An involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may involve SKELETAL MUSCLE or SMOOTH MUSCLE.
An epileptic syndrome characterized by the triad of infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia, and arrest of psychomotor development at seizure onset. The majority present between 3-12 months of age, with spasms consisting of combinations of brief flexor or extensor movements of the head, trunk, and limbs. The condition is divided into two forms: cryptogenic (idiopathic) and symptomatic (secondary to a known disease process such as intrauterine infections; nervous system abnormalities; BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC, INBORN; prematurity; perinatal asphyxia; TUBEROUS SCLEROSIS; etc.). (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp744-8)
Recurrent clonic contraction of facial muscles, restricted to one side. It may occur as a manifestation of compressive lesions involving the seventh cranial nerve (FACIAL NERVE DISEASES), during recovery from BELL PALSY, or in association with other disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1378)
Spasm of the large- or medium-sized coronary arteries.
A hypermotility disorder of the ESOPHAGUS that is characterized by spastic non-peristaltic responses to SWALLOWING; CHEST PAIN; and DYSPHAGIA.
An ergot alkaloid (ERGOT ALKALOIDS) with uterine and VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE contractile properties.
A clinical syndrome characterized by the development of CHEST PAIN at rest with concomitant transient ST segment elevation in the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM, but with preserved exercise capacity.
Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Excessive winking; tonic or clonic spasm of the orbicularis oculi muscle.
An analogue of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. It is an irreversible inhibitor of 4-AMINOBUTYRATE TRANSAMINASE, the enzyme responsible for the catabolism of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. (From Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Diseases of the facial nerve or nuclei. Pontine disorders may affect the facial nuclei or nerve fascicle. The nerve may be involved intracranially, along its course through the petrous portion of the temporal bone, or along its extracranial course. Clinical manifestations include facial muscle weakness, loss of taste from the anterior tongue, hyperacusis, and decreased lacrimation.
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
A condition characterized by persistent spasms (SPASM) involving multiple muscles, primarily in the lower limbs and trunk. The illness tends to occur in the fourth to sixth decade of life, presenting with intermittent spasms that become continuous. Minor sensory stimuli, such as noise and light touch, precipitate severe spasms. Spasms do not occur during sleep and only rarely involve cranial muscles. Respiration may become impaired in advanced cases. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1492; Neurology 1998 Jul;51(1):85-93)
The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.
Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.
A serotype of botulinum toxins that has specificity for cleavage of SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
Junction between the cerebellum and the pons.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
Surgery performed to relieve pressure from MICROVESSELS that are located around nerves and are causing NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES.
Drugs used to prevent SEIZURES or reduce their severity.
A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Disorders affecting the motor function of the UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; the ESOPHAGUS body, or a combination of these parts. The failure of the sphincters to maintain a tonic pressure may result in gastric reflux of food and acid into the esophagus (GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX). Other disorders include hypermotility (spastic disorders) and markedly increased amplitude in contraction (nutcracker esophagus).

Blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome (Brueghel's syndrome). A variant of adult-onset torsion dystonia? (1/261)

Thirty-nine patients with the idiopathic blepharospasm-oromandibular dystonia syndrome are described. All presented in adult life, usually in the sixth decade; women were more commonly affected than men. Thirteen had blepharospasm alone, nine had oromandibular dystonia alone, and 17 had both. Torticollis or dystonic writer's camp preceded the syndrome in two patients. Eight other patients developed toritocollis, dystonic posturing of the arms, or involvement of respiratory muscles. No cause or hereditary basis for the illness were discovered. The evidence to indicate that this syndrome is due to an abnormality of extrapyramidal function, and that it is another example of adult-onset focal dystonia akin to spasmodic torticollis and dystonic writer's cramp, is discussed.  (+info)

Occurrence of familial spastic paraplegia in only one of monozygous twins. (2/261)

Three patients who suffer from spastic paraplegia are described who belong to two generations in one family. One of the patients, who has had symptoms and signs for at least 10 years, has a monozygous twin who is unaffected. Using blood groups and chromosomal polymorphisms, the probability of monozygosity is estimated to be 0.99986. The observation of nonpenetrance in familial spastic paraplegia suggests that environmental factors may be involved in provocation and emphasises the need for careful genetic counselling in this and related diseases.  (+info)

A comparison of injections of botulinum toxin and topical nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. (3/261)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Lateral internal sphincterotomy, the most common treatment for chronic anal fissure, may cause permanent injury to the anal sphincter, which can lead to fecal incontinence. We compared two nonsurgical treatments that avert the risk of fecal incontinence. We randomly assigned 50 adults with symptomatic chronic posterior anal fissures to receive treatment with either a total of 20 U of botulinum toxin injected into the internal anal sphincter on each side of the anterior midline or 0.2 percent nitroglycerin ointment applied twice daily for six weeks. RESULTS: After two months, the fissures were healed in 24 of the 25 patients (96 percent) in the botulinum-toxin group and in 15 of the 25 (60 percent) in the nitroglycerin group (P=0.005). No patient in either group had fecal incontinence. At some time during treatment, five patients in the nitroglycerin group had transient, moderate-to-severe headaches that were related to treatment. None of the patients in the botulinum-toxin group reported adverse effects. Ten patients who did not have a response to the assigned treatment - 1 in the botulinum-toxin group and 9 in the nitroglycerin group - crossed over to the other treatment; the fissures subsequently healed in all 10 patients. There were no relapses during an average of about 15 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment with either topical nitroglycerin or botulinum toxin is effective as an alternative to surgery for patients with chronic anal fissure, botulinum toxin is the more effective nonsurgical treatment.  (+info)

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum with dipyridamole-induced coronary artery spasm: a case report. (4/261)

In patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, severe organic coronary artery stenosis often occurs without coronary risk factors. However, this report presents the case of a 49-year-old woman with pseudoxanthoma elasticum who had coronary artery spasm with an angiographically normal coronary artery. In addition, coronary artery spasm was provoked with dipyridamole thallium-201 cardiac imaging.  (+info)

Urinary catheter management. (5/261)

The use of urinary catheters should be avoided whenever possible. Clean intermittent catheterization, when practical, is preferable to long-term catheterization. Suprapubic catheters offer some advantages, and condom catheters may be appropriate for some men. While clean handling of catheters is important, routine perineal cleaning and catheter irrigation or changing are ineffective in eliminating bacteriuria. Bacteriuria is inevitable in patients requiring long-term catheterization, but only symptomatic infections should be treated. Infections are usually polymicrobial, and seriously ill patients require therapy with two antibiotics. Patients with spinal cord injuries and those using catheters for more than 10 years are at greater risk of bladder cancer and renal complications; periodic renal scans, urine cytology and cystoscopy may be indicated in these patients.  (+info)

An imbalance in plasma prostanoids in patients with Raynaud's phenomenon and pulmonary vasospasm. (6/261)

Raynaud's phenomenon has been suggested as a predisposing factor for pulmonary vasospasm which may lead to pulmonary hypertension, but the occurrence of cold stimulus-induced pulmonary vasospasm has been inconsistent. Such inconsistent pulmonary vascular responses may be caused by differences in the production of endogenous vasodilators and vasoconstrictors among patients. Fourteen patients with Raynaud's phenomenon associated with mixed connective tissue disease (n=10) or systemic sclerosis (n=4) participated in the study. Right heart catheterization was performed before and after a cold pressor test, immersing a hand in cold water (15 degrees C) for 5 min. Plasma levels of 6-keto prostaglandin (PG)F1alpha, thromboxane (TX)B2 and endothelin (ET)-1 in the mixed venous blood were measured. Mean pulmonary artery pressure increased after the cold pressor test in five of 14 patients, and the patients were divided into those with pulmonary vasospasm (responders) and those without vasospasm (nonresponders). After the cold pressor test, levels of 6-keto PGF1alpha increased significantly in nonresponders (p<0.01) and decreased significantly in responders (p<0.05). The ratios of 6-keto PGF1alpha to TXB2 significantly increased in nonresponders (p<0.01) but not in responders and the difference between responders and nonresponders after the cold pressor test was also statistically significant (p<0.05). No significant change in plasma ET-1 levels occurred in either responders or nonresponders. The results suggest that an impaired production of prostaglandin I2 and an imbalance between prostaglandin I2 and thromboxane A2 are associated with the occurrence of pulmonary vasospasm induced by Raynaud's phenomenon.  (+info)

Fogarty balloon dilatation for intraoperative arterial spasm. (7/261)

OBJECTIVE: to describe an intraoperative technique using a Fogarty balloon to treat arterial spasm following vascular bypass and endarterectomy. DESIGN: prospective case control study. SUBJECTS AND TREATMENT: twenty-two patients following femorodistal bypass surgery and one patient following carotid endarterectomy, with arterial spasm in the distal run-off on completion angiography, were treated with Fogarty balloon dilatation. MATERIALS: Fogarty balloon catheter (Baxtertrade mark). RESULTS: twenty-three patients (100%) with arterial spasm were successfully treated by Fogarty balloon as demonstrated on completion angiography. No complications were seen. CONCLUSION: this simple technique removes vascular spasm rapidly and produces an excellent angiographic result.  (+info)

A phenothiazine derivative in the treatment of spasticity. (8/261)

The efficacy of a selective fusimotor suppressant, the phenothiazine (+/-)-10-3-dimethylamino-2-methylpropyl)-2-valeroylphenothiazine, has been assessed in a double-blind crossover trail in eight patients suffering from cerebral spasticity and one patient suffering from spinal spasticity. Dosage was 40 mg daily. Independent clinical and electromyographic methods of assessment were used. The active agent produced a small but significant reduction in spasticity, although this was of clinical value in only a few patients. There were few side-effects. It is recommended that further studies using higher dosages be undertaken.  (+info)

A spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction or tightening of a muscle, group of muscles, or a hollow organ such as the ureter or bronchi. Spasms can occur as a result of various factors including muscle fatigue, injury, irritation, or abnormal nerve activity. They can cause pain and discomfort, and in some cases, interfere with normal bodily functions. For example, a spasm in the bronchi can cause difficulty breathing, while a spasm in the ureter can cause severe pain and may lead to a kidney stone blockage. The treatment for spasms depends on the underlying cause and may include medication, physical therapy, or lifestyle changes.

Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, is a rare but serious type of epilepsy that affects infants typically between 4-8 months of age. The spasms are characterized by sudden, brief, and frequent muscle jerks or contractions, often involving the neck, trunk, and arms. These spasms usually occur in clusters and may cause the infant to bend forward or stretch out. Infantile spasms can be a symptom of various underlying neurological conditions and are often associated with developmental delays and regression. Early recognition and treatment are crucial for improving outcomes.

Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by involuntary, irregular contractions or twitching of the muscles on one side of the face. These spasms typically begin around the eye and may progress to involve the muscles of the lower face, including those around the mouth.

The primary cause of hemifacial spasm is pressure on or irritation of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) as it exits the brainstem, often due to a blood vessel or tumor. This pressure can lead to abnormal electrical signals in the facial nerve, resulting in uncontrolled muscle contractions.

In some cases, hemifacial spasm may be associated with other conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Bell's palsy. Treatment options for hemifacial spasm include medications to help relax the muscles, botulinum toxin (Botox) injections to paralyze the affected muscles temporarily, and, in rare cases, surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the facial nerve.

Coronary vasospasm refers to a sudden constriction (narrowing) of the coronary arteries, which supply oxygenated blood to the heart muscle. This constriction can reduce or block blood flow, leading to symptoms such as chest pain (angina) or, in severe cases, a heart attack (myocardial infarction). Coronary vasospasm can occur spontaneously or be triggered by various factors, including stress, smoking, and certain medications. It is also associated with conditions such as coronary artery disease and variant angina. Prolonged or recurrent vasospasms can cause damage to the heart muscle and increase the risk of cardiovascular events.

Diffuse Esophageal Spasm (DES) is a motility disorder of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. In DES, the esophagus involuntarily and uncoordinately contracts, causing difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), chest pain, and sometimes regurgitation of food or liquids.

The term "diffuse" refers to the fact that these spasms can occur throughout the entire length of the esophagus, rather than being localized to a specific area. The exact cause of diffuse esophageal spasm is not known, but it may be associated with abnormalities in the nerve cells that control muscle contractions in the esophagus.

Diagnosis of DES typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, and specialized tests such as esophageal manometry or ambulatory 24-hour pH monitoring. Treatment options may include medications to relax the esophageal muscles, lifestyle modifications such as avoiding trigger foods, and in some cases, surgery.

Ergonovine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is derived from the ergot fungus and is used in medical settings as a uterotonic agent, which means it causes the uterus to contract. Ergonovine is often used after childbirth to help the uterus return to its normal size and reduce bleeding.

Ergonovine works by binding to specific receptors in the smooth muscle of the uterus, causing it to contract. It has a potent effect on the uterus and can also cause vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels) in other parts of the body. This is why ergonovine is sometimes used to treat severe bleeding caused by conditions such as uterine fibroids or ectopic pregnancy.

Like other ergot alkaloids, ergonovine can have serious side effects if not used carefully. It should be administered under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and should not be used in women with certain medical conditions, such as high blood pressure or heart disease. Ergonovine can also interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before receiving this drug.

Angina pectoris, variant (also known as Prinzmetal's angina or vasospastic angina) is a type of chest pain that results from reduced blood flow to the heart muscle due to spasms in the coronary arteries. These spasms cause the arteries to narrow, temporarily reducing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, and fatigue.

Variant angina is typically more severe than other forms of angina and can occur at rest or with minimal physical exertion. It is often treated with medications that help relax the coronary arteries and prevent spasms, such as calcium channel blockers and nitrates. In some cases, additional treatments such as angioplasty or bypass surgery may be necessary to improve blood flow to the heart.

It's important to note that chest pain can have many different causes, so it is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of angina or other types of chest pain. A healthcare professional can help determine the cause of your symptoms and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Facial muscles, also known as facial nerves or cranial nerve VII, are a group of muscles responsible for various expressions and movements of the face. These muscles include:

1. Orbicularis oculi: muscle that closes the eyelid and raises the upper eyelid
2. Corrugator supercilii: muscle that pulls the eyebrows down and inward, forming wrinkles on the forehead
3. Frontalis: muscle that raises the eyebrows and forms horizontal wrinkles on the forehead
4. Procerus: muscle that pulls the medial ends of the eyebrows downward, forming vertical wrinkles between the eyebrows
5. Nasalis: muscle that compresses or dilates the nostrils
6. Depressor septi: muscle that pulls down the tip of the nose
7. Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi: muscle that raises the upper lip and flares the nostrils
8. Levator labii superioris: muscle that raises the upper lip
9. Zygomaticus major: muscle that raises the corner of the mouth, producing a smile
10. Zygomaticus minor: muscle that raises the nasolabial fold and corner of the mouth
11. Risorius: muscle that pulls the angle of the mouth laterally, producing a smile
12. Depressor anguli oris: muscle that pulls down the angle of the mouth
13. Mentalis: muscle that raises the lower lip and forms wrinkles on the chin
14. Buccinator: muscle that retracts the cheek and helps with chewing
15. Platysma: muscle that depresses the corner of the mouth and wrinkles the skin of the neck.

These muscles are innervated by the facial nerve, which arises from the brainstem and exits the skull through the stylomastoid foramen. Damage to the facial nerve can result in facial paralysis or weakness on one or both sides of the face.

Blepharospasm is a medical condition characterized by involuntary spasms and contractions of the muscles around the eyelids. These spasms can cause frequent blinkings, eye closure, and even difficulty in keeping the eyes open. In some cases, the spasms may be severe enough to interfere with vision, daily activities, and quality of life.

The exact cause of blepharospasm is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve abnormal functioning of the basal ganglia, a part of the brain that controls movement. It can occur as an isolated condition (known as essential blepharospasm) or as a symptom of other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.

Treatment options for blepharospasm may include medication, botulinum toxin injections, surgery, or a combination of these approaches. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of the spasms, improve symptoms, and enhance the patient's quality of life.

Vigabatrin is an anticonvulsant medication used to treat certain types of seizures in adults and children. It works by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain. The medical definition of Vigabatrin is: a irreversible inhibitor of GABA transaminase, which results in increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the central nervous system. This medication is used as an adjunctive treatment for complex partial seizures and is available in oral form for administration.

It's important to note that Vigabatrin can cause serious side effects, including permanent vision loss, and its use should be closely monitored by a healthcare professional. It is also classified as a pregnancy category C medication, which means it may harm an unborn baby and should only be used during pregnancy if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Facial nerve diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function of the facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve. This nerve is responsible for controlling the muscles of facial expression, and it also carries sensory information from the taste buds in the front two-thirds of the tongue, and regulates saliva flow and tear production.

Facial nerve diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the specific location and extent of the nerve damage. Common symptoms include:

* Facial weakness or paralysis on one or both sides of the face
* Drooping of the eyelid and corner of the mouth
* Difficulty closing the eye or keeping it closed
* Changes in taste sensation or dryness of the mouth and eyes
* Abnormal sensitivity to sound (hyperacusis)
* Twitching or spasms of the facial muscles

Facial nerve diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Infections such as Bell's palsy, Ramsay Hunt syndrome, and Lyme disease
* Trauma or injury to the face or skull
* Tumors that compress or invade the facial nerve
* Neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis or Guillain-Barre syndrome
* Genetic disorders such as Moebius syndrome or hemifacial microsomia

Treatment for facial nerve diseases depends on the underlying cause and severity of the symptoms. In some cases, medication, physical therapy, or surgery may be necessary to restore function and relieve symptoms.

Neuromuscular agents are drugs or substances that affect the function of the neuromuscular junction, which is the site where nerve impulses are transmitted to muscles. These agents can either enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals across the neuromuscular junction, leading to a variety of effects on muscle tone and activity.

Neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) are a type of neuromuscular agent that is commonly used in anesthesia and critical care settings to induce paralysis during intubation or mechanical ventilation. NMBAs can be classified into two main categories: depolarizing and non-depolarizing agents.

Depolarizing NMBAs, such as succinylcholine, work by activating the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction, causing muscle contraction followed by paralysis. Non-depolarizing NMBAs, such as rocuronium and vecuronium, block the activation of these receptors, preventing muscle contraction and leading to paralysis.

Other types of neuromuscular agents include cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the levels of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction and can be used to reverse the effects of NMBAs, and botulinum toxin, which is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the release of acetylcholine from nerve terminals and is used in the treatment of various neurological disorders.

Muscle spasticity is a motor disorder characterized by an involuntary increase in muscle tone, leading to stiffness and difficulty in moving muscles. It is often seen in people with damage to the brain or spinal cord, such as those with cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis, or spinal cord injuries.

In muscle spasticity, the muscles may contract excessively, causing rigid limbs, awkward movements, and abnormal postures. The severity of muscle spasticity can vary from mild stiffness to severe contractures that limit mobility and function.

Muscle spasticity is caused by an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory signals in the central nervous system, leading to overactivity of the alpha motor neurons that control muscle contraction. This can result in hyperreflexia (overactive reflexes), clonus (rapid, rhythmic muscle contractions), and flexor or extensor spasms.

Effective management of muscle spasticity may involve a combination of physical therapy, medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve function, reduce pain, and prevent complications such as contractures and pressure sores.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

Stiff-Person Syndrome (SPS) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by fluctuating muscle rigidity in the trunk and limbs and a heightened sensitivity to stimuli such as touch, sound, and emotional distress, which can trigger muscle spasms. The symptoms can significantly affect a person's ability to perform daily activities and can lead to frequent falls and injuries. SPS is often associated with antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an enzyme involved in the production of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that helps regulate muscle movement. The exact cause of SPS remains unknown, but it is thought to involve both autoimmune and genetic factors.

Angina pectoris is a medical term that describes chest pain or discomfort caused by an inadequate supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle. This condition often occurs due to coronary artery disease, where the coronary arteries become narrowed or blocked by the buildup of cholesterol, fatty deposits, and other substances, known as plaques. These blockages can reduce blood flow to the heart, causing ischemia (lack of oxygen) and leading to angina symptoms.

There are two primary types of angina: stable and unstable. Stable angina is predictable and usually occurs during physical exertion or emotional stress when the heart needs more oxygen-rich blood. The pain typically subsides with rest or after taking prescribed nitroglycerin medication, which helps widen the blood vessels and improve blood flow to the heart.

Unstable angina, on the other hand, is more severe and unpredictable. It can occur at rest, during sleep, or with minimal physical activity and may not be relieved by rest or nitroglycerin. Unstable angina is considered a medical emergency, as it could indicate an imminent heart attack.

Symptoms of angina pectoris include chest pain, pressure, tightness, or heaviness that typically radiates to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back. Shortness of breath, nausea, sweating, and fatigue may also accompany angina symptoms. Immediate medical attention is necessary if you experience chest pain or discomfort, especially if it's new, severe, or persistent, as it could be a sign of a more serious condition like a heart attack.

Coronary angiography is a medical procedure that uses X-ray imaging to visualize the coronary arteries, which supply blood to the heart muscle. During the procedure, a thin, flexible catheter is inserted into an artery in the arm or groin and threaded through the blood vessels to the heart. A contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken as the dye flows through the coronary arteries. These images can help doctors diagnose and treat various heart conditions, such as blockages or narrowing of the arteries, that can lead to chest pain or heart attacks. It is also known as coronary arteriography or cardiac catheterization.

Botulinum toxins type A are neurotoxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species. These toxins act by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, leading to muscle paralysis. Botulinum toxin type A is used in medical treatments for various conditions characterized by muscle spasticity or excessive muscle activity, such as cervical dystonia, blepharospasm, strabismus, and chronic migraine. It is also used cosmetically to reduce the appearance of wrinkles by temporarily paralyzing the muscles that cause them. The commercial forms of botulinum toxin type A include Botox, Dysport, and Xeomin.

Oxytocics are a class of medications that stimulate the contraction of uterine smooth muscle. They are primarily used in obstetrics to induce or augment labor, and to control bleeding after childbirth. Oxytocin is the most commonly used oxytocic and is naturally produced by the posterior pituitary gland. Synthetic forms of oxytocin, such as Pitocin, are often used in medical settings to induce labor or reduce postpartum bleeding. Other medications with oxytocic properties include ergometrine and methylergometrine. It's important to note that the use of oxytocics should be monitored carefully as overuse can lead to excessive uterine contractions, which may compromise fetal oxygenation and increase the risk of uterine rupture.

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a narrow space located at the junction of the brainstem and the cerebellum, where the pons and cerebellum meet. This region is filled with several important nerves, blood vessels, and membranous coverings called meninges. The CPA is a common site for various neurological disorders because it contains critical structures such as:

1. Cerebellum: A part of the brain responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
2. Pons: A portion of the brainstem that plays a role in several vital functions, including facial movements, taste sensation, sleep regulation, and respiration.
3. Cranial nerves: The CPA is home to the following cranial nerves:
* Vestibulocochlear nerve (CN VIII): This nerve has two components - cochlear and vestibular. The cochlear part is responsible for hearing, while the vestibular part contributes to balance and eye movement.
* Facial nerve (CN VII): This nerve controls facial expressions, taste sensation in the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, salivary gland function, and lacrimation (tear production).
4. Blood vessels: The CPA contains critical blood vessels like the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA), which supplies blood to various parts of the brainstem, cerebellum, and cranial nerves.
5. Meninges: These are protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. In the CPA, the meninges include the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater.

Disorders that can affect the structures in the cerebellopontine angle include acoustic neuromas (vestibular schwannomas), meningiomas, epidermoids, and arteriovenous malformations. These conditions may cause symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus (ringing in the ears), vertigo (dizziness), facial weakness or numbness, difficulty swallowing, and imbalance.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Microvascular decompression surgery (MVD) is a surgical procedure used to alleviate the symptoms of certain neurological conditions, such as trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. The primary goal of MVD is to relieve pressure on the affected cranial nerve by placing a small pad or sponge between the nerve and the blood vessel that is causing compression. This procedure is typically performed under a microscope, hence the term "microvascular."

During the surgery, the neurosurgeon makes an incision behind the ear and creates a small opening in the skull (a craniotomy) to access the brain. The surgeon then identifies the affected nerve and the blood vessel that is compressing it. Using specialized instruments under the microscope, the surgeon carefully separates the blood vessel from the nerve and places a tiny pad or sponge between them to prevent further compression.

The benefits of MVD include its high success rate in relieving symptoms, minimal impact on surrounding brain tissue, and lower risk of complications compared to other surgical options for treating these conditions. However, as with any surgery, there are potential risks and complications associated with MVD, including infection, bleeding, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, facial numbness, hearing loss, balance problems, and very rarely, stroke or death.

It is essential to consult a qualified neurosurgeon for a thorough evaluation and discussion of the risks and benefits of microvascular decompression surgery before making a treatment decision.

Anticonvulsants are a class of drugs used primarily to treat seizure disorders, also known as epilepsy. These medications work by reducing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to their use in treating epilepsy, anticonvulsants are sometimes also prescribed for other conditions, such as neuropathic pain, bipolar disorder, and migraine headaches.

Anticonvulsants can work in different ways to reduce seizure activity. Some medications, such as phenytoin and carbamazepine, work by blocking sodium channels in the brain, which helps to stabilize nerve cell membranes and prevent excessive electrical activity. Other medications, such as valproic acid and gabapentin, increase the levels of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which has a calming effect on nerve cells and helps to reduce seizure activity.

While anticonvulsants are generally effective at reducing seizure frequency and severity, they can also have side effects, such as dizziness, drowsiness, and gastrointestinal symptoms. In some cases, these side effects may be managed by adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication. It is important for individuals taking anticonvulsants to work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their response to the medication and make any necessary adjustments.

Nitroglycerin, also known as glyceryl trinitrate, is a medication used primarily for the treatment of angina pectoris (chest pain due to coronary artery disease) and hypertensive emergencies (severe high blood pressure). It belongs to a class of drugs called nitrates or organic nitrites.

Nitroglycerin works by relaxing and dilating the smooth muscle in blood vessels, which leads to decreased workload on the heart and increased oxygen delivery to the myocardium (heart muscle). This results in reduced symptoms of angina and improved cardiac function during hypertensive emergencies.

The drug is available in various forms, including sublingual tablets, sprays, transdermal patches, ointments, and intravenous solutions. The choice of formulation depends on the specific clinical situation and patient needs. Common side effects of nitroglycerin include headache, dizziness, and hypotension (low blood pressure).

Trigeminal neuralgia is a chronic pain condition that affects the trigeminal nerve, which is one of the largest nerves in the head. It carries sensations from the face to the brain.

Medically, trigeminal neuralgia is defined as a neuropathic disorder characterized by episodes of intense, stabbing, electric shock-like pain in the areas of the face supplied by the trigeminal nerve (the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions). The pain can be triggered by simple activities such as talking, eating, brushing teeth, or even touching the face lightly.

The condition is more common in women over 50, but it can occur at any age and in either gender. While the exact cause of trigeminal neuralgia is not always known, it can sometimes be related to pressure on the trigeminal nerve from a nearby blood vessel or other causes such as multiple sclerosis. Treatment typically involves medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Coronary vessels refer to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the heart muscle, also known as the myocardium. The two main coronary arteries are the left main coronary artery and the right coronary artery.

The left main coronary artery branches off into the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the left circumflex artery (LCx). The LAD supplies blood to the front of the heart, while the LCx supplies blood to the side and back of the heart.

The right coronary artery supplies blood to the right lower part of the heart, including the right atrium and ventricle, as well as the back of the heart.

Coronary vessel disease (CVD) occurs when these vessels become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque, leading to reduced blood flow to the heart muscle. This can result in chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

Manometry is a medical test that measures pressure inside various parts of the gastrointestinal tract. It is often used to help diagnose digestive disorders such as achalasia, gastroparesis, and irritable bowel syndrome. During the test, a thin, flexible tube called a manometer is inserted through the mouth or rectum and into the area being tested. The tube is connected to a machine that measures and records pressure readings. These readings can help doctors identify any abnormalities in muscle function or nerve reflexes within the digestive tract.

Vasodilator agents are pharmacological substances that cause the relaxation or widening of blood vessels by relaxing the smooth muscle in the vessel walls. This results in an increase in the diameter of the blood vessels, which decreases vascular resistance and ultimately reduces blood pressure. Vasodilators can be further classified based on their site of action:

1. Systemic vasodilators: These agents cause a generalized relaxation of the smooth muscle in the walls of both arteries and veins, resulting in a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and preload (the volume of blood returning to the heart). Examples include nitroglycerin, hydralazine, and calcium channel blockers.
2. Arterial vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in arterial vessel walls, leading to a reduction in afterload (the pressure against which the heart pumps blood). Examples include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and direct vasodilators like sodium nitroprusside.
3. Venous vasodilators: These agents primarily affect the smooth muscle in venous vessel walls, increasing venous capacitance and reducing preload. Examples include nitroglycerin and other organic nitrates.

Vasodilator agents are used to treat various cardiovascular conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, angina, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is essential to monitor their use carefully, as excessive vasodilation can lead to orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, or fluid retention.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

MedlinePlus is not a medical term, but rather a consumer health website that provides high-quality, accurate, and reliable health information, written in easy-to-understand language. It is produced by the U.S. National Library of Medicine, the world's largest medical library, and is widely recognized as a trusted source of health information.

MedlinePlus offers information on various health topics, including conditions, diseases, tests, treatments, and wellness. It also provides access to drug information, medical dictionary, and encyclopedia, as well as links to clinical trials, medical news, and patient organizations. The website is available in both English and Spanish and can be accessed for free.

Esophageal motility disorders are a group of conditions that affect the normal movement (motility) of the muscles in the esophagus, which is the tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The esophageal muscles normally contract and relax in a coordinated manner to help move food from the mouth to the stomach.

In esophageal motility disorders, this muscle movement is impaired, leading to difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), chest pain, heartburn, or regurgitation of food. Some common examples of esophageal motility disorders include:

1. Achalasia: a condition in which the lower esophageal sphincter muscle fails to relax properly, preventing food from passing into the stomach.
2. Diffuse esophageal spasm: a disorder characterized by uncoordinated contractions of the esophageal muscles, leading to difficulty swallowing and chest pain.
3. Nutcracker esophagus: a condition in which the esophageal muscles contract too forcefully, causing pain and difficulty swallowing.
4. Hypertensive lower esophageal sphincter: a disorder in which the lower esophageal sphincter muscle is too tight, making it difficult to swallow and leading to symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation.
5. Ineffective esophageal motility: a condition in which the esophageal muscles have weak or disorganized contractions, leading to difficulty swallowing and other symptoms.

Esophageal motility disorders can be diagnosed through tests such as manometry, which measures the pressure and coordination of esophageal muscle contractions, or barium swallow studies, which use X-rays to visualize the movement of food through the esophagus. Treatment may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the specific disorder and its severity.

A subtype of spasm is colic. This is an episodic pain caused by spasm of smooth muscle in a particular organ (e.g., the bile ... A spasm may lead to muscle strains or tears in tendons and ligaments if the force of the spasm exceeds the tensile strength of ... Various kinds of involuntary muscle activity may be referred to as a "spasm". A spasm may be a muscle contraction caused by ... Look up spasm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. NIH Medical Encyclopedia How Stuff Works "Spasm" . New International ...
A neck spasm is an involuntary contraction of the muscles in the neck region. The possible causes of neck spasms include:[ ... Neck Spasms". McKesson Provider Technologies. Archived from the original on 2008-02-07. Retrieved 2008-04-29. v t e (All ... Muscle strain Tension Tetanus Spasmodic torticollis Stress Surgery Viral infection Whiplash injury or other causes of spasm ...
The term "spasm band" has been revived by jazz groups the Barnstormers Spasm Band, The Original Rabbit Foot Spasm Band, The End ... "spasm band" in New Orleans was formed in 1895, known informally as Stale Bread's Spasm Band and billed as the Razzy Dazzy Spasm ... A spasm band is a musical group that plays a variety of Dixieland, trad jazz, jug band, or skiffle music. The term "spasm" ... Times Spasm Band, and Anthony Joseph and The Spasm Band. The term was also adopted by noise group The Nihilist Spasm Band. ...
Spasm may also refer to: "Spasm" (song), by Peach, 1993 "Spasm", a song by Dave's True Story "Spasm", a song by David Kilgour ... "Spasm", a song by Scorn from Vae Solis Spasms (film), a 1983 film by William Fruet SPASM: Virtual Reality, Android Music and ... Look up spasm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Spasm is a sudden, involuntary contraction of a muscle, a group of muscles or ... a 1993 book by Arthur Kroker All pages with titles beginning with spasm All pages with titles containing spasm Spasmo, a 1974 ...
... is a disorder of motility of the esophagus. There are two types of esophageal spasm: Diffuse or distal ... Distal esophageal spasms are rare. Goel, S; Nookala, V (January 2019). "Diffuse Esophageal Spasm". PMID 31082150. {{cite ... It is not clear what causes esophageal spasms. Sometimes esophageal spasms start when someone eats hot or cold foods or drinks ... "Esophageal Spasm - Topic Overview". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-11-15. "Esophageal Spasm". WebMD. Retrieved 2015-11-15. "Esophageal ...
The group was short lived however, as Bjelland and Spasm divorced in January 1995. Spasm continued to play under the Lubricated ... Spasm (Gray) commenced his musical journey in Adelaide, South Australia. A devotee of Adelaide's bourgeoning Punk scene, Spasm ... Spasm soon left the group to pursue his own musical interests and formed Lubricated Goat in Perth in 1986.[citation needed] In ... Spasm had already displayed a canny understanding of "who could be of help" before leaving for Sydney.[citation needed] Stu ...
The study found that 77% of hemifacial spasm is due to primary hemifacial spasm and 23% is due to secondary hemifacial spasm. ... Individuals with spasm on both sides of the face are very rare. The first sign of hemifacial spasm is typically muscle movement ... Hemifacial spasm is much more common in some Asian populations. Several families with hemifacial spasm have been reported, ... Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare neuromuscular disease characterized by irregular, involuntary muscle contractions (spasms) on ...
When the spasms last long they can give the impression of a knife stabbed in the throat. The cricopharyngeal spasms can be, for ... Cricopharyngeal spasms occur in the cricopharyngeus muscle of the pharynx. Cricopharyngeal spasm is an uncomfortable but ... It innerves the inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle where the cricopharyngeal spasms occur. Throat spasms can also appear ... Pharyngeal spasms, a more common source of a globus feeling, cause tension on the thyroid cartilage. They move up and down, ...
... may affect all muscles in the body, but typically only groups, such as the forearms, or hands. Cadaveric spasm ... Sometimes, cadaveric spasms can be associated with erotic asphyxiation resulting in death. Cadaveric spasm has been posed[by ... Cadaveric spasm, also known as postmortem spasm, instantaneous rigor mortis, cataleptic rigidity, or instantaneous rigidity, is ... Cadaveric spasm can be distinguished from rigor mortis as the former is a stronger stiffening of the muscles that cannot be ...
... can refer to: Hiccups (synchronous diaphragmatic spasm or flutter) Getting the wind knocked out of you ( ... epidemic transient diaphragmatic spasm) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Diaphragmatic spasm. ... transient or temporary diaphragmatic spasm) Bornholm disease ( ...
... is a geyser in the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park in the United States. Spasm Geyser is part of ... "Spasm Geyser". Geysers of Yellowstone. Geyser Observation and Study Association (GOSA). Retrieved 2011-11-19. "Spasm Geyser". ...
Anthony Joseph & The Spasm Band were a band led by Trinidadian poet, novelist and lecturer Anthony Joseph. The band was formed ... Their debut album Leggo de Lion was released in April 2007 by Kindred Spirits and the Spasm Band toured Europe and the UK ... In December 2005, as a quartet, they recorded their first album 'The Spasm Band' in London. The album was self produced and ... The album features the now expanded Spasm Band line up as well as guest performers Keziah Jones, Defunkt founder Joseph Bowie, ...
20centsMUSIC - Record label of the Nihilist Spasm Band Official Nihilist Spasm Band website Nihilist Spasm Band allmusic entry ... The Nihilist Spasm Band (NSB) is a Canadian noise band formed in 1965 in London, Ontario. The band was founded by Hugh McIntyre ... The term "spasm band" refers to a band that uses homemade instruments. Most of the NSB's instruments are modifications of other ... Drawing from the inspiration of finding a copy of the Nihilist Spasm Band's first L.P. No Canada in the pile of 1970's ephemera ...
A spasm of accommodation (also known as a ciliary spasm, an accommodation, or accommodative spasm) is a condition in which the ... In fact, none of the cycloplegic drops used to treat Spasm of Accommodation in the United States are available without BAK. ... In difficult cases, "cycloplegic agents are highly favored to break spasm quickly and may be more economical compared to other ... Additionally, the AOA recommends the following management plan for spasm of accommodation: "Begin with plus lenses and VT; if ...
Esophageal Spasm~treatment at eMedicine Media related to Diffuse esophageal spasm at Wikimedia Commons Barium swallow images of ... Diffuse esophageal spasm (DES), also known as distal esophageal spasm, is a condition characterized by uncoordinated ... Nutcracker esophagus Esophageal spasm Goel, S; Nookala, V (January 2019). "Diffuse Esophageal Spasm". StatPearls [Internet]. ... The causes of diffuse esophageal spasm is unclear. It is thought, however, that many cases are caused by uncontrolled brain ...
... may refer to: Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band (folk), a 1970s folk/bluegrass band Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band (jazz), ... an 1890s New Orleans jazz band This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band. If an ...
... official web site Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band , Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band 'fanpage' "Class Notes: News of 1983", Moravian College ... The Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band was formed in 1976 at Moravian College in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The band consisted initially of ... bass guitar The original three members of the Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band met as freshmen at Moravian College at an open mic held as ...
... is the second album by Trumans Water. It is their first (and only) double-album and was released ... Cramer, Stephen "Spasm Smash XXXOXOX Ox & Ass Review", Allmusic, Macrovision Corporation, retrieved 21 November 2009 Sharp, ... Chris (1993) "Trumans water spasm smash xxx ox ox ox & ass", Lime Lizard, May 1993, p. 58 True, Everett (1993) "Weird Eau", ...
The Razzy Dazzy Spasm Band was an early New Orleans band regarded by some as the first jazz band. The band was a group of young ...
Spasms is a 1983 Canadian horror film directed by William Fruet and starring Peter Fonda, Oliver Reed, and Kerrie Keane. It is ... List of killer snake films "Spasms". Letterboxd. Goldman, Lowell (Fall 1990). "Peter Fonda: I Know What It's Like to Be Dead". ... Spasms at IMDb (Articles needing additional references from August 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles ...
... the spasms appear for the first time between the third and the twelfth month of age. In rarer cases, spasms may occur in the ... Epileptic spasms is an uncommon-to-rare epileptic disorder in infants, children and adults. One of the other names of the ... Salaam or jackknife attacks: a flexor spasm with rapid bending of the head and torso forward and simultaneous raising and ... Wilmshurst JM, Ibekwe RC, O'Callaghan FJK (January 2017). "Epileptic spasms - 175 years on: Trying to teach an old dog new ...
Spasm bands in New Orleans in the 1890s made music out of homemade instruments, which is how we started out. The Original bit ... "Original Rabbit Foot Spasm Band are a sharp outfit for rhythm and booze". Oxford Mail. 20 December 2012. Retrieved 28 June 2014 ... The Original Rabbit Foot Spasm Band is a seven-piece blues rhythm and blues band based in Oxford, England. The band play ... "The Original Rabbit Foot Spasm Band-Year of the Rabbit " Rhythm & Booze". 20 June 2012. Retrieved 28 ...
"Orphanet: Infantile spasms broad thumbs syndrome". Retrieved 2022-05-31. "Infantile spasms-broad thumbs syndrome ... Infantile spasms-broad thumbs syndrome, also known as Tsao Ellingson syndrome, is a very rare and deadly hereditary disorder ... "Infantile spasms broad thumbs - About the Disease - Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center". ... "Infantile spasms broad thumbs". NORD (National Organization for Rare Disorders). Retrieved 2022-05-31. "OpenCodelists". www. ...
... is a very rare genetic disorder which is characterized by moderate-severe short ... Sica, R. E.; Espinoza, R.; Benavente, O.; Sanz, O. P.; Molina, H. (1995). "Familial dwarfism and painful muscle spasms". ... "DWARFISM, FAMILIAL, WITH MUSCLE SPASMS". Retrieved 2022-06-02. (Orphaned articles from June 2022, All orphaned ...
"Coronary Artery Spasm". Taylor and Francis. doi:10.1080/00325481.1986.11699314. Robert A., Chahine. "Corronary Artery Spasm". ... "Coronary Artery Spasm". Semantic Scholars. Konst RE, Meeder JG, Wittekoek ME, Maas AH, Appelman Y, Piek JJ, et al. (August 2020 ... Matta A, Bouisset F, Lhermusier T, Campelo-Parada F, Elbaz M, Carrié D, Roncalli J (2020-05-15). "Coronary Artery Spasm: New ... Robert A. Chahine resulted in the delineation of Spasm's role in Prinzmetal's angina, allowing for easy identification and ...
"Subtronics - Spasm VIP". By The Wavs. 2016-09-08. Retrieved 2019-11-06. Sunkel, Cameron. "Rusko and Subtronics Want To See You ...
"lower end spasm.: London Orient: Kode9 Sinogrime Minimix". 15 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. ...
Idiopathic laryngeal spasm. Laryngopharyngeal reflux is a condition in which acid from the stomach irritates and burns the ...
Nihilist Spasm Band were an early noise music/noise rock band from the 1960s. Their debut record No Record, released in 1968, ... "The Nihilist Spasm Band invented noise rock in 1965". 10 February 2017. Breznikar, Klemen (24 October 2014). "The Nihilist ... Breznikar, Klemen (24 November 2014). "The Nihilist Spasm Band , Interview". It's Psychedelic Baby Magazine. Retrieved 29 April ... Spasm Band Interview". It's Psychedelic Baby! Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 September 2017. Retrieved 6 February ...
"Spasm performed by Tool". Retrieved 2023-02-23. Oakes, Simon (2015). "Suns of the Tundra: Vinyl Fundraiser (Bones ... You Lied and Spasm, in their live shows. Havis (bass) left the band in 2005, was replaced by Andy Marlow, and the line-up soon ...
A subtype of spasm is colic. This is an episodic pain caused by spasm of smooth muscle in a particular organ (e.g., the bile ... A spasm may lead to muscle strains or tears in tendons and ligaments if the force of the spasm exceeds the tensile strength of ... Various kinds of involuntary muscle activity may be referred to as a "spasm". A spasm may be a muscle contraction caused by ... Look up spasm in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. NIH Medical Encyclopedia How Stuff Works "Spasm" . New International ...
These spasms do not move food effectively to the stomach. ... These spasms do not move food effectively to the stomach. ... Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the ... Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the ... Diffuse esophageal spasm; Spasm of the esophagus; Distal esophageal spasm; Nutcracker esophagus ...
... diffuse esophageal spasm and (2) hypertensive peristalsis. Diffuse esophageal spasm is characterized by contractions that are ... esophageal spasm can be divided into 2 major variants that are distinct entities: (1) ... Esophageal spasm seemingly is more common in whites, and it may be more common in women than in men. However, esophageal spasm ... Broadly, esophageal spasm can be divided into two major variants that are distinct entities: (1) diffuse esophageal spasm and ( ...
Fasciculation is a type of painless muscle spasm, marked by rapid, uncoordinated contraction of many small muscle fibers. ... Back pain spasms are sudden, uncontrolled and painful contractions of the back muscles that usually last for a few minutes, and ... Back pain spasms can be an indication that there is something wrong beneath the surface and we do not recommend you ignore this ... Back pain spasms are believed to be caused by overly active motor neurons or overly sensitive muscle fibers that react without ...
Infantile Spasms and West Syndrome. West syndrome is a triad of infantile spasms, developmental retardation or regression, and ... Clinical spasms are associated with a marked suppression of the background that lasts for the duration of the spasm. This ... Note the electrodecremental response that is associated with a spasm in infantile spasms (ie, West syndrome). View Media ... Note the electrodecremental response that is associated with a spasm in infantile spasms (ie, West syndrome). ...
West syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome composed of the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram (EEG ... 7, 8] Infants with idiopathic infantile spasms have a better prognosis than do infants with symptomatic infantile spasms. Only ... encoded search term (Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome)) and Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome) What to Read Next on Medscape ... This infusion has produced clinical spasms in rats with electrographic findings similar to those seen in human infantile spasms ...
Despite two years of medication, the frequency of the spasms increased, the severity of the spasms increased, and the spasms ... In both cases the spasms disappeared immediately after proximal occlusion without any need for further treatment of the spasms ... Hemifacial Spasm Developed after Contralateral Vertebral Artery Ligation. Hyuk Jai Choi, M.D., Sung Ho Lee, M.D., Seok Keun ... Wang HC, Lu CH, Lee RJ, Yang TM, Hung KS : Post-traumatic hemifacial spasm. J Clin Neurosci 2006, 13 : 681-683, ...
Joshua Ordway talks more about what someone should do when they have a leg or muscle cramp or spasm. ... If an individual would happen to have a muscle cramp or spasm, its a good idea to stretch out that muscle, and its also a ... What should someone do when they experience a leg muscle cramp or spasm? Videos Jun 6, 2017 ... Joshua Ordway talks more about what someone should do when they have a leg or muscle cramp or spasm. ...
Infantile Spasms - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical ... Causes of Infantile Spasms Usually, infantile spasms occur in infants with serious brain disorders and developmental ... Spasms begin with a sudden, rapid, tonic contraction of the trunk and limbs, sometimes for several seconds. Spasms range from ... Infantile spasms can be treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), vigabatrin (the drug of choice for spasms caused by ...
TOC-TOC. Jocelyn est tout seul chez lui quand quelquun frappe à la porte… ...
... typically occur only occasionally and might not need treatment. But sometimes the spasms are frequent and can ... Esophageal spasms. Overview Symptoms Causes Risk factors Diagnosis Treatment Lifestyle and home remedies Preparing for an ... Mosaic Life Care , Mayo Clinic Health Information , Diseases and Conditions , E , Esophageal spasms ... Esophageal spasms are painful contractions within the muscular tube connecting your mouth and stomach (esophagus). Esophageal ...
What is a muscle spasm? A muscle fit is an unexpected, compulsory development in at least one muscle. Individuals may likewise ... Are these muscle spasm serious condition?. Muscle spasm regularly isnt a crisis, however, a genuine ailment might be causing ... Symptoms of muscle spasms. Not all muscle fits are painful, yet some can cause harm. It can feel like the muscle is jumping or ... Treatment of muscle spasms. Muscle fits generally resolve all alone. It may require a couple of moments or even a few minutes ...
The End Times Spasm Band is a hot swing ensemble led by Lyndsy Rae and Bart Helms.. We think of our music as urban Americana. ... Number six, Some of These Days, is another fun and upbeat song in the classic End Times Spasm Band style.. ... Longtime fans will recognize it as classic End Times Spasm. However, they switch gears with the next track, The Figure of the ... End Times Spasm Band is a fantastic band headquartered in Fort Wayne, Indiana. According to their official web site, ...
Im Dr. Curt Collins, my team and I are dedicated to helping you get out of pain and get back to feeling great again.. Call us and tell us about your health issues and set up a consultation to discuss the treatment that will best get you back to optimum health.. As your doctor, I promise to sit down with you, face to face, and be attentive, present, focused and actually listen." ...
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Involuntary Spasms. August 28, 2015. by Tara I am afraid of heights. My gut clenches when I stand near a ledge or even when I ... Our son regularly experiences these types of spasms. He will be standing or walking and all of a sudden, he will fall over or ... I tell my husband that one never knows when they may have an involuntary body spasm and accidentally throw themselves from a ... But I now believe they can be as random as involuntary body spasms. ...
痙攣 to go into spasm 開始抽搐 to have spasms 抽搐 ... 2. (動作、感情等的)一陣發作[C][(+of)] a spasm of coughing 一陣咳嗽 ... 1. 痙攣,抽搐[U][C] If breathing is not restored, the patient may go into spasm.
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Rangers Max Scherzer: Battling back spasm Rotowire Oct 30, 2023 Scherzer said after Mondays 3-1 victory over the Diamondbacks ... Scherzer had his Game 3 cut short after three innings due to back spasms, and he will now be forced to sit out the rest of the ... More specifically, Scherzer relayed that hes been able to overcome bouts with back spasms in 48-to-72 hours, and other ... in the World Series that his start was cut short due to a back spasm, Levi Weaver of The Athletic reports. Scherzer, who ...
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West syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome composed of the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram (EEG ... encoded search term (Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome)) and Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome) What to Read Next on Medscape ... This infusion has produced clinical spasms in rats with electrographic findings similar to those seen in human infantile spasms ... no significant gender difference is noted in infantile spasm. Ninety percent of infantile spasms begin in infants younger than ...
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West syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome composed of the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram (EEG ... The intensity of spasms may vary from a subtle head nodding to a powerful contraction of the body. Infantile spasms usually ... Spasms can be flexor, extensor, or a mixture of flexion and extension. Flexor spasms consist of brief contractions of the ... encoded search term (Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome)) and Infantile Spasm (West Syndrome) What to Read Next on Medscape ...
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  • What is a hemifacial spasm? (
  • Hemifacial spasm is a chronic neuromuscular disorder causing painless, uncontrolled twitching on one side of the face. (
  • Hemifacial spasm is usually long-lasting. (
  • A person experiencing a hemifacial spasm can appear to be having a seizure, although it is not one. (
  • A hemifacial spasm can result when the facial nerve is irritated, often because something is pressing against it. (
  • Many cases of hemifacial spasm do not have a clear cause - they are idiopathic . (
  • Damage to the facial nerve can cause a secondary hemifacial spasm. (
  • While most patients recover from the weakness, hemifacial spasm can occur months later - in some cases, even years later. (
  • Some uncommon causes can also lead to a hemifacial spasm. (
  • The most apparent symptom of a hemifacial spasm is uncontrollable and painless twitching on one side of the face, often pulling it to that side. (
  • Some people with hemifacial spasm will have mild symptoms with periods when they are free of symptoms. (
  • Although the mechanism of hemifacial spasm (HFS) is not yet well established, vascular compression of the facial nerve root exit zone and hyperexcitability of the facial nucleus have been suggested. (
  • Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary contractions of the facial muscles. (
  • Hemifacial spasm is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by frequent involuntary contractions (spasms) of the muscles on one side (hemi-) of the face (facial). (
  • Most often hemifacial spasm is caused by a blood vessel pressing on the facial nerve at the place where it exits the brainstem. (
  • Surgical treatment in the form of microvascular decompression, which relieves pressure on the facial nerve, will relieve hemifacial spasm in many cases. (
  • The prognosis for an individual with hemifacial spasm depends on the treatment and their response. (
  • The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) conducts and supports research related to hemifacial spasm through grants to major research institutions across the country. (
  • Much of this research focuses on better ways to prevent, treat, and ultimately cure neurological disorders, such as hemifacial spasm. (
  • Esophageal spasms are abnormal contractions of the muscles in the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach. (
  • Diffuse esophageal spasm is characterized by contractions that are of normal amplitude but are uncoordinated, simultaneous, or rapidly propagated (see image below). (
  • Barium swallow demonstrates diffuse uncoordinated contractions of the esophagus in a patient with diffuse esophageal spasm. (
  • Very hot or cold liquids, loud noises, and stress may exacerbate dysphagia from esophageal spasm by stimulating muscular contractions. (
  • Back pain spasms are sudden, uncontrolled and painful contractions of the back muscles that usually last for a few minutes, and slowly ease as the muscles relax. (
  • Flexor spasms consist of brief contractions of the flexor muscles of the neck, trunks, and limbs, resulting in a brief jerk. (
  • Extensor spasms consist of contractions of the extensor musculature, with sudden extension of the neck and trunk and with extension and abduction of the limbs. (
  • Video EEG polygraphy demonstrated both spasms and hypsarrhythmia, but no other kind of seizures. (
  • Cryptogenic epilepsy consists of seizures that occur without an identifiable cause in a patient with cognitive impairment or with neurologic deficits (eg, Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), infantile spasms [see the first image below], and myoclonic astatic epilepsy of Doose. (
  • The International League Against Epilepsy's (ILAE) revised classification and terminology of seizures and epilepsies, published in 2010, designates West syndrome as an electroclinical syndrome with onset in infancy, and epileptic spasms as a type of seizure. (
  • Infantile spasms are seizures characterized by sudden flexion of the arms, forward flexion of the trunk, extension of the legs, and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography. (
  • Symptoms and signs reference Infantile spasms are seizures characterized by sudden flexion of the arms, forward flexion of the trunk, extension of the legs, and hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalography. (
  • We present a case of chronic, focal, muscle pain, and spasm secondary to intractable focal motor seizures treated with BTX. (
  • On the basis of the case presented, BTX may have a limited role in the treatment of pain from muscle spasm in intractable focal seizures. (
  • Of those patients, some experience frequent seizures that may result in severe pain from mechanical spasm. (
  • Over time, the spasm progresses beyond eye twitching , and the other muscles of facial expression become involved as well. (
  • The spasm may then gradually spread to involve the muscles of the lower face, which may cause the mouth to be pulled to one side. (
  • Eventually the spasms involve all of the muscles on one side of the face almost continuously. (
  • If spasms occur in the muscles surrounding the chest, back, and shoulders, they may cause the joints and other tissues in the area to shift. (
  • When this "off switch" does not work correctly, muscles throughout the body have severe, painful spasms. (
  • Patients are diagnosed with symptomatic infantile spasms if an identifiable factor is responsible for the syndrome. (
  • Researchers assessed the difference in the amount of time to electroencephalogram (EEG), diagnosis and treatment of 80 infants with confirmed infantile epileptic spasms syndrome with or without accompanying video capture of their spasms. (
  • Biochemical mechanisms in pathogenesis of infantile epileptic spasm syndrome. (
  • The molecular mechanisms leading to infantile epileptic spasm syndrome (IESS) remain obscure. (
  • This can occur with a particularly strong spasm or with weakened connective tissue. (
  • This can occur when the facial nerve does not grow back normally, and nerve signals are misdirected, causing spasms on that side of the face. (
  • Usually, infantile spasms occur in infants with serious brain disorders and developmental abnormalities that often have already been recognized. (
  • The spasms usually occur in clusters, often several dozen, in close succession and occur typically after children wake up and occasionally when falling asleep. (
  • If popping and pain occur with a muscle spasm, it is likely that the spasm is causing these symptoms. (
  • Infantile spasms usually occur in clusters, often several dozen, separated by 5-30 seconds. (
  • Spasms frequently occur just before sleep or upon awakening. (
  • Generalized spasms occur, frequently induced by sensory stimuli. (
  • Contact your health care provider if you have symptoms of esophageal spasm that don't go away. (
  • Because of the vague symptoms and difficulty in diagnosis, esophageal spasm is often underdiagnosed and therefore not adequately treated. (
  • Previous history (eg, neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy) and/or symptoms and signs suggest the diagnosis of infantile spasms in some children. (
  • What could be causing a Pekingnese to experience spasms in her front leg? (
  • Sometimes experience spasms when trying to sleep/waking up. (
  • Infantile spasms are a pretty detrimental type of seizure that infants can have around 5 months of age," explained study co-author Douglas R. Nordli III, MD, a pediatric epileptologist at the University of Chicago. (
  • Electroencephalogram demonstrating hypsarrhythmia in infantile spasms. (
  • West syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome composed of the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram ( EEG ) pattern termed hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation. (
  • West syndrome is a severe epilepsy syndrome composed of the triad of infantile spasms, an interictal electroencephalogram ( EEG ) pattern termed hypsarrhythmia, and mental retardation, although the diagnosis can be made even if 1 of the 3 elements is missing (according to the international classification). (
  • Antispasmodic Blepharospasm Cadaveric spasm Convulsion Cramp Cricopharyngeal spasm Ejaculation Epileptic seizure Jactitation (medicine) Myoclonus Neck spasm Orgasm Spasmodic dysphonia Spasticity Dorland's medical reference works. (
  • The term infantile spasm has been used to describe the seizure type, the epilepsy syndrome, or both. (
  • These can include painful spasms in other muscle groups in the neck, trunk, and extremities and generalized, seizure-like activity or convulsions in severe cases. (
  • Infantile spasms can be classified according to their suspected etiology as symptomatic, cryptogenic, or idiopathic. (
  • and is related to the etiology of the infantile spasms. (
  • West syndrome is an age-dependent expression of a damaged brain, and most patients with infantile spasms have some degree of developmental delay. (
  • In this article, the term infantile spasm is synonymous with West syndrome. (
  • Long-term outcome of West syndrome: A study of adults with a history of infantile spasms. (
  • A spasm may be a muscle contraction caused by abnormal nerve stimulation or by abnormal activity of the muscle itself. (
  • This leads to unopposed muscle contraction and spasm. (
  • An esophageal spasm may come and go (intermittent) or last for a long time ( chronic) . (
  • Eight months after proximal ligation of the VA the patient presented with intermittent spasm of the left side of his face. (
  • The facial nerve does not receive pain stimuli, which is why the spasms are not painful. (
  • Nervous system abnormalities, as well as a variety of complications related to severe spasm and prolonged hospitalization, can accompany generalized tetanus. (
  • The frequent onset of infantile spasms in infancy suggests that an immature central nervous system (CNS) may be important in the syndrome's pathogenesis. (
  • may be present before the onset of infantile spasm. (
  • An arrest or regression of psychomotor development accompanies the onset of spasms in 70-95% of patients. (
  • Broadly, esophageal spasm can be divided into two major variants that are distinct entities: (1) diffuse esophageal spasm and (2) hypertensive peristalsis. (
  • Individuals may likewise consider it a cramp or a muscle spasm or jerk. (
  • Fasciculation is a type of painless muscle spasm, marked by rapid, uncoordinated contraction of many small muscle fibers. (
  • Spasms begin with a sudden, rapid, tonic contraction of the trunk and limbs, sometimes for several seconds. (
  • Spasms range from subtle head nodding to contraction of the whole body. (
  • Spasms begin with a sudden, rapid, tonic contraction of trunk and limb musculature that gradually relaxes over 0.5-2 seconds. (
  • The intensity of spasms may vary from a subtle head nodding to a powerful contraction of the body. (
  • A family history of infantile spasms is uncommon, but as many as 17% of patients may have a family history of any epilepsy. (
  • Vigabatrin or steroids controlled the spasms with a follow-up of several years. (
  • A spasm may lead to muscle strains or tears in tendons and ligaments if the force of the spasm exceeds the tensile strength of the underlying connective tissue. (
  • Nitroglycerin given under the tongue (sublingual) may help a sudden episode of esophageal spasm. (
  • Evaluating children with infantile spasms for possible tuberous sclerosis is critical, as this is the single most common disorder, accounting for 10-30% of prenatal cases of infantile spasm. (
  • Facial twitching in hemifacial spasms is caused by abnormal activity of the facial nerve - the seventh cranial nerve. (
  • The neurologic examination in patients with infantile spasms demonstrates abnormalities in mental status function, specifically delays in developmental milestones consistent with developmental delay or regression. (
  • However, no pathognomonic findings are present on neurologic examination in patients with infantile spasms. (
  • An existing animal model of infantile spasm may provide better insight into the pathogenesis of this disorder. (
  • A hypertonic muscle spasm is a condition of chronic, excessive muscle tone (i.e., tension in a resting muscle). (
  • Infantile spasms involve just a slight twitch with the head going down and the arms going up, and an uncomfortable cry afterward. (
  • The use of smartphone video to capture infantile spasms (IS) significantly reduces the time to diagnosis and treatment, according to a new study. (
  • The only common factor seems to be that the spasms are restricted to a limited period of infancy, during a certain maturational state . (
  • The infants whose spasms were captured on smartphone video were seen at a clinic a median of nine days earlier, had their first EEG 16 days earlier, and were diagnosed and started treatment 17 days earlier compared with the group that had no video capture. (
  • The connection between unexplained chest pain and esophageal spasm was first discovered by William Osler in 1892. (
  • what would cause tension in left shoulder blade, muscle spasms in shoulder blade, chest, and in upper outside of arm (not bicep)? (
  • The House with the Gabion / Spasm Design" 12 Dec 2017. (
  • When an irritated facial nerve discharges, it sends signals to different parts of the nerve along its pathway, causing spasms in different parts of the face the nerve controls. (
  • Spasms can be flexor, extensor, or a mixture of flexion and extension. (
  • Mixed spasms are the most common type, consisting of flexion of the neck and arms and extension of the legs or of flexion of the legs and extension of the arms. (
  • Muscle spasm regularly isn't a crisis, however, a genuine ailment might be causing it. (
  • If this occurs regularly, it is important for a doctor to determine what is causing the spasms. (
  • Unlike generalized and localized tetanus, cephalic tetanus results in flaccid cranial nerve palsies rather than spasm. (
  • However, a patient with infantile spasms often has normal findings on general physical examination, and no pathognomonic physical findings are present in patients with infantile spasms. (
  • This infusion has produced clinical spasms in rats with electrographic findings similar to those seen in human infantile spasms. (
  • In different series, the frequency of the 3 spasm types were 42-50% mixed, 34-42% flexor, and 19-23% extensor. (
  • One theory states that the effect of different stressors in the immature brain produces an abnormal, excessive secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), causing spasms. (
  • Virtually any disorder that can produce brain damage can be associated with infantile spasms. (
  • however, infantile spasms may reflect abnormal interactions between the cortex and brain stem. (
  • To report three cases of infantile spasms (IS) with an abnormal magnetic resonance imaging signal in the basal ganglia (Leigh-like syndrome), due to T8993G mt DNA mutation. (
  • Extensor spasms and asymmetrical or unilateral spasms often are associated with symptomatic cases. (
  • This is an episodic pain caused by spasm of smooth muscle in a particular organ (e.g., the bile duct). (
  • Back pain spasms are believed to be caused by overly active motor neurons or overly sensitive muscle fibers that react without the usual stimulation that is necessary for them to contract. (
  • Back pain spasms can be an indication that there is something wrong beneath the surface and we do not recommend you ignore this warning sign. (
  • If you're suffering from back pain spasms, here are some simple things you can do for relief. (
  • In summary, back pain spasms are usually a warning sign that something is wrong. (
  • Botulinum toxin (BTX) has been used to treat muscle overactivity and can reduce pain from muscle spasm. (

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