rapid and transient expression in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral genes where immediate-early referred to transcription immediately following virus integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular genes which are expressed immediately after resting cells are stimulated by extracellular signals such as growth factors and neurotransmitters.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Paired-Associate Learning: Learning in which the subject must respond with one word or syllable when presented with another word or syllable.Presenilin-1: Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.GAP-43 Protein: A nervous tissue specific protein which is highly expressed in NEURONS during development and NERVE REGENERATION. It has been implicated in neurite outgrowth, long-term potentiation, SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION, and NEUROTRANSMITTER release. (From Neurotoxicology 1994;15(1):41-7) It is also a substrate of PROTEIN KINASE C.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Pilocarpine: A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.Mushroom Bodies: Prominent lobed neuropils found in ANNELIDA and all ARTHROPODS except crustaceans. They are thought to be involved in olfactory learning and memory.Mossy Fibers, Hippocampal: Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Autobiography as Topic: The life of a person written by himself or herself. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Executive Function: A set of cognitive functions that controls complex, goal-directed thought and behavior. Executive function involves multiple domains, such as CONCEPT FORMATION, goal management, cognitive flexibility, INHIBITION control, and WORKING MEMORY. Impaired executive function is seen in a range of disorders, e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA; and ADHD.Plaque, Amyloid: Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.Rats, Inbred F344Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Receptor, trkB: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Lidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Receptor, Adenosine A1: A subtype of ADENOSINE RECEPTOR that is found expressed in a variety of tissues including the BRAIN and DORSAL HORN NEURONS. The receptor is generally considered to be coupled to the GI, INHIBITORY G-PROTEIN which causes down regulation of CYCLIC AMP.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Status Epilepticus: A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
... which tests verbal memory span rather than visuo-spatial memory span), the backward Corsi block tapping test differs from the ... spatial memory, and nonverbal working memory.[unreliable source?] The backward Corsi block tapping is a slightly altered ... Mammarella, IC; Cornoldi, C. (2005). "Sequence and space: The critical role of a backward spatial span in the working memory ... The Corsi block-tapping test is a psychological test that assesses visuo-spatial short term working memory. It involves ...
... spatial working memory; b) central executive aspects of working memory; c) loss of episodic memories; d) locating events in ... Spatial working memory. PD patients often demonstrate difficulty in updating changes in spatial information and often become ... Loss of episodic memories. The loss of episodic memories in PD patients typically demonstrates a temporal gradient wherein ... and working memory have been reported in PD patients. In terms of working memory specifically, persons with PD show deficits in ...
Spatial memory. The Morris water maze task has been used to demonstrate the necessity of NMDA receptors in establishing spatial ... He tested the spatial memory of rats by pharmacologically modifying their hippocampus, a brain structure whose role in spatial ... Rats were trained on the Morris water maze, a spatial memory task in which rats swim in a pool of murky water until they locate ... Both groups were then subjected to the water maze spatial memory task. Rats in the control group were able to locate the ...
Drugs that interfere with NMDA receptors block LTP and have major effects on some types of memory, especially spatial memory. ... including episodic memory and working memory (or short-term memory). Because the hippocampus is thought to play a central role ... The dorsal hippocampus serves for spatial memory, verbal memory, and learning of conceptual information. Using the radial arm ... memories that can be explicitly verbalized-these would include, for example, memory for facts in addition to episodic memory).[ ...
It is widely used in behavioral neuroscience to study spatial learning and memory. It enables learning, memory, and spatial ... Differences in spatial memory were only the third factor, explaining just 13% of the variation between animals' performance. ... Wenk, GL (May 2004). "Assessment of spatial memory using the radial arm maze and Morris water maze". In Jacqueline N. Crawley; ... Sharma, S; Rakoczy, S; Brown-Borg, H (Oct 23, 2010). "Assessment of spatial memory in mice". Life Sciences. 87 (17-18): 521-36 ...
Bennett, A. T. D. (1993). "Spatial memory in a food storing corvid. I. Near tall landmarks are primarily used". J. Comp. ... Healy, S. D. & Hurly, T. A. 1995 Spatial memory in rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus): a field test. Anim. Learn. Behav. ... Kamil, A.; Balda, R. (1985). "Cache recovery and spatial memory in Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana)". Journal of ... Studies have shown that the intricate territorial songs of some birds must be learned at an early age, and that the memory of ...
It is a land-based spatial memory task in which a thirsty rat uses distal spatial cues to search an open field for a specific ... The oasis maze is a spatial memory task used in psychology and neuroscience research and is the dry version of the Morris water ... The RANDOM group provides a measure of where rats with no spatial memory of a trained location will spend their search time ... Morris water navigation task Barnes maze Clark RE, Broadbent NJ, and Squire LR (2005). Hippocampus and remote spatial memory in ...
Cockburn, Andy; McKenzie, Bruce (2002-01-01). "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Spatial Memory in 2D and 3D Physical and Virtual ... Using Spatial Memory for Document Management". Proceedings of the 11th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and ...
... with respect to spatial memory and spatial sensory datum they are crucial for human episodic memory and rodent event memory. ... Burgess, Neil; Maguire, Eleanor A; O'Keefe, John (2002). "The Human Hippocampus and Spatial and Episodic Memory". Neuron. 35 (4 ... Aggleton, John P.; Brown, Malcolm W. (1999). "Episodic memory, amnesia, and the hippocampal-anterior thalamic axis". Behavioral ... "Hippocampal-anterior thalamic pathways for memory: Uncovering a network of direct and indirect actions". European Journal of ...
Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape (1. ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 0415777356. C-2. Stephens, Suzanne. " ... Graves, Donna (Fall 2002). "Constructing Memory". Places / EDRA Places Awards 15 (1): 14-17. Hawthorne, Christopher (14 January ... Brookman, Donna (June 2001). "Memorial to Women's Labor". Sculpture 20 (5): 7. "Constructing Memory". Landforum. 2001. Dorrier ... CA Constructing Memory: The Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Richmond, CA Rincon Park, San Francisco, CA Stanford University-The ...
These models provide a quantitative understanding of how spatial memory, episodic memory and autobiographical memory function ( ... "The Human Hippocampus and Spatial and Episodic Memory". Neuron. 35 (4): 625-641. doi:10.1016/s0896-6273(02)00830-9. PMID ... Burgess has made important contributions to understanding memory and spatial cognition by developing computational models ... Hartley, T.; Lever, C.; Burgess, N.; O'Keefe, J. (2013). "Space in the brain: how the hippocampal formation supports spatial ...
Treib, Marc (2013). SPATIAL RECALL TREIB: Memory in Architecture and Landscape. Routledge. p. 171. ISBN 9781134724383. ... His death is commemorated annually by Catalan politicians and civilians, who lay a wreath in memory of the president. In 1985, ... a bronze figure in memory of all those executed by Franco's regime, and a memorial to CNT members who died in defence of ...
... stress has been found to actually enhance spatial memory. Under stress, male rats exhibit deleterious effects on spatial memory ... particularly in regions associated with spatial and non-spatial memory, such as the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. ... Studies have found that oxytocin improves spatial memory. Through activation of the MAP kinase pathway, oxytocin plays a role ... Females tend to have better object location memory and verbal memory. They also perform better at verbal learning. Females have ...
This suggest that replay plays a role in consolidation of memories related to spatial location, although a clear causal ... The phenomenon has mostly been observed in the hippocampus, a brain region associated with memory and spatial navigation. ... This is like cued memory retrieval, where a sensory input triggers retrieval of similar or relevant memories. The cue may even ... Furthermore, replay also seems to be related to memory retrieval: it is activated by cues that also trigger memory retrieval, ...
van Luijtelaar ELJM; van der Staay FJ; Kerbusch JML (August 1989). "Spatial memory in rats: a cross validation study". The ...
Studies have shown that elimination of SWRs by electrical stimulation interfered with rats ability to recall the spatial memory ... Consequently, this loop is shown to be the pathway responsible for conversion of short term memory to long term memory. The ... supporting role of the hippocampus in consolidation of specific types of memories such as declarative and spatial memories. ... SWRs are shown to be involved in memory consolidation and the replay of wakefulness-acquired memory. These network oscillations ...
Logie, R. H., Visuo-spatial working memory Hove. UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. Lang, P. J., Levin, D. N., Miller, G. A ... Logie, R. H., Visuo-spatial working memory Hove. UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. Compare for example the results ... Cornoldi, C., and Rossana, D. B., Memory and imagery: A visual trace is not a mental image. In A. C. Martin, E. G. Susan, and C ... Memory and Cognition, Vol. 23, No. 2, 1995, pp147-154. Pearson, D. G. (2007). Mental imagery and creative thought. Proceedings ...
The role of distinct components of visuo-spatial working memory in the processing of texts. Memory, Vol. 7, No. 1, 1999, pp19- ... Salway, A. F. S., and Logie, R. H., Visuo-spatial working memory, movement con- trol, and executive demands. British Journal of ... Logie, R. H., Visuo-spatial working memory Hove. UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. Kosslyn, S. M., Image and mind. Harvard ... Memory, Vol. 12, No. 4, 2004, pp403-415. Ehlers, A., and Steil, R., Maintenance of intrusive memories in Posttraumatic Stress ...
"Functional neuroanatomy of spatial working memory in children". Developmental Psychology. 36 (1): 109-116. doi:10.1037/0012- ... Zeamer, Alyson; Eric Heuer; Jocelyne Bachevalier (2010). "Developmental trajectory of object recognition memory in infant ... "Influence of the COMT genotype on working memory and brain activity changes during development". Biological Psychiatry. 70 (3 ... "Increased brain activity in frontal and parietal cortex underlies the development of visuospatial working memory capacity ...
Ando J, Ono Y, Wright MJ (2001). "Genetic structure of spatial and verbal working memory". Behavioral Genetics. 31 (6): 615-24 ... Rate of memory decline in AD is related to education and occupation: cognitive reserve? Neurology. 1999 Dec 10;53(9):1942-7.. ... Heritability estimates have been found to be high for general cognitive functions but low for memory itself. Adjusting for the ...
The patient proved able to receive the spatial material well with short-term memory when manipulating materials without a ... In contrast, impairment was gauged to be the lack of the ability in recalling spatial layouts, judging spatial directions, ... J.A was the subject in this case study to determine the effects integrative agnosia has on visual and spatial short-term memory ... the inability to integrate parts such as spatial distances or producing visual images from short or long-term memory. Symptoms ...
TPL requires spatial memory and a sense of time. The latter may be based on external time-cues (Zeitgebers), or internally ... Zhang, S.; Schwarz, S.; Pahl, M.; Zhu, H.; Tautz, J. (2006). "Honeybee memory: a honeybee knows what to do and when". Journal ... "Circadian clocks and memory: Time-place learning". Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 6: 1-10. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2013.00008. ... generated circadian rhythms ("biological clock"). TPL may fundamentally underlie episodic memory. The first evidence for time- ...
Luhrs, M.L.; Dammhahn, M.; Kappeler, P.M.; Fichtel, C. (2009). "Spatial memory in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)". ... Results of a recent study on this showed that the gray mouse lemur does not move around randomly, but rather use spatial cues ... the gray mouse lemur has some sense of mental representation of their spatial environment, which they use to find and exploit ...
"Involvement of BDNF receptor TrkB in spatial memory formation". Learning & Memory. 10 (2): 108-15. doi:10.1101/lm.56003. PMC ... This has been shown to be important for processes such as spatial memory in the hippocampus, demonstrating the therapeutic and ... BDNF has been found within many areas of the brain and plays an important role is supporting the formation of memories. It has ... The activation of the BDNF-TrkB pathway is important in the development of short term memory and the growth of neurons.[ ...
There is evidence that this part of the brain is involved in complex events such as spatial memory and navigation in fishes, ... Multiple functions involve the pallium, including smell and spatial memory. In mammals, where it becomes so large as to ... Episodic memory is the ability to remember the details of specific events. This sort of memory can last for a lifetime. Much ... Semantic memory is the ability to learn facts and relationships. This sort of memory is probably stored largely in the cerebral ...
Memory and synaptic plasticity[edit]. Main article: Synaptic plasticity. Earlier models of memory are primarily based on the ... in computational neuroscience are useful since they capture the essential features of the biological system at multiple spatial ... "Interactions between frontal cortex and basal ganglia in working memory: A computational model" (PDF). link.springer.com. doi: ... Fusi S, Drew PJ, Abbott LF (2005). "Cascade models of synaptically stored memories". Neuron. 45 (4): 599-611. doi:10.1016/j. ...
The Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) is a well known test used to assess visual memory deficits and visual spatial abilities ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) is a well known test used to assess visual memory deficits and visual spatial abilities ... for the assessment of visual memory functioning and visual spatial ability (see Thompson, Ennis, Coffin & Farman, 2007; ... for the assessment of visual memory functioning and visual spatial ability (see Thompson, Ennis, Coffin & Farman, 2007; ...
... spatial memories are summarized as a cognitive map. Spatial memory has representations within working, short-term memory and ... Deficits in spatial memory are also found in spatial discrimination tasks. Large differences in spatial impairment are found ... For example, a persons spatial memory is required in order to navigate around a familiar city, just as a rats spatial memory ... Thus, the evidence for the spatial memory of some species of animals, such as rats, indicates that they do use spatial memory ...
Spatial memory, the storage and retrieval of information within the brain that is needed both to plan a route to a desired ... Spatial memory and disease. Research on spatial memory and the specific brain areas involved has been especially important in ... Studies of spatial memory in humans. While many of the findings on spatial cells have been derived from rodent experiments, ... Areas of the brain involved in spatial memory. Areas of the brain that are required for the formation of spatial ...
... Robert M. Mihalek mihalek at FORMULA1.smtp.anes.upmc.edu Tue Dec 1 14:03:00 EST 1998 *Previous ... Does its possible to potentiate spatial menory? I recall reading that if animals are raised in a complex environment, then ... they will be better at spatial navigation tasks when tested as adults. Bob Mihalek, Ph.D. Dept. of Anesthesiology University of ...
New research suggests that our guts send signals to our brains that inform our spatial memory and ability to orient ourselves ... Do they also play a role in memory and orientation, and if so, why?. We rely on our ability to orient ourselves in space, but ... But there is more to the way in which food jogs our memory. In fact, it seems that the signals that our guts send to our brains ... The link between food or drink once tasted and the memory of places or things is something that all of us will be familiar with ...
New research suggests that our guts send signals to our brains that inform our spatial memory and ability to orient ourselves ... Do our guts have a say in our spatial memory?. Written by Maria Cohut, Ph.D. on June 16, 2018 - Fact checked by. Jasmin Collier ... But there is more to the way in which food jogs our memory. In fact, it seems that the signals that our guts send to our brains ... The link between food or drink once tasted and the memory of places or things is something that all of us will be familiar with ...
There is increasing evidence to support the idea that visuo-spatial working memory can be segregated into separate cognitive ... Logie RH (2003) Spatial and visual working memory: a mental workspace In: Irwin DE, Ross BH (eds) The psychology of learning ... Della Sala S, Gray C, Baddeley A, Allamano N, Wilson L (1999) Pattern span: a tool for unwelding visuo-spatial memory. ... Postle BR, Idzikowski C, Della Sala S, Logie RH, Baddeley AD (in press) The selective distribution of spatial working memory ...
You are here: Home / Academic Departments / Psychology / Research / Memory, attention and spatial cognition ... De Lillo C. (2011) Spatial working memory for clustered sites in a Virtual Reality based search task (Nuffield Foundation). ... De Lillo, C. & James, F.C. (2012). Spatial working memory for clustered and linear configurations of sites in a virtual reality ... The memory, attention and spatial cognition research group builds on current expertise and potential for collaboration in ...
A team of neuroscientists demonstrated that electrical stimulation to a critical junction in the brain appeared to boost memory ... A mild electrical shock to the brain before learning a new task may enhance memory, researchers reported on Wednesday. ... Mild Electric Shock To Brain May Boost Spatial Memory 65 Posted by timothy on Thursday February 09, 2012 @04:33PM. from the now ... Submission: Mild Electrocution To Brain May Boost Spatial Memory. Brain Zapping Improves Math Ability. Do-It-Yourself Brain ...
Spatial memory enhances an organisms navigational ability. Memory typically resides within the brain, but what if an organism ... supporting the theory that an externalized spatial memory may be the functional precursor to the internal memory of higher ... 1996) Spatial memory and navigation by honeybees on the scale of the foraging range. J Exp Biol 199:147-154. ... Externalized spatial memory navigation task.. To test the slime molds navigational ability, we used a U-shaped trap (Fig. 3). ...
Hippocampal long-term depression mediates acute stress-induced spatial memory retrieval impairment. Tak Pan Wong, John G. ... Hippocampal long-term depression mediates acute stress-induced spatial memory retrieval impairment ... Hippocampal long-term depression mediates acute stress-induced spatial memory retrieval impairment ... Hippocampal long-term depression mediates acute stress-induced spatial memory retrieval impairment ...
The spatial tasks that we can do with our neocortex using short-term memory must be performed by the hippocampus in rats." ... Deconstructing Brain Systems Involved in Memory and Spatial Skills. (Left to right) Image shown to study participants; image ... "The role of the hippocampus in spatial cognition versus memory formation is a major debating point in our understanding of how ... "Patients with hippocampal lesions can perform spatial tasks as long as these tasks dont depend on long-term memory. We think ...
Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing.. [Emma R. Wood.; Paul A. Dudchenko.; Thomas Wolbers ... Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing.. Author:. Emma R. Wood.; Paul A. Dudchenko.; Thomas ... schema:name "Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing."@en ;. schema:productID "945783035" ;. ... Spatial memory - a unique window into healthy and pathological ageing./Emma R. Wood.; Paul A. Dudchenko.; Thomas Wolbers.; ...
Neural systems for visual orienting and their relationships to spatial working memory.. Corbetta M1, Kincade JM, Shulman GL. ... working memory). Therefore, the IPs and FEF form a dorsal network that controls the endogenous allocation and maintenance of ...
The results indicated that quercetin can enhance the exploratory behavior, spatial learning and memory of the mice. The effects ... Effect of quercetin on chronic enhancement of spatial learning and memory of mice. ... Ji J Z, Zhang X H, Li B M. β-adrenergic modulation of in vivo long-term potentiation in area CA1 and its role in spatial ... quercetin aging learning and memory free radical reactive oxygen species (ROS) glutathione (GSH) ...
2006) Beyond spatial memory: the anterior thalamus and memory for the temporal order of a sequence of odor cues. J Neurosci 26: ... with accurate spatial retrieval for the recent memory probe trial but impaired retrieval during the remote memory one. These ... The Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei Contribute to Remote Spatial Memory. Joëlle Lopez, Mathieu Wolff, Lucas Lecourtier, Brigitte ... The Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei Contribute to Remote Spatial Memory. Joëlle Lopez, Mathieu Wolff, Lucas Lecourtier, Brigitte ...
Results of radial arm and Y maze tasks showed an improvement in spatial memory following dexamethasone administration. Y maze ... The study concluded that oral dexamethasone given either acutely or sub chronically has both anxiogenic and memory enhancing ... Acute and sub chronic effects of oral dexamethasone on anxiety and memory in mice were evaluated using the elevated plus maze, ... Results of radial arm and Y maze tasks showed an improvement in spatial memory following dexamethasone administration. Y maze ...
... plays an important role in spatial memory formation when there is a high reliance on spatial pattern separation-when memories ... Two months after irradiation, the mice faced the first of two spatial memory tests-an eight-arm radial maze that rewarded ... Irradiated mice could still form spatial memories at similar rates and to a similar extent as control mice given a difficult ... Hippocampus and Spatial Memory-New Neurons Fit In, Old Ideas Are Challenged 7 Feb 2007. ...
Soya isoflavone supplementation enhances spatial working memory in men - Volume 102 Issue 9 - Alicia A. Thorp, Natalie Sinn, ... 1998) Estradiol enhances learning and memory in a spatial memory task and effects levels of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. ... 28Duff SJ & Hampson E (2001) A sex difference on a novel spatial working memory task in humans. Brain Cogn 47, 470-493. ... 46Owen AM, Evans AC & Petrides M (1996) Evidence for a two-stage model of spatial working memory processing within the lateral ...
Now, new research reveals that LM22A-4 may also improve spatial memory and motor skill defects in a Rett syndrome mouse model. ... Small-molecule therapeutic boosts spatial memory and motor function in Rett syndrome mice. The Company of Biologists ... Small-molecule therapeutic boosts spatial memory and motor function in Rett syndrome mice ... the brain region responsible for spatial learning and memory." He contacted Longo, outlining his groups plan to test LM22A-4 ...
Characteristics of basolateral amygdala neuronal firing on a spatial memory task involving differential reward.. Pratt WE1, ... Previous research has shown that spatial, movement, and reward information is integrated within the ventral striatum (VS). The ... to this interaction by examining behavioral correlates of BLA neurons while rats performed multiple memory trials on an 8-arm ... the hypothesis that BLA neurons may provide the VS with reward-related information that could then be integrated with spatial ...
... Bombi ... In CORT-treated rats, reduced spatial cognitive function was associated with significant increases in plasma CORT level (+36%) ... The purpose of this study was to examine whether acupuncture improves spatial cognitive impairment induced by repeated ... Consistently, the acupuncture significantly alleviated memory-associated decreases in cholinergic immunoreactivity and mRNA ...
NL1 KO mice exhibit impaired spatial memory in the Morris water maze. A-D, Training trials for the Morris water maze task. For ... 3D). On a spatial memory test 24 h after the end of Morris water maze training (probe trial), WT mice spent significantly more ... E, Percentage of time that mice spent swimming in each quadrant of the pool during the probe trial (i.e., spatial memory test) ... Because NL1 KO mice exhibit a decrease in hippocampus-dependent spatial memory and a decrease in the NMDA/AMPA ratio in area ...
Mémoire et apprentissage spatial sont des fonctions neurologiques qui permettent de se rappeler les détails importants liés à ... Mémoire et apprentissage spatial sont des fonctions neurologiques qui nous permettent de se souvenir des choses liées à notre ... Mémoire et apprentissage spatial sont des fonctions neurologiques qui permettent de se rappeler les détails importants liés à ... Cette vidéo donne un aperçu de lapprentissage spatial et de la mémoire, a examiné les différents types de labyrinthes et a ...
The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Lobe to Auditory Spatial Working Memory ... These results suggest dual roles for the right IPL in auditory working memory-one involved in monitoring and updating sound ... The sensory-motor account of spatial processing posits that the dorsal brain regions (e.g., inferior parietal lobule, IPL) ...
  • We concluded from this that adult hippocampal neurogenesis plays an important role in spatial memory formation when there is a high reliance on spatial pattern separation-when memories to be formed are derived from very similar input, in this case, similar spatial locations," wrote Clelland in an e-mail to ARF. (alzforum.org)
  • A small but growing literature indicates that spatial pattern separation may become less efficient as a result of normal aging, possibly due to age-related changes in subregions of the hippocampus. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data show that spatial memory enhances the organism's ability to navigate in complex environments. (pnas.org)
  • New research into Rett syndrome therapeutics suggests that a small molecule already reported to improve respiratory problems associated with the disease may also improve spatial memory and motor skill defects. (eurekalert.org)
  • For instance, the ability to work on a complicated mathematical problem utilizes one's working memory. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one of these perspectives, developed in the 1950s, the hippocampus is viewed as being the critical structure enabling the formation of declarative, long-term memories, such as the ability to remember one's high-school prom. (ucsd.edu)
  • This experience, amongst many past experiences attempt to study and learn the true effect stress has on one's memory. (bartleby.com)
  • We know Alzheimer's disease usually begins in the medial temporal lobe and this study reminds us that it's not the patients' spatial skills that are immediately at risk, it is their memory. (ucsd.edu)
  • Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) plays a crucial role in memory deficits and tau hyperphosphorylation as seen in Alzheimer's disease, the most common dementia in the aged population. (nih.gov)
  • Inflammation has long been linked to disorders of memory like Alzheimer's disease . (reliawire.com)
  • While some research has indicated that ovarian hormone therapy (HT) benefits memory and decreases risk of Alzheimer's disease in menopausal women, several newer studies have shown null or detrimental effects. (elsevier.com)
  • Typically, these experiments initially trained animals to respond to one of two spatial or visual stimuli for reward, followed by reversal training in which choice of the alternative stimulus was rewarded. (springer.com)
  • Thus, proximity in egocentric space amplifies the valence of social stimuli that, in turn, facilitates emotional memory and approach-avoidance responses. (diva-portal.org)
  • Impaired perceptual memory of locations across gaze-shifts in patients with unilateral spatial neglect. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It seems that the opioidergic system and hyperthermia may, at least partially, be involved in METH effects on spatial memory. (magiran.com)
  • Gap junctions between interneurons are required for normal spatial coding in the hippocampus and short-term spatial memory. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Results demonstrate the emergence of left prefrontal activity and superior-to-inferior shift in localization of parietal response with increasing age, suggesting that younger teens utilize more rote spatial rehearsal, while older teens rely more on spatial storage and verbally-mediated strategies. (worldcat.org)
  • For instance, performance on a working memory but not on a short-term memory task was affected by articulatory suppression suggesting that impairment on the spatial task was caused by the concurrent performance on a task that had extensive use of executive resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, during a spatial visualisation task (which is related to executive functioning and not STM or WM) concurrent executive suppression impaired performance indicating that the effects were due to common demands on the central executive and not short-term storage. (wikipedia.org)
  • D e Lillo C. (2011) Spatial working memory for clustered sites in a Virtual Reality based search task (Nuffield Foundation). (le.ac.uk)
  • Spatial working memory for clustered and linear configurations of sites in a virtual reality foraging task. (le.ac.uk)
  • One such task that would clearly benefit from some form of spatial memory is navigation. (pnas.org)
  • Each study evaluated previous severe hypoglycemia and tested short (5 s)- and long (60 s)-delay spatial memory with the spatial delayed response task. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Specifically, we predicted that: (1) predatory bats would readily learn to associate shapes with palatable prey and (2) once bats had made such associations, these would interfere with their subsequent learning of a spatial memory task. (biologists.org)
  • Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task performance, and may reflect a spatial strategy that is beneficial in this task. (diva-portal.org)
  • Working memory can be thought of as a short-term memory system involved in the control, regulation, and active maintenance of a limited amount of information immediately relevant to the task at hand (Miyake & Shah, 1999). (spatiallearning.org)
  • Ibuprofen enhanced overall performance in the working memory task when data was collapsed across naïve and test trials and ages. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Participants performed a parity judgment task, and we examined how the SNARC effect is influenced by the preceding congruency between the required response and the target number's spatial association. (ed.gov)
  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human prefrontal cortex activation during a spatial working memory task. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The MR signal increased in an area of the middle frontal gyrus corresponding to Brodmann's area 46 in all eight subjects performing the spatial working memory task. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent work has demonstrated that it is possible to reconstruct spatially-specific channel tuning functions (CTFs) during the encoding and delay period of a working memory (WM) task, using an inverted encoding model (IEM) and electroencephalography (Foster et al. (arvojournals.org)
  • Four experiments are reported that investigate the role of visual cues in keeping people perceptually engaged in their environments in a classic spatial updating task. (oatd.org)
  • To take advantage of extra outcome measures and our latest cloud technology, we would recommend using our Spatial Span (SSP) task . (cambridgecognition.com)
  • On a nonlateralised, purely vertical SWM task, he was impaired in retaining spatial locations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In a visual search task, his eye position was monitored while his spatial memory was probed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We found the existence of spatial memory in this species using this spatial task. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Working memory components of the Corsi blocks task" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Results indicate that the SNARC effect is reduced instantly after having experienced a number's spatial association to interfere with responding. (ed.gov)
  • However, it has also been observed that spatially directed arm movements can interfere with spatial working memory 11, raising the possibility of a more-general mechanism for maintenance that might not be tied exclusively to the oculomotor system. (docplayer.net)
  • Right hemisphere patients with varying severity of left spatial neglect had to encode a single target location and retain it across an interval of 2 or 3 sec, during which the target was transiently removed, before a subsequent probe appeared for a same/different location judgment. (ox.ac.uk)