South AmericaNorth AmericaCentral AmericaSouth Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.ArgentinaIndians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Guyana: A republic in the north of South America, east of VENEZUELA and west of SURINAME. Its capital is Georgetown.ColombiaGeography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)ChilePhylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)ParaguayIndians, Central American: Individual members of Central American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia. Mexican Indians are not included.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.PeruAfricaAsia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)BrazilGenetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.VenezuelaCaribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.UruguayEcuadorSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.South CarolinaBoliviaFrench Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)Oceania: The islands of the central and South Pacific, including Micronesia, Melanesia, Polynesia, and traditionally Australasia. (Random House Dictionary, 2d ed)Radiometric Dating: Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.Tropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sloths: Slow-moving exclusively arboreal mammals that inhabit the tropical forests of South and Central America.PanamaEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Siberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.BelizeYellow Fever: An acute infectious disease primarily of the tropics, caused by a virus and transmitted to man by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Haemagogus. The severe form is characterized by fever, HEMOLYTIC JAUNDICE, and renal damage.Triatoma: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Several species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.South Australia: A state in south central Australia. Its capital is Adelaide. It was probably first visited by F. Thyssen in 1627. Later discoveries in 1802 and 1830 opened up the southern part. It became a British province in 1836 with this self-descriptive name and became a state in 1901. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1135)Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Chagas Disease: Infection with the protozoan parasite TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, a form of TRYPANOSOMIASIS endemic in Central and South America. It is named after the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas, who discovered the parasite. Infection by the parasite (positive serologic result only) is distinguished from the clinical manifestations that develop years later, such as destruction of PARASYMPATHETIC GANGLIA; CHAGAS CARDIOMYOPATHY; and dysfunction of the ESOPHAGUS or COLON.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Drosera: A plant genus of the family Droseraceae, order Nepenthales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida, that contains naphthoquinone glucosides. The name sundew is rarely used for PYROLA.EuropeNew South Wales: A state in southeastern Australia. Its capital is Sydney. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1770 and first settled at Botany Bay by marines and convicts in 1788. It was named by Captain Cook who thought its coastline resembled that of South Wales. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p840 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p377)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Dinosaurs: General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Asia, Southeastern: The geographical area of Asia comprising BORNEO; BRUNEI; CAMBODIA; INDONESIA; LAOS; MALAYSIA; the MEKONG VALLEY; MYANMAR (formerly Burma), the PHILIPPINES; SINGAPORE; THAILAND; and VIETNAM.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Geological Processes: Events and activities of the Earth and its structures.MexicoXenarthra: An order of New World mammals characterized by the absence of incisors and canines from among their teeth, and comprising the ARMADILLOS, the SLOTHS, and the anteaters. The order is distinguished from all others by what are known as xenarthrous vertebrae (xenos, strange; arthron, joint): there are secondary, and sometimes even more, articulations between the vertebrae of the lumbar series. The order was formerly called Edentata. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, vol. I, p515)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Tracheobionta: A subset of various vascular plants (also known as the Tracheophyta) which include seed-bearing and non seed-bearing species.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Myiasis: The invasion of living tissues of man and other mammals by dipterous larvae.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.South DakotaGene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sigmodontinae: A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Introduced Species: Non-native organisms brought into a region, habitat, or ECOSYSTEM by human activity.Falkland Islands: A British colony in the Atlantic Islands, comprising two principal islands, East Falkland and West Falkland. Its capital is Stanley. Discovered in 1592, it was not occupied until the French settled there briefly in 1764. Later the English settled there but were expelled by the Spanish in 1770. The Falklands were claimed by Argentina but were occupied in 1833 by the British who, after an April 1982 invasion by Argentina, regained them in June. The islands were named by British Captain John Strong in 1690 for the fifth Viscount Falkland who financed Strong's expedition. The Spanish name for the islands, Malvinas, is from the French Malouins, inhabitants of St. Malo who attempted to colonize the islands in 1764. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p389 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p182)Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Mimosa: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains kukulkanin, a CHALCONE.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Suriname: A republic in the north of South America, bordered on the west by GUYANA (British Guiana) and on the east by FRENCH GUIANA. Its capital is Paramaribo. It was formerly called Netherlands Guiana or Dutch Guiana or Surinam. Suriname was first settled by the English in 1651 but was ceded to the Dutch by treaty in 1667. It became an autonomous territory under the Dutch crown in 1954 and gained independence in 1975. The country was named for the Surinam River but the meaning of that name is uncertain. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1167 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p526)Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome: Acute respiratory illness in humans caused by the Muerto Canyon virus whose primary rodent reservoir is the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. First identified in the southwestern United States, this syndrome is characterized most commonly by fever, myalgias, headache, cough, and rapid respiratory failure.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GuatemalaWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.Encephalitis Virus, Eastern Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis in Equidae and humans. The virus ranges along the Atlantic seaboard of the United States and Canada and as far south as the Caribbean, Mexico, and parts of Central and South America. Infections in horses show a mortality of up to 90 percent and in humans as high as 80 percent in epidemics.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Herpesvirus 5, Bovine: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Pacific Islands: The islands of the Pacific Ocean divided into MICRONESIA; MELANESIA; and POLYNESIA (including NEW ZEALAND). The collective name Oceania includes the aforenamed islands, adding AUSTRALIA; NEW ZEALAND; and the Malay Archipelago (INDONESIA). (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p910, 880)Europe, EasternHantavirus: A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Communicable Diseases, Emerging: Infectious diseases that are novel in their outbreak ranges (geographic and host) or transmission mode.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Trichechus inunguis: Member of the genus Trichechus found in the Amazon and Orinoco drainages of northeastern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Simuliidae: Several species of the genus Simulium (family Simuliidae) that act as intermediate hosts (vectors) for the parasitic disease ONCHOCERCIASIS.Ilex paraguariensis: A plant species of the family AQUIFOLIACEAE. An infusion of the leaves is commonly drunk in South America for stimulating effect in much the same manner as coffee is in other cultures.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Linguistics: The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Encephalitis Virus, Venezuelan Equine: A species of ALPHAVIRUS that is the etiologic agent of encephalomyelitis in humans and equines. It is seen most commonly in parts of Central and South America.Trichechus manatus: Member of the genus Trichechus inhabiting the coast and coastal rivers of the southeastern United States as well as the West Indies and the adjacent mainland from Vera Cruz, Mexico to northern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Alphavirus: A genus of TOGAVIRIDAE, also known as Group A arboviruses, serologically related to each other but not to other Togaviridae. The viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes. The type species is the SINDBIS VIRUS.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.United StatesCatfishes: Common name of the order Siluriformes. This order contains many families and over 2,000 species, including venomous species. Heteropneustes and Plotosus genera have dangerous stings and are aggressive. Most species are passive stingers.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)

Distribution of keratins, vimentin, and actin in the testis of two South American camelids: vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and llama (Lama glama). An immunohistochemical study. (1/892)

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pattern of distribution of cytokeratins, vimentin and muscular actin in the testis of vicuna (Vicugna vicugna) and llama (Lama glama) two species of camelids native of the Andean high plateau of South America. Testicular biopsies of four vicunas and five llamas were used. Animals were healthy breeders. The tissues were processed by standard immunohistochemistry with antipancytokeratinAE1/AE3, antikeratin 18 (K 18), CAM 5.2 (antikeratin 5, 18, and 19), antivimentin, and smooth-muscle-specific antiactin antibodies to track the cytoskeletal pattern of testicular cells. Using AE1/AE3 antibody the immunostaining was found in the epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis. The reaction was relatively stronger in the apical cytoplasm of epithelial cells. The testicular cells of the two species showed no reaction to K 18 and CAM 5.2 antibodies. Antivimentin antibody stained the basal cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells, the Leydig cells, and the epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis. In the last two structures the immunostain was relatively more intense in the basal cytoplasm of epithelial cells. Antiactin antibody stained the peritubular cells and the muscle cells of the lamina propria oftubuli recti and rete testis. The presence in these species of only some keratins found in man, its coexpression with vimentin in epithelial lining of tubuli recti and rete testis and the peritubule organization, so different from other ungulates may reflect a differential adaptation of the cytoskeleton to particular reproductive strategies.  (+info)

Health maintenance organizations in developing countries: what can we expect? (2/892)

Health maintenance organizations (HMOs) are a relatively new and alternative means of providing health care, combining a risk-sharing (insurance) function with health service provision. Their potential for lowering costs has attracted great interest in the USA and elsewhere, and has raised questions regarding their applicability to other settings. Little attention, however, has been given to critically reviewing the experience with HMOs in other countries, particularly concerning their introduction to settings other than the USA. This paper first reviews the current experience of HMOs in low- and middle-income countries, including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Uruguay, Chile and Indonesia. Secondly, the paper reviews the USA experience with HMOs: prerequisites for the establishment of HMOs in the USA are identified and discussed, followed by a review of the performance of HMOs in terms of cost containment, integration of care and quality of care for the elderly and poor. The analysis concludes that difficulties may arise when implementing HMOs in developing countries, and that potential adverse effects on the overall health care delivery system may occur. These should be avoided by careful analyses of a nation's health care system.  (+info)

Containing health costs in the Americas. (3/892)

In recent years, a series of policy measures affecting both demand and supply components of health care have been adopted in different Latin American and Caribbean countries, as well as in Canada and the United States. In applying these measures various objectives have been pursued, among them: to mobilize additional resources to increase operating budgets; to reduce unnecessary utilization of health services and consumption of pharmaceuticals; to control increasing production costs; and to contain the escalation of health care expenditures. In terms of demand management, some countries have established cost-recovery programmes in an attempt to offset declining revenues. These measures have the potential to generate additional operating income in public facilities, particularly if charges are levied on hospital care. However, only scant information is available on the effects of user charges on demand, utilization, or unit costs. In terms of supply management, corrective measures have concentrated on limiting the quantity and the relative prices of different inputs and outputs. Hiring freezes, salary caps, limitations on new construction and equipment, use of drug lists, bulk procurement of medicines and vaccines, and budget ceilings are among the measures utilized to control production costs in the health sector. To moderate health care expenditures, various approaches have been followed to subject providers to 'financial discipline'. Among them, new reimbursement modalities such as prospective payment systems offer an array of incentives to modify medical practice. Cost-containment efforts have also spawned innovations in the organization and delivery of health services. Group plans have been established on the basis of prepaid premiums to provide directly much or all health care needs of affiliates and their families. The issue of intrasectorial co-ordination, particularly between ministries of health and social security institutions, has much relevance for cost containment. In various countries, large-scale reorganization processes have been undertaken to eliminate costly duplications of resources, personnel, and services that resulted from the multiplicity of providers in the public subsector. Given the pluralistic character of the region's health systems, an important challenge for policy-makers is to find ways to redefine the role of state intervention in health from the simple provision of services to one that involves the 'management' of health care in the entire sector.  (+info)

Evidence on the origin of cassava: phylogeography of Manihot esculenta. (4/892)

Cassava (Manihot esculenta subsp. esculenta) is a staple crop with great economic importance worldwide, yet its evolutionary and geographical origins have remained unresolved and controversial. We have investigated this crop's domestication in a phylogeographic study based on the single-copy nuclear gene glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3pdh). The G3pdh locus provides high levels of noncoding sequence variation in cassava and its wild relatives, with 28 haplotypes identified among 212 individuals (424 alleles) examined. These data represent one of the first uses of a single-copy nuclear gene in a plant phylogeographic study and yield several important insights into cassava's evolutionary origin: (i) cassava was likely domesticated from wild M. esculenta populations along the southern border of the Amazon basin; (ii) the crop does not seem to be derived from several progenitor species, as previously proposed; and (iii) cassava does not share haplotypes with Manihot pruinosa, a closely related, potentially hybridizing species. These findings provide the clearest picture to date on cassava's origin. When considered in a genealogical context, relationships among the G3pdh haplotypes are incongruent with taxonomic boundaries, both within M. esculenta and at the interspecific level; this incongruence is probably a result of lineage sorting among these recently diverged taxa. Although phylogeographic studies in animals have provided many new evolutionary insights, application of phylogeography in plants has been hampered by difficulty in obtaining phylogenetically informative intraspecific variation. This study demonstrates that single-copy nuclear genes can provide a useful source of informative variation in plants.  (+info)

Detection of an archaic clone of Staphylococcus aureus with low-level resistance to methicillin in a pediatric hospital in Portugal and in international samples: relics of a formerly widely disseminated strain? (5/892)

Close to half of the 878 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains recovered between 1992 and 1997 from the pediatric hospital in Lisbon were bacteria in which antibiotic resistance was limited to beta-lactam antibiotics. The other half were multidrug resistant. The coexistence of MRSA with such unequal antibiotic resistance profiles prompted us to use molecular typing techniques for the characterization of the MRSA strains. Fifty-three strains chosen randomly were typed by a combination of genotypic methods. Over 90% of the MRSA strains belonged to two clones: the most frequent one, designated the "pediatric clone," was reminiscent of historically "early" MRSA: most isolates of this clone were only resistant to beta-lactam antimicrobials and remained susceptible to macrolides, quinolones, clindamycin, spectinomycin, and tetracycline. They showed heterogeneous and low-level resistance to methicillin (MIC, 1.5 to 6 microg/ml), carried the ClaI-mecA polymorph II, were free of the transposon Tn554, and showed macrorestriction pattern D (clonal type II::NH::D). The second major clone was the internationally spread and multiresistant "Iberian" MRSA with homogeneous and high-level resistance to methicillin (MIC, >200 microg/ml) and clonal type I::E::A. Surprisingly, the multidrug-resistant and highly epidemic Iberian MRSA did not replace the much less resistant pediatric clone during the 6 years of surveillance. The pediatric clone was also identified among contemporary MRSA isolates from Poland, Argentina, The United States, and Colombia, and the overwhelming majority of these were also associated with pediatric settings. We propose that the pediatric MRSA strain represents a formerly widely spread archaic clone which survived in some epidemiological settings with relatively limited antimicrobial pressure.  (+info)

New World hantaviruses. (6/892)

Since the initial description in 1993 of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and its novel aetiological agent, Sin Nombre virus, our knowledge of the epidemiology of New World hantaviruses has continued to evolve. After the identifying outbreak in the southwestern US, four hantaviruses have been identified in North America with specific rodent hosts and associated with a number of sporadic cases. This stability of case recognition in North America is in contrast to the multiple outbreaks and endemic cases in South America. Despite a plethora of New World hantaviruses and new evidence of person-to-person transmission, the ecological and personal determinants of this human infection remain a mystery.  (+info)

Impact of maternal nativity on the prevalence of diabetes during pregnancy among U.S. ethnic groups. (7/892)

OBJECTIVE: This study examines the impact of maternal nativity (birthplace) on the overall prevalence of diabetes during pregnancy and among 15 racial and ethnic groups in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Birth certificate data for all resident single live births in the U.S. from 1994 to 1996 were used to calculate reported diabetes prevalence during pregnancy and to assess the impact of maternal birthplace outside of the 50 states and Washington, DC, on the risk of diabetes before and after adjustment for differences in maternal age, other sociodemographic characteristics, and late or no initiation of prenatal care overall and for each racial and ethnic group. RESULTS: Mothers born outside of the U.S. are significantly more likely to have diabetes during pregnancy. The impact of maternal nativity on diabetes prevalence is largely explained by the older childbearing age of immigrant mothers. However, adjusted diabetes risk remains elevated for Asian-Indian, non-Hispanic black, Filipino, Puerto Rican, and Central and South American mothers who were born outside the U.S. Conversely, birthplace outside the U.S. significantly reduces diabetes risk for Japanese, Mexican, and Native American women. CONCLUSIONS: Identification, treatment, and follow-up of immigrant mothers with diabetes during pregnancy may require special attention to language and sociocultural barriers to effective care. Systematic surveillance of the prevalence and impact of diabetes during pregnancy for immigrant and nonimmigrant women, particularly in racial and ethnic minority groups, and more detailed studies on the impact of acculturation on diabetes may increase understanding of the epidemiology of diabetes during pregnancy in our increasingly diverse society.  (+info)

Population structure of the primary malaria vector in South America, Anopheles darlingi, using isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA, internal transcribed spacer 2, and morphologic markers. (8/892)

A genetic and morphologic survey of Anopheles darlingi populations collected from seven countries in Central and South America was performed to clarify the taxonomic status of this major malaria vector species in the Americas. Population genetics was based on three techniques including isozyme, random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR), and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) markers. The results of the isozyme analysis indicated moderate differences in the allele frequencies of three putative loci (glutamate oxalaoacetate transaminase-1, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1, and phosphoglucomutase) of the 31 analyzed. No fixed electromorphic differences separated the populations of An. darlingi, which showed little genetic divergence (Nei distances = 0.976-0.995). Fragments produced by RAPD-PCR demonstrated evidence of geographic partitioning and showed that all populations were separated by small genetic distances as measured with the 1 - S distance matrix. The ITS2 sequences for all samples were identical except for four individuals from Belize that differed by a three-base deletion (CCC). The morphologic study demonstrated that the Euclidean distances ranged from 0.02 to 0.14, with the highest value observed between populations from Belize and Bolivia. Based on these analyses, all the An. darlingi populations examined demonstrated a genetic similarity that is consistent with the existence of a single species and suggest that gene flow is occurring throughout the species' geographic range.  (+info)

The IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group / Canid Species Accounts. The fauna and flora of South America are remarkable for their endemism. The canids of South America are no exception. There are 10 canid species found here, of which 9 are endemic. The 10th species, the gray fox, occurs mainly in North and Central America, extending its range only into northern South America.. The majority of canids found in South America are commonly referred to as "foxes". However, to distinguish the endemic South American Pseudalopex spp. (formerly Dusicyon) and Cerdocyon thous, we refer to these by their Spanish name "zorro". The zorros are found in every habitat on the continent, from the coastal deserts (Sechuran zorro), to the open savanna (grey zorro, culpeo, Azaras zorros). While elsewhere (Asia, Africa) canids invariably shun the rain forest, one species of South American zorro is found in the rain forests (small-eared zorro) and another (the crab-eating zorro) inhabits coastal and lowland forests. In ...
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This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated ...
This study examines a genome-wide dataset of 678 Short Tandem Repeat loci characterized in 444 individuals representing 29 Native American populations as well as the Tundra Netsi and Yakut populations from Siberia. Using these data, the study tests four current hypotheses regarding the hierarchical distribution of neutral genetic variation in native South American populations: (1) the western region of South America harbors more variation than the eastern region of South America, (2) Central American and western South American populations cluster exclusively, (3) populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan and Equatorial-Tucanoan language stock emerge as a group within an otherwise South American clade, (4) Chibchan-Paezan populations in Central America emerge together at the tips of the Chibchan-Paezan cluster. This study finds that hierarchical models with the best fit place Central American populations, and populations speaking the Chibchan-Paezan language stock, at a basal position or separated ...
This selective review of the Quaternary paleoclimate of the South American summer monsoon (SASM) domain presents viewpoints regarding a range of key issues in the field, many of which are unresolved and some of which are controversial. (1) El Niño-Southern Oscillation variability, while the most important global-scale mode of interannual climate variation, is insufficient to explain most of the variation of tropical South American climate observed in both the instrumental and the paleoclimate records. (2) Significant climate variation in tropical South America occurs on seasonal to orbital (i.e. multi-millennial) time scales as a result of sea-surface temperature (SST) variation and ocean-atmosphere interactions of the tropical Atlantic. (3) Decadal-scale climate variability, linked with this tropical Atlantic variability, has been a persistent characteristic of climate in tropical South America for at least the past half millennium, and likely, far beyond. (4) Centennial-to-millennial climate ...
Historically, most T. cruzi DTUs have had broadly distinct, but often overlapping, geographic and ecologic distributions (2). TcV and TcVI are largely confined to domestic transmission cycles and are sympatric with severe chronic and congenital human disease in southern South America (2). Increased sampling indicates that the geographic ranges of TcV and TcVI are more extensive than previously suggested. Putative domestic hybrid strains were identified recently as far north as Colombia (5); it is unclear whether these are bona fide TcV and TcVI isolates (suggesting long-range introduction) or progeny of a novel, independent, and local recombination event(s). Elucidation of the molecular epidemiology of TcV and TcVI has been complicated by limited sample collections and difficulties distinguishing these genotypes from their parental DTUs (6) and each other (7). We undertook high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping of hybrid clones from Colombia to resolve their putative status as ...
In biogeography, the Neotropic or Neotropical realm is one of the eight terrestrial realms. This realm includes South America, Central America, the Caribbean islands, and southern North America. In Mexico, the Yucatán Peninsula and southern lowlands, and most of the east and west coastlines, including the southern tip of the Baja California Peninsula are Neotropical. In the United States southern Florida and the coastal portion of the Rio Grande Valley in South Texas may be considered Neotropical. The realm also includes temperate southern South America. In contrast, the Neotropical Floristic Kingdom excludes southernmost South America, which instead is placed in the Antarctic kingdom. The Neotropic is delimited by similarities in fauna or flora. Its fauna and flora are distinct from the Nearctic realm (which includes most of North America) because of the long separation of the two continents. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama joined the two continents two to three million years ago, ...
Origins of agriculture - The Americas: Indigenous peoples in the Americas created a variety of agricultural systems that were suited to a wide range of environments, from southern Canada to southern South America and from high elevations in the Andes to the lowlands of the Amazon River. Agriculture arose independently in at least three regions: South America, Mesoamerica, and eastern North America. Although the Americas had several indigenous animal species that were domesticated, none were of an appropriate size or temperament for use as draft animals; as a result, the plow and other technology reliant on heavy traction were unknown. Swidden production, also known as slash-and-burn
Abstract:. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) plays a key role in several biological functions, including human health. Skin exposure to UVR is the main factor in vitamin D photoconversion. There is also evidence relating low levels of vitamin D with certain internal cancers, mainly colon, breast and prostate, as well as other diseases. Several epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between the above-mentioned diseases and latitude, in accordance with the ultraviolet radiation latitudinal gradient. The aim of this study is to determine whether UV irradiance levels in the southern South America are sufficient to produce suitable levels of vitamin D year around. For this purpose, vitamin D photoconversion weighted-irradiance was analyzed between S.S. de Jujuy (24.17°S, 65.02°W) and Ushuaia (54° 50′S, 68° 18′W). In addition to irradiance, skin type and area of body exposed to sunlight are critical factors in vitamin D epidemiology. Due to a broad ethnic variability, it was ...
Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Southern South American Migratory Grassland Bird Species and Their Habitats. ...
Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation of Southern South American Migratory Grassland Bird Species and Their Habitats. ...
In biogeography, the Neotropic or Neotropical realm is one of the eight terrestrial realms. This realm includes South and Central America, and in North America the southern Mexican lowlands, the Caribbean islands, southern Florida, and the coastal portion of the Río Grande Valley in South Texas because these regions share a large number of plant and animal groups.. The realm also includes temperate southern South America. In contrast, the Neotropical Floristic Kingdom excludes southernmost South America, which instead is placed in the Antarctic kingdom.. The Neotropic is delimited by similarities in fauna or flora. Its fauna and flora are distinct from the Nearctic (which includes most of North America) because of the long separation of the two continents. The formation of the Isthmus of Panama joined the two continents two to three million years ago, precipitating the Great American Interchange, an important biogeographical event.. The Neotropic includes more tropical rainforest (tropical and ...
Indias tropical south is a land full of fertile forests, sweeping grasslands and tea plantations. We visit the two southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, both with distinctive cultures and contrasting scenery. Kerala is a true tropical paradise with an idyllic coastline and lush tropical mountains, which is evident as we travel between the old spice town of Cochin and the beautiful hill station of Munnar.
Indias tropical south is a land full of fertile forests, sweeping grasslands and tea plantations. We visit the two southern states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala, both with distinctive cultures and contrasting scenery. Kerala is a true tropical paradise with an idyllic coastline and lush tropical mountains, which is evident as we travel between the old spice town of Cochin and the beautiful hill station of Munnar.
We assessed the influence of the marine diazotrophic cyanobacterium Trichodesmium on the bio-optical properties of western tropical South Pacific (WTSP) waters (18-22 degrees S, 160 degrees E-160 degrees W) during the February-March 2015 OUTPACE cruise. We performed measurements of backscattering and absorption coefficients, irradiance, and radiance in the euphotic zone with a Satlantic MicroPro free-fall profiler and took Underwater Vision Profiler 5 (UPV5) pictures for counting the largest Trichodesmium spp. colonies. Pigment concentrations were determined by fluorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography and picoplankton abundance by flow cytometry. Trichome concentration was estimated from pigment algorithms and validated by surface visual counts. The abundance of large colonies counted by the UVP5 (maximum 7093 colonies m(-3)) was well correlated to the trichome concentrations (maximum 2093 trichomes L-1) with an aggregation factor of 600. In the Melanesian archipelago, a maximum of ...
Rifts World Book 6: South America is the first of two books covering the continent of South America for Palladiums popular role playing game system for 12 year old boys. As with most World Books for Rifts, the South America outing does its best to distill the rich heritage and culture of a region into a series of types of power armor and breeds of mutants, to which it then adds a whole lot of nonsense about bug monsters and dinosaurs. It doesnt quite count as cultural appropriation when there is a vampire gaucho fighting a mechanical t-rex ...
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Facts about South America - South America Facts to Known geographical, historical, cultural and other amazing South Americam facts.
List of upcoming South America (South America) official public holidays, bank holidays, government holidays and non-national holidays from August 2020 to July 2021. Updated nightly and also available in our Android and iPhone/iPad apps.
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Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro said on Wednesday he would meet with other South American countries to set common policy for defending the Amazon rain forest, while his foreign minister told Reuters the nation should be seen as an environmental hero.
Brazil, the worlds fifth-largest country with an impressive textile industry, is an important market for Rieter on the South American continent. In order to offer its South American customers an excellent support, Rieter has its own subsidiary in Brazil. Rieter South America Ltd., located in Barueri/Brazil, was founded on August 1st, 1997. As local partner for its customers in Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay. Beside sales, spare parts and after sales service, Rieter South America Ltd. also runs a fully equipped electronics service center. ...
Hi! As the licensing rights for Come from Away are still unavailable, how come there is a production in Argentina? Is there a way for other South American producers, for example from Brazil, to acquire the licensing rights for the show? Best Regards, Gabriel
During the last 7 Ma, South Americas terrestrial predator guild has changed from one composed almost entirely of nonplacental mammals (metatherians), birds, and reptiles to one dominated by immigrant placental carnivorans (with a few small marsupial and avian predators like didelphine opossums and seriemas). It was originally thought that the native South American predator guild, including sparassodonts, carnivorous opossums like Thylophorops and Hyperdidelphys, armadillos such as Macroeuphractus, terror birds, and teratorns, as well as early-arriving immigrant Cyonasua-group procyonids, were driven to extinction during the GABI by competitive exclusion from immigrating placental carnivorans, and that this turnover was abrupt.[94][95] However, the turnover of South Americas predator guild was more complex, with competition only playing a limited role. In the case of sparassodonts and carnivorans, which has been the most heavily studied, little evidence shows that sparassodonts even encountered ...
... , Phylogeography and Mollecular Markers. Marc J. Bechard1, Jose H. Sarasola2 and Andreas J. Helbig3 (Oral). Comparison of Morphometric Measurements of male and female Spot-winged Falconets sexed using PCR Amplification Methods. The Spot-winged Falconet (Spiziapteryx circumcinctus) is a little-known Neotropical falconid endemic to southern South America. Few data exist on the morphology of the species. Only a handful of specimens have been obtained to take morphometric measurements and the degree to which sexual dimorphism has developed in the species is largely unknown. Information on the latter would perhaps enable the sexing of individuals in the hand. In an effort to provide such data, we captured 25 falconets using bal-chatri traps with various mouse and bird lures in La Pampa, Argentina between 1998-2001. We measured body mass, wingspan, wing chord, tail length, total body length, culmen length, tarsus length and width, and hallux length, and obtained blood samples using standard ...
The two dominant physical features of South America are the Andean mountain range in the west and the Amazon River basin in the northern and central regions of the continent. The Andes stretch 5,500...
This chunky shorebird has a rather anonymous look in winter plumage, but is unmistakable in spring, when it wears robin-red on its chest. It nests in the far north, mostly well above the Arctic Circle (the first known nest was discovered during Admiral Pearys expedition to the North Pole in 1909); its winter range includes shorelines around the world, south to Australia and southern South America. Where it is common, the Red Knot may roost in very densely packed flocks, standing shoulder to shoulder on the sand.
Cortaderia selloana, commonly known as pampas grass,[1] is a flowering plant native to southern South America, including the Pampas region after which it is named. There are around 25 species in the genus Cortaderia.. It is a tall grass, growing in dense tussocks that can reach a height of 3 m (10 ft). The leaves are long and slender, 1-2 m (3 ft 3 in-6 ft 7 in) long, and 1 cm broad, with very sharp edges. The leaves are usually bluish-green, but can be silvery grey. The flowers are produced in a dense white panicle 20-40 cm (8-16 in) long on a 2-3 m (6 ft 7 in-9 ft 10 in) tall stem.. ...
The nutria (Myocastor coypus) is a large, dark-colored, semiaquatic rodent that is native to southern South America. At first glance, a casual observer
The Central/South American population is growing rapidly in the U.S., but little is known about the health status. The purpose of this study was 1) to estimate the prevalence of MS and its individual components, 2) compare risk factors among Hispanic sub-groups, and 3) examine how metabolic syndrome (MS) prevalence estimates have changed from 1993–1994 to 2008–2009 in a sample of Central/South Americans living in the D.C. area. In this cross-sectional, medical record extraction survey, data from 1993–1994 were compared with data from 2008–2009 on 1,042 male and female adults collected by questionnaire. 28% of our subjects had MS. The most prevalent MS components were low HDL (43.2% men; 50.7% women), elevated triglycerides (37%), and high BMI ≥ 25 kg/m,super,2,/super, (75.6%). Among Central/South Americans, Salvadorans had the highest prevalence of MS (30.7%). MS prevalence was significantly greater for the 2008–2009 subjects (27.9%) compared with 1993–1994 ...
Antique Maps of South America. Gallery of authentic historic and rare maps of South America, Central America, the West Indies and Caribbean from the 16th to the 19th centuries.
Take a cruise on your vacation. Our river tours in South America are a great way to see the sights. View the surrounding area from off shore and learn about ...
As well as the appearance of Phorusrhacids in Europe in the Middle Eocene, their subsequent disappearance from Europe requires an explanation. Tertiary African ecosystems are not well understood, but those of South America are, and the Phorusrhacids appear to have been the top predators in many South American ecosystems for much of the period. However South America lacked predatory Mammals during this time, the other predators with which Phorusrhacids shared the continent being Marsupials. Placental Mammal predators (Carnivora and later Homo sapiens) reached South America during the Great American Biotic Interchange, which also allowed the Phorusrhacids to briefly colonise North America, an event that was shortly followed by the extinction of both the Phorusrhacids and large Marsupial predators in the Americas (large Marsupial predators also became extinct in Australia shortly after the arrival of Placental predators, in this case Homo sapiens and Canis lupus). In Europe the Phorusrhacids would ...
Bogota, Colombia Colombian President Alvaro Uribe has the swine flu and officials have advised other South American leaders who met with him at a summit of the infection, authorities said Sunday.. The 57-year-old Uribe began feeling symptoms Friday, the same day as a meeting of South American presidents in Bariloche, Argentina, and he was confirmed to have swine flu after returning home, Social Protection Minister Diego Palacio said.. "This isnt something that has us scared," Palacio said at a news conference. Uribe, a key U.S. ally in Latin America, is not considered a high-risk patient and will continue working from his computer, officials said.. Public health director Gilberto Alvarez said in a telephone interview that there was no need to put the president in isolation and that his condition would be monitored for three days to a week.. Palacio said Colombias foreign ministry was informing governments whose leaders may have come in contact with Uribe.. No governments immediately reported ...
The company will bring forklifts vehicles that offer an improvement in saving space and productivity for operations to Intermodal South America.. The globally leading company in customized solutions for material handling, Comblift, will present its complete forklifts and containers handling line during Intermodal South America, the largest event in the Americas for logistics, cargo transportation and foreign trade. The company intends to strengthen its position in the Brazilian market using the fair as an opportunity to boost its business.. With three product lines, what makes Combilift different form its competitors is that they offer improved space saving and productivity for loading and unloading goods operations. There are hinged forklifts for pallet loads, unloading solutions and containers stowage; multi-directional forklifts for long cargo and the straddle carrier, which is a piece of equipment capable of stacking containers, handling buildings and wind turbine blades on most surfaces ...
Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays), a crop of great importance worldwide, is characterised by its great adaptability and its extraordinary variability both at the molecular and the phenotypic level. Behind these remarkable features lies a complex evolutionary history. The main aim of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of it by answering questions about the origin, phylogenetic relationships, and initial dispersion of maize, using South America as a case study. To achieve this aim, archaeological specimens and primitive landraces were genotyped at 20 microsatellite loci. Sequences of Adh2-UM, a locus informative of the routes of initial dispersion of maize in South America, were also obtained. The data gathered were analysed using tree-building and network methods, and a Bayesian model-based clustering approach to infer population structure. Our results are consistent with a model of initial dispersion by which after its introduction, maize spread along the Andes and through eastern ...
VS is prevalent in northern South America, throughout Central America, and at one site in the United States: Ossabaw Island, Georgia. However, outbreaks of VS have been reported in the western United States, northern Mexico, and temperate regions of South America. The disease can cause blisters on an animals mouth, teats or hooves. Clinical outbreaks of VS in livestock can result in significant economic impact on producers and extensive regulatory responses by governmental agencies, including trade restrictions, market closures, and quarantines. Such measures are needed because of the clinical similarities between VS and foot-and-mouth disease and other foreign vesicular diseases in livestock species. ...
One particular region that has continued to drill deeper to hit the hydrocarbon jackpot is located in the worlds southern hemisphere and features unconventional conditions for recovering hydrocarbons. Specifically, Brazils energy giant Petrobras is taking the reins for unlocking vast amounts of oil and gas below layers of salt, rock and sand, and several of the most memorable finds are located in extreme water depths in the countrys subsalt basins. Operator of the Orinoco heavy oil belt, Venezuelas state-controlled PDVSA also reigns as a primary player in South Americas energy sector. As a region, South America boasts some of the largest oil-and-gas discoveries ever made and is estimated to contain billions in recoverable hydrocarbon reserves.. ...
... is varied and is influenced by all the countries of the continent. Know all about the geography of South America.
Still Drinks (Soft Drinks) Market in South America - Outlook to 2022: Market Size, Growth and Forecast Analytics is a broad level market review of Still Drinks market of South America covering 5 Countries Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru and Chile
About South America - Introduces the geography, topography, climate, flora, fauna, and population of the continent of South America.
For UnitedHealth Group, already the largest health insurer in the U.S., the next frontier for growth is in South America. Already a major player in Brazil, the company is now pushing into Chile, Colombia and Peru, moves that CEO David Wichmann said will establish a foundation for growth in South America for decades to come.
Find Costa Cruises to South America: Find and plan your next Costa cruise to South America with Cruise Critics Cruise Finder Tool
While natural and man-made draws like Iguazu Falls and Machu Picchu are certainly excellent reasons to book a ticket to South America, there are plenty more off-road adventures to experience as well. From lesser-known Carnival celebrations to the worlds largest wetland, South America has plenty to offer travelers that live and trek by Robert Frosts […]. ...
While natural and man-made draws like Iguazu Falls and Machu Picchu are certainly excellent reasons to book a ticket to South America, there are plenty more off-road adventures to experience as well. From lesser-known Carnival celebrations to the worlds largest wetland, South America has plenty to offer travelers that live and trek by Robert Frosts […]. ...
United States Foreign Policy South America News. Find breaking news, commentary, and archival information about United States Foreign Policy South America From The latimes
Trafalgar brings you The Good Life by giving you the real thing, and taking care of all the details so youre free to be - be happy. Discover the diversity of South America as you visit a Samba school for a dance lesson before flying to Iguassu Falls with your Local Specialist for a jet boat ride to the base of the cascades. In Buenos Aires, eat with the locals as youre entertained by tango dancers, or dine with Ignacio and his sous chef in Lima, where youll learn how to prepare Perus most popular foods. Book your 2018 South America trip before February 28, 2018 and save 7.5%* ...
South America is the kind of destination that fulfils all of your travel dreams. It has massive mountains, some of the oldest cultural sites in the world, vibrant, colourful crafts, incredible culinary traditions, and charming - yet crumbling - city centres. Peregrine and Intrepid can take you to four of South Americas most arresting destinations for a truly unique and intimate experience. The journey begins long before you touch down, however.
LONDON-STRs May 2017 Pipeline Report shows 60,167 rooms in 385 hotel projects Under Contract in the Central/South America region. The total represents a 10.3% decrease in rooms Under Contract compared with May 2016.. Under Contract data includes projects in the In Construction, Final Planning and Planning stages but does not include projects in the Unconfirmed stage.. The Central/South America region reported 29,687 rooms in 184 projects In Construction for the month. Based on number of rooms, that is a 0.2% increase in year-over-year comparisons.. Four countries in the region reported more than 1,000 rooms In Construction:. ...
Henny de Bruin (September 26, 2011). "South America". The Stringed Instrument Database ATLAS of Plucked Instruments Cuerda at ... Music of Ecuador Wibbelsman, Michelle (2005). "Encuentros: Dances of the Inti Raymi in Cotacachi, Ecuador". Latin American ... Wibbelsman, Michelle (2005). "Encuentros: Dances of the Inti Raymi in Cotacachi, Ecuador". Latin American Music Review. 26 (2 ...
in preparation) "The classification of South American languages. In Campbell & Grondona (eds.), South America. Mouton de ... Further south they traded peacefully with y Wladfa, the colony of Welsh settlers. Some Tehuelche learnt Welsh and left their ... Viegas Barros (2005) attempts to demonstrate that Puelche to the north is related to the Chon languages, and would constitute ... and Tehuelche spoken by the people of the same name who occupied territory north of Tierra del Fuego. The name 'Chon', or Tshon ...
Central America, and Caribbean; South America; and the South Pacific. The General Board now included members from outside the ... The 1915 mergers added congregations in the British Isles and work in Cuba, Central America, and South America. There were ... the Orient and South Pacific); and Intercontinental Zone III (Central and South America). In 1977 the General Board had eight ... In 1968 the Pilgrim Holiness Church merged with the Wesleyan Methodist Church of North America to form the Wesleyan Church. The ...
"South America :: COLOMBIA". CIA The World Factbook. "The ethnic and cultural diversity of Colombia" (PDF) (in Spanish). ... It is the second-most populous country in South America after Brazil. The Demography of Colombia is characterized for being the ... A number of other Europeans and North Americans migrated to the country in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, including ... "Religion in Latin America, Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region". pewforum.org. Pew Research Center. 13 November ...
"Slick Valdez living the South American dream". smh.com.au. 7 October 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2011. "Haedo Valdez: De dormir ... Paraguay's U20 squad had already finished third at the 2003 South American Youth Championship, and eventually qualified for the ... permanent dead link] "Latics face €5m South American striker price - reports". givemefootball.com. 14 July 2011. Retrieved 14 ... "South America". RSSSF. Retrieved 25 December 2015. "Norway ties Paraguay 2-2". China Daily. 25 May 2006. Retrieved 25 December ...
... is located in the north of South America; geologically, its mainland rests on the South American Plate. It has a ... prominent in the Spanish American wars of independence in achieving the independence of most of northern South America from ... Two main north-south axes of pre-Columbian population were present, who cultivated maize in the west and manioc in the east. ... It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, the Dutch Caribbean ABC islands to the north ...
"South America :: URUGUAY". CIA The World Factbook. "Encuesta Continua de Hogares 2008 - Religion". Instituto Nacional de ... "UMM , Latin American Area Studies - Countries". Morris.umn.edu. 27 August 2009. Retrieved 2010-06-26. "Religion - Uruguay". ... Amerindians make up a small population in the Rural North-West region, with Mestizos making up 6% of the Population. ...
South America, a 606-ton whaleship purchased on 9 November 1861 at New London, Connecticut. She was beached with Peter Demill ... One fleet was sunk to block the south channel off Morris Island, and the other to block the north channel near Rattlesnake ... Peter DeMill, was a 300-ton bark purchased on 9 November 1861 and beached with South America and Cossack on 8 December to serve ... "South America". DANFS. Retrieved 14 July 2010. "Tenedos". DANFS. Retrieved 14 July 2010. "India". DANFS. Retrieved 14 July 2010 ...
"South America". Bahá'í News. No. 169. July 1944. p. 7. Lamb, Artemus (November 1995). The Beginnings of the Bahá'í Faith in ... Manizales, Colombia: Inter-American Development Bank. Retrieved 2008-05-05. "Canada - Association's 8th annual Conference". ... 1405 Killarney Drive, West Linn OR, 97068, United States of America: M L VanOrman Enterprises. The Bahá'í Faith: 1844-1963: ... "Religion in Latin America, Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region". pewforum.org. Pew Research Center. 13 November ...
North America; South America Cymatoderma dendriticum (Pers.) D.A.Reid (1959) - Africa; South America; Papua New Guinea ... 1840) - Africa; South America; Papua New Guinea Cymatoderma fuscum (Cooke) D.A.Reid (1959) Cymatoderma hainanense Z.T.Guo (1986 ...
North America: Oncor Energy; Pacific Gas and Electric; Hydro-Québec; AEP Texas. South America: Copel; AES Eletropaulo; Ampla - ... The company moved to a regional structure, assigning regional corporate structures for North America; South America; UK/Pre- ... both of which are from the United States of America. 2011 - Landis+Gyr was acquired by Toshiba Corporation of Japan for USD$2.3 ...
North America Iglesia Valdense, South America Waldensian Evangelical Church - Río de la Plata, South America Waldenses at ... Congregations continue to be active in Europe, South America, and North America. Organizations such as the American Waldensian ... The American Waldensian Society aims to foster dialogue and partnership among Waldensian Churches in Italy and South America ... "South America". American Waldensian Society. 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016. Morris, Ira. Morris's Memorial History of Staten ...
Attach great importance to the indigenous population of America ... the republics of the continent of South America-Colombia, ... to facilitate a shift in the balance of roles from North American guidance and Latin cooperation to Latin guidance and North American ... The second South American Bahá'í Congress was celebrated in Santiago, Chile, in January, 1948 with Uruguayan delegate Gambeta ... "Four South American Countries Hold Teaching Conferences During Year". Bahá'í News (348): 13. May 1958. "Baha'i in the News". ...
Danny Palmerlee (2007). South America. Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74104-443-X. ...
Box, Ben (2001-10-01). South American handbook. Footprint Handbooks, Ltd. ISBN 9781900949996. ... South America. APA Publications (HK) Limited. Maddicks, Russell (2010-12-15). Venezuela: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel ... A short distance in the north end of the park, the river Milla is transformed into a beautiful waterfall, which is one of the ...
Levinson, David (1994). South America. Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 7. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-8161-1813-2. ...
In 1950, the South American Bahá'ís formed a regional Spiritual Assembly for South America whose first members were Edmund ... p. 2. "Inter-America News". Bahá'í News. No. 158. December 1942. p. 2. "South America". Bahá'í News. No. 169. July 1944. p. 7. ... "Latin-American News; Election of Delegates". Bahá'í News. No. 240. February 1951. pp. 11-12. "International News; South America ... "Excerpts from an Inter-America Report Received Prior to the Convention; South America". Bahá'í News. No. 169. July 1944. p. 7 ...
Buenos Aires, Mercedes-Benz Argentina S.A. , Daimler > Company > Daimler Worldwide > South America. Daimler. Retrieved on 16 ... In 2009, Mercedes-Benz displayed three BlueZERO concepts at the North American International Auto Show. Each car features a ... "South Africa's automotive industry". SouthAfrica.info. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 26 September 2010 ... The company also holds the naming rights to the Mercedes-Benz Superdome, an American football stadium in New Orleans, Louisiana ...
Own, Our (10 April 1866). "SOUTH AMERICA.; High-handed Movements in Bolivia--Miscellaneous. CENTRAL AMERICA. Revolution in ...
Latin America; South America; Record Number: 74364647 Copyright 2009 Guardian Newspapers Ltd, Source: The Financial Times ...
"Excerpts from an Inter-America Report Received Prior to the Convention; South America". Bahá'í News. No. 169. July 1944. p. 7. ... Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America: Native American creation stories. Indiana University Press. pp. 776-786. ... From 1937 to 1946 Baker made six trips through Central and South America. Because of her background in speaking to many ... the Tablets of the Divine Plan to spread the religion throughout Latin and South America and addressing racism in America. ...
"South America > Bolivia > Military". nationmaster.com. "NATO and the Defence Reform Commission: partners for progress". setimes ... In Morocco, the Berber looked south rather than north. The Moroccan Sultan Moulay Ismail, called "the Bloodthirsty" (1672-1727 ... "Korea, North". CIA World Factbook. "North Korea, Military Conscription and Terms of Service". Based on the Country Studies ... To Raise an Army: The Draft Comes to Modern America (1987) Fitzpatrick, Edward (1940). Conscription and America: A Study of ...
South China Phylloporia parasitica Murrill 1904 - South America Phylloporia pectinata (Klotzsch) Ryvarden 1991 - New South ... South America; Philippines Phylloporia terrestris L.W.Zhou 2014 - South China Phylloporia tiliae L.W.Zhou 2013 - China ... 1904). "A new polyporoid genus from South America". Torreya. 4: 141-142. Ryvarden L. (1991). Genera of Polypores, Nomenclature ... M.A.Curtis) Ryvarden 1972 - Africa; Cuba; southeast Asia; South America Phylloporia fulva Yombiyeni & Decock - northwestern ...
"Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; South Dakota)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 545. Tschopp, E.; Mateus, O ... North America; Colorado)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544. "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; Oklahoma ... ISBN 978-0-253-34870-8. Galton , P.M. (1981). Dryosaurus, a hypsilophodontid dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic of North America ... supremus in "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic; North America; New Mexico)." Weishampel, et al. (2004). Pg. 544. This means ...
Jeanne Engela 2013-14 South American North League winner: Juan Manuel Gallego 2013-14 South American South League winner: Yuri ... Final Results 2014 North American Show Jumping Tournament The North American Biggest Purse Final Results 2014 Pan American Show ... South America; 03 ! North America Individual Jumping: 01 ! Emily Fraser; 02 ! Martina Campi; 03 ! Jake Hunter August 23 - ... Samantha McIntosh 2013-14 North America East Coast League winner: Kent Farrington 2013-14 North America West Coast League ...
South America. Argentina. * Find this book in the Universidad de San Andrés library ... South Carolina * Find this book in the Richland County, South Carolina Public Library (Columbia, South Carolina) system catalog ... South Africa. * Find this book on the National Library of South Africa catalogue ... Find this book in the South Central Library System catalog (south central Wisconsin) ...
Visit the vast continent of South America with a Telegraph Travel Tour and see Machu Picchu, Patagonia and wonders like the ... We offer a range of tours, some of which include flights to a huge variety of destinations across South America. ... South Americas scale and incredibly varied landscapes and cultures lend themselves perfectly to a tour, so we at the Telegraph ...
Because of South Americas broad ethnic mix, South American cuisine has African, South American Indian, Asian, and European ... Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to the worlds highest ... as they combine North America and South America into one continent called the Americas. ""Unveiling the South American Balance ... They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama. The first ...
America - South Africa is a 1991 album by the Art Ensemble of Chicago and the Amabutho Male Chorus released on the Japanese DIW ... "America" (Amabutho Male Chorus) - 5:12 "Zolas Smile" (Art Ensemble of Chicago) - 3:52 Recorded December 1989 & January 1990 at ...
Have you ever faced yourself in a Latin America ... Latin American dreams come throughYou have a burning desire and ... Beyond South America: Latin American dreams come through. You have a burning desire and are curious to learn by actually doing ... Beyond South America: Latin American dreams come through. You have a burning desire and are curious to learn by actually doing ... Anúncios (Voluntariado, Eventos, etc) de Beyond South America. Oportunidades. Localização. Data Publicada. ...
Here is a list of location information for the Fujitsu Group in the South America region. You can select location and contact ... South America. Here is a list of location information for the Fujitsu Group in the South America region. You can select ...
South America. The Temperate Jungle of South America, which covers regions of Southern Chile and Argentina, represents the ... Over one million square kilometres in size, the Great Chaco forest is the second biggest ecosystem on the American continent, ... In the latest stage of the Esperanzas Forests for Climate tour around south-east Asia, activists have arrived in Dumai, ... The Yungas Rainforest and the Great Chaco American forest are two neighbouring ecosystems. They are rich in biodiversity and ...
The South American continent stretches from about 10° above the equator to almost 60° below it, encompassing an area of ... SOUTH AMERICA. SOUTH AMERICA. South America is a continent composed of twelve countries and one French colony. The Spanish- ... South American Indians. Throughout South America, the magician caste analogous to the medicine men or shamans of North America ... SOUTH AMERICA. [Note: See the related article on Native North Americans in the entry America. ] ...
South America. October 19, 2015 Bordered by Venezuela to the west, Suriname to the east and Brazil to the south, the Co- ... Economic Development - Emerging Markets: South America. February 28, 2018 With the lowest taxes in the region, and competitive ... Economic Development - Emerging Markets: South America. June 29, 2016 Few countries are richer in natural resources than Peru. ... Economic Development - Emerging Markets: South America. September 28, 2015 Bolivias biggest city, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, is ...
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Friday, August 28, 2015 - 3:19pm Analyst Color, Bank of America, latin america, Marcos Buscaglia, South America, Forex, ... South America, Short Ideas, Politics, Topics A few months ago the BRIC countries - with South Africa, and together representing ... Monday, July 6, 2015 - 9:22am El Niño, JO, South America, WEAT, Previews, Travel, Top Stories, Trading Ideas This year, El Niño ... Friday, January 12, 2018 - 1:35pm argentina, ARGT, Global X, Long Ideas, Mauricio Macri, News, South America, Emerging Markets ...
Here we report a Jurassic mammal represented by a dentary, which is the first, to our knowledge, from South America. The tiny ... Bonaparte, J. F. Approach to the significance of the Late Cretaceous mammals of South America. Berliner Geowiss. Abh. E 13, 31- ... Here we report a Jurassic mammal represented by a dentary, which is the first, to our knowledge, from South America. The tiny ... The first discovery of monotremes in South America. Nature 356, 704-705 (1992). ...
Crocodilian fossil skulls found in the Panama Canal may provide the missing link between the mouthy reptiles of North America ... and their kin in South America, scientists say. ... When these creatures lived, North America and South America ... in the Panama Canal may provide the missing link between the mouthy reptiles of North America and their kin in South America, ... as armadillos and giant sloths to move into North America while relatives of horses and other animals spread into South America ...
... and north and west Colombia are South American coatis.[5][6] The only documented records of white-nosed coatis in South America ... The South American coati is widespread in tropical and subtropical South America. Most of its distribution is in the lowlands ... South American coati range. Note: Also found in west Ecuador, and west and north Colombia, see text.. ... a b c d Kays, R. (2009). South American Coati (Nasua nasua), pp. 526-528 in: Wilson, D. E., and R. A. Mittermeier, eds. (2009 ...
South Americas smallest country, Suriname is a warm, dense convergence of rivers that thumps with the lively rhythm of ethnic ... South Americas smallest country, Suriname is a warm, dense convergence of rivers that thumps with the lively rhythm of ethnic ... Day 1 -Arrival in GuyanaArrive in Guyana, South Americas only English speaking country. Guyana is a gem waiting to be ... home to the average working class.Then we head north where the upper-middle class lives and we will pass the residence of one ...
Stone returns to South America Helmer Oliver Stone crisscrossed South America in January 2009 to interview eight of its most ... Stone returns to South America. Helmer takes doc to Bolivian prexys remote home region. By Anna Marie de la Fuente ... With just one soundman and two cameramen lugging two HD videocameras, helmer Oliver Stone crisscrossed South America in January ... With just one soundman and two cameramen lugging two HD videocameras, helmer Oliver Stone crisscrossed South America in January ...
... floodplain in south-central Brazil that extends into northeast Paraguay and southeast Bolivia. It lies mainly within the ... South America: The lowlands. …the marshes are called the Pantanal. They are only a few hundred feet above sea level. Annual ... South America: Marshes and swamps. …widest marshy areas is the Pantanal, in the middle course of the Paraguay River; it is ... Among the roughly 600 species of birds that live in the region are the heron, ibis, duck, greater rhea (South Americas largest ...
South Florida man, 70, who hid in Costa Rica sentenced to prison for marijuana grow house ... Trumps South Florida pick as Costa Rica ambassador, Sharon Day, has easy Senate hearing ... South Florida Republican leader is Donald Trumps pick for ambassador to Costa Rica ... Leaked documents show link between offshore money and luxury real-estate boom in South Florida ...
South America. HXSA600X - Download. NúMERO DE REFERêNCIA: 010-D1144-00. Preço sugerido R$ 899,00 ... Detailed coverage of the entire South American continent including the Amazon River; Lake Titicaca; Trinidad and Tobago; the ... the Caribbean coast of Central America to Bluefields, NI; the Islas de San Andrés and the Pacific coast of Central America to ...
News for South America continually updated from thousands of sources on the web : Press Releases: Under Secretary Shannons ... Topix › South America News South America News. News on South America continually updated from thousands of sources around the ...
At its biannual summit last week, South American trade bloc Mercosur confirmed that it intends to finalise an agreement with ... The European Commission has remained silent over a cruel but perfectly legal practice, common in South America, of rearing ... The Dakar Rally is currently tearing its way across South America, where it is generating controversy for its significant ...
The discovery of Bariloche Pass, affording easy communication between Chili and the Argentine Republic, has awakened the enthusiasm of geographers and railroad and canal builders. The country on both sides of the Cordillera is rich and fertile, and the vast plains of ...
Extending south-southwest initially as the Maracaju Mountains for approximately 200 miles (320 km)... ... South America. Geographical treatment of South America, the fourth largest continent in the world, the southern portion of the ... Country of South America that occupies half the continents landmass. It is the fifth largest country in the world, exceeded in ... The Amambaí (Amambay) Mountains run approximately north to south along part of the border with Brazil and then run eastward as ...
Central America Trend Briefing: With citizens across the region facing one crisis after another, its time for brands to roll ... South & Central America Trend Briefing - CRISIS SOLUTIONS * 1. SCA TREND BRIEFING · JUNE 2016 , CRISIS SOLUTIONS J U N E 2 0 1 ... June 2016 South & Central America Trend Briefing: With citizens across the region facing one crisis after another, its time ... 2. SCA TREND BRIEFING · JUNE 2016 , CRISIS SOLUTIONS Theres no denying it... times are tough across Central and South America ...
... naturally influenced the dress of the aboriginal South Americans. Source for information on America, South: History of Dress: ... SOUTH: HISTORY OF DRESSThe vast South American continent is a study in geographic extremes, including the Amazon Basin, the ... AMERICA, SOUTH: HISTORY OF DRESS. The vast South American continent is a study in geographic extremes, including the Amazon ... America, South: History of Dress. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article ...
Tornadoes devastate Americas south Published time: 28 Apr, 2011 16:22 Edited time: 28 Apr, 2011 20:34 ... The storm followed an earlier string which also brought tornadoes to the south, killing 10 people. A few weeks prior to that a ...
  • With the lowest taxes in the region, and competitive labor and energy costs, Paraguay offers one of South America's highest returns on investment. (forbes.com)
  • The city has become the nation's economic powerhouse and is one of South America's most successful and sustainable boom towns. (forbes.com)
  • The Global X MSCI Argentina ETF (NYSE: ARGT), the largest exchange traded fund dedicated to stocks in South America's second-largest economy, was one of the best-performing single-country ETFs last year. (benzinga.com)
  • South America's smallest country, Suriname is a warm, dense convergence of rivers that thumps with the lively rhythm of ethnic diversity. (lonelyplanet.com)
  • Among the roughly 600 species of birds that live in the region are the heron, ibis, duck, greater rhea (South America's largest flightless bird), and jabiru stork. (britannica.com)
  • The hosts, Venezuela and Argentina all finished on seven points and will join Uruguay as South America's representatives in South Korea this May. (reuters.com)
  • South America's security agenda demands the simultaneous management of domestic crises, interstate conflicts and transnational threats. (repec.org)
  • South America's glaciers: going the way of the dinosaurs? (nrdc.org)
  • South America's glaciers are critical reserves of fresh water that support human communities and wildlife in every country where they exist. (nrdc.org)
  • When I think about South America's glaciers, I divide them roughly into two geographic groups: the tropical glaciers of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, and the temperate and polar glaciers of Chile and Argentina. (nrdc.org)
  • Paraguay has elected a conservative millionaire businessman as its next president in stark contrast to South America's majority of leftist and left-leaning leaders. (ibtimes.com)
  • With beautiful, full-color photographs and a lively, informative text, the rich history and enduring legacy of South America's traditional pottery, jewelry, textiles, and other indigenous handicrafts come vividly to life in this compelling volume for travelers, collectors, and enthusiasts of native arts and crafts. (goodreads.com)
  • Landlocked, practically-bilingual Paraguay (English and Guaraní are both the national languages) is one of South America's most underexplored countries, in part because it lacks the Instagram-worthy attractions of places like Peru. (cnn.com)
  • MEXICO CITY (Reuters) - Currency market intervention has cost South America's central banks more than $13 billion in the last 2-1/2 years but they are likely to maintain their defenses against hot money inflows if a fresh rush of cheap money sparks another round of currency wars. (reuters.com)
  • South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). (wikipedia.org)
  • America - South Africa is a 1991 album by the Art Ensemble of Chicago and the Amabutho Male Chorus released on the Japanese DIW label in association with Columbia Records. (wikipedia.org)
  • A few months ago the BRIC countries - with South Africa, and together representing 43 percent of the world's population and 18 percent of the world's GDP - met in New Delhi for their fourth annual convention. (benzinga.com)
  • NPR's Tony Cox talks to two black Americans who now call South Africa home. (npr.org)
  • Myesha Jenkins is an activist employed by South African Partners, a non-governmental organization based in Boston, Mass., and Greg Ricks works with the non-profit group CityYear, which is setting up the Clinton Democracy Fellowship program in South Africa. (npr.org)
  • Runners-up to Brazil in the qualifiers for South Africa 2010, Chile head to Buenos Aires in search of a maiden win on Argentinian soil. (fifa.com)
  • Uruguay added the continental title this year to their fourth-placed finish at South Africa 2010. (fifa.com)
  • Meanwhile in Quito, Ecuador and Venezuela, two sides that missed out on South Africa 2010, will be desperate to make a winning start. (fifa.com)
  • This marine mammal is mostly seen in Antarctica, but for breeding it will visit the coasts of Brazil , Chile , and Argentina, as well as South Africa . (worldatlas.com)
  • Someone figured out that if you take South America, overlap it with Africa, and turn it counter-clockwise 90 degrees, you get a Tyrannosaurus Rex! (buzzfeed.com)
  • South Africa is a large state on the tip of the continent that experienced decades of bloodshed and turmoil before apartheid was ended in 1994. (rca.org)
  • The RCA has been in partnership with the black Reformed churches in South Africa throughout their long struggle against apartheid. (rca.org)
  • But because of Setshabelo Child and Family Services (SCFS) in Botshabelo, South Africa, she is not among the children crying in an institutional orphanage. (rca.org)
  • South Africa's government has announced that it will expand the country's existing demographic studies to create a project that will be the largest of its kind in Africa-tracking the health, income, and educational attainment of around 1% of South Africa's population. (scientificamerican.com)
  • But in Africa, as in many other parts of the developing world, such long-term projects have been neglected in favour of focusing on health emergencies such as HIV or Ebola, says Glenda Gray, president of the South African Medical Research Council. (scientificamerican.com)
  • South Africa has had three demographic surveillance projects running since the mid-to-late 1990s, based in Mpumalanga and Limpopo in the northeast, and KwaZulu-Natal on the east coast. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Linda Fried, an epidemiologist who is dean of Columbia University's Mailman School of Public Health in New York City , thinks that the surveys will not only allow South Africa to develop its science base but also attract international investment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. (wikipedia.org)
  • The snowline is highest in southern Peru and northern Chile, at latitude 15 - 20 ° south, where it seldom descends below 19,000 ft (5,800 m). (encyclopedia.com)
  • By the time of the Paracas culture (c. 600-175 b.c.e.) on the south coast of Peru, male ritual attire consisted of garments that were typical of the coast until the Spanish Conquest in 1532: headband or turban, waist-length tunic (sometimes with short, attached sleeves) or tabard, breechcloth or kiltlike wrap skirt, mantle, and sometimes sandals, and a small bag, usually used to hold coca leaves. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Peru aside, South American cuisine does not get a lot of attention in the English-speaking world, but there are plenty of recipes out there which allow you to try the specialities from Colombia, Argentina & Chile in the comfort of your own home. (metafilter.com)
  • One of the earliest South American civilisations are recorded in Peru. (smore.com)
  • Solbeso uses a few intensely flavored, aromatic varieties of cacao (there are upwards of 12 different varieties grown across South America, Higbee says), sourced from Peru, Ecuador, and the Dominican Republic. (seriouseats.com)
  • This study extends extant research to the South American countries of Bolivia, Brazil, Columbia and Peru using data from the demographic and health surveys, finding a positive effect of increased prenatal care use on birthweight. (repec.org)
  • South America is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over one million square kilometres in size, the Great Chaco forest is the second biggest ecosystem on the American continent, after the Amazon. (greenpeace.org)
  • The South American continent stretches from about 10 ° above the equator to almost 60 ° below it, encompassing an area of 6,880,706 sq mi (17,821,028 sq km). (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Eastern highlands and plateaus are the oldest geological region of South America, and are thought to have bordered on the African continent at one time, before the motion of the earth's crust and continental drift separated the continents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The great mountain range of South America is the Andes Mountains, which extends more than 5,500 mi (8,900 km) all the way down the western coast of the continent. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Geographical treatment of South America, the fourth largest continent in the world, the southern portion of the landmass referred to as the Americas. (britannica.com)
  • This is the largest country in South America, with all the diversity you might expect in this country, which covers large areas of the southern continent. (destination360.com)
  • In a paper published in the March 24 advanced online edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), U of C PhD student Sonia Zarrillo and archaeology professor Dr. Scott Raymond report that a new technique for examining ancient cooking pots has produced the earliest directly dated examples of domesticated corn (maize) being consumed on the South American continent. (eurekalert.org)
  • From the Amazon to the Andes to Patagonia to oceans on all sides, the South American continent has a dazzling display of fauna throughout its expanse. (worldatlas.com)
  • South American drinking and dining is as diverse as you'd expect for a continent made up of almost 450 languages, a multitude of ecosystems and 12 countries (not including French Guiana, a Euro-using, French-speaking region, and the British Falklands). (cnn.com)
  • QUIZ: Can you name the facts about the continent of South America? (sporcle.com)
  • South America is the ideal continent for this all-encompassing form of travel. (bootsnall.com)
  • The two dominant physical features of South America are the Andean mountain range in the west and the Amazon River basin in the northern and central regions of the continent. (reference.com)
  • The final matchday of the South American qualifying competition for the 2018 FIFA World Cup Russia™ takes place on Tuesday. (fifa.com)
  • Women march carrying placards with messages demanding peace and their rights, on the streets of South Sudan's capital, Juba on July 13, 2018. (voanews.com)
  • The awarding of the 2014 FIFA World Cup and 2016 Summer Olympic Games, the first ever to be held in South America, was seen as symbolic of the country's rise. (cia.gov)
  • In 2016, Marcus Amaker was named the first poet laureate of Charleston, South Carolina. (poets.org)
  • Casamiquela, R. M. Sobre la presencia de un mamífero en el primer elenco (icnológico) de vertebrados del Jurásico de la Patagonia. (nature.com)
  • The ecology of these regions (and such areas as the hot, humid Atlantic coast and cold, wet Patagonia) naturally influenced the dress of the aboriginal South Americans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Low interest rates in advanced economies encourage investors to seek higher returns in faster-growing emerging markets such as Latin America, but accelerating capital inflows put unwelcome upward pressure on currencies, making exports more expensive. (reuters.com)
  • The smaller mountain coatis are mainly found at altitudes above the South American coati, but there is considerable overlap. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since neither the traditional models of power balancing and alliance building nor the security-community approach can sufficiently explain the region's security dynamics, we assume and provide evidence that different systems of security governance overlap and coexist in South America. (repec.org)
  • The climate in the Andes varies greatly, depending on both altitude and latitude, from hot regions, to Alpine meadow regions, to the glaciers of the South . (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Andean Condor is found in the Andes Mountain , and is said to be the largest flying bird found in South America. (worldatlas.com)
  • The Andes stretch 5,500 miles from north to south and peak at Aconcagua, 22,841 feet above sea level. (reference.com)
  • The Dakar Rally is currently tearing its way across South America, where it is generating controversy for its significant environmental and social impact, particularly in Bolivia, where nature protection is enshrined in the so-called "Mother Earth" law. (euractiv.com)
  • It shares the infamous Lake Titicaca with its neighbors to the south Bolivia, and the floating Tortora reed villages are on the Peruvian side of the water border. (destination360.com)
  • Winner of the Best Player award at the recent Copa America, the Uruguayan goal-getter will be anxious to run out against Bolivia, the team he scored his first competitive international goal against in the corresponding fixture in 2007. (fifa.com)
  • Bolivia and Paraguay are the two landlocked countries in South America. (reference.com)
  • South American Silver Corp. is a growth focused mineral exploration company creating value through the exploration and development of the large scale Escalones copper-gold project in Chile and the realization of value from the Malku Khota project in Bolivia. (yahoo.com)
  • South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of the new crocodilian species living on both continents before the emergence of the land bridge, suggests caiman ancestors crossed a saltwater seaway to reach South America. (yahoo.com)
  • News on South America continually updated from thousands of sources around the net. (topix.com)
  • Visit http://www.mcplusa.com/news/2015/6/22/press-release-mca-expands-operations-to-south-america-chile for more information on the office. (prweb.com)
  • I was reminded about how much open source interest there is in South America when I saw the news that Sangoma is partnering with Ft. Lauderdale based XmarteK to increase its distribution throughout Latin America. (tmcnet.com)
  • In fact, people who watched the CBS news special Soviet Union -- Seven Days in May, sketchy as it was, now probably know more about that secretive society half a world away than they do about our neighbor to the south. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • The San Antonio Expres-News warned in February of 1894 that colonizing African Americans in Liberia to alleviate the "race problem" in Texas was a risky proposition. (jhu.edu)
  • In South America you can find the pick-up locations for rental cars from Budget in the main cities, popular neighborhoods, and at the airports. (expedia.com)
  • The city stretches 40 km (24 mi) along the south bank of the Orinoco and is one of Venezuela's largest. (cia.gov)
  • The wetlands extend for about 375 miles (600 km) north-to-south along the banks of the upper Paraguay River and several of its tributaries, including the São Lourenço and the Taquari rivers. (britannica.com)
  • Extending south-southwest initially as the Maracaju Mountains for approximately 200 miles (320 km) from Campo Grande , the capital of Mato Grosso do Sul, they form the western side of the Brazilian Highlands and mark the divide between the tributaries of the Paraguay River and those of the Paraná. (britannica.com)
  • Unlike Lugo's successor, Franco, South American leaders have acknowledged Cartes' presidency and expressed a willingness to admit Paraguay back into the fold of regional trade and politics. (ibtimes.com)
  • But science has shown that unless we change our ways and reduce greenhouse house emissions around the world, the glaciers of South America, and indeed in other regions, too, likely won't be here for much longer. (nrdc.org)
  • Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the challenges of the continent's topography, Stone and his team are back, set to retrace their steps in a whirlwind tour with a series of premieres that starts May 18 in Madrid, over to Caracas on May 28 and then on to other South American destinations. (variety.com)
  • Not just to travel there, but also to mine oxygen from lunar rocks that will refuel our ships, to use nuclear power to extract water from the permanently shadowed craters of the south pole, and to fly on a new generation of spacecraft that will enable us to reach Mars in months, not years. (wired.com)
  • My wife Deb and I have seen dozens of startup craft breweries around the country in recent years, and I could have used a photo of some random one in Vermont or South Carolina or Pennsylvania or Mississippi or Southern California to make the case. (theatlantic.com)
  • In 1934, South Carolina established a state poet laureate position, which is currently held by Marjory Heath Wentworth. (poets.org)
  • Wentworth is the author of four books of poetry, including her New and Selected Poems (University of South Carolina Press, 2014). (poets.org)
  • In 2015, Ed Madden was appointed poet laureate of Columbia, South Carolina. (poets.org)
  • Angelo Geter is the poet laureate of Rock Hill, South Carolina. (poets.org)
  • A report from Charleston, South Carolina, describes heavy voter turnout at the state's primary election on August 10, 1948. (history.com)
  • South America has three physical regions: coastal plains, river basins, and mountains and highlands. (reference.com)
  • It's the dead of winter in South America, but it's not too soon to start thinking about summer -- beginning in December -- at Casa Suaya near José Ignacio, a hush-hush hot spot on the Atlantic Coast of Uruguay. (latimes.com)
  • He saw protest after protest as tensions rose and wages plummeted in the South American country. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • This is a rugged country to explore, South America tours and expeditions often taking what seems like forever on its unpaved and sometimes dangerous roads, perched on the edge of unprotected precipices that drop thousands of feet. (destination360.com)
  • This country is one of the smallest in the country, yet it has a strategic location that encompasses some of the best natural features found in South America. (destination360.com)
  • The ease and convenience you will find traveling in this country are due to the high amount of European visitors on South America tours, which is reflected in prices that are higher than its neighbors. (destination360.com)
  • Violence broke out in South Sudan in late 2013 amid a political power struggle between President Kiir and Machar, who fled the country in 2015 when a fresh wave of fighting erupted in the capital Juba between government forces and Machar's bodyguards. (voanews.com)
  • Instead of heading to the capital, Santiago, for the saccharine sweetness of a terremoto cocktail, go south to fine wine country. (cnn.com)
  • Guyana is arguably the most culturally distinct country in South America, sharing many characteristics with the English-speaking Caribbean. (cnn.com)
  • The country has a relatively small population, but one of the biggest outbreaks of COVID-19 in South America. (npr.org)
  • What is the smallest country in South America? (reference.com)
  • As of 2014, Suriname is the smallest country in South America. (reference.com)
  • Chile's call for proposals comes as the country works to entice Amazon Web Services, a unit of Amazon.com Inc ( AMZN.O ), to install a data center in the South American nation. (reuters.com)
  • Juicy steaks, stacked sandwiches and savory soups are just a few of the mouthwatering options you can find at some of the best kosher restaurants in America. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • So, from grubs to guinea pig, superhot chiles to supreme steaks, coca leaves to Colombian coffee, South America is an adventure for your tongue! (bootsnall.com)
  • At its biannual summit last week, South American trade bloc Mercosur confirmed that it intends to finalise an agreement with the EU by the end of the year. (euractiv.com)
  • German Chancellor Angela Merkel said Saturday (4 February) that she would work toward securing a "fair" free-trade deal between the EU and Mercosur, the South American economic bloc. (euractiv.com)
  • Here is a list of location information for the Fujitsu Group in the South America region. (fujitsu.com)
  • The only documented records of white-nosed coatis in South America are from far northwestern Colombia ( Gulf of Urabá region, near Colombian border with Panama ). (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the FBI in 2012, the South as a region, containing only a quarter of the population, accounted for 40.9 percent of U.S. violent crime. (politico.com)
  • The lunar south pole also has a more rugged terrain compared to the moon's equatorial region, which is where the Apollo 11 astronauts landed in 1969. (wired.com)
  • Officials attending the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) meeting in Chile did not come up with a joint solution on how best to handle hot money flows, but agreed they were a major challenge to the region. (reuters.com)
  • Researchers have found the first evidence for regional vocal differences in a South American primate, the pygmy marmoset. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Evidence of human life in South America dates back to 9000BC. (smore.com)
  • The Impact of Household Investments on Early Child Neurodevelopment and on Racial and Socioeconomic Developmental Gaps: Evidence from South America ," Forum for Health Economics & Policy , De Gruyter, vol. 14(2), pages 1-60, December. (repec.org)
  • Thanks in part to the KACR's efforts, creation science - which seeks to provide evidence in support of the creation myth described in the Book of Genesis - has had a growing influence in South Korea, although the STR itself has distanced itself from such doctrines. (scientificamerican.com)
  • South America has a land area of 17.8 million km2 (about 12% of the world's land surface) and is over twice the size of the contiguous 48. (climateaudit.org)
  • North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crocodilian fossil skulls found in the Panama Canal may provide the missing link between the mouthy reptiles of North America and their kin in South America, scientists say. (yahoo.com)
  • When these creatures lived, North America and South America were separated by a seaway. (yahoo.com)
  • That pathway allowed mammals such as armadillos and giant sloths to move into North America while relatives of horses and other animals spread into South America. (yahoo.com)
  • These caiman predecessors probably followed a North-to-South migration, lead author Alex Hastings, a paleontologist at Georgia Southern University, told LiveScience. (yahoo.com)
  • The new office is led in the interim by Michael Cizmar, the Founder, Managing Director and President of MC+A and will increase MC+A's R&D capabilities along with offering unparalleled technology services to MC+A's clients in North, Central and South America. (prweb.com)
  • From the equatorial warmth in its north to the icebergs on the south, Chile has a variety of climates. (destination360.com)
  • How much do most North Americans know about South America? (orlandosentinel.com)
  • North Korean leader Kim Jong Un and South Korean President Moon Jae-in, shown with their wives Ri Sol Ju, left, and Kim Jung-sook, join hands on the top of Mount Paektu in North Korea on Sept. 20 during the recent Inter-Korean summit talks. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Historically, Pyongyang demanded a particular sequence of steps in relation to the United States, U.S. peninsular-based military forces, and any North-South settlement. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Only then would it pursue North-South negotiations. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • Yet going back to the 1970s, successive U.S. and South Korean administrations consistently proposed direct North-South talks and the signing of an inter-Korean nonaggression pact. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • In a previous life, it was the longest narrow-gauge railway in North America and carried trains coast-to-coast across the island of Newfoundland for more than 100 years. (montrealgazette.com)
  • In a previous life, it was the longest narrow-gauge railway in North America and carried. (montrealgazette.com)
  • According to a recent study by political scientists Avidit Acharya, Matthew Blackwell and Maya Sen, "the larger the number of slaves in his or her county of residence in 1860, the greater the probability that a white Southerners today will identify as a Republican, express opposition to race-coded policies such as affirmative action and express greater racial resentment towards African Americans. (politico.com)
  • For the first time since the Reconstruction era, African-Americans were permitted to vote in a Democratic primary, after a federal judge ruled their exclusion unconstitutional. (history.com)
  • The essays in African Americans in South Texas History give insight into this fascinating history. (jhu.edu)
  • The first African Americans to enter South Texas came with Spanish explorers, and thousands more came later as slaves from the United States, in the tow of Anglo owners. (jhu.edu)
  • At the end of the ninetenth century, many of the nearly eight million African Americans then living in the United States bore witness to deteriorating race relations. (jhu.edu)
  • In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been thought that maize may have been used south of Panama at this time for ritual purposes but this shows it was also being consumed as food. (eurekalert.org)
  • The domestication and dispersal of maize has been a hot topic in archaeology for decades and these are the earliest indisputable dates for its presence in South America," Raymond said. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Republic of Chile was chosen as the home for MC+A's Latin American operations due to its stable economy, international transportation centers, and its deep talent pool of the "Chilecon Valley. (prweb.com)
  • South America is renowned for its picturesque scenery, which is replete with a stunning array of tropical rainforests, extremely arid deserts, vast water s. (reference.com)
  • Ciudad Guayana lies on the south bank of the Orinoco River, the second largest in South America, at its confluence with the Caroní River (lower left). (cia.gov)
  • The Anaconda is found in the tropical areas of South America , and is said to be the second longest snake in the world by length and the largest in the world by weight. (worldatlas.com)
  • JUBA - The South Sudan government on Monday criticized a White House statement that condemned South Sudan's move to extend the government's mandate by another three years and demanded the country's leaders be sincere as they negotiate a peace agreement. (voanews.com)
  • Makol strongly denied that South Sudan's negotiators meeting in Khartoum, Sudan, were preparing to sign a peace-sharing agreement that is not inclusive. (voanews.com)
  • In a statement released Sunday by White House Press Secretary Sarah Huckabee Sanders, the U.S. called on South Sudanese leaders to commit to negotiations that include civil society, church, women and other groups that have been excluded. (voanews.com)
  • The South Sudanese warring parties meeting in Khartoum on Wednesday failed to agree to a power-sharing deal. (voanews.com)
  • Have you ever faced yourself in a Latin American world beyond the regular (mind) map? (idealist.org)
  • In a new report, Bank of America analyst Marcos Buscaglia discussed what he believes could be the biggest monetary shock facing Latin America since 1980. (benzinga.com)
  • Recently, his position expanded to Latin America. (news-medical.net)
  • But drone-watchers see some value to bringing the drones down south - value that doesn't remotely extend to starting a whole new robotic war in Latin America. (wired.com)
  • There is no strategic rationale for the United States to be responding to the flow of drugs from Latin America with the tactical use of kinetic force against drug planes or boats you happen to be able to find. (wired.com)
  • The arrival of Javier Hernandez and other ambitious Latin American players is a boon for MLS. (yahoo.com)
  • Take a look at some of the biggest offseason acquisitions and you'll notice a trend of Latin American players jumping on board. (yahoo.com)
  • How studying peach palm in tropical Latin America can help us understand the potential of diversity. (bioversityinternational.org)
  • A new open access research paper looks at peach palm in tropical Latin America and its implications for biodiversity conservation, natural resource. (bioversityinternational.org)
  • This is the third round of QE and we are starting at a level where the FX rates are a lot stronger," said Jefferies Latin America strategist Siobhan Morden, who sees central bank intervention as the biggest concern for investors in local debt. (reuters.com)
  • As part of an outreach approach towards Latin America adopted by Foreign Minister Avigdor Lieberman immediately after assuming his post, Israel is currently hosting a delegation of legislators from South America. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • The visit is intended to offer the Latin American leaders an insight into the Israeli reality and other regional issues. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • The Conference of Latin American Parliamentarians, sponsored by the Foreign Ministry and the Knesset, opened on June 14 and will run through the 18th of the month. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • According to the Foreign Ministry, the Latin American legislators' visit "is of great importance in furthering Foreign Minister Lieberman's desire to promote Israel in Latin America and to boost political and economic ties with the various states there. (israelnationalnews.com)
  • The Transportation and Telecommunications ministry said it signed a $3 million agreement with the Development Bank of Latin America (CAF) to finance a feasibility study for the approximately 24,000-km (15,000-mile) trans-Pacific cable. (reuters.com)
  • Lugo's vice president, Federico Franco, a member of the Liberal Party, which had initially backed Lugo in the 2008 election, but later withdrew from his political coalition, became president amid vocal opposition from many South American leaders, who characterized the action as a parliamentary coup d'etat. (ibtimes.com)
  • It is true, as some historians and pundits point out, that the Republican Party's post-World War II resurgence in the South owed a lot to its appeal to suburbanites and business elites. (politico.com)
  • Now it appears it may have been an important part of the South American diet for much longer than previously thought, according to new research by University of Calgary archaeologists who are cobbling together the ancient history of plant domestication in the New World. (eurekalert.org)
  • How The World Sees America Love And Hate Distort Image Of. (orlandosentinel.com)
  • Read Foreign Policy staffers' reviews of recent releases on America in the world, English piracy in the Indian Ocean, and mass murder in Indonesia. (foreignpolicy.com)
  • The Anglican Church of South America (previously: Anglican Church of the Southern Cone of America) is a member of the World Council of Churches since 1995. (oikoumene.org)
  • African American history and Texas history have been intertwined since the first Africans and Europeans arrived in this part of the world. (jhu.edu)