Warfare involving the use of living organisms or their products as disease etiologic agents against people, animals, or plants.
Weapons that are capable of a high order of destruction and/or of being used to destroy large numbers of people. It includes NUCLEAR WEAPONS, and biological, chemical, and radiation weapons.
An ancient country in western Asia, by the twentieth century divided among the former USSR, Turkey, and Iran. It was attacked at various times from before the 7th century B.C. to 69 B.C. by Assyrians, Medes, Persians, the Greeks under Alexander, and the Romans. It changed hands frequently in wars between Neo-Persian and Roman Empires from the 3d to 7th centuries and later under Arabs, Seljuks, Byzantines, and Mongols. In the 19th century Armenian nationalism arose but suffered during Russo-Turkish hostilities. It became part of the Soviet Republic in 1921, with part remaining under Turkey. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
A weapon that derives its destructive force from nuclear fission and/or fusion.
A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.
Small-arms weapons, including handguns, pistols, revolvers, rifles, shotguns, etc.
Tactical warfare using incendiary mixtures, smokes, or irritant, burning, or asphyxiating gases.
The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)
Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.
The material that descends to the earth or water well beyond the site of a surface or subsurface nuclear explosion. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Disruption of structural continuity of the body as a result of the discharge of firearms.
Hostile conflict between organized groups of people.
The collective name for islands of the Pacific Ocean east of the Philippines, including the Mariana, PALAU, Caroline, Marshall, and Kiribati Islands. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p761 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p350)
Protective places of employment for disabled persons which provide training and employment on a temporary or permanent basis.
The injuries caused by conducted energy weapons such as stun guns, shock batons, and cattle prods.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.
The use or threatened use of force or violence against persons or property in violation of criminal laws for purposes of intimidation, coercion, or ransom, in support of political or social objectives.
The collective name for the republics of ESTONIA; LATVIA; and LITHUANIA on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p111)
Area of Europe that includes ARMENIA,; AZERBAIJAN; and the Republic of GEORGIA.
Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.
Deliberate and planned acts of unlawful behavior engaged in by aggrieved segments of the population in seeking social change.
Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.
Devices or tools used in combat or fighting in order to kill or incapacitate.
Violation of laws, regulations, or professional standards.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Psychiatry in its legal aspects. This includes criminology, penology, commitment of mentally ill, the psychiatrist's role in compensation cases, the problems of releasing information to the court, and of expert testimony.
Travel by a group of physicians for the purpose of making a special study or undertaking a special project of short-term duration.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.
The use of chemical agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of nerve agents, blood agents, blister agents, and choking agents (NOXAE).
The killing of one person by another.
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.
A weapon designed to explode when deployed. It frequently refers to a hollow case filled with EXPLOSIVE AGENTS.
Created as a republic in 1918 by Czechs and Slovaks from territories formerly part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The country split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia 1 January 1993.
Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.
The bestowing of tangible or intangible benefits, voluntarily and usually without expectation of anything in return. However, gift giving may be motivated by feelings of ALTRUISM or gratitude, by a sense of obligation, or by the hope of receiving something in return.
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.
A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
A species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS causing infections in humans. No infections have been reported since 1977 and the virus is now believed to be virtually extinct.
Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
Created as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes in 1918. Yugoslavia became the official name in 1929. BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA; CROATIA; and SLOVENIA formed independent countries 7 April 1992. Macedonia became independent 8 February 1994 as the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (MACEDONIA REPUBLIC).
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
A highly toxic gas that has been used as a chemical warfare agent. It is an insidious poison as it is not irritating immediately, even when fatal concentrations are inhaled. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed, p7304)
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Members of a Semitic people inhabiting the Arabian peninsula or other countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The term may be used with reference to ancient, medieval, or modern ethnic or cultural groups. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
An ethnic group with historical ties to the land of ISRAEL and the religion of JUDAISM.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.
Any behavior associated with conflict between two individuals.
Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Organized efforts to insure obedience to the laws of a community.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.
The direct struggle between individuals for environmental necessities or for a common goal.
Process of cultural change in which one group or members of a group assimilate various cultural patterns from another.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The use of communication systems, such as telecommunication, to transmit emergency information to appropriate providers of health services.
Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.
Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.
Restriction of freedom of movement of individuals who have been exposed to infectious or communicable disease in order to prevent its spread; a period of detention of vessels, vehicles, or travelers coming from infected or suspected places; and detention or isolation on account of suspected contagion. It includes government regulations on the detention of animals at frontiers or ports of entrance for the prevention of infectious disease, through a period of isolation before being allowed to enter a country. (From Dorland, 28th ed & Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.
All deaths reported in a given population.
That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.
Penetrating wounds caused by a pointed object.
Preventive emergency measures and programs designed to protect the individual or community in times of hostile attack.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Individuals subjected to and adversely affected by criminal activity. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
A federal area located between Maryland and Virginia on the Potomac river; it is coextensive with Washington, D.C., which is the capital of the United States.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.
The selection or choice of sexual partner in animals. Often this reproductive preference is based on traits in the potential mate, such as coloration, size, or behavioral boldness. If the chosen ones are genetically different from the rejected ones, then NATURAL SELECTION is occurring.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The antisocial acts of children or persons under age which are illegal or lawfully interpreted as constituting delinquency.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Hearing loss due to exposure to explosive loud noise or chronic exposure to sound level greater than 85 dB. The hearing loss is often in the frequency range 4000-6000 hertz.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Persons fleeing to a place of safety, especially those who flee to a foreign country or power to escape danger or persecution in their own country or habitual residence because of race, religion, or political belief. (Webster, 3d ed)
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
... , renamed from Blue Bunny and originally Brown Bunny, was a British tactical nuclear weapon project in the 1950s. ... Wilson, Jamie (17 July 2003). "Nuclear mines 'to stop Soviets'". The Guardian. Retrieved 29 November 2013. Lardas, Mark N. " ... The Civil Service does not do jokes." Rainbow Codes Tactical nuclear weapon Edwards, Rob (16 July 2003). "British army planned ... in the event of Soviet invasion from the east, detonated by wire or an eight-day timer in order to "... not only destroy ...
"Soviets declare war on Japan; invade Manchuria". History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 6 July 2014. "Did Nuclear ... The staff calculated that superior quality and numbers of weapons gave each US division five or six times the firepower of a ... Maddox, Robert James (2004). Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision. University of Missouri Press. p. xvii. ISBN 978-0-826 ... the Soviet invasion of Manchuria, and Japan's depleted resources.[page needed] In 1995, the Okinawa government erected a ...
Breyer, Siegfried (1992). Soviet Warship Development: Volume 1: 1917-1937. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-604-3. ... ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0- ... ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. Hill, Alexander (2018). Soviet Destroyers of World War II. New Vanguard. 256. Oxford, UK: Osprey ... ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Budzbon, Przemysaw (1980). "Soviet Union". In Chesneau, Roger (ed.). Conway's All the World's Fighting ...
Novík was a destroyer of the Russian Imperial Navy and Soviet Navy, commissioned in 1913 where she served with the Baltic Fleet ... ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0- ... She struck a mine on 28 August 1941 and sank while escorting an evacuation convoy during the Soviet evacuation of Tallinn. The ... Breyer, Siegfried (1992). Soviet Warship Development: Volume 1: 1917-1937. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-604-3. ...
ISBN 0-87021-459-4. Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One: Guns, Torpedoes, Mines and ASW Weapons of All ... ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Hill, Alexander (2018). Soviet Destroyers of World War II. New ... ISBN 0-85177-245-5. Budzbon, Przemysaw (1980). "Soviet Union". In Chesneau, Roger (ed.). Conway's All the World's Fighting ... ISBN 0-85177-146-7. Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ...
One of the key claims for the Excalibur concept was that a small number of weapons would be enough to counter a large Soviet ... Teller said recent advances in Soviet weapons would soon put them in a position to threaten the US and they needed to build ... Given the light weight of the Excalibur-type weapons, the Soviets could rapidly pop-up such a device just prior to launching an ... Broad, William (15 November 1983). "X-ray Laser Weapons Gains Favor". The New York Times. "Soviets Flight Testing Nuclear ...
"W86". Weapon Systems. Gourley, Scott R.; McDermott, David F. (November 1984). "Soviet Mortars" (PDF). Infantry. Vol. 74 no. 6. ... Type 99 - 35mm Type 72 - 85 mm, reported to be the Chinese copy of Soviet M1939 (52-K) Type 59 - 57 mm, copy of the Soviet 57 ... QJC88 Weapon Systems. "QJG-02". Weapon Systems. "Appraisal of PLA Artillery Modernisation". Centre for Land Warfare Study. [1][ ... copy of the Soviet D-20 152 mm howitzer Type 59 and Type 59-1 - copy of the Soviet M46 130 mm towed field gun Type 96 - copy of ...
ISBN 978 1-84603-330-8. Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7 ... McLaughlin, Stephen (2003). Russian & Soviet Battleships. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-481-4. ...
Admirals Stepan Makarov and Vladimir Verkhovsky advised against the use of weapons of two different sizes (as this caused ... ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. McLaughlin, Stephen (2003). Russian & Soviet Battleships. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ... ISBN 0-87021-192-7. Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, UK: Seaforth. ... the freed funds were reallocated to torpedo boats in response to German advances with these weapons. The first ten years of the ...
Soviet Heavy Interceptors. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-191-1 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. ... Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Tupolev SB Wikipedia Tupolev SB. ... Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4 Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland ... Soviet Rocket Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2006. ISBN 1-85780-245-4 / ISBN 978-1-85780-245-0 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Heavy ...
Rachel Bayvel, "Tales of 'Tank City'. Rachel Bayvel Celebrates the Soviet Jews Who Produced Weapons for Allied Victory Archived ... Soviet BM-13s were known to have been imported to China before the Sino-Soviet split and were operational in the People's ... Today, the nickname is also applied to newer truck-mounted post-Soviet - in addition to non-Soviet - multiple rocket launchers ... as well as on naval and riverine vessels as assault support weapons. Soviet engineers also mounted single Katyusha rockets on ...
Jane's Infantry Weapons 2002-2003. pp. 3678-3679. Gourley, Scott R.; McDermott, David F. (November 1984). "Soviet Mortars" (PDF ... The Soviet 160 mm Mortar M-160 is a smoothbore breech loading heavy mortar which fired a 160 mm bomb. It replaced the 160mm ... ISBN 978-981-230-848-1. Gander, Terry J. (22 November 2000). "National inventories, Myanmar (Burma)". Jane's Infantry Weapons ... Mortar M1943 in Soviet service after World War II. It is very similar to the M1943 mortar but has a longer barrel, thus ...
During the Soviet-German War, the Soviet Army adopted Degtyaryov's 14.5 mm anti-tank rifle the PTRD (ПТРД from Противотанковое ... Degtyarev plant (in Kovrov) RPD (weapon) Nagayev, Herman (1973). Russian gunsmith:Tales (rus. Русские оружейники: Повести). ... Vasily Degtyaryov headed the first Soviet firearms design bureau. He created several types of machine guns, submachine guns and ... which entered Soviet service in 1946 as the RPD light machine gun and was exported to numerous countries worldwide. Stalin ...
The Tsar Bomba was the culmination of a series of high-yield thermonuclear weapons designed by the Soviet Union and the United ... "Soviet Nuclear Weapons". nuclearweaponarchive.org. "Tsar Bomba". Atomic Forum. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. ... The use of AN602 clearly demonstrated the Soviet Union's possession of weapons of mass destruction. Tested on 30 October 1961, ... The remaining bomb casings are located at the Russian Atomic Weapon Museum in Sarov and the Museum of Nuclear Weapons, All- ...
Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Hinkley: Midland. ISBN 978-1-85780-188-0. Turner, Brad (2006). "Soviet missile development". ... The programme was assisted by the partial recovery of a V-1 by Soviet forces at the Blizna test range in Poland. The initial V- ... Reports of the German V-1 flying bomb attacks on London prompted Stalin to initiate a programme to develop a Soviet equivalent ... 10Kh was the designation for the initial series of Soviet Union pulse jet engine powered air-launched cruise missiles, reverse ...
Soviet destroyer Frunze. Soviet destroyer Kalinin. Soviet destroyer Stalin. Finnish gunboats Uusimaa or Hameenmaa A 102mm gun ... Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval weapons of World War One : guns, torpedoes, mines and ASW weapons of all nations : an ... After the 1917 October Revolution the successor states of Estonia, Finland and the Soviet Union all used this gun. Pattern 1911 ... Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. ...
The US had a stronger navy and air force, and had nuclear weapons. Neither side wanted a war; the Soviets did not disrupt the ... Despite the intention to signal the threat of the West's ability to retaliate with nuclear weapons if necessary, the Soviets ... The Soviets rejected arguments that the occupation rights in the non-Soviet sectors of Berlin and the use of the supply routes ... Soviet military forces in the Soviet sector that surrounded Berlin totaled 1.5 million. The two United States regiments in ...
Hemming, Henry (1 May 2020). "'Atomic Spy' Review: The Soviets' Secret Weapon". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved ... Fuchs was a German physicist who is best known as an atomic spy, who passed secrets to the Soviet Union while working on the ... Fuchs was a physicist who is best known for passing secrets from the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union during World War II ... Radosh, Ronald (12 May 2020). "The Spy Who Handed America's Nuclear Secrets to the Soviets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 ...
Hemming, Henry (2020-05-01). "'Atomic Spy' Review: The Soviets' Secret Weapon". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved ... Radosh, Ronald (2020-05-12). "The Spy Who Handed America's Nuclear Secrets to the Soviets". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331 ...
84-92 Matthews, Owen (July 11, 1995). "Report: Soviets Used Top-Secret 'Psychotronic' Weapons". The Moscow Times. Retrieved ... embassy in Moscow was bombarded with microwaves by the Soviets beginning in 1953. It was discovered that the Soviets' intent ... Directed-energy weapon Tin foil hat Conspiracy Theory with Jesse Ventura Weinberger, Sharon (January 14, 2007). "Mind Games". ... "Space weapons resolution 'embarrassed' city and negatively impacted mentally ill, vice mayor says". Richmond Standard. Chevron ...
... non-commissioned officers and soldiers who fired their weapons on 9 November. The troops used their weapons within the purview ... They are the lackeys of the Soviets. Let us strike them down! Down with the revolutionary scum!" The next day, the ... No weapon was found on the scene. However, Major Léderrey admitted in his report to the Federal military Department that " ... We will fight them with the weapons that they have chosen themselves." On the same day, and anonymous pamphlet answered: "the ...
Gordon, Yefim (2004). Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Hinkley: Midland. ISBN 978-1-85780-188-0. Gordon, Yefim; Komissarov, ... Soviet Heavy Interceptors. Hinkley: Midland. p. 33-50. ISBN 978-1-85780-191-0. "Russian and Soviet Military Aircraft". web. ... The weapon system was to have consisted of twin TKB-495 or Makarov TKB-539 cannon, with a rate of fire of 2,000 rds/min, ... Armament was to have been two K-9 air-to-air missiles, as part of the Ye-152-9-V weapon system, featuring the TsKB Almaz TsP-1 ...
The Soviet Echo I class (Project 659 class) were completed at Komsomolsk in the Soviet far east in 1960 to 1963. The Echo I ... Friedman, Norman (1997). The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapons systems, 1997-1998. Naval Institute Press. p. 246. " ... The Echo class were nuclear cruise missile submarines of the Soviet Navy built during the 1960s. Their Soviet designation was ... As the Soviet SSBN force built up, the need for these boats diminished so they were converted to the Project 659T SSNs between ...
Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. ... Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Koletnikov, Vladimir. Russian Piston Aero Engines. ... Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4 Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland ... Soviet Rocket Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2006. ISBN 1-85780-245-4 / ISBN 978-1-85780-245-0 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Heavy ...
Bibliography Gordon, Yefim (2004). Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons Since World War Two. Hinckley, England: Midland Publishing. ... In 1968 the Soviets acquired an AIM-7 and a Vympel team started copying it as the K-25. A comparison of the two led to the K-23 ... Soviet and Syrian sources claim that it achieved a few kills while the Israelis deny this. According to Austrian researcher Tom ... The Vympel R-23 (NATO reporting name AA-7 Apex) is a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by Vympel in the Soviet Union ...
Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Gordon, Yefim & Rigmant, Vladimir. Tupolev Tu-104. Midland. ... Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4 Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland ... Soviet Rocket Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2006. ISBN 1-85780-245-4 / ISBN 978-1-85780-245-0 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Heavy ... Soviet Heavy Interceptors. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-191-1 Gordon, Yefim. Myasischev M-4 and 3M. Hinkley. Midland. ...
Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Gordon, Yefim. Sukhoi S-37 and Mikoyan MFI. Midland. Hinkley ... Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4 BM-14 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Rocket Fighters. Hinkley, ... Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4 Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland ... Soviet Rocket Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2006. ISBN 1-85780-245-4 / ISBN 978-1-85780-245-0 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Heavy ...
The Soviets were impressed with the weapon and immediately set about developing an intermediate caliber fully automatic rifle ... In the 1960s, the Soviets introduced the RPK light machine gun, an AK type weapon with a stronger receiver, a longer heavy ... "Soviet Weapon-System Acquisition". Archived from the original on 7 March 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2017. Monetchikov 2005, p ... Shortly after World War II, the Soviets developed the AK-47 rifle, which would quickly replace the SKS in Soviet service. ...
Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Kotelnikov, Vladimir (2005). Russian Piston Aero Engines. ... Early Soviet Jet Bombers. Hinkley, Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-181-4 Gordon, Yefim. Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland ... Soviet Rocket Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2006. ISBN 1-85780-245-4 / ISBN 978-1-85780-245-0 Gordon, Yefim. Soviet Heavy ... Early Soviet Jet Fighters. Hinkley, Midland. 2002. ISBN 1-85780-139-3 Gordon,Yefim & Komissarov, Dmitry. Antonov An-2. Midland ...
Soviet/Russian Aircraft Weapons. Midland. 2004. ISBN 1-85780-188-1 Bibliography Gordon, Yefim (2004). Soviet/Russian Aircraft ... Soviet Union Soviet Air Defence Forces Length: (R-98MT) 4 m (13 ft 1 in); (R-98MR) 4.27 m (14 ft) Wingspan: 1300 mm (4 ft 3 in ... Like most Soviet air-to-air missiles, it was made with a choice of semi-active radar homing or infrared seeker heads. The ... The Kaliningrad K-8 (R-8) (NATO reporting name AA-3 'Anab') was a medium-range air-to-air missile developed by the Soviet Union ...
With the Soviet Union no longer a threat, the U.S. and its allies no longer saw Vietnamese domination of Cambodia as an issue. ... He stressed to Lê Duẩn that while he wanted the Vietnamese to supply the Khmer Rouge with weapons, he did not want troops: the ... On taking power, the Khmer Rouge spurned both the Western states and the Soviet Union as sources of support.[301] Instead, ... Many claimed he deviated from orthodox Marxism-Leninism, but China backed his government as a bulwark against Soviet influence ...
The senior leadership of the Department of the Army consists of two civilians, the Secretary of the Army (Head of the department and subordinate to the Secretary of Defense) and the Under Secretary of the Army, and two military officers, the Chief of Staff of the Army and the Vice Chief of Staff of the Army. The Chief of Staff reports directly to the Secretary of the Army for army matters and assists in the Secretary's external affairs functions, including presenting and enforcing army policies, plans, and projections. The CSA also directs the Inspector General of the Army to perform inspections and investigations as required. In addition, the CSA presides over the Army Staff and represents army capabilities, requirements, policy, plans, and programs in Joint fora.[1] Under delegation of authority made by the Secretary of the Army, the CSA designates army personnel and army resources to the Commanders of the Combatant Commands.[2] The CSA performs all other functions enumerated in 10 U.S.C. § ...
Soviet names[edit]. Shouldn't the article contain Soviet phrases, including names like "criminals", "fascists"? Xx236 07:19, 16 ... As for legality, they fought in uniform carrying their weapons openly, now that makes them combatants. -- (talk) ... Similar anti-Soviet Eastern European resistance groups fought against Soviet and communist rule in Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, ... There is a Soviet book I read a while ago (I read the Polish translation under the title Róże kwitną czerwono but the book is ...
However, resistance man Poul is shot dead by the Germans following a weapons pick up that goes awry, causing Kristen Skjern and ... Later, he is forced to flee to Sweden upon the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941. ... the day Hitler declares war against the Soviet Union. The good natured officer feigns a story that Lauritz has already left the ...
"From a Christian Socialist to a Christian Realist: Reinhold Niebuhr and the Soviet Union, 1930-1945"[permanent dead link]. Ph.D ... and the development of nuclear weapons. However, he opposed the Vietnam War.[47][48] ... Niebuhr's realism deepened after 1945 and led him to support American efforts to confront Soviet communism around the world. A ...
In the late 1960s during the Vietnam War, some United States Marines used dowsing to attempt to locate weapons and tunnels.[23] ... Suppressed research in the Soviet Union. Resources. *Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. *Cults of Unreason ...
From 1956 to 1978, the United States operated a chemical weapons trade in Barbados. ...
Soviet Armenia, Soviet Azerbaijan, and Soviet Georgia (all these states formed part of the Soviet Union after the December 1922 ... and 15,000 refugees with 1,500 able bodied riflemen who were supplied with 300 rifles and 1,000 pistols and antique weapons. ... ADR officially surrendered to the Soviets, but many generals and local Azeri militias kept resisting the advance of the Soviet ... Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Central Powers-Soviet Russia). Treaty of Poti (Germany-Georgia). Treaty of Batum (Ottoman Turkey- ...
The 412th Test Wing plans, conducts, analyzes, and reports on all flight and ground testing of aircraft, weapons systems, ... thus making it more difficult for the Soviet Union to knock out the entire fleet with a surprise first strike.[24] As part of ... While deployed, it performed tests on radar and weapons system accuracy.[6] ... in addition to the 412th's requirement to maintain aircraft on five-minute alert armed with conventional weapons.[21] Alert ...
The machine guns of the lead tank opened up on the Germans, while the men of the 504th fired their weapons from the hip at ... U.S. troops were opposed by forces loyal to Juan Bosch, the Cuban/Soviet puppet president who was committed to spreading the ... Ironically, the German Army's own Panzerfaust (a light anti-tank weapon with which the 504th was well equipped) was the ... Men of the 504th prepare a weapon for stowage aboard a glider in April 1943. ...
It is intended as the future cornerstone of Russia's nuclear triad, and is the most expensive weapons project in the country.[5 ... Both types of testing had been standard procedure during Soviet times. Kovalyov also criticised the poor quality of missile ... Russian and former Soviet military designation sequences for radar, missile and rocket systems ... The weapon takes its name from bulava, a Russian word for mace.[6] Bulava has 25% greater range and a 30 percent lower throw- ...
"From Focke-Wulf to Avrocar." Secret Weapons of World War II: The Techno-Military Breakthroughs That Changed History. New York: ... speculated that current UFO sightings were Soviet-built saucers. The article went on to describe such an aircraft with diagrams ... In March 1957, the Air Force added additional funding, and the aircraft became Weapons System 606A. ...
The remaining weapons and ammunition in the armoury were destroyed by a mine, and the truck then drove off at high speed. Four ... A variety of weapons and two whips were found in the car. Three of the captured Irgun members - Yehiel Dresner, Mordechai ... After the weapons had been loaded, the truck drove off to an orange grove near Ramat Gan.[121] ... Even so, they were still sometimes caught in the crossfire or deliberately attacked for their weapons.[41] There is little ...
The collapse of Soviet-style communism in Eastern Europe and in Russia itself saw the American Legion looking to new venues for ... The term "socialist" has been used as a "rhetorical weapon" against the left by conservatives.[136][137] David Hinshaw writes ... As the Cold War emerged in 1946-1947, the Legion paid increasing attention to an anti-Soviet foreign policy.[83] Its Counter- ... The Legion's policy resolutions endorsed large-scale defense spending and the deployment of powerful new weapon systems from ...
See also: Human rights in the Soviet Union. The Council of Europe, founded in 1949, is the oldest organisation working for ... Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons. *Peacekeeping. *Ralph Bunche Park. *United Nations Postal Administration ... and despite the Soviet bloc and a number of developing countries arguing strongly for the inclusion of all rights in a so- ... Similarly the ex Soviet bloc countries and Asian countries have tended to give priority to economic, social and cultural rights ...
The Japanese conceived of an attack on the United States through the use of biological weapons specifically directed at the ... While there, they received a message that the Soviets were sending an inspection team to examine the submarines. To prevent ... Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{ ... to prevent the technology from being made available to the Soviets who were demanding access to them. Dr. James P. (Jim) ...
As Communist countries such as Romania and the Soviet Union began to liberalize, their official media began representing women ... movies or videos are therefore more dangerous than any secret weapon, because they make one desire that 'otherness' badly ... As perfumes, cosmetics, fashionable clothing, and footwear became available to ordinary women in the Soviet Union, East Germany ...
Even the destruction of entire Soviet armies would still have left the Soviets with more soldiers. ... Weapons had to be maintained and truck engines run every half-hour to prevent their oil from congealing. The offensive went ... caused Churchill to ask Stalin on 6 January 1945 for Soviet help by launching a Soviet attack. [92] On Friday, 12 January, the ... By November, Soviet forces were preparing for a winter attack.[27] Meanwhile, the Allied air attacks of early 1944 had made the ...
Soviet Union. *Soviet Air Force (Voyenno-Vozdushnye Sily or VVS) received a total of 866 B-25s of the C, D, G* & J series.[43] ... The weapon of choice during these missions was usually the five-inch HVAR rocket, eight of which could be carried. Some VMB-612 ... Soviet Air Force[edit]. The U.S. supplied 862 B-25s (B, D, G, and J types) to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease during World ... Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1991, first edition 1982. ISBN ...
Competitions with weapons, such as mounted shooting and tent pegging, test the combat skills of mounted riders.[231] ... The German and the Soviet armies used horses until the end of the war for transportation of troops and supplies. The German ... Briscoe, Charles H.; Kiper, Richard L.; Schroder, James A.; Sepp, Kalev I. (2003). Weapon of Choice: U.S. Army Special ... They also learned to accept any sudden or unusual movements of humans while using a weapon or avoiding one.[44] Horses used in ...
However, the Soviet Air Force used their Lend-Lease P-39s primarily in the air-to-air role, where they found it to excel as a ... Peck, Merton J. & Scherer, Frederic M. The Weapons Acquisition Process: An Economic Analysis (1962) Harvard Business School p. ... Airacobra or Iron Dog? The Obscure Career of Bell's P-39 in the Soviet Union, by Patrick Masell at chuckhawks.com, Accessed 8 ... 2,971 P-63's were built between 1943 and 1945, many delivered to the Soviet Union. Also, by that time, the Army Air Forces ...
He gained renown as the designer of the Soviet Union's Third Idea, a code name for Soviet development of thermonuclear weapons ... He played an important role in the development of Soviet nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, and made important contributions to ... There he played a key role in calculating the critical mass of the weapons, and did theoretical work on the implosion method ... Sakharov was an advocate of civil liberties and civil reforms in the Soviet Union. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1975 ...
Soviet physicist Sergey Vernov was the first to use radiosondes to perform cosmic ray readings with an instrument carried to ... until the beginning of above-ground nuclear weapons testing in the early 1950s. This is an important fact used in radiocarbon ...
The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union, a classic example being the 1975 Tabor ukhodit v Nebo. A more ... and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons [171] ... "For Gypsies, Eugenics is a Modern Problem / Czech Practice Dates to Soviet Era". Newsdesk ...
3. The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition. S.v. "Petrograd Soviet of Workers and Soldiers Deputies." Retrieved April 18, ... There were armament shortages which forced the soldiers to use the weapons of their fallen comrades which had been killed and ... Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies which represented the workers, peasants, and soldiers of Petrograd ... 2015 from http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Petrograd+Soviet+of+Workers+and+Soldiers+Deputies ...
A major downblending undertaking called the Megatons to Megawatts Program converts ex-Soviet weapons-grade HEU to fuel for U.S ... "Israel's Nuclear Weapons Program". Nuclear Weapon Archive. 10 December 1997. Retrieved 7 October 2007.. ... "Nuclear Weapons FAQ. Retrieved 2 October 2010.. *^ Mosteller, R.D. (1994). "Detailed Reanalysis of a Benchmark Critical ... "Nuclear Weapons FAQ". Nuclearweaponarchive.org. Retrieved 26 January 2013.. *^ Frank N. Von Hippel; Laura H. Kahn (December ...
Nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union. *Nuclear weapons tests of the United States ...
... in pushing for a military alliance with Italy and Germany along with the need to combat Soviet communism.[citation needed] ...
Kuhn became a prisoner of war of the Soviets after the 20 July plot. He led the Soviets to the hiding place of the documents in ... He studied modern weapons at the Kriegsakademie in Berlin-Moabit, but remained focused on the use of horses-which continued to ... Operation Barbarossa, the German invasion of the Soviet Union, began on 22 June 1941. Oberkommando des Heeres ("Army High ... In 1989, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev presented these documents to then-German chancellor Dr. Helmut Kohl. The conspirators ...
Use of lasers during peace had been previously mentioned in Article IV of the US-Soviet Union Prevention of Dangerous Military ... The Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons, Protocol IV of the 1980 Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, was issued by the ... "Protocol on Blinding Laser Weapons (Protocol IV to the 1980 Convention), 13 October 1995". International Committee of the Red ... Marshall, John (29 Nov 1997). "Blinding Laser Weapons: Still Available on the Battlefield". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 315 ( ...
In 1946, a biological weapons facility was established in Sverdlovsk. The first smallpox weapons factory in the Soviet Union ... The Soviet Union reportedly had a large biological weapons program enhancing the usefulness of the Marburg virus. The ... The Soviet Union continued the development and mass production of offensive biological weapons, despite having signed the 1972 ... The Soviet Union covertly operated the worlds largest, longest, and most sophisticated biological weapons program, thereby ...
The nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union were performed between 1949 and 1990 as part of the nuclear arms race. The Soviet ... List of nuclear weapons tests Mikhailov, V. N., ed. (1996). "USSR Nuclear Weapons Tests and Peaceful Nuclear Explosions: 1949 ... Other tests took place at various locations within the Soviet Union, including now-independent Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Ukraine ... "Johnston Archive of Nuclear Weapons". Retrieved 2013-12-31. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help)CS1 maint: discouraged ...
IAEAs Soviet Nuclear Scientist Never Worked on Weapons Thursday, November 10, 2011 By Gareth Porter, Inter Press Service , ... IAEAs Soviet Nuclear Scientist Never Worked on Weapons Thursday, November 10, 2011 By Gareth Porter, Inter Press Service , ... The unnamed member state that informed the agency about Danilenkos alleged experience as a Soviet nuclear weapons scientist is ... The unnamed member state that informed the agency about Danilenkos alleged experience as a Soviet nuclear weapons scientist is ...
A Soviet-era treatment could be the new weapon in the war against antibiotic resistance. ... Every year an increasing number of health tourists are traveling to Eastern bloc countries to receive an old Soviet medical ...
Title: Preventing Proliferation of Biological Weapons: U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet States ... CRS: Preventing Proliferation of Biological Weapons: U.S. Assistance to the Former Soviet States, April 10, 2002. From ... and production capabilities in the government-sponsored biological weapons complex in the former Soviet Union. It provides an ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikileaks.org/wiki/CRS:_Preventing_Proliferation_of_Biological_Weapons:_U.S._Assistance_to_the_ ...
The use of weapons such as AK-47s is illegal in the US, but this shooting range is known to be unusually permissive. Ali ... During the Soviet-Afghan War, bin Laden associates had learned from the US and British that, although it is hard to score a ... With the Soviets in the process of withdrawing from Afghanistan, it is proposed to create the new group to keep military jihad ... He says that twice he turned to a Texas acquaintance named Wadih El-Hage to buy weapons for his associates. El-Hage, who turns ...
Dinerstein, Herbert S. 1959 War and the Soviet Union: Nuclear Weapons and the Revolution in Soviet Military and Political ... NUCLEAR WEAPONS.. ORIGINS AND THE MANHATTAN PROJECT. THE SOVIET BOMB. THE HYDROGEN BOMB. BRITISH AND FRENCH NUCLEAR WEAPONS. ... U.S. and Soviet weapons technology advanced rapidly after the first Soviet nuclear detonation, "Joe 1," in 1949. The biggest ... Nuclear weapons. Nuclear weapons are destructive devices that derive their power from nuclear reactions. The term weapon refers ...
1K17 Szhatie- Experimental Soviet self-propelled laser weapon.. *In 1987 a Soviet laser-armed orbital weapon system, the ... Soviet laser pistol was a prototype weapon designed for cosmonauts.. Laser weapon examples[edit]. *Project Excalibur was a ... Plasma weapons[edit]. Main article: Plasma weapon. Plasma weapons fire a beam, bolt, or stream of plasma, which is an excited ... Particle-beam weapons[edit]. Main article: Particle-beam weapon. Particle-beam weapons can use charged or neutral particles, ...
Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing ... Soviets ratify treaty banning nuclear weapons from outer space. One of the first major treaties designed to limit the spread of ... In the years to come, discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union grew to include limits on many nuclear weapons ... Gorbachev calls for nuclear weapons treaty. In a surprising announcement, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev indicates that his ...
... think tank that focuses on the spread of nuclear weapons has released reports showing how Pakistan has been expanding its ... nuclear-weapons-production complex in recent years. The conclusions are based on comparisons of commercial satellite images ... And that allowed it to build certain types of fission weapons. If they go to plutonium as the fuel for nuclear weapons, they ... But Albright and Kile both conclude that the real risk is that components for nuclear weapons, or weapons-grade nuclear ...
Knowing about Soviet weapons acquisition and strategic weapons 1986. * Superfund Remedial Program Improvement Options: ... Design to Price from the Perspective of the United States, France, and the Soviet Union 1973. ... The linkage between technology, doctrine, and weapons innovation: experimentation for use 1981. ...
What is distinctively Soviet in Soviet thought? The usual answer, Marxism-Leninism, creates more awkward problems than it ... Levy Rahmani, whose Soviet Psychology I am quoting (pp. 63-64), believes that there is. But he is such a detailed reporter of ... Soviet Psychology: Philosophical, Theoretical, and Experimental Issues by Levy Rahmani. International Universities Press, 440 ... Surely there must be, beyond devotional quotations from Marx and Lenin, "a sharing of basic ideas which makes Soviet psychology ...
Iraq provided some of those weapons to al-Qaeda, and has focused heavily on researching new and more powerful weapons. Miller ... and store chemical agents in secret mobile and fixed weapons laboratories, many underground, in defiance of UN weapons ... In a briefing to the president and other top officials, Kay says that he has found no evidence of weapons of mass destruction, ... He is disappointed to see that the mobile biological weapons trailer allegation was based on just one source-and an iffy one at ...
United States will not "cringe" before Soviet weapons. In a speech that is by turns confrontational and sarcastic, Secretary of ... in the face of Soviet nuclear weapons. Dulles speech indicated that although the Korean War had finally reached a ...read more ...
Kazakhstan and the Soviet Weapons Program. Kazakhstan was critical to the Soviet weapons program. It supplied material for ... nuclear weapons and nuclear submarines; it hosted strategic nuclear weapons; and it suffered bio-weapons tests on Vozrozhdeniye ... On that day in 1949, the Soviet military began forty years of nuclear tests-456 in all-at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in ... On the twentieth anniversary of the closure of Semipalatinsk, it is important to recognize the role of the former weapons ...
... plans to produce a new type of chemical weapon could torpedo negotiations in Geneva on a chemical arms ban.Col. Gen. Vladimir ... A Soviet official said Monday that U.S. ... Soviets See New U.S. Chemical Arms as Threat. October 06, 1987, ... MOSCOW - A Soviet official said Monday that U.S. plans to produce a new type of chemical weapon could "torpedo" negotiations in ... Pikalov said the display proves that the Soviet Union "has no special types of chemical weapons not held by the West." ...
U.S. Tops Soviets in Key Weapons Technology. By R. JEFFREY SMITH ...
... the Soviet Union put extensive effort in unconventional research seeking to outflank its rival in understanding behavior ... geophysical weapons, wave-energy weapons, genetic weapons, psychotronic weapons, etc., is part of the state arms procurement ... Several authors point to the application of research results in the form of new weapons in the USA and the Soviet Union. ... In the Soviet Union, among the areas of particular interest, were, for instance, "the impact of weak and strong electromagnetic ...
10 Eccentric Soviet Weapon Systems. October 28, 2015. Listverse is a Trademark of Listverse Ltd.. Copyright (c) 2007-2019 ...
Trotsky Is an Icepick to the Heart of Soviet History. February 17, 2019, 8:00 AM. ... The Cable: Secret Syria chemical weapons cable revealed Secret Syria chemical weapons cable revea... ... Secret Syria chemical weapons cable revealed. Last week, The Cable reported on the contents of a secret State Department cable ... A secret State Department cable has concluded that the Syrian military likely used chemical weapons against its own people in a ...
U.S., Soviets Achieve Arms, Trade Accords : Summit: One treaty slashes chemical weapons stockpiles. Others pledge a nuclear ... THE WASHINGTON SUMMIT : Soviets Call Off Golden Gate Gridlock DAN MORAIN and JIM HERRON ZAMORA, TIMES STAFF WRITERS. ... Picture the Summit as a TV Talk Fest : Media: CNN and the networks valuably concentrate on the Soviets. But views vary with the ... UPADATE / SOVIET IMMIGRATION : Newcomers: Israel Elated, Arabs Fearful NICK B. WILLIAMS Jr., TIMES STAFF WRITER. ...
Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari has ruled out the possibility of his countrys nuclear weapons falling into the hands of ... Belly Of The Beast: Illicit Photos From Inside The Soviet Ekranoplan * 2 Fourth Day Of Postelection Protests In Belarus As ... Zardari said Pakistan had a strong command and control system for its nuclear weapons that was fully in place.. U.S. Secretary ... ISLAMABAD (Reuters) -- Pakistani President Asif Ali Zardari has ruled out the possibility of his countrys nuclear weapons ...
Weapons/Gear: Broadhead Climbing Arrows, Heavy Pistol Part (4/4). Relics: none (18) Documents: 2 (26) Murals: 1 (12) Coin ... Area Maps: Copper Mill Bridge Detail , Entire Soviet Installation. NOTE: The Soviet Installation is a HUGE area, so I have ... BRIDGE OVERLOOKING THE SOVIET INSTALLATION: You re-enter this level near a new campsite, the Copper Mill Bridge Base Camp. Lara ... The number in parentheses is for the entire Soviet Installation. Note that a few of the items near the Supply Shack are marked ...
... former Soviet nuclear weapons and missiles for such weapons is being properly and effectively utilized. ... the prevention of diversion of weapons-related scientific expertise of the former Soviet Union to terrorist groups or third ... In the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, in exchange for the non-nuclear-weapon states agreeing not to seek a ... the prevention of proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their components and destabilizing conventional weapons of ...
The Soviet Nuclear Weapons Program: The History and Legacy of the USSRs Efforts to Build the Atomic Bomb examines the Soviets ... the Soviet Union was already thinking further ahead, literally. In one of the worst kept secrets of the Space Race, the Soviet ... In fact, the Soviet Union had spent much of the 1950s leaving the United States in its dust. In 1960, when Eisenhowers ... With the opening of a new decade, the Soviets reinforced their Space Race lead in a big way. On April 12, 1961, the world ...
From AK-47 & Soviet Weapons Magazine October 15, 2013 Century Arms Yugo M70AB2. Century Arms Yugo M70AB2 rifle is a 7.62x39mm ... AK-47 & Soviet Weapons About Sometimes it seems that the AK family of rifles is to American shooters what… ... During the Cold War, the Eastern European nations under Soviet influence were expected to maintain a certain amount of weapons ... The RPK is the designated squad automatic weapon for many nations and is basically a long-barreled AK with a bipod and larger ...
822 - Quantity Versus Quality in the Soviet Market for Weapons. Mark Harrison and Andrei Markevich Military market places ... This provided the setting for quality versus quantity in the delivery of weapons to the government. The paper discusses the ... display obvious inefficiencies under most arrangements, but the Soviet defense market was unusual for its degree of monopoly, ...
Charging the fascinating history of Russian submachine guns since the beginning of the Soviet Union and stretching all the way ... From AK-47 & Soviet Weapons Magazine April 30, 2018 15 Russian Submachine Guns Used From the Soviet Union to Today. Charging ... The new Soviet infantry small-arms concept called for a family of weapons firing intermediate-power ammunition. The new assault ... The new weapon was designated as the PP-19-01 Vityaz. Unlike the Bizon, this weapon is now in full production and is widely ...
The biblical weapon. This one makes a little bit of sense. Since the Soviet Union would most likely go to war with Western ... These are the 11 biological weapons the Soviets wanted to use on the US. Blake Stilwell ... This gave the Soviets the idea to rigorously pursue it as a weapon. ... and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, the Soviets had dozens of sites to develop eleven agents for use on any potential ...
  • More than half of the Soviet Union's 715 tests were carried out at Semipalatinsk. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • Col. Gen. Vladimir K. Pikalov, commander of the Soviet Union's chemical warfare forces, told a Moscow news conference that the United States is "starting a new spiral in the arms race" with plans to produce binary weapons. (latimes.com)
  • Biopreparat was the Soviet Union's biological weapons program. (pbs.org)
  • During the process of production in the Soviet Union's program, how many tons of biological warfare agents were storehoused? (pbs.org)
  • Despite the reduced Soviet military threat, the Soviet Union's strategic intelligence deception organizations will continue to mislead the West. (globalsecurity.org)
  • I. Background A. Soviet Strategic Intelligence Deception Organizations B. Soviet Union's Use of Deception II. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The Fever of '57" tells the gripping story of America's reaction to the Soviet Union's successful launch of Sputnik in October 1957. (collectspace.com)
  • Smith highlights the Cold War incongruities of the crisis, including the Soviet Union's support for democratic India's position during the crisis, while the United States supported the military regime in Pakistan. (ciaonet.org)
  • But the failure to acquire them, the President has said, could ''reduce the Soviet Union's incentive to negotiate seriously. (csmonitor.com)
  • By 1960, numerous BW research facilities existed throughout the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1960, the three sides seemed close to an agreement, but the downing of an American spy plane over the Soviet Union in May of that year brought negotiations to an end. (history.com)
  • In 1960, when Eisenhower's administration began planning and funding for the famous Apollo program that would land the first men on the Moon in 1969, the Soviet Union was already thinking further ahead, literally. (audible.de)
  • In one of the worst kept secrets of the Space Race, the Soviet Union launched two probes, Korabl 4 and Korabl 5, toward Mars in October 1960. (audible.de)
  • Although the USSR also signed the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), the Soviets subsequently augmented their biowarfare programs. (wikipedia.org)
  • This occurred despite the fact that the USSR was a signatory to the 1925 Geneva Convention, which banned the use of both chemical and biological weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • USSR", "CCCP", and "Soviet" redirect here. (wikipedia.org)
  • For other uses, see USSR (disambiguation) , CCCP (disambiguation) , and Soviet (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact , a non-aggression agreement with Nazi Germany , after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939 . (wikipedia.org)
  • The member state obviously learned that Danilenko had worked during the Soviet period at the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Technical Physics in Snezhinsk, Russia, which was well known for its work on development of nuclear warheads and simply assumed that he had been involved in that work. (truth-out.org)
  • But in Russia, with production facilities still existing, would they have to stockpile weapons? (pbs.org)
  • First of all, I don't believe that Russia has biological weapons stockpiled. (pbs.org)
  • But if Russia does have a desire to start manufacturing biological weapons, it would take no more than two to three months to start this activity again. (pbs.org)
  • Russia has at least four military facilities that could be used for manufacturing biological weapons. (pbs.org)
  • And we know that Russia stores all production documentation for manufacturing biological weapons. (pbs.org)
  • Not to be confused with Soviet Russia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout 1958, a hydrogen bomb was exploded every three days in the atmosphere by the United States or Soviet Russia. (collectspace.com)
  • Soviet Russia and the United States were responsible for elevating the status of the conflict into a multi-national war. (answers.com)
  • As a state with one of the largest arsenals of nuclear weapons Russia is a key participant of nuclear non-proliferation regime and defines nuclear arms control as a priority of its foreign policy. (coursera.org)
  • Western allies that need Pakistan's support to defeat Al-Qaeda and succeed in stabilizing Afghanistan dread the idea of any threat to the security of Pakistan's nuclear weapons. (rferl.org)
  • By 1979, despite the Sverdlovsk anthrax release, a senior British government policy official described any biological weapons threat as nebulous. (cdc.gov)
  • But the threat posed by missile-launched weapons of mass destruction - nuclear, chemical and biological weapons - clearly still exists. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Those familiar with the Russian political arena may have already heard the name Zhirinovsky associated with his outbursts, such as his 2008 threat to use nuclear weapons to flood Great Britain over a trade disagreement. (unexplainable.net)
  • Yet when Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger visited Peking at the end of last month to preach Sino-American defense cooperation against the Soviet threat , he found his hosts, military as well as political, unanimous on one point: Modernization of China's defense forces can be achieved only within the framework of overall economic modernization. (csmonitor.com)
  • Again, they could be given away without losing anything - or reducing the threat to the Soviet Union. (csmonitor.com)
  • But, from the Soviet point of view, it would do no more than preserve the symmetry of the mutual threat. (csmonitor.com)
  • The nuclear weapons tests of the Soviet Union were performed between 1949 and 1990 as part of the nuclear arms race. (wikipedia.org)
  • On that day in 1949, the Soviet military began forty years of nuclear tests-456 in all-at Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in the steppes of Kazakhstan. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • On August 5, 1963, representatives of the United States, Soviet Union and Great Britain signed the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater or in the atmosphere. (history.com)
  • The treaty, which President John F. Kennedy signed less than three months before his assassination, was hailed as an important first step toward the control of nuclear weapons. (history.com)
  • On August 5, 1963, the Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in Moscow by U.S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk (1909-94), Soviet Foreign Minister Andrei Gromyko (1909-89) and British Foreign Secretary Alec Douglas-Home (1903-95). (history.com)
  • The treaty was a small but significant step toward the control of nuclear weapons. (history.com)
  • In 1996, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, prohibiting "any nuclear weapon test explosion or any other nuclear explosion. (history.com)
  • Representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater, or in the atmosphere. (history.com)
  • On the twentieth anniversary of the closure of Kazakhstan's nuclear site Semipalatinsk, it is important to recognize the role the former weapons testing facility plays in strengthening the verification regime of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • The Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) Treaty and the agreement by the President of the United States and the President of the Russian Federation on June 17, 1992 , to reduce the strategic nuclear arsenals of each country to a level between 3,000 and 3,500 weapons are commendable intermediate stages in the process of achieving the policy goals described in paragraphs (1) and (2). (cornell.edu)
  • [3] [4] It is one of four nuclear-armed countries not recognized as a Nuclear Weapons State by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the others being India, Pakistan and North Korea . (worldebookfair.com)
  • Even if an amended treaty is ultimately rejected by the Soviets, it would at least demonstrate a degree of continuity on the part of America and a good-faith effort to continue the arms control process. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution , when the Bolsheviks , led by Vladimir Lenin , overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I . In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian , Transcaucasian , Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. (wikipedia.org)
  • The United States has asked the Soviet Union to consider a proposal under which the two sides would make deep cuts in their arsenals of chemical weapons before a global treaty is reached on banning poison gas. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • U.S. sources said they had not determined where the errant missile landed, though they believe it to be near the Amur River, which marks the Sino-Soviet border in the area. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Nowhere is the Sino-Soviet disparity more apparent than in the air, where Chinese versions of the MIG-19 and MIG-21 are perhaps 20 years behind the latest Soviet fighter planes. (csmonitor.com)
  • In 1983, the Soviet Union announced a unilateral moratorium on all anti-satellite tests. (russianforces.org)
  • The Soviets say they haven`t even tested it since 1983, when leader Yuri Andropov imposed a moratorium on ASAT tests as long as the U.S. refrained from ``stationing in space antisatellite weapons of any kind. (chicagotribune.com)
  • On August 29, 1991, following protests by thousands of Soviet citizens united by the Nevada-Semipalatinsk Movement , Kazakhstan shut down the site. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • In a 1991 study, a committee of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that: 'The appropriate new levels of nuclear weapons cannot be specified at this time, but it seems reasonable to the committee that U.S. strategic forces could in time be reduced to 1,000-2,000 nuclear warheads, provided that such a multilateral agreement included appropriate levels and verification measures for the other nations that possess nuclear weapons. (cornell.edu)
  • Soviet Strategic Intelligence Deception Organizations AUTHOR Major Edward J. Campbell, DIA CSC 1991 SUBJECT AREA - General SOVIET STRATEGIC INTELLIGENCE DECEPTION ORGANIZATIONS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The KGB's First Chief Directorate uses active measures such as agents of influence, propaganda, and disinformation to promote Soviet goals. (globalsecurity.org)
  • The Reagan Administration won congressional approval to begin on Dec. 1 to manufacture a limited number of binary munitions in the first resumption of U.S. chemical weapons production since 1969. (latimes.com)
  • The demise of the biological weapons capability of the United States in 1969 and the advent of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention in 1972 caused governments in the West to go to sleep to the possibility of biological weapons development throughout the rest of the world, as technically knowledgeable workers were transferred and retired, intelligence desks were closed down, and budgets were cut. (cdc.gov)
  • President Nixon's biological weapons disarmament declaration in 1969 had conveyed the impression that biological weapons were uncontrollable and that the U.S. program had not been successful in producing usable weapons (when in fact the opposite was true). (cdc.gov)
  • By 1969, the U.S. military had accepted seven type-classified agents, and, at plants such as the one at Pine Bluff in Arkansas, they could produce 650 tons of agent per month for filling into weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • The United States' biological weapons program was eliminated in a decree by President Richard Nixon in 1969, but the Soviet program was maintained and expanded in a covert fashion for decades. (tgen.org)
  • Potential applications of this technology include anti-personnel weapon systems, missile defense system, and the disabling of lightly armored vehicles or mounted optical devices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Military market places display obvious inefficiencies under most arrangements, but the Soviet defense market was unusual for its degree of monopoly, exclusive relationships, intensely scrutinized (in its formative years) by a harsh dictator. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Background: In an attempt to counter the Soviet doctrinal use of chemical and nuclear weapons, the Department of Defense adopted chemical agent resistant coating as the material for painting military equipment. (globalsecurity.org)
  • On Jan. 2, 1985, a Soviet cruise missile misfired and created an international dispute when the Norwegian Defense Ministry said a low-flying cruise missile had crashed in Finland. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Our defense establishment has demonstrated that it can produce the most sophisticated weapons systems known to man. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Biological weapons were stored at the Minister of Defense facilities. (pbs.org)
  • Robert Gates, who will become CIA Director in the early 1990s, will later recall that in a meeting on March 30, 1979, Under Secretary of Defense Walter Slocumbe wonders aloud whether there is "value in keeping the Afghan insurgency going, 'sucking the Soviets into a Vietnamese quagmire. (historycommons.org)
  • The national security adviser, Brent Scowcroft, and Defense Secretary Dick Cheney said in television interviews on Sunday that Bush planned a major initiative on chemical weapons. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Congressman Hunter, Congressman Weldon, and members of the Subcommittees, thank you for the opportunity to discuss the issues of biological weapons and biological defense preparedness with you. (fas.org)
  • who played a key role in U.S. defense and energy policies for more than half a century and was dubbed the ``father of the H-bomb'' for his enthusiastic pursuit of the powerful weapon, died Tuesday, Sept. 9, 2003 a spokesman for Lawrence Livermore Laboratory said. (sfgate.com)
  • In the United States, the Pentagon , DARPA , the Air Force Research Laboratory , United States Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center and the Naval Research Laboratory are researching technologies like directed-energy weapons and railguns to counter maturing threats posed by fast missiles such as ballistic missiles , hypersonic cruise missiles , and hypersonic glide vehicles . (wikipedia.org)
  • The effective radiated power (ERP) of the EL/M-2080 Green Pine radar makes it a possible candidate for conversion into a directed-energy weapon, by focusing pulses of radar energy on target missiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 1962, leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in a tense political and military standoff over the installation of nuclear-armed Soviet missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from U.S. shores. (history.com)
  • However, disaster was avoided when the United States agreed to Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's (1894-1971) offer to remove the Cuban missiles in exchange for America promising not to invade Cuba. (history.com)
  • [20] The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimates that Israel has approximately 80 intact nuclear weapons, of which 50 are for delivery by Jericho II medium-range ballistic missiles and 30 are gravity bombs for delivery by aircraft. (worldebookfair.com)
  • The misfiring happened during a period of extensive Soviet testing of intercontinental ballistic missiles launched from submarines. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Off-course Soviet missiles usually are destroyed in flight, said the officials, who could not explain why that did not happen in this case. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The United States routinely monitors the launching of Soviet missiles in northeast Siberia through electronic and aerial surveillance. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Silo Work Indicates 2 New Soviet Missiles Nearing Test. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The Soviet ASAT project that the reported Chinese system resembles most closely is "Naryad-V". This project, developed in the Salyut Design Bureau, involved development of an interceptor that was to be deployed on existing silo-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (both R-36M/SS-18 and UR-100NUTTH/SS-19 were discussed, but the UR-10NUTTH was the primary candidate). (russianforces.org)
  • Iran has long-range missiles and the United Nations argues over how far Iran has advanced its nuclear weapon efforts. (washingtontimes.com)
  • It was a principal reason for the development in the mid-1970s of air-launched cruise missiles which Henry Kissinger wanted more as a bargaining chip than the Air Force wanted as a weapon. (csmonitor.com)
  • Although the Nicaraguan government is on a slippery slope downward, it is probably not as far gone as the Reagan administration believes and in any event is probably not ready to add to its troubles by acquiescing in the introduction of Soviet missiles. (csmonitor.com)
  • And the Soviets are probably not ready to add to their troubles by tearing up the Kennedy-Khrushchev agreement and precipitating the most serious world crisis since the last time they put missiles in Cuba. (csmonitor.com)
  • By the early 1950s both the United States and the Soviet Union had developed nuclear warheads that were small and light enough for missile deployment, and by the late 1950s both countries had developed intercontinental ballistic missiles ( ICBMs ) capable of delivering thermonuclear warheads around the world. (britannica.com)
  • Soviets Urge New Round of Arms Talks : Nuclear arsenals: Bessmertnykh calls for further reductions in strategic weapons. (latimes.com)
  • Bush administration officials portrayed the proposal to slash the U.S. and Soviet chemical arsenals as a means of lending momentum to the 40-nation negotiations in Geneva on a global ban on poison gas and not as a substitute for those negotiations. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • While the proposal for reductions in the American U.S. and Soviet chemical arsenals has not been made public, the Bush administration has mounted a public relations campaign to draw attention to its chemical weapons efforts. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Under the new initiative, the United States and the Soviet Union would agree to cut their arsenals of poison gas to a level that is far below the stocks on hand in the United States, officials said. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Meanwhile, Reagan expressed some impatience with all the buildup to his Nov. 19-20 summit with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and told news agency reporters, ''It's time we stopped futzing around'' and got to the negotiating table. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Thus, the stage is set for a fresh confrontation with the Kremlin only 10 weeks before President Reagan`s scheduled Geneva meeting with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev. (chicagotribune.com)
  • MOSCOW - A Soviet official said Monday that U.S. plans to produce a new type of chemical weapon could "torpedo" negotiations in Geneva on a chemical arms ban. (latimes.com)
  • good faith`` negotiations with the Soviets on ASAT limits. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Quite a different matter is the process of acquiring an expensive and dangerous weapon for the purpose of being able to give it away in arms control negotiations later on. (csmonitor.com)
  • The Soviet Union was one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction . (wikipedia.org)
  • This agreement is important because it may help resolve the dispute between Moscow and the West over the size of the Soviet stockpile. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In 1973 and 1974, the Soviet Politburo formed and funded the organization known most recently as Biopreparat (Chief Directorate for Biological Preparations), designed to carry out offensive biological weapons R&D and production concealed behind legal and civil biotechnology research. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1973 Afghan Prince Muhammad Daoud ousts the Afghan king with help from the Soviet Union, and establishes an Afghan republic. (historycommons.org)
  • A yellowing copy of a January 1989 issue of Sovietskaya Rossiya includes the headline ''The Soviet People Are With the Party. (nytimes.com)
  • In 1989, the Soviets left. (yesmagazine.org)
  • I had the privilege of meeting two Soviet veterans in the fall of 1989 who were coming to the United States. (yesmagazine.org)
  • Despite a promise in 2003 to give up weapons of mass destruction, Gaddafi is thought to have retained as much as 14 tons of the chemicals required to create mustard gas. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Terrorists have boasted they will have nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction that can soon wipe out Israel and threaten Europe and the U.S. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Biological weapons are weapons of mass destruction (or mass casualty weapons, to be precise, since they do not damage nonliving entities) that are based on bacteria, viruses, rickettsia, fungi, or toxins produced by these organisms. (fas.org)
  • The House Speaker Zhirinovsky has also claimed that Russian scientists have uncovered other weapons of mass destruction now in space, including a weapon that kills with sound sending it down and killing entire armies. (unexplainable.net)
  • today it is al-Qaeda and Saddam Hussein s weapons of mass destruction. (christusrex.org)
  • In 1941, Soviet bioweapons facilities are transferred to the city of Kirov. (wikipedia.org)
  • During World War II, Stalin was forced to move his BW operations out of the path of advancing German forces 1941: Soviet bioweapons facilities are transferred to the city of Kirov. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two leading Russian biological weapons scientists presented their inside view of the Soviet bioweapons program at a March 29th panel sponsored by the George Mason University Biodefense Program. (fas.org)
  • Dr. Popov echoed this account, describing the three "legends" of the illicit Biopreparat, which continued bioweapons work after the ratification of the Biological Weapons Convention. (fas.org)
  • The truth was that the Soviet program was actively enhancing pathogens' virulence and manufacturing them in large quantities for potential use as offensive bioweapons. (fas.org)
  • Despite these challenges, some researchers worked hard in pursuit of a cause they believed to be just, only to face even greater personal challenges when the collapse of the Soviet Union abruptly discontinued their bioweapons research. (fas.org)
  • Lepyoshkin, 55, a heavyset physician, microbiologist and retired colonel in the Soviet Army, once ran a huge bioweapons production plant in Stepnogorsk. (nytimes.com)
  • Add to this the rise of truly intercontinental ballistic missile delivery of nuclear weapons, and the stage was set for what I have termed "nuclear blindness" and defined as "the tunnel vision suffered by successive governments, brought on by the mistaken belief that it is only the size of the bang that matters. (cdc.gov)
  • According to Hoffman, America's initial reaction of wonder and awe quickly turned to fear and widespread panic as the people were told by political and military leaders that the same rocket that carried Sputnik to space could also be used as an Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) capable of delivering nuclear weapons to American soil. (collectspace.com)
  • Mutually Assured Destruction meant just one American or Soviet nuclear weapon-armed intercontinental ballistic missile headed toward the adversary would result in a violent and unstoppable response of hundreds and perhaps thousands of nuclear warheads. (washingtontimes.com)
  • The Soviet Union covertly operated the world's largest, longest, and most sophisticated biological weapons program, thereby violating its obligations as a party to the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite being a signatory to the Geneva Convention of 1925 - which outlawed chemical and biological weapons - and the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention, the Soviets had dozens of sites to develop eleven agents for use on any potential enemy. (wearethemighty.com)
  • Although the Soviet Union signed the Convention at its inception in 1972, it did not believe that the United States would be so foolish as to abandon its biological weapons capability, regarding the disarmament agreement as a `worthless piece of paper. (cdc.gov)
  • The anti-satellite test apparently conducted by China on January 12, 2007 immediately reminded everyone of the U.S. and Soviet cold-war ASAT programs. (russianforces.org)
  • In response to the U.S. program to develop an aircraft-based ASAT, the Soviet Union launched a similar effort. (russianforces.org)
  • But last week, DSP and several satellites like it were at the heart of another conflict, involving the Reagan administration`s efforts to test its antisatellite weapon, ASAT. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Moreover, the Soviet Union had warned earlier that it would end its two-year moratorium on ASAT testing if the U.S. went ahead with the test shot. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The administration made its certification to Congress last month and said the first test was needed for ``technical and developmental`` reasons so the U.S. could maintain a balance with the Soviet Union, which has a working ASAT system. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Among other things, they argued that the Soviet ASAT system doesn`t threaten U.S. security. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Those U.S. satellites are not threatened by the Soviet ASAT system, which Gayler described as a ``dog. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have already seen that the unit known as a `motor-rifle regiment' in the Soviet Army is in fact an all-arms unit with half the numerical strength of brigades in Western armies, which is nevertheless equal or even superior to the latter in fire-power and striking-power. (lib.ru)
  • The third regiment, equipped with infantry combat vehicles and with heavy weapons, is used with the tank regiment to attack the enemy at his weakest point-`in the liver' as the Soviet Army says. (lib.ru)
  • The Soviet Union was also basically a land army, confined to the geographic regions which it had occupied during the war. (lewrockwell.com)
  • The Soviet BW program began in the 1920s at the Leningrad Military Academy under the control of the state security apparatus, known as the GPU. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to Kenneth Alibek, the used tularemia weapon had been developed in the Kirov military facility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Testing was the most critical element of the nuclear activities the Soviet military carried out in Kazakhstan. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • A secret State Department cable has concluded that the Syrian military likely used chemical weapons against its own people in a deadly attack last month,' The Cable wrote. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • In fact, it encompassed a much broader range of competition between the Soviet Union and the United States that affected everything from military technology to successfully launching satellites that could land on Mars or orbit other planets in the Solar System. (audible.de)
  • The U.S. military adopted CARC paint to counter the expected Soviet use of chemical weapons. (globalsecurity.org)
  • In the military field, the United States no longer possesses nuclear superiority and, therefore, can no longer rely on nuclear weapons alone to deter conventional military actions by the Russians directly or through their proxies. (washingtonpost.com)
  • If a given country wants to use biological weapons immediately in any war or military conflict, it would store biological weapons. (pbs.org)
  • The modern era was ushered in, however, only with the postwar military building program, which established infrastructure for research, development, testing, production, and delivery of a variety of agents and weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • David Cameron and other Western leaders are on the brink of ordering military action against Col Muammar Gaddafi amid fears that the Libyan dictator could use chemical weapons against his own people. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Sir John Major backed the stance and made clear that he believes the option of military force should not be removed from the table, if Gaddafi uses chemical weapons, such as mustard gas, on his own people. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • George Koval , an American born to Russian immigrants, was eventually recruited by the GRU-the Soviet military intelligence agency-and joined the U.S. military with the intent of gaining access to information about chemical weapons. (bigthink.com)
  • In mid-1958, the Soviet military was placed on Full Alert status (its highest level of military readiness) for a 10-month period. (collectspace.com)
  • Before President Reagan's "new hope" the national military strategy of the United States and the Soviet Union contained an unwavering commitment to "Mutually Assured Destruction. (washingtontimes.com)
  • Release of infected vectors is not particularly efficient for either military or terrorist purposes and entails a high probability of affecting those producing the weapons or living nearby. (fas.org)
  • The specter of the nuclear and thermonuclear weapon provided such a tool of utter, wanton devastation, that both sides pursued peaceful dealings with one another, despite the military-industrial complexes of both the Soviet Union and the United States revving up, quite openly to obliterate one another. (answers.com)
  • In an article in the Washington Post, Gayler warned that the U.S. military depends on using space far more than the Soviets. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The crux of the issue for us is that we Americans are far more dependent on the use of space, at least for military purposes, than the Soviets are. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Later, he acknowledged that the hope was that this might draw the Soviet Union in, and if the Soviets were to move troops into Afghanistan, it would demoralize their military, bankrupt their economy, and splinter their society. (yesmagazine.org)
  • Peking - China is serene in face of its glaring military inferiority to the Soviet Union. (csmonitor.com)
  • As a history freak who enjoys getting an inside view on how the military developed its CB weapons capability, I'm loving it. (wired.com)
  • Declaration № 142-Н of the Soviet of the Republics of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union , formally establishing the dissolution of the Soviet Union as a state and subject of international law. (wikipedia.org)
  • First an expanded edition of Nikita Khrushchev's memoirs was published in which the former Soviet premier claimed he'd heard a high official tell Stalin that the Rosenbergs had greatly aided Russia's A-bomb push. (straightdope.com)
  • In 1977 Zbigniew Brzezinski, as President Carter's National Security Adviser, forms the Nationalities Working Group (NWG) dedicated to the idea of weakening the Soviet Union by inflaming its ethnic tensions. (historycommons.org)
  • Biological weapons were considered strategic weapons. (pbs.org)
  • One type of nuclear weapon, the fission bomb, uses the energy released when nuclei of heavy elements such as plutonium fission or split apart. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One pound of explosive material in a fission weapon is approximately 100,000 times as powerful as one pound of TNT. (encyclopedia.com)
  • And that allowed it to build certain types of fission weapons. (rferl.org)
  • Washington - The report of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) published by a Washington think tank Tuesday repeated the sensational claim previously reported by news media all over the world that a former Soviet nuclear weapons scientist had helped Iran construct a detonation system that could be used for a nuclear weapon. (truth-out.org)
  • Also during 2006, the United States and European Union jointly asserted that Iran was seeking to develop nuclear technologies that could used in weapons production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Saudi officials have long told their American allies that they planned to obtain atomic weapons if Iran went nuclear. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • US allies Iran, with its intelligence agency SAVAK, and Pakistan, with its intelligence agency the ISI, play an important role in funneling weapons and other forms of assistance to the Afghan Islamist militants. (historycommons.org)
  • The first smallpox weapons factory in the Soviet Union was established in 1947 in the city of Zagorsk, close to Moscow. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pikalov's comments followed a weekend tour by diplomats from 45 countries to view a display of Soviet chemical weapons at the previously secret Shikhany munitions complex, about 400 southeast of Moscow. (latimes.com)
  • He shied away from reacting to the negative reports coming from Moscow about lack of progress made in the meetings before the summit between Secretary of State Shultz and Soviet leaders. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The country was a one-party state , governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pipes predicts that with the right encouragement Soviet Muslims will "explode into genocidal fury" against Moscow. (historycommons.org)
  • REGIONAL ISSUES: Secretary of State James A. Baker III said in his news conference on Saturday that Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard Shevardnadze had told him that Moscow supports free elections in Nicaragua. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Over the course of its history, the Soviet program is known to have weaponized and stockpiled the following eleven bio-agents (and to have pursued basic research on many more): Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) Yersinia pestis (plague) Francisella tularensis (tularemia) Burkholderia mallei (glanders) Brucella sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1990s, Boris Yeltsin admitted to an offensive biological weapons program as well as to the true nature of the Sverdlovsk biological weapons accident of 1979, which had resulted in the deaths of at least 64 people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defecting Soviet bioweaponeers such as Vladimir Pasechnik and Colonel Kanatjan Alibekov confirmed that the program had been massive and still existed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Soviet Union began a biological weapons program in the 1920s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The meeting is to discuss the Soviet-Afghan War, but Pakistan's nuclear program also comes up. (historycommons.org)
  • Nixon does not say that he is acting for Republican presidential candidate Ronald Reagan, but, according to authors Adrian Levy and Catherine Scott-Clarke, "his comments signal […] the way ahead," as the future Reagan administration will enable Pakistan to continue work on its nuclear weapons program without being sanctioned. (historycommons.org)
  • U.S. officials have said recently that Pakistan has the fastest-growing nuclear weapons program in the world -- at least in terms of installing additional capacity to produce nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. (rferl.org)
  • Kazakhstan was critical to the Soviet weapons program. (carnegieendowment.org)
  • Dr. Popov admitted that his program took advantage of published research on pathogens to help advance their weapons development. (fas.org)
  • This could be especially beneficial to China, which is trying to develop a modern missile program but lags far behind the Soviets and the United States. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The Soviet press has give prominent attention to accidents in the U.S. space program. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The origins of the biological weapons program of the former Soviet Union stretch back to statements by Lenin, and experimental work was under way by the late 1920s. (cdc.gov)
  • On the other side of the globe, the allied biological weapons program had grown from the fledgling efforts of British research into anthrax and the development of the World War II-anthrax cattlecake retaliation weapon into a large U.S.-based research and development (R&D) and production capability. (cdc.gov)
  • The "IS" program was not the only Soviet anti-satellite project. (russianforces.org)
  • Biopreparat, the civilian arm of the biological weapons program, comprised over half of the entire program s personnel and facilities. (fas.org)
  • In response to Japan's full-scale germ warfare program, the U.S. begins research on biological weapons at Fort Detrick, MD. (freerepublic.com)
  • The Soviet Union produced anthrax spores on an industrial scale but repeatedly denied the existence of their biological weapons program. (tgen.org)
  • This is the signature agent of the world's largest biological weapons program and now we have it in our genetic databases. (tgen.org)
  • For just that reason the UK was obliged to spare the life of physicist Klaus Fuchs, a naturalized British citizen, who confessed to giving information from the Manhattan Project and the British nuclear program to the Soviets and was sentenced to 14 years. (straightdope.com)
  • For example, a modified surrogate for the Smallpox virus created by the Soviet Union was able to infect previously immunized animals and transformed the normally minor infection into a highly lethal autoimmune disease. (fas.org)
  • The Zagorsk facility (now it's Sergiev Posad) was responsible for storing smallpox biological weapons, about 20 tons as well. (pbs.org)
  • smallpox, plague and anthrax were considered strategic operational biological weapons. (pbs.org)
  • But what was complete and ready for application were the smallpox biological weapons, plague biological weapons and anthrax biological weapons. (pbs.org)
  • Microbe: Are We air testing of a smallpox weapon by reports and alarms. (cdc.gov)
  • At the conclusion of the war, Soviet troops invading Manchuria captured many Unit 731 Japanese scientists and learned of their extensive human experimentation through captured documents and prisoner interrogations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The report by Serge Kernbach showed that unconventional weapons took the scientists in both countries to areas bordering sci-fi which nowadays would be seen in TV programs featuring UFOs, the supernatural and superpowers. (rt.com)
  • Due the Iron Curtain, Soviet and American scientists knew little about each other's secret work - still, they focused on same themes. (rt.com)
  • When the Soviet Union fell, the scientists at these facilities lost their jobs and their work became vulnerable to theft, sale, and misuse. (wearethemighty.com)
  • Both the U.S. and the Soviet Union created secret cities to house the scientists working in their nuclear weapons programs. (bigthink.com)
  • In the 1950s, the U.S. government briefly considered using nuclear weapons to blast artificial harbors in the Alaskan coastline but eventually discarded the idea. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Nuclear fusion weapons, developed in the 1950s, are far more powerful even than this. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning a ban on nuclear testing began in the mid-1950s. (history.com)
  • In fact, the Soviet Union had spent much of the 1950s leaving the United States in its dust. (audible.de)
  • China started making these planes in the late 1950s under Soviet guidance. (csmonitor.com)
  • In the late 1950s, as described in Dan O'Neill's book "The Firecracker Boys, " Teller advocated testing nuclear weapons on the moon. (sfgate.com)
  • It contains events related to the event November-December 1982: Rep. Charlie Wilson Pushes for Expansion of US Support for Anti-Soviet Forces in Afghanistan . (historycommons.org)
  • From Israel he travels to Egypt and then Pakistan, where he secretly negotiates a major weapons deal with Pakistan (see November-December 1982 ) on behalf of the Israelis in support of the mujaheddin fighting Soviets in Afghanistan. (historycommons.org)
  • The CIA begins covert action against the Communist government in Afghanistan, which is closely tied to the Soviet Union. (historycommons.org)
  • They said that Soviet involvement in Afghanistan had produced exactly the result that Brzezinski had predicted. (yesmagazine.org)
  • Afghanistan is far smaller and less well-armed than China, yet look how the Soviets are stuck there. (csmonitor.com)
  • The administration has accused the Soviets of using chemical weapons - and biological weapons as well - in Afghanistan and Southeast Asia. (csmonitor.com)
  • After the pro-Soviet coup in April 1978, the Islamic militants with the support of the ISI carry out a massive campaign of terrorism, assassinating hundreds of teachers and civil servants. (historycommons.org)
  • The last test of the "IS-M" system took place on 18 June 1982, during a large-scale exercise of the Soviet strategic forces. (russianforces.org)
  • And the Ekaterinburg facility (at that time Sverdlovsk) was responsible for continuous manufacturing [of] anthrax biological weapons. (pbs.org)
  • According to this calculation, about 50 kilos of anthrax biological weapon that covers a territory with the population of about 500,000 people, would cause 100,000 deaths. (pbs.org)
  • About one-third of our work was on weapons, like anthrax, plague and other bacteria,'' he recalls, ''and two-thirds on matters like testing vaccines or clothing or how long micro-organisms would survive in the soil. (nytimes.com)
  • This study, to be published in the September issue of the journal mBio, represents a precise and detailed examination of the anthrax strain used in their weapons development, and includes an anthrax genetic database that puts the weapons strain into a global context. (tgen.org)
  • The Soviet Union had signed the Biological Weapons convention that prohibited the use of biological agents, including anthrax, as weapons. (tgen.org)
  • A faulty filter at a Soviet spore production facility allowed anthrax spores, in a silent plume, to drift with the wind over the city and into the nearby countryside. (tgen.org)
  • City 40 contained 100,000 Soviet citizens, but the city itself did not appear on any maps, and the names of the citizens living and working there were erased from the Soviet census. (bigthink.com)
  • a uranium-conversion facility at Dera Ghazi Khan in southern Punjab, and Pakistan's main nuclear-weapons laboratory at Kahuta near Islamabad. (rferl.org)
  • Although U.S. officials at the time asserted that the use of nuclear weapons shortened the war and ultimately saved lives and substantial economic cost for both sides, the decision to use the atomic bomb has long been intensely and emotionally debated. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By co-inventing the hydrogen bomb -- history's most fearsome weapon, compared to which the atomic bomb is a firecracker -- Edward Teller made apocalypse technically feasible. (sfgate.com)
  • The JBS, a staunchly anti-Communist organization, accuses the federal government of imposing "creeping socialism" and "Soviet Communism" on the nation by making fluoridated water mandatory, and warns Americans against the government "polluting our precious bodily fluids. (historycommons.org)
  • Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk . (wikipedia.org)
  • When Soviet & US/Allied forces drove their invasions toward the enemies positions, such as the center of Berlin or near the 38th parallel in Korea or the 17th parallel in Vietnam, that's where the leadership of those particular combatants would draw the line. (answers.com)
  • It has never signed up non-proliferation agreements and has an expanding arsenal, with some estimates saying it has as many as 110 nuclear weapons with enough fissile material for more than 200. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Gary Samore, who served as President Barack Obama's counter-proliferation adviser until earlier this year, also told Newsnight: "I do think that the Saudis believe they have some understanding with Pakistan, that in extremis they would have claim to acquire nuclear weapons from Pakistan. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • In the Soviet Union, western antibiotics couldn't make it past the Iron Curtain. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • In order to maintain this illusion, the armies of all the Soviet allies actually do have only 20 launchers in each regiment. (lib.ru)
  • 1946: A biological weapons facility was established in Sverdlovsk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all of the powers in the war, the world had reason to hope due to the fact that it was America in this position - far better than the Soviets, Nazis, or Japanese. (lewrockwell.com)
  • WASHINGTON - A missile launched from a Soviet submarine toward a testing range in Siberia misfired and landed 1,500 miles off course near the Chinese border, U.S. officials said Monday. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The unarmed missile, launched Thursday toward the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeast Siberia, might have landed in Chinese territory near the Manchurian border 180 miles west of the Soviet city of Khabarovsk, said the officials. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Ambassador Max A. Friedersdorf, the chief U.S. negotiator at the Geneva chemical weapons talks, disagreed with Pikalov. (latimes.com)
  • The unexpected U.S. proposal, which is to be announced by President Bush in his United Nations address today, was conveyed to the Soviet side during the weekend talks in Wyoming, diplomats said. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Others speculated that the test was an ill-conceived bargaining ploy for the Geneva weapons talks. (chicagotribune.com)
  • But after the Soviet reactor disaster at Chernobyl in 1986, the Energy Department commissioned a series of unprecedentedly thorough and public assessments of its facilities. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The United States is thought to have about 30,000 tons of chemical weapons, and one U.S. official said such reductions would require cuts in its arsenal of more than 75 percent. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The Soviet Union has a greater arsenal of chemical weapons and would have to make greater reductions under the proposal. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Some Pentagon officials say a chemical weapons ban cannot be effectively verified and favor an agreement on reductions because it would allow the United States to keep a small supply of poison gas. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Around 10,000 cases of tularemia had been reported in the Soviet Union between 1941 and 1943. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union , opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 1941, the pact collapsed as Germany turned to attack the Soviet Union , opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. (wikipedia.org)
  • in 1952, when the hydrogen bomb ("the genocidal weapon'' as opposed physicists referred to it) was born. (commondreams.org)
  • They could also be able to build, or try to build, thermonuclear weapons,' Albright says. (rferl.org)
  • Boosted primaries in modern thermonuclear weapons contain about 3 to 4 kg (6.6 to 8.8 pounds) of plutonium , while less-sophisticated designs may use double that amount or more. (britannica.com)
  • The Americans and British wanted on-site inspections, something the Soviets vehemently opposed. (history.com)
  • The administration`s new chemical initiative comes after the signing on Saturday of a U.S.-Soviet understanding that provides for early inspections of chemical weapons stockpiles. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • It was a story in which I was intimately involved: I was, from 1998 to 2002, the British expert on Iraq for the UK delegation to the UN Security Council, responsible for policy on both weapons inspections and sanctions against Iraq. (christusrex.org)
  • Until April of this year, the Soviets said they did not possess or produce chemical weapons. (latimes.com)
  • Israel is widely believed to possess nuclear weapons [1] [2] and to be the sixth country in the world to have developed them, allegedly having built its first nuclear weapon in December 1966. (worldebookfair.com)
  • So it should be a surprise to no one to find out the Soviet Union developed biological warfare agents almost as soon as the dust from the October Revolution settled. (wearethemighty.com)
  • The State Department and the White House disputed that contention, and the cable itself, signed by the U.S. consul general in Istanbul , Scott Frederic Kilner , notes that the consulate staff could not say definitively if chemical weapons were used in Homs last month. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • On December 23, [Bureau of Conflict and Stabilization Operations (CSO)] implementing partner ARK reported through their media project BASMA on a possible chemical weapons attack in Homs, Syria,' the secret cable stated. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • CSO is not able to definitely say whether chemical weapons were in fact used in the December 23 attack. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • One contact interviewed by the consulate staff reported that the agent used was suspected to be Agent 15, a chemical thought to be related to BZ, an incapacitating agent controlled under schedule 2 of the Chemical Weapons Convention , to which Syria is not a party. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Pikalov said the display proves that the Soviet Union "has no special types of chemical weapons not held by the West. (latimes.com)
  • To say that the U.S. plans are the impediment to an international convention to ban chemical weapons is the height of hypocrisy," he told reporters after the news conference, adding that he viewed the display at Shikhany but that the weapons appeared to be outmoded. (latimes.com)
  • How does it differ from nuclear or chemical weapons? (pbs.org)
  • Asked if the international community should toughen its stance towards Libya if Gaddafi unleashes chemical weapons against his people, Sir John said: "I think it would and I think it should. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The proposal was put to the Soviets during a weekend in which the two sides reached agreements or made progress on an array of arms issues, including nuclear testing and strategic arms as well as chemical weapons. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Secretary of State James A. Baker III said on Saturday that Bush planned to offer ``a new initiative at the United Nations (today) that will move the world closer to a ban on chemical weapons. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The Soviet Union says it has 50,000 tons of chemical weapons. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Congress has passed legislation requiring the administration to destroy old chemical weapons by 1997 as more advanced chemical weapons are fielded. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In recent months, there have been disagreements within the Bush administration about what approach to take on chemical weapons. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The Joint Chiefs of Staff have reportedly argued that the United States should pursue an agreement with the Soviets on reducing chemical weapons stocks as an alternative to completing a global ban. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • But State Department officials argued that the United States could not effectively dissuade Third World nations from acquiring chemical weapons unless Washington demonstrated that the United States was willing to give up its chemical arsenal. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • The Reagan administration has revived proposals to develop chemical weapons which were renounced by the Nixon administration. (csmonitor.com)