Ability to determine the specific location of a sound source.
A type of non-ionizing radiation in which energy is transmitted through solid, liquid, or gas as compression waves. Sound (acoustic or sonic) radiation with frequencies above the audible range is classified as ultrasonic. Sound radiation below the audible range is classified as infrasonic.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.
The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.
The hearing and equilibrium system of the body. It consists of three parts: the EXTERNAL EAR, the MIDDLE EAR, and the INNER EAR. Sound waves are transmitted through this organ where vibration is transduced to nerve signals that pass through the ACOUSTIC NERVE to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The inner ear also contains the vestibular organ that maintains equilibrium by transducing signals to the VESTIBULAR NERVE.
The posterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which contain centers for auditory function.
Hearing loss due to disease of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS (in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM) which originate in the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the PONS and then ascend bilaterally to the MIDBRAIN, the THALAMUS, and then the AUDITORY CORTEX in the TEMPORAL LOBE. Bilateral lesions of the auditory pathways are usually required to cause central hearing loss. Cortical deafness refers to loss of hearing due to bilateral auditory cortex lesions. Unilateral BRAIN STEM lesions involving the cochlear nuclei may result in unilateral hearing loss.
The ability or act of sensing and transducing ACOUSTIC STIMULATION to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is also called audition.
The science pertaining to the interrelationship of psychologic phenomena and the individual's response to the physical properties of sound.
The audibility limit of discriminating sound intensity and pitch.
A part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA situated in the olivary body. It is involved with motor control and is a major source of sensory input to the CEREBELLUM.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
The graphic registration of the frequency and intensity of sounds, such as speech, infant crying, and animal vocalizations.
The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.
Any sound which is unwanted or interferes with HEARING other sounds.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
The branch of physics that deals with sound and sound waves. In medicine it is often applied in procedures in speech and hearing studies. With regard to the environment, it refers to the characteristics of a room, auditorium, theatre, building, etc. that determines the audibility or fidelity of sounds in it. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The outer part of the hearing system of the body. It includes the shell-like EAR AURICLE which collects sound, and the EXTERNAL EAR CANAL, the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE, and the EXTERNAL EAR CARTILAGES.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Electronic devices that increase the magnitude of a signal's power level or current.
A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.
Personal devices for protection of the ears from loud or high intensity noise, water, or cold. These include earmuffs and earplugs.
Partial hearing loss in both ears.
Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The family Gryllidae consists of the common house cricket, Acheta domesticus, which is used in neurological and physiological studies. Other genera include Gryllotalpa (mole cricket); Gryllus (field cricket); and Oecanthus (tree cricket).
An auditory orientation mechanism involving the emission of high frequency sounds which are reflected back to the emitter (animal).
Voluntary or involuntary motion of head that may be relative to or independent of body; includes animals and humans.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.
Member of the genus Trichechus inhabiting the coast and coastal rivers of the southeastern United States as well as the West Indies and the adjacent mainland from Vera Cruz, Mexico to northern South America. (From Scott, Concise Encyclopedia Biology, 1996)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The ability to estimate periods of time lapsed or duration of time.
Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A dimension of auditory sensation varying with cycles per second of the sound stimulus.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.
Surgical insertion of an electronic hearing device (COCHLEAR IMPLANTS) with electrodes to the COCHLEAR NERVE in the inner ear to create sound sensation in patients with residual nerve fibers.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Wearable sound-amplifying devices that are intended to compensate for impaired hearing. These generic devices include air-conduction hearing aids and bone-conduction hearing aids. (UMDNS, 1999)
The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Act of listening for sounds within the heart.
Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.
The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Midbrain combinatorial code for temporal and spectral information in concurrent acoustic signals. (1/773)

All vocal species, including humans, often encounter simultaneous (concurrent) vocal signals from conspecifics. To segregate concurrent signals, the auditory system must extract information regarding the individual signals from their summed waveforms. During the breeding season, nesting male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) congregate in localized regions of the intertidal zone and produce long-duration (>1 min), multi-harmonic signals ("hums") during courtship of females. The hums of neighboring males often overlap, resulting in acoustic beats with amplitude and phase modulations at the difference frequencies (dFs) between their fundamental frequencies (F0s) and harmonic components. Behavioral studies also show that midshipman can localize a single hum-like tone when presented with a choice between two concurrent tones that originate from separate speakers. A previous study of the neural mechanisms underlying the segregation of concurrent signals demonstrated that midbrain neurons temporally encode a beat's dF through spike synchronization; however, spectral information about at least one of the beat's components is also required for signal segregation. Here we examine the encoding of spectral differences in beat signals by midbrain neurons. The results show that, although the spike rate responses of many neurons are sensitive to the spectral composition of a beat, virtually all midbrain units can encode information about differences in the spectral composition of beat stimuli via their interspike intervals (ISIs) with an equal distribution of ISI spectral sensitivity across the behaviorally relevant dFs. Together, temporal encoding in the midbrain of dF information through spike synchronization and of spectral information through ISI could permit the segregation of concurrent vocal signals.  (+info)

Desynchronizing responses to correlated noise: A mechanism for binaural masking level differences at the inferior colliculus. (2/773)

We examined the adequacy of decorrelation of the responses to dichotic noise as an explanation for the binaural masking level difference (BMLD). The responses of 48 low-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus of anesthetized guinea pigs were recorded to binaurally presented noise with various degrees of interaural correlation and to interaurally correlated noise in the presence of 500-Hz tones in either zero or pi interaural phase. In response to fully correlated noise, neurons' responses were modulated with interaural delay, showing quasiperiodic noise delay functions (NDFs) with a central peak and side peaks, separated by intervals roughly equivalent to the period of the neuron's best frequency. For noise with zero interaural correlation (independent noises presented to each ear), neurons were insensitive to the interaural delay. Their NDFs were unmodulated, with the majority showing a level of activity approximately equal to the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF obtained with fully correlated noise. Partial decorrelation of the noise resulted in NDFs that were, in general, intermediate between the fully correlated and fully decorrelated noise. Presenting 500-Hz tones simultaneously with fully correlated noise also had the effect of demodulating the NDFs. In the case of tones with zero interaural phase, this demodulation appeared to be a saturation process, raising the discharge at all noise delays to that at the largest peak in the NDF. In the majority of neurons, presenting the tones in pi phase had a similar effect on the NDFs to decorrelating the noise; the response was demodulated toward the mean of the peaks and troughs of the NDF. Thus the effect of added tones on the responses of delay-sensitive inferior colliculus neurons to noise could be accounted for by a desynchronizing effect. This result is entirely consistent with cross-correlation models of the BMLD. However, in some neurons, the effects of an added tone on the NDF appeared more extreme than the effect of decorrelating the noise, suggesting the possibility of additional inhibitory influences.  (+info)

Early visual experience shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain gaze fields of the barn owl. (3/773)

Auditory spatial information is processed in parallel forebrain and midbrain pathways. Sensory experience early in life has been shown to exert a powerful influence on the representation of auditory space in the midbrain space-processing pathway. The goal of this study was to determine whether early experience also shapes the representation of auditory space in the forebrain. Owls were raised wearing prismatic spectacles that shifted the visual field in the horizontal plane. This manipulation altered the relationship between interaural time differences (ITDs), the principal cue used for azimuthal localization, and locations of auditory stimuli in the visual field. Extracellular recordings were used to characterize ITD tuning in the auditory archistriatum (AAr), a subdivision of the forebrain gaze fields, in normal and prism-reared owls. Prism rearing altered the representation of ITD in the AAr. In prism-reared owls, unit tuning for ITD was shifted in the adaptive direction, according to the direction of the optical displacement imposed by the spectacles. Changes in ITD tuning involved the acquisition of unit responses to adaptive ITD values and, to a lesser extent, the elimination of responses to nonadaptive (previously normal) ITD values. Shifts in ITD tuning in the AAr were similar to shifts in ITD tuning observed in the optic tectum of the same owls. This experience-based adjustment of binaural tuning in the AAr helps to maintain mutual registry between the forebrain and midbrain representations of auditory space and may help to ensure consistent behavioral responses to auditory stimuli.  (+info)

Auditory perception: does practice make perfect? (4/773)

Recent studies have shown that adult humans can learn to localize sounds relatively accurately when provided with altered localization cues. These experiments provide further evidence for experience-dependent plasticity in the mature brain.  (+info)

Single cortical neurons serve both echolocation and passive sound localization. (5/773)

The pallid bat uses passive listening at low frequencies to detect and locate terrestrial prey and reserves its high-frequency echolocation for general orientation. While hunting, this bat must attend to both streams of information. These streams are processed through two parallel, functionally specialized pathways that are segregated at the level of the inferior colliculus. This report describes functionally bimodal neurons in auditory cortex that receive converging input from these two pathways. Each brain stem pathway imposes its own suite of response properties on these cortical neurons. Consequently, the neurons are bimodally tuned to low and high frequencies, and respond selectively to both noise transients used in prey detection, and downward frequency modulation (FM) sweeps used in echolocation. A novel finding is that the monaural and binaural response properties of these neurons can change as a function of the sound presented. The majority of neurons appeared binaurally inhibited when presented with noise but monaural or binaurally facilitated when presented with the echolocation pulse. Consequently, their spatial sensitivity will change, depending on whether the bat is engaged in echolocation or passive listening. These results demonstrate that the response properties of single cortical neurons can change with behavioral context and suggest that they are capable of supporting more than one behavior.  (+info)

Functional selection of adaptive auditory space map by GABAA-mediated inhibition. (6/773)

The external nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the barn owl contains an auditory map of space that is based on the tuning of neurons for interaural differences in the timing of sound. In juvenile owls, this region of the brain can acquire alternative maps of interaural time difference as a result of abnormal experience. It has been found that, in an external nucleus that is expressing a learned, abnormal map, the circuitry underlying the normal map still exists but is functionally inactivated by inhibition mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. This inactivation results from disproportionately strong inhibition of specific input channels to the network. Thus, experience-driven changes in patterns of inhibition, as well as adjustments in patterns of excitation, can contribute critically to adaptive plasticity in the central nervous system.  (+info)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. (7/773)

Sensitivity to simulated directional sound motion in the rat primary auditory cortex. This paper examines neuron responses in rat primary auditory cortex (AI) during sound stimulation of the two ears designed to simulate sound motion in the horizontal plane. The simulated sound motion was synthesized from mathematical equations that generated dynamic changes in interaural phase, intensity, and Doppler shifts at the two ears. The simulated sounds were based on moving sources in the right frontal horizontal quadrant. Stimuli consisted of three circumferential segments between 0 and 30 degrees, 30 and 60 degrees, and 60 and 90 degrees and four radial segments at 0, 30, 60, and 90 degrees. The constant velocity portion of each segment was 0.84 m long. The circumferential segments and center of the radial segments were calculated to simulate a distance of 2 m from the head. Each segment had two trajectories that simulated motion in both directions, and each trajectory was presented at two velocities. Young adult rats were anesthetized, the left primary auditory cortex was exposed, and microelectrode recordings were obtained from sound responsive cells in AI. All testing took place at a tonal frequency that most closely approximated the best frequency of the unit at a level 20 dB above the tuning curve threshold. The results were presented on polar plots that emphasized the two directions of simulated motion for each segment rather than the location of sound in space. The trajectory exhibiting a "maximum motion response" could be identified from these plots. "Neuron discharge profiles" within these trajectories were used to demonstrate neuron activity for the two motion directions. Cells were identified that clearly responded to simulated uni- or multidirectional sound motion (39%), that were sensitive to sound location only (19%), or that were sound driven but insensitive to our location or sound motion stimuli (42%). The results demonstrated the capacity of neurons in rat auditory cortex to selectively process dynamic stimulus conditions representing simulated motion on the horizontal plane. Our data further show that some cells were responsive to location along the horizontal plane but not sensitive to motion. Cells sensitive to motion, however, also responded best to the moving sound at a particular location within the trajectory. It would seem that the mechanisms underlying sensitivity to sound location as well as direction of motion converge on the same cell.  (+info)

Influence of head position on the spatial representation of acoustic targets. (8/773)

Sound localization in humans relies on binaural differences (azimuth cues) and monaural spectral shape information (elevation cues) and is therefore the result of a neural computational process. Despite the fact that these acoustic cues are referenced with respect to the head, accurate eye movements can be generated to sounds in complete darkness. This ability necessitates the use of eye position information. So far, however, sound localization has been investigated mainly with a fixed head position, usually straight ahead. Yet the auditory system may rely on head motor information to maintain a stable and spatially accurate representation of acoustic targets in the presence of head movements. We therefore studied the influence of changes in eye-head position on auditory-guided orienting behavior of human subjects. In the first experiment, we used a visual-auditory double-step paradigm. Subjects made saccadic gaze shifts in total darkness toward brief broadband sounds presented before an intervening eye-head movement that was evoked by an earlier visual target. The data show that the preceding displacements of both eye and head are fully accounted for, resulting in spatially accurate responses. This suggests that auditory target information may be transformed into a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. To further investigate this possibility, we exploited the unique property of the auditory system that sound elevation is extracted independently from pinna-related spectral cues. In the absence of such cues, accurate elevation detection is not possible, even when head movements are made. This is shown in a second experiment where pure tones were localized at a fixed elevation that depended on the tone frequency rather than on the actual target elevation, both under head-fixed and -free conditions. To test, in a third experiment, whether the perceived elevation of tones relies on a head- or space-fixed target representation, eye movements were elicited toward pure tones while subjects kept their head in different vertical positions. It appeared that each tone was localized at a fixed, frequency-dependent elevation in space that shifted to a limited extent with changes in head elevation. Hence information about head position is used under static conditions too. Interestingly, the influence of head position also depended on the tone frequency. Thus tone-evoked ocular saccades typically showed a partial compensation for changes in static head position, whereas noise-evoked eye-head saccades fully compensated for intervening changes in eye-head position. We propose that the auditory localization system combines the acoustic input with head-position information to encode targets in a spatial (or body-centered) frame of reference. In this way, accurate orienting responses may be programmed despite intervening eye-head movements. A conceptual model, based on the tonotopic organization of the auditory system, is presented that may account for our findings.  (+info)

ITD - Interaural time difference. Looking for abbreviations of ITD? It is Interaural time difference. Interaural time difference listed as ITD
In this post, I want to come back on a remark I made in a previous post, on the relationship between vision and spatial hearing. It appears that my account of the comparative study of Heffner and Heffner (Heffner & Heffner, 1992) was not accurate. Their findings are in fact even more interesting than I thought. They find that sound localization acuity across mammalian species is best predicted not by visual acuity, but by the width of the field of best vision.. Before I comment on this result, I need to explain a few details. Sound localization acuity was measured behaviorally in a left/right discrimination task near the midline, with broadband sounds. The authors report this discrimination threshold for 23 mammalian species, from gerbils to elephants. They then try to relate this value to various other quantities: the largest interaural time difference (ITD), which is directly related to head size, visual acuity (highest angular density of retinal cells), whether the animals are predatory or ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid Applications using Wireless Microphones. AU - Farmani, Mojtaba. AU - Pedersen, M. S.. AU - Jensen, Jesper. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - State-of-the-art hearing AIDS (HAs) can connect to a wireless microphone worn by a talker of interest.This ability allows HAs to have access to almost noise-free sound signals of the target talker.In this paper, we aim to estimate the direction of arrival (DoA) of the target signal,given access to the noise-free target signal. Knowing the DoA of the target signal enables HAs to spatialize the wirelessly received target signals.The proposed estimator is based on a maximum likelihood (ML) approach and a database of DoA-dependent relative transfer functions (RTFs),and it supports both monaural and binaural microphone array configurations. For binaural configurations,we propose an information fusion strategy, which decreases the number of parameters required to be wirelessly transferred between the HAs. Further, ...
Sensory systems evolved to encode biologically important information carried by noisy signals. Elucidating mechanisms of robust sensory coding remains a basic problem in neuroscience (Rieke et al., 1999). One highly conserved sensory capacity that lends itself to the study of this problem is that of sound source localization. Sound localization subserves predator avoidance, prey capture, situational awareness, and communication. In mammals, relative differences in the time of arrival and intensity of sound at the two ears, interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs), respectively, provide the major cues to sound source location in the horizontal plane (Grothe et al., 2010). ITDs are encoded primarily by neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO), which are exquisitely sensitive to the relative timing of the signal at each ear (Goldberg and Brown, 1969). However, natural perturbations in the relative timing of the signal at each ear (e.g., due to reverberation) ...
Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are associated with auditory hyper- or hyposensitivity; atypicalities in central auditory processes, such as speech-processing and selective auditory attention; and neural connectivity deficits. We sought to investigate whether the low-level integrative processes underlying sound localization and spatial discrimination are affected in ASDs.. Methods: We performed 3 behavioural experiments to probe different connecting neural pathways: 1) horizontal and vertical localization of auditory stimuli in a noisy background, 2) vertical localization of repetitive frequency sweeps and 3) discrimination of horizontally separated sound stimuli with a short onset difference (precedence effect).. Results: Ten adult participants with ASDs and 10 healthy control listeners participated in experiments 1 and 3; sample sizes for experiment 2 were 18 adults with ASDs and 19 controls. Horizontal localization was unaffected, but vertical localization performance was ...
Although many studies have examined the precedence effect (PE), few have tested whether it shows a buildup and breakdown in nonhuman animals comparable to that seen in humans. These processes are thought to reflect the ability of the auditory system to adjust to a listeners acoustic environment, and their mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, ferrets were trained on a two-alternative forced-choice task to discriminate the azimuthal direction of brief sounds. In one experiment, pairs of noise bursts were presented from two loudspeakers at different interstimulus delays (ISDs). Results showed that localization performance changed as a function of ISD in a manner consistent with the PE being operative. A second experiment investigated buildup and breakdown of the PE by measuring the ability of ferrets to discriminate the direction of a click pair following presentation of a conditioning train. Human listeners were also tested using this paradigm. In both species, performance was better
Eric Mousset ,[email protected], wrote: ,The department I am working for is considering purchasing some ,equipment for research purposes in binaural hearing (HRTF-based sound ,source localisation, amongst others). ,The computer on which we are intending to run the (real-time) binaural ,analyses is a PC running LINUX. , ,1) Part of the question is general and applies to anyone interested , in real-time sound source localisation with a pair of mics as input: , There are apparently two main options for the acquisition of the , acoustic signals: a sound-card vs an A/D convertor. How do they compare? , ,2) Linux-oriented question: Do most cards have drivers for Linux? , , ,Many thanks in advance. , , ,Eric. We at Mark Konishis lab, Caltech, do exactly what you want to do, it seems. We use have computers running Linux 2.x and SunOS 4.1.x to do both behavioral studies and neurophysiology concerning sound localization in owls. We have done experiments with HRTF-based sound source localization, ...
The network underlying sound localization is similar in all vertebrates, although the exact mechanisms underlying the use, the neural extraction and the neural representation may be different in different vertebrate classes. This is not surprising, because, for example birds and mammals have independently developed for several hundreds of millions of years. We study the representation of sound-localization cues at several levels, from the first station of binaural detection in nucleus laminaris to the midbrain-nucleus colliculus inferior, where a first remodeling of the representation occurs and the forebrain, where a further remodeling occurs. We mainly use extracellular recording techniques and combine these with theoretical results. The groups of Thomas Kuenzel and Marcus Wirth complement our approach by working with chicken, an auditory generalist, on the molecular and cellular levels. ...
The term binaural literally signifies to hear with two ears, and was introduced in 1859 to signify the practice of listening to the same sound through both ears, or to two discrete sounds, one through each ear. It was not until 1916 that Carl Stumpf (1848-1936), a German philosopher and psychologist, distinguished between dichotic listening, which refers to the stimulation of each ear with a different stimulus, and diotic listening, the simultaneous stimulation of both ears with the same stimulus.[27] Later, it would become apparent that binaural hearing, whether dichotic or diotic, is the means by which sound localization occurs.[27][28][page needed] Scientific consideration of binaural hearing began before the phenomenon was so named, with speculations published in 1792 by William Charles Wells (1757-1817) based on his research into binocular vision.[29] Giovanni Battista Venturi (1746-1822) conducted and described experiments in which people tried to localize a sound using both ears, or ...
Virtual Spaces as Artifacts: Implications for the Design of Educational CVEs: 10.4018/jdet.2004100106: Space is important for learning and socializing. Cyberworlds provide a new space for socialization and communication with a great degree of flexibility
Although we frequently take advantage of memory for objects locations in everyday life, understanding how an objects identity is bound correctly to its location remains unclear. Here we examine how information about object identity, location and crucially object-location associations are differentially susceptible to forgetting, over variable retention intervals and memory load. In our task, participants relocated objects to their remembered locations using a touchscreen. When participants mislocalized objects, their reports were clustered around the locations of other objects in the array, rather than occurring randomly. These swap errors could not be attributed to simple failure to remember either the identity or location of the objects, but rather appeared to arise from failure to bind object identity and location in memory. Moreover, such binding failures significantly contributed to decline in localization performance over retention time. We conclude that when objects are forgotten they do not
Petoe, M. A., McCarthy, C. D., Shivdasani, M. N., Sinclair, N. C., Scott, A. F., Ayton, L. N., … Blamey, P. J. (2017). Determining the Contribution of Retinotopic Discrimination to Localization Performance With a Suprachoroidal Retinal Prosthesis. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 58(7), 3231. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-21041. View more ...
Interaural time differences (lTDs) are one of the cues used for binaural sound localisation. In birds, RDs are computed in nucleus laminaris (NL), where a place code of azimuthal location first emerges. In chickens, NL consists of a monolayer of bitufted cells that receive segregated inputs from ipsi- and contralateral nucleus magnocellularis (NM). In ham owls, the monolayer organisation, the bitufted morphology, and the segregation of inputs have been lost, giving rise to a derived organisation that is accompanied by a reorganisation of the auditory place code. Although chickens and ham owls have been the traditional experimental models in which to study lTD coding, they represent distant evolutionary lineages with very different auditory specialisations. Here we examined the structure of NL in several bird lineages. We have found only two NL morphotypes, one of which appears to have emerged in association with high frequency hearing ...
The auditory circuit that we are studying helps to locate sound sources in space and illustrates beautifully how development is instrumental in shaping function. A major cue for an animal to locate sound sources compares the arrival time of the sound at the two ears. The time difference in sound reaching each ear, termed interaural time difference (ITD), varies from zero (sound directly ahead) to approximately 300 microseconds (depending on the size of head). The circuit operates as an AND logical gate where synaptic input from the ear closest to the sound sets up a map of space along an array of neurons which is compared to synaptic input from the ear furthest away from the sound. This identifies the location of sound in a subset of neurons along this array through dendritic integration to detect temporal coincidence of the two inputs. This calculation is performed at each characteristic frequency of sound using different arrays of neurons that are juxtaposed to form a sheet of cells in the ...
Figure 4. Intrinsic regulation of the Erev for Cl− channels in LLDp neurons. A, eIPSCs from a sample neuron were inward initially (black) and shifted polarity (blue) during whole-cell recording. B, The eIPSC amplitudes are plotted over time showing that the shift occurred at about 8 min after whole-cell recording began. C, Population data of eIPSC amplitude over time (n = 16). eIPSCs were largely observed as inward currents initially, but in many cells the current became outward over time during whole-cell recordings. The shift in polarity generally occurred within 20 min. D, After the eIPSC became outward, bath application of furosemide (500 μm), a KCC2 antagonist, returned the eIPSC to an inward current. Inset, eIPSC traces correspond to the following conditions: control (a, 1 min), after the polarity shift (b, 10 min), and during furosemide application (c, 28 min). E, The Erev during control (left), after the polarity shift (middle, +10 min), and during furosemide application (right) was ...
United States Patent 3,423,543 LOUDSPEAKER WITH PIEZOELECTRIC WAFER DRIVING ELEMENTS Harry W. Kompanek, 153 Rametto Road, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93103 Filed June 24, 1965, Ser. No. 466,599 US. Cl. 179-410 Int. Cl. Htl4r 15/00 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DTSCLQSURE This invention relates to a loudspeaker and more particularly to a loudspeaker driven by piezoelectric means. As is well known, a piezoelectric wafer such as a barium titanate ceramic, produces an electric voltage when it is mechanically deformed. Conversely, when an AC. voltage is applied across the wafer, the wafer is mechanically deformed and tends to cup. When the piezoelectric wafer is secured to a member such as a plate and an A.C. voltage is applied across the wafer, the wafer causes the entire plate to cup back and forth and to produce sound. As the characteristics of the deformations or vibrations in the plate depend upon the characteristics of the voltage applied across the piezoelectric wafer, sound of substantially any frequency ...
Goodman DFM, Brette R, 2010, Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization., PLoS Comput Biol, Vol: 6 Spike timing is precise in the auditory system and it has been argued that it conveys information about auditory stimuli, in particular about the location of a sound source. However, beyond simple time differences, the way in which neurons might extract this information is unclear and the potential computational advantages are unknown. The computational difficulty of this task for an animal is to locate the source of an unexpected sound from two monaural signals that are highly dependent on the unknown source signal. In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. Location-specific synchrony patterns would then result in the activation of location-specific assemblies of postsynaptic neurons. We ...
METHOD AND DEVICE FOR ENHANCED SOUND FIELD REPRODUCTION OF SPATIALLY ENCODED AUDIO INPUT SIGNALS - A method for sound field reproduction into a listening area of spatially encoded first audio input signals according to sound field description data using an ensemble of physical loudspeakers. The method includes computing reproduction subspace description data from loudspeaker positioning data describing the subspace in which virtual sources can be reproduced with the physically available setup. Then, second and third audio input signals with associated sound field description data, in which second audio input signals include spatial components of the first audio input signals located within the reproducible subspace and third audio input signals include spatial components of the first audio input signals located outside of the reproducible subspace. A spatial analysis is performed on second audio input signals to extract fourth audio input signals corresponding to localizable sources within the ...
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This paper presents a conceptual framework for sound diffusion: the process of presenting multiple channels of audio to an audience in a live performance context, via loudspeakers. Terminology that allows us to concisely describe the task of sound diffusion is defined. The conceptual model is described using this terminology. The model allows audio channels (sources) and loudspeakers (destinations) to be grouped logically, which, in turn, allows for sophisticated abstract methods of control that supercede the restrictive one-fader-one-loudspeaker approach. The Resound project - an open source software initiative conceived to implement and further develop the conceptual model - is introduced. The aim is, through further theoretical and practice led research into the conceptual model and software respectively, to address the technical, logistical and aesthetic issues inherent in the process of sound diffusion.. ...
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The current working driver which enables the sound source to move completely along the sphere is VBAP inspired by Ville Pulkki. Initial tests and subject response have show VBAP to produce high accuracy with point source localization in accordance with the virtual space. Further implementations involving physical modeling for PD have been added to the interface such as a spring. Tests have been done in which 9 point sources attached along a stretchy string move along the sphere in which the user purturbs it in real-time with great results. In Progress ...
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For the spatial task, participants navigated a path through virtual space; for the procedural task, they indicated under which of four position markers a dot appeared by rapidly pressing a keystroke. For the unrelated oddball task, participants lay in the scanner and mentally counted the deviant sounds embedded in a monotonous soundtrack. These oddball sessions occurred immediately before a task providing baseline brain activity immediately after a 30-minute training session, and again after a 30-minute rest period. A short behavioral test followed the last oddball session, then participants were scanned a fourth time while performing their task to identify brain regions associated with each task. Two weeks later, individuals were tested on the alternate task, so the researchers could compare post-training modulated brain activity associated with each task ...
Your room will be a source of serious consternation for years to come for other pioneers in the speaker field. Both of you are well aware that most consumers dont have reverberant rooms like yours. You work hard to find compatible components. Why not exercise the same diligence in finding a compatible room? Peter Mitchells favorite loudspeaker over $5000, as listed in Critics Choice, is the Altec Bias 550. He is a senior, well-respected audio journalist. Where, oh where is truth?
Andrew Robinson says this incredibly affordable speaker could well be an enthusiast's entry point and final destination when shopping for a loudspeaker....
Richard Shahinian has been offering loudspeakers to music lovers for more than 15 years. I use the word offering here in its strictest sense, because Dick has never sold his products-by pushing them. Indeed, he is probably one of the worst self-promoters in the business. If we think of soft sell in the usual context of laid-back and low-pressure, then Shahinians approach would have to be called mushy sell.
We continue to study the axial patterning of the Drosophila oocyte, with the primary emphasis on localization and translational regulation of mRNAs that encode localized patterning determinants. Bruno protein is crucial for this process, and serves to recognize the oskar mRNA and control its activity. Bruno acts as both a repressor and an activator of translation, and we are asking how Bruno performs each role and how it decides whether to repress or activate. Our work has also led us to focus on the role of cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes in this regulation, as well as on the role of small regulatory RNAs.. ...
GW is a shared virtual space which acts to broadcast messages of certain coalitions to all processors, in order to recruit others to join. In summary, GW serves to integrate many competing and cooperating networks of processes. Global behavior will be driven by a myriad of local micro-behaviors rather than whats happening in current networks, where a former built knowledge representation is used to manage the networks behavior. Practically the approach permits to rehearse global behaviors prior enacting local processes; said behaviors are evaluated, and the relative salience of a set of concurrently executable actions can be modulated as a result: those behaviors whose outcome is associated to a gain (or reward) become more and more salient and, at the end, selected and executed (e.g. with winner-take-all-strategy ...
Through one-on-one meetings, researchers, biotech companies and business development executives from biopharmaceutical companies will be able to network in a virtual space, discuss latest research from oncology congresses, pitch ideas and partner to prioritize research efforts that hold the most promise.
Join Alice, Bob and Cheryl as we chat with Jo McLeay about how her network has been creating a path for sustainability before and after the conference. A little while into the show Sue Tapp hopped into the chat room and then she joined the conversation. It was great to hear about how our friends in Australia are creating virtual spaces for conversations can happen before, during and after conferences. Jo gives some great advice for anyone attending NECC. Here is the Delicious: Geek of the Week! Here is the Chat: The chat has some great impromptu links for avatars, geek of the week and other random conversations which are great. 19:11:23 alicebarr -, -EdTechTalk: http://docs.google.com/?pli=1#folders/folder.0.37b35de4-e192-4ba3-9790-7... ...
The symbol of Power outside the virtual space of Cattle Depot. A giant panda is sitting on the symbol and devouring bamboo ...
Discovering the demise of a once much-loved (by me) website this morning got me pondering my public online presence, which is now in its 17th year. In the rapidly-evolving world of wires in which so many of us now live, this makes me something of a greybeard in a virtual space that I never imagined…
The latest episode was a young woman who reached through a crowd of other standing people to touch me on the arm and wave in a frantic pantomime that I could have her seat. [...] precedence based on age is the fairest system. Why have a precedence system at all (you may ask)? Because the absence of an accepted one results in the me-first system of shoving. Miss Manners only hopes that by that time, the concept of respect for the elderly will not have been killed off by misplaced vanity.
WASHINGTON, March 24, 2009 - The Federal Communications Commission on Tuesday outlined the procedures by which parties wishing to provide written or oral
Ultrasound, also called sonography or ultrasonography, it requires disclosure of certain body parts to high-frequency sound waves to produce images from inside the body. Ultrasound does not use ionizing radiation (used in X-rays). Because ultrasound images are captured in real time, can show the structure and movement of internal organs, and blood flowing through blood vessels ...
Ultrasound imaging, or sonography, produces images of the inside of the body using high-frequency sound waves. These images are captured in real-time, and are able to show the structure and movement of the organs.. Ultrasound imaging can be used to monitor and diagnose a wide range of conditions within nearly any system of the body. This test may be performed on patients experiencing pain, swelling or infection in a certain area of the body ...
Ultrasound examination, also called sonography, is an imaging method that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of structures within your body.
Ultrasonic cleaners use high-frequency sound waves to create bubble cavitation, which removes contaminants from tools and instruments immersed in the liquid cleaner. This method is gentle on tools and more thorough than hand-cleaning. See our catalog of ultrasonic cleaners from Mettler, Midmark, and Tuttnauer.
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Central vs Pacific Time To confidently differentiate between Central and Pacific Time, it is important to understand the time variations that govern the earth.
Active loudspeaker specialist ATC has revealed its new flagship passive loudspeaker, the EL150. Priced at a reassuringly expensive £25,000 per pair, the hand-built monitor is described as a daring technical and design statement and features no-compromise materials and state-of-the-art design
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Use of multiple subwoofers in a room is known to help in reducing the variation of response both as a function of frequency and a function of place, but simple geometry-based placement rules guarantee good results only in symmetrical cases. The paper discusses the use of experimental modal anlysis and numerical optimization based on modal behavior to determine the optimal placement of single or multiple subwoofers in rooms with arbitrary geometry and surface properties.
Description: Subject matter in which there is a) more than one movable membrane within an enclosure, or b) an enclosure having more than one distinct volume, or c) more than one enclosure ...
If you ever wondered whats the reason for the siren that you hear every Thursday at 13h00, here is the answer: it is a test for the general alert of the CEA Centre that starts with an intermittent sound and ends with a continuous alarm. So, what should you do in case of an emergency? First of all, stay in the building you are in or enter the nearest building around; close all windows and doors and follow further instructions given through the loudspeakers; if required, take out the emergency mask and suit provided at the entrance of each building and put them on; if there are newcomers or visitors around, take care of them; use the telephone only for safety purposes ...
Goldmund had a very interesting and great sounding room at AXPONA using some new technology. It had two pieces of gear and the Logos Sukha loudspeakers in typical angled, stacked box format that Goldmund designs are known for. Sukha has an appropriate derivation, meaning the wisdom that allows us to see the world as it…
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Auditory cortex is required for sound localisation, but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. Specifically, whether neurons in auditory cortex represent spatial cues or an integrated representation of auditory space across cues is not known. Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative localisation task. Manipulating the availability of binaural and spectral localisation cues had little impact on ferrets performance, or on neural spatial tuning. A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial position consistently across localisation cue type. Furthermore, neural firing pattern decoders outperformed two-channel model decoders using population activity. Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. The brains auditory cortex is involved not just in detection of sounds, but also in localizing
Interaural intensity differences (IIDs) are important cues that animals use to localize high-frequency sounds. Neurons sensitive to IIDs are excited by stimulation of one ear and inhibited by stimulation of the other ear, such that the response magnitude of the cell depends on the relative strengths of the two inputs, which in turn depends on the sound intensities at the ears. In the auditory midbrain nucleus, the inferior colliculus (IC), many IID-sensitive neurons have response functions that decline steeply from maximum to zero spikes as a function of IID. However, there are also many neurons with much more shallow response functions that do not decline to zero spikes. We present evidence from single-unit recordings in the Free-tailed bats IC that this partially inhibited response pattern is a result of the inhibitory input to these cells being very brief (∼2 msec). Of the cells sampled, 54 of 137 (40%) achieved partial inhibition when tested with 60 msec tones, and the inhibition to these ...
Lesion studies suggest that primary auditory cortex (A1) is required for accurate sound localization by carnivores and primates. In order to elucidate further its role in spatial hearing, we examined the behavioural consequences of reversibly inactivating ferret A1 over long periods, using Elvax implants releasing the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol. Sub-dural polymer placements were shown to deliver relatively constant levels of muscimol to underlying cortex for |5 months. The measured diffusion of muscimol beneath and around the implant was limited to 1 mm. Cortical silencing was assessed electrophysiologically in both auditory and visual cortices. This exhibited rapid onset and was reversed within a few hours of implant removal. Inactivation of cortical neurons extended to all layers for implants lasting up to 6 weeks and throughout at least layers I-IV for longer placements, whereas thalamic activity in layer IV appeared to be unaffected. Blockade of cortical neurons in the deeper layers was
Here we are writing on which could be a next level 3D CAD human -machine interface.. Miraisens Inc., a Tokyo-based company, recently revealed to what they have named 3D-Haptics Technology. With the help of this new technology users can feel virtual 3D objects and move them around in virtual space.. In a demonstration of the technology, users moved virtual 3D objects via a sensor and fingertip molding that produces vibrations. The technology is a first of type and has a lot of promising utilities in the gaming world, 3D printing and the medical industry.. Haptic or kinesthetic communication rebuilds the sense of touch by applying forces, motions or vibrations to the user. This mechanical stimulation can be utilized to assist in creating virtual objects in a computer simulation, to control such virtual objects, and to enhance the remote control of machines and devices (telerobotics). Haptic devices might include tactile sensors that measure forces exerted by the user on the interface.. Miraisens ...
-BANDWIDTH PRODUCTS EXCEEDING 10,000, USING PASSIVE, UNGUIDED PROPAGATION. The report presents experimental results on a delay line having 1/2 millisecond delay and 5 MHz bandwidth. This is a helical SAW delay line on a Bi12GeO20 wrap-around crystal plate, operating at 50 MHz, which proves that practical two-port delay lines operating in the millisecond range are within the current technology. An analysis has been made of the problem of broadbanding the transducers for long delay lines of this kind, which involve different considerations than for standard short delay lines. A loss balancing criterion is developed, and computer results are presented which show the general design parameters for delay lines having time delays extending to one millisecond together with bandwidth extending to 60 MHz, using graded interdigital transducer arrays. (Modified author abstract)*Acoustic delay lines
Despite extensive subcortical processing, the auditory cortex is believed to be essential for normal sound localization. However, we still have a poor understanding of how auditory spatial information is encoded in the cortex and of the relative contribution of different cortical areas to spatial hearing. We investigated the behavioral consequences of inactivating ferret primary auditory cortex (A1) on auditory localization by implanting a sustained release polymer containing the GABA(A) agonist muscimol bilaterally over A1. Silencing A1 led to a reversible deficit in the localization of brief noise bursts in both the horizontal and vertical planes. In other ferrets, large bilateral lesions of the auditory cortex, which extended beyond A1, produced more severe and persistent localization deficits. To investigate the processing of spatial information by high-frequency A1 neurons, we measured their binaural-level functions and used individualized virtual acoustic space stimuli to record their spatial
Changes in neuronal excitability contribute to neurologic dysfunction in FXS (Contractor et al., 2015). In the auditory brainstem, where synaptic balance is a key factor in sound processing and sound localization (Tollin, 2003), increased excitability could lead to hyperacusis and difficulties in sound localization. Indeed, Fmr1 KO mice have shifted sensitivity for interaural level differences (Garcia-Pino et al., 2017). Enhanced gain leading to hyperacusis in FXS may originate, at least in part, in the auditory brainstem nuclei. The increase in VGAT in MNTB, a sign-inverting relay nucleus, could lead to enhanced excitation in targets of MNTB (Rotschafer et al., 2015); additionally, increased excitation in LSO has also been shown to arise from VCN (Garcia-Pino et al., 2017). Both of these observations suggest that the superior olivary complex may increase gain in the auditory pathway in Fmr1 KO mice.. In MNTB, increased VGAT expression in Fmr1 KO mice was seen at P6 and persisted into adulthood. ...
Certain aspects relate to providing an at least one audio source to at least one user. Certain aspects relate to selectively modifying an at least one first sound source to be provided to the at least one user, wherein the at least one first sound source is combined with an at least one second sound source, and wherein the selectively modifying is performed relative to the at least one audio source based at least in part on at least some specific information of the at least one first sound source. Other aspects relate to selectively modifying the at least one first sound source to be provided to the at least one user relative to the at least one second sound source based at least in part on at least some specific information of the at least one first sound source.
Sound localization is a basic processing task of the auditory system. The directional detection of an incident sound impinging on the ears relies on two acoustic cues: interaural amplitude and interau
It may be easy to see how a listening room with 22 loudspeakers can provide an immersive audio experience, but to recreate realistic 3D audio with a pair of headphones requires head-related transfer functions.
This dissertation focuses on the analog VLSI implementation of auditory nerve models using current mode circuit design techniques. The target application of these chips is sound source localization, a task difficult to accomplish using standard digital signaling processing methods, especially in a reverberant environment. The models and the resulting circuitry have not been previously used commercially. In general, the usage of such models requires a dramatic rethinking of how to process sound signals. The approach itself is called biomimetic; that is to say, mimicking natures biological systems, in this case the mammalian auditory system. The usage of a biomimetic scheme for sound processing is new and little or no circuitry has been developed to date to support such processing. This dissertation shows how appropriate circuits can be built, highlighting the importance of accuracy using analog VLSI. A 64 analog channel system design comprised of 512 very low frequency current mode integrators ...
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TY - GEN. T1 - Simulation-based analysis of the spatial sensitivity function of an electrical capacitance tomography system. AU - Fuchs, Anton. AU - Zangl, Hubert. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. M3 - Beitrag in einem Konferenzband. SP - 209. EP - 213. BT - Comsol Conference. PB - .. ER - ...
A transducer is configured to couple to the cochlear fluid so as to transmit sound with low amounts of energy, such that feed back to a microphone positioned in the ear canal is inhibited substantially. The cochlear fluid coupled hearing device can allow a user to determine from which side a sound originates with vibration of the cochlea and the user can also receive sound localization cues from the device, as feedback can be substantially inhibited. The transducer may be coupled to the cochlear fluid with a thin membrane disposed between the transducer and the cochlear fluid, for example with a fenestration in the cochlea. In some embodiments, a support coupled to the transducer directly contacts the fluid of the cochlea so as to couple the transducer to the cochlear fluid.
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary information 41467_2019_10868_MOESM1_ESM. cues got little effect on ferrets efficiency, or on neural spatial tuning. A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial placement?regularly across localisation cue type. Furthermore, neural firing pattern decoders outperformed two-channel model decoders using populace activity. Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. test, test, test, test, test, test, test, Bonferroni-corrected test, p 0.05). To elucidate whether models were representing the buy Geldanamycin spatial location of sounds independently of their underlying spatial cues, we contrasted the number of models that were useful about sound location across conditions in which unique binaural cues were offered (i.e., LPN, made up of ITDs, and either HPN or BPN, which did not contain fine-structure ITDs). We found that subpopulations of recorded cells were able to provide cue-independent ...
We are living in a society where we are addicted to our cell phones and computers. Without even realizing it, the moment we stare at those screens, we forget about the people around us and the rest of the world. Los Angeles based Turkish artist Refik Anadol wants us to slow down and make technology into something we consciously see and feel. His digital installations that project light and sound correlate to our experience of the world through a virtual lens. His most recent installation, titled the Infinity Room at Zorlu Performing Art Center in Turkey, is a trippy, black and white installation that uses audio and visual stimulation to alter ones sense of the room. For this, he installed a cinema screen, onto which 3D kinetic animation based on algorithms was projected. It is part of his ongoing project titled, Temporary Immersive Environment Experiments, which takes the idea of immersion. Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. ...
Images and other stimuli contain both local features (details, parts) and global features (the whole). Precedence refers to the level of processing (global or local) to which attention is first directed. Global precedence occurs when an individual more readily identifies the global feature when presented with a stimulus containing both global and local features. The global aspect of an object embodies the larger, overall image as a whole, whereas the local aspect consists of the individual features that make up this larger whole. Global processing is the act of processing a visual stimulus holistically. Although global precedence is generally more prevalent than local precedence, local preference also occurs under certain circumstances and for certain individuals. Global precedence is closely related to the Gestalt principles of grouping in that the global whole is a grouping of proximal and similar objects. Within global precedence, there is also the global interference effect, which occurs ...
The work shown is created in VRML, Virtual Reality Modeling Language. A VRML plugin is required, also the RealPlayer plugin.(Experience with VRML is recommended). It is greatly suggested that if you are unfamiliar with VRML that you explore smaller works first. These can be found on Mr. Guynups website or on the VRML plugin website. Also note that a web3d help menu is accessible on the lower HTML portion of the Virtual Crystal Cabinet interface. Audio: RealPlayer - ,http://www.real.com/,. VRML: Cortona - ,http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/,. Virtual Crystal Cabinet (Contact Version) ,http://www.pd.org/~thatguy/crystal_blaxxun/index.html, Virtual Crystal Cabinet (Cortona Version) ,http://www.pd.org/~thatguy/crystal/index.html,. Other works by Mr. Guynup ,http://www.pd.org/~thatguy,. William Blake - Original Author. The majority of credit must be directed towards the continuing power and visionary legacy of William Blake. We are grateful for the ability to use his work and project it ...
Fra i due lavori vincitori, il primo ad essere pubblicato è stato Psychotropic Drug Karaoke di Hans Bernhard ; opera che consiste in un blog dalla grafica asciutta e minimalista, dove lartista viennese pubblica post che informano sulle dosi di psicofarmaci che è costretto ad assumere quotidianamente, dopo lesaurimento nervoso connesso alla sua attività in Internet. Ogni messaggio scritto è accompagnato da un pezzo musicale metal core, dove le parole cantate sono il contenuto del post pubblicato. Psychotropic Drug Karaoke , con questa proiezione dello stato fisico personale sul territorio pubblico di un blog, mette in evidenza quale peso possa avere sulla nostra esistenza quotidiana, la vita allinterno della rete. Lopera è connessa a Psych,OS , una serie di lavori dello stesso artista, che riflettono sullinfluenza che la tecnologia può avere sugli stati psichici.. Laltro primo posto è dellartista australiana MEZ con _ID Xorcism_, unopera legata alla percezione dellidentità ...
This book systematically details the basic principles and applications of head-related transfer function (HRTF) and virtual auditory display (VAD), and reviews the latest developments in the field.
The broad aim of this research is to better understand the mechanisms of sound source perception. A critical aspect of perceiving distinct sound sources in mult...
With headphone listening, the naturally occurring left/right asymmetry in head and ear shapes can produce frequency-dependent variations in the perceived location of a sound source. In this paper, this phenomenon is studied by determining the interaural level differences required to center a set of narrow-band stimuli with different center frequencies. It is shown that the perceived asymmetry varies from one listener to another. Some of the asymmetry can be explained with asymmetry in...
Nasal sounds By Yasmina El Bakouri & Araceli Gómez Lets practise! Frequent problems /m/ Bilabial /n/ alveolar velar Exercise D Exercise B Exercise C Exercise A /m/ (bilabial) (velar) /n/ (alveolar) Highlights of theory... This sound is made by closing your mouth. Now use your voice to make a sound. The sound is made by putting the tip of your tongue on the roof of your mouth, right behind your teeth. To make this sound, put your tongue up against the roof of the back of your mouth. Now, make a sound using your voice. Contrast between /m/ and /n/ at the end of a word Listen and match the words below with the correct sound Find words which show the contrast between two sounds Make sentences with contrast sound words It doesnt present major problems, except when the sound is in a final position. This sound its similar to the Catalan or Spanish /n/, thats why it doesnt cause too many problems to our students No problematic (middle sound) Why are they ...
Free Online Library: Reliability of interaural time difference-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder.(Original Article, Report) by Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences; Health, general Aged patients Health aspects Training Brain Localization of functions Research Elderly patients Localization (Brain function) Perception, Disorders of Perceptual disorders
The primary reason for some encompass seem loudspeakers would be to envelop the actual audience - this really is in which the surround component originates from. As being a cinema, exactly where if your chance is actually terminated through at the rear of the smoothness on-screen, a person listen to the actual seem originating from at the rear of a person, along with some high quality loudspeakers, you are able to duplicate exactly the same encounter. However before you do this, you need to learn to location the actual loudspeakers correctly. This particular manual in order to encompass seem loudspeaker positioning can help you perform that.. The multi-channel encompass seem speakers is supposed to supply life-like, practical seem performance with regard to accurate immersion. The quantity of work a person put in putting the actual loudspeakers correctly can pay away if you find yourself obtaining totally submerged within a bit of songs or perhaps a film.. The majority of multi-channel ...
Intensity - The amount of energy transported by a wave across a unit area per unit of time. The intensity of a sound wave determines the loudness of the sound. The unit of intensity is (W/m2) The lowest intensity the human ear can detect is 10-12 W/m2 The highest intensity the human ear can detect is 1 W/m2 Therefore, the sound range of intensity if 10-12 W/m2 to 1 W/m2 If you increase the intensity of a sound wave by about 10 times, the sound will sound about twice as loud as the original. Sound intensity levels are specified on a logarithmic scale. Unit = bel, named after Alexander Graham Bell. The unit decibel (dB) is more commonly used. (1 dB = 1/10 bel) The sound level is defined in terms of its intensity. Sound level = 10dB * log(I/Io) Io = Standard reference intensity, usually the minimum intesnity audible to a good human ear = 1.0 x 10-12 W/m2 ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
When you see pictures of HiFi systems, the speakers are often placed close together or on either side of the unit and facing straight ahead. This looks great for the picture but will not deliver great sound, which would be a complete waste. So, when you set up, move the speakers as widely apart as you can and angle them so that the front of each speaker is facing square on to where you will listen from. This will allow a great soundstage which will be as wide and high as the room and give a solid 3D placement of sound sources which will reach all the way back through the wall. When placing the speakers, try not to put them into the corners of the room or too close to the back wall or you will get a lot of bass and boom. Play around with the siting of the loudspeakers in the room so that you can find the right place for them. If you turn the loudspeakers inwards so that they are pointing towards the centre of the room, there will not be any blank spots ...
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OSD Audio- ISS6 Single Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection (6-Zone) (ISS6) The OSD Audio ISS6 Single-Source Speaker Selector with Impedance Protection speaker selector is a powerful audio distribution system that can deliver audio to six zones. Completely flexible and an excellent unit if you plan on expanding later, individual on/off selectors for each listening zone distribute one stereo speaker-level signal to six stereo listening zones. The manual power protection switch engages 10_/15-watt resistors wired in parallel, two per channel. This selector is capable of handling 140 watts per channel total input power without the manual protection engaged and 70 watts per channel with the protection engaged.
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Screen is an independent magazine that offers its readers a moment of perspective on our daily behaviours towards screens. This first edition focuses on the study of space itself and the transformations screens generate around them. Writers, photographers and designers explore the link between the physical and the virtual space; the screen becomes a border, or an interface.. This project was a good experience to understand every step of a magazines creation from design to production. ...
Usually when Im looking for some information from the field did not look into the blogs. The general opinion is lingering argument that blogs teenagers who have problems with them during puberty. That is why so much unnecessary information in them and nothing you can learn. But it is also worth a bit more to figure out in what gives us a virtual space, because we find it much more interesting things. Sam very surprised when I found out that blogs can be something other than just the diaries, but it turned out that you can find some very valuable pages of this type. Therefore I dare to recommend this blog. There are a lot of interesting information which may well expand their knowledge and make our field of interest has expanded strongly. So definitely worth a look at this blog. It is ideal for anyone who is interested in this topic. This blog has many interesting categories, which contain a variety of texts, to which it is worth noting. At the beginning I did not believe that so powerful a blog ...
The virtual space is proving effective in gaining real-world experiences. April 2021 - Drew Theological School is rooted in the belief that real-world experiences are essential. Posted on: March 29, 2021. ...
Doom. I have already killed so many demons and I have seen so much blood that my head spins, when I return for the umpteenth time to enter the underground warehouse ... Then, it is as if the virtual spaces had been introduced in some parallel way to my body, as atomic fractions, viruses,…
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We report the design and testing of a novel linear scanning periodic optical delay line (ODL) by use of a helicoid reflective mirror based on a tilted parabolic generatrix that was driven by an electrical motor for a periodic change in the optical path length of the reflected light beam. The divergence and pulse front distortion of the optical beam reflected by the helicoid reflective mirror were simulated based on differential geometry. With a round-trip pass arrangement, a scanning range of delay time as large as ...
A microphone comprises a housing defining an inner volume and including a first exterior surface with an aperture leading to the inner volume. The microphone includes a transducing assembly within the housing for converting sound into an electrical signal. A sound inlet plate defines, typically in combination with the first exterior surface, a passageway for transmitting sound to the aperture The passageway receives the sound from an opening in the sound inlet plate. The opening is offset from the location at which the aperture is positioned on the exterior surface. The sound inlet plate is made very thin so that it does not extend substantially away from the housing.
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RFC 6870 PW Preferential Forwarding Status Bit February 2013 zero; a secondary PW, PW2, which is switched at S-PE2 and has a precedence of 1; and another secondary PW, PW3, which is switched at S-PE3 and has a precedence of 2. The precedence is locally configured at the endpoints of the PW, i.e., T-PE1 and T-PE2. The lower the precedence value, the higher the priority. T-PE1 and T-PE2 will select the PW they intend to activate based on their local and remote UP/DOWN state, as well as the local precedence configuration. In this case, they will both advertise Preferential Forwarding status bit of active on PW1 and of standby on PW2 and PW3 using priority derived from local precedence configuration. Assuming all PWs are up, T-PE1 and T-PE2 will use PW1 to forward user packets. If PW1 fails, then the T-PE detecting the failure will send a status notification to the remote T-PE with a Local PSN-facing PW (ingress) Receive Fault bit set, a Local PSN-facing PW (egress) Transmit Fault bit set, or a ...
The paper criticizes the use of the relations complete precedence and temporal overlap, in some recent and influential works of Hans Kamp, to represent the temporal relations between events and situations as expressed by French Passé Simple and Imparfait. These relations are replaced by the relation of (simple) precedence defined over beginnings of events and by the relation of inclusion holding between the beginning of an event and a situation in its entirety ...
Recently I saw the following on facebook: My solution uses the precedence rule I was taught in school -- My Dear Aunt Sally (MDAS) -- multiply first (1x0), then divide (2/2), then add (0+1) then subtract (6-1) = 5. However, I noticed some other people were using a very different precedence rule -- BODMAS (open brackets, division, multiplication, addition, subtraction). It reverses the order of division and subtraction from what I was taught. Who uses BODMAS? Where is it
Now we just have to find out what it does in the Windows SOUND RECORDER. You should see Microphone is checked and you should see Front-mic. MP3 Louder. Run a new Windows task. Overall, this software is one of the best free equalizers for Windows. Apps like Microsoft Edge, iTunes, and Spotify will. Thus you need to enhance the quality of audio track to improve the overall quality of your video, and you can also reverse audio to make your video funnier. How to fix microphone problems using Settings. Sound levels vary, so make sure the sound is turned down before you play anything. How to Change the Sound Effects on Windows 10. In Windows, open up the Sound dialog from Control Panel then highlight your default audio output device (usually the speakers) and click Properties. Click on the Enhancements tab. Lets get into the top 10 best. Step 2: Open Titanium Recorder on your phone tap the three dots in the upper right corner. To provide effective feedback, visit the Feedback Hub app in your Start ...
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... and his work on sound localization elucidated the perceptual processing that underlies stereophonic sound. He was a member of ... Binaural sound cues, including the phasing or time of the sound's arrival at each ear and the sound's relative intensity at the ... Wallach, H. (1940). The role of head movements and vestibular and visual cues in sound localization. Journal of Experimental ... Wallach, H., Newman, E. B., & Rosenzweig, M. R. (1949). The precedence effect in sound localization. The American Journal of ...
Sound Source Localization. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. 25. Springer. p. 80. ISBN 978-0387-24185-2. Maddin HC, ... Females also answer vocally, signaling either acceptance (a rapping sound) or rejection (slow ticking) of the male. This frog ...
Geztmann, S.; Lewald, J. (2007). "Localization of moving sound". Perception & Psychophysics. 69 (6): 1022-1034. doi:10.3758/ ... Auditory representational momentum has been found for sounds moving about the listener, but patterns of change can be ...
Sound localization is often more difficult with pure tones than with other sounds. Pure tones have been used by 19th century ... Hartmann, W. M. (1983). "Localization of sound in rooms". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 74 (5): 1380-1391. ... "The localization of actual sources of sound". The American Journal of Psychology. 48 (2): 297-306. doi:10.2307/1415748. JSTOR ... In psychoacoustics, a pure tone is a sound with a sinusoidal waveform; that is, a sine wave of any frequency, phase, and ...
... see sound localization, vertical sound localization, head-related transfer function, pinna notch). In various species, the ... This aids in vertical sound localization. In animals the function of the pinna is to collect sound, and perform spectral ... It collects sound by acting as a funnel, amplifying the sound and directing it to the auditory canal. While reflecting from the ... The auricle collects sound and, like a funnel, amplifies the sound and directs it to the auditory canal. The filtering effect ...
At A, Spierer L, Clarke S; The role of the right parietal cortex in sound localization: a chronometric single pulse ... Different notches/peaks are added to sounds coming from below compared to sounds coming from above, and compared to sounds ... A sound straight in front of the head is heard at the same time by both ears. A sound to the side of the head is heard ... The right hemisphere is more specialized for sound localization, while auditory space representation in the brain requires the ...
Coincidence detection has been shown to be a major factor in sound localization along the azimuth plane in several organisms. ... When a sound is heard, sound waves may reach the ears at different times. This is referred to as the interaural time difference ... Neurobiology Sound localization Long-term potentiation Long-term depression Hebbian theory Coincidence circuit Neuroethology ... Jeffress, L. A. (1948). "A place theory of sound localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 41 (1): 35 ...
The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization. The MIT Press, USA-Cambridge MA 1. Auflage, 1983, ISBN 0-262-02190-0 Revised ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Blauert, Jens (1997). Spatial hearing: the psychophysics of human sound localization. ... the Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization (1983), a standard in this field. He has provided his professional expertise to ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Rumsey, Francis; McCormick, Tim (28 September 2009). Sound and Recording. Focal Press. ...
Delay Line Models of Sound Localization in the Barn Owl "American Zoologist" Vol. 33, No. 1 79-85 Borst A, Egelhaaf M., 1989. ... Fischer, Brian J.; Anderson, Charles H. (2004). "A computational model of sound localization in the barn owl". Neurocomputing. ... Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A place theory of sound localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 41 (1): 35- ... Slow in the timescales of biologically-relevant events dictated by the speed of sound or the force of gravity, the nervous ...
Since CASA is modeling human auditory pathways, binaural CASA systems better the human model by providing sound localization, ... Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A place theory of sound localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 41 35-39. ... To segregate the sound source, CASA systems mask the cochleagram. This mask, sometimes a Wiener filter, weighs the target ... The outer ear, like an acoustic funnel, helps locating the sound source. The ear canal acts as a resonant tube (like an organ ...
Sound Localization by Human Listeners. Annual Review of Psychology, February 1991, volume 42, pp 135-159, doi: 10.1146/annurev. ... a single change in a property of sound which is below the JND does not affect perception of the sound. For amplitude, the JND ... B. Kollmeier; T. Brand; B. Meyer (2008). "Perception of Speech and Sound". In Jacob Benesty; M. Mohan Sondhi; Yiteng Huang (eds ... and the intensity and the pitch of sounds. It is not true, however, for the wavelength of light. Stanley Smith Stevens argued ...
... especially the mechanisms underlying sound localization. His most cited article, "A Place Theory of Sound Localization", was in ... In teaching about sound localization, Jeffress was known to ask his students: "What are the three most important aspects of ... McFadden, Young & McKinney 1986, p. 3. Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A Place Theory of Sound Localization". Journal of Comparative ... "A place theory of sound localization," Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 41: 35, DOI 10.1037/h0061495, WOS: ...
When two sounds are separated in space, the cue of location (see: sound localization) helps an individual to separate them ... Sound waves first pass through the pinnae and the auditory canal, the parts of the ear that comprise the outer ear. Sound then ... Unless a sound is directly in front of or behind the individual, the sound stimuli will have a slightly different distance to ... If a sound is moving, it will move continuously. Erratically jumping sound is unlikely to come from the same source. Timbre is ...
... which varies with the direction of a sound source and is involved in sound localisation. The fact that speech can be unmasked ... These two cues play a major role in sound localisation, and have both been shown to have independent effects in spatial release ... Jeffress, L.A. (1948). "A Place Theory of Sound Localization". Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 41 (1): 35- ... Jeffress to account for sensitivity to interaural time differences in sound localization. Each coincidence detector receives a ...
Sound localization is the ability to correctly identify the directional location of sounds. A sound stimulus localized in the ... sound localization), and it is important for sound segregation. Sound segregation refers the ability to identify acoustic ... and spectral differences in the sound arriving at the two ears are used in localization. Localization of low frequency sounds ... and spatial localization of the sound source. Once a sound source has been identified, the cells of lower auditory pathways are ...
Köppl C (11 August 2009). "Evolution of sound localization in land vertebrates". Current Biology. 19 (15): R635-R639. doi: ... In modern amniotes (including mammals), the middle ear collects airborne sounds through an eardrum and transmits vibrations to ... a mammal has extended its range of hearing for higher-pitched sounds which would improve the detection of insects in the dark. ... and thus improving the efficient transmission of sound energy from the eardrum to the inner ear structures. The ossicles act as ...
Lorenzi, C.; Gatehouse, S.; Lever, C. (1997). "Sound localization in noise in hearing‐impaired listeners". The Journal of the ... He then showed that dynamic information in sounds not only is carried by so-called first-order characteristic of sounds (e.g., ... He also showed that TFS cues are less vulnerable than temporal envelope cues when sounds are masked by competing sounds such as ... Sounds such as speech, music and natural soundscapes are decomposed by the peripheral auditory system of humans (the cochlea) ...
siren (alarm) sound localization more information Withington, Deborah. (2000). "The Use of Directional Sound to Improve the ... Generally, sound localization accuracy is within 5 degrees, but enabling improved accuracy, for example in an ambulance siren, ... to a siren with a bandwidth broader than 500 Hz-1.8 kHz that enables listeners to more quickly locate the source of the sound. ...
How is the spatial impression of the auditory event? => Determination of sound localization, lateralization, perceived ... Blauert, J.: Spatial hearing - the psychophysics of human sound localization; MIT Press; Cambridge, Massachusetts (1983), ... depends not only on the physical quantity sound pressure but also on the spectral characteristics of the sound and on the sound ... in order to distinguish clearly between the physical sound field and the auditory perception of the sound. Auditory events are ...
This can include problems with: "...sound localization and lateralization (see also binaural fusion); auditory discrimination; ... An analogy may be drawn with trying to listen to sounds in a foreign language. It is much harder to distinguish between sounds ... localization, or ordering of speech sounds. It does not solely result from a deficit in general attention, language or other ... which leads to difficulties in recognizing and interpreting sounds, especially the sounds composing speech. It is thought that ...
A sound localization task centered on the cocktail party effect was utilized in their study. The male and female participants ... Zündorf IC, Karnath HO, Lewald J (June 2011). "Male advantage in sound localization at cocktail parties". Cortex; A Journal ... Rather, it is the selectivity of an individual to attend audibly to a sound message. The whole sound message is physically ... An example of this is a student focusing on a teacher giving a lesson and ignoring the sounds of classmates in a rowdy ...
Sound localization acuity thresholds are an average of 30°. This means that cattle are less able to localise sounds compared to ... Heffner, R.S.; Heffner, H.E. (1992). "Hearing in large mammals: sound-localization acuity in cattle (Bos taurus) and goats ( ... The bullroarer makes a sound similar to a bull's territorial call. Cattle are large quadrupedal ungulate mammals with cloven ... An onomatopoeic term for one of the most common sounds made by cattle is moo (also called lowing). There are a number of other ...
Advances in Sound Localization, 95-104 Suto, Y (1952). "The effect of space on time estimation (S-effect) in tactual space". ... 2011) found that, opposite to the prediction of the kappa effect, "Increasing the distance between sound sources marking time ...
Jeffress, L. A. "A place theory of sound localization." J. Comp.Physiol. Psychol. 41(1948): pp. 35-39. Print. Jeffress, L. A. " ... which stated that the computation of sound localization was dependent upon timing differences of sensory input. Since the ... "A place theory of sound localization." J. Comp.Physiol. Psychol. 41(1948): pp. 35-39. Print. Joris, P. "Coincidence Detection ... of the neurons found in the midbrain auditory nucleus had receptive fields independent of nature and intensity of the sound. ...
This is believed to help with localization of sound. The trapezoid body is located in the caudal pons, or more specifically the ...
This is believed to help with localization of sound. The superior olivary complex is located in the pons, and receives ... brings sound into awareness/perception. AC identifies sounds (sound-name recognition) and also identifies the sound's origin ... LSO normalizes sound levels between the ears; it uses the sound intensities to help determine sound angle. LSO innervates the ... The most established role of the auditory dorsal stream in primates is sound localization. In humans, the auditory dorsal ...
... sound localisation (May et al., 2004), and intensity discrimination (May and McQuone, 1995). All of these studies were ... 1997) concluded that OCB-mediated suppression of sounds in the cochlea was responsible for the suppression of unexpected sounds ... protection from loud sounds, was challenged by Kirk and Smith (2003), who argued that the intensity of sounds used in the ... cochlear protection against loud sounds, (ii) development of cochlea function, and (iii) detection and discrimination of sounds ...
91-95 Knudsen, Eric I.; Konishi, Masakazu (1979). "Mechanisms of sound localization in the barn owl (Tyto alba)". Journal of ... It has an effortless wavering flight as it quarters the ground, alert to the sounds made by potential prey. Like most owls, the ... This improves detection of sound position and distance and the bird does not require sight to hunt. The facial disc plays a ... Initially these make a "chittering" sound but this soon changes into a food-demanding "snore". By two weeks old they are ...
A. Sehgal; P. Shah; P. Singh (April 2007). "Inter-Aural Time Differentiation Based Robotic Sound Source Localization System". ...
Blauert, Jens (1997). Spatial Hearing: The Psychophysics of Human Sound Localization (Revised ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ... It is undesirable for the listener to be conscious that the sound is coming from a discrete number of speakers. Some simple ... The Rapture3D decoder from Blue Ripple Sound supports this and is already used in a number of computer games using OpenAL. ... Because human beings use different mechanisms to locate sound, Classic Ambisonic Decoders it is desirable to modify the speaker ...
A consonant sound followed by some vowel sound other than the inherent [ɔ] is orthographically realized by using a variety of ... Primer to Localization of Software. it46.se. Retrieved 2006-11-20.. *^ a b Bangalah in Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 2003 ... The letter ষ also retains the voiceless retroflex sibilant [ʂɔ] sound when used in certain consonant conjuncts as in কষ্ট [ ... Often, syllable-final consonant graphemes, though not marked by a hôsôntô, may carry no inherent vowel sound (as in the final ন ...
Sound localization. *Ultrasound avoidance in insects. People. *Theodore Holmes Bullock. *Walter Heiligenberg ...
Implications for Sound Localization". Journal of Neurophysiology. 96 (5): 2327-41. doi:10.1152/jn.00326.2006. PMC 2013745. PMID ... Sounds with pitch activated more of these regions than sounds without. When a melody was produced activation spread to the ... proposes that a ventral auditory stream maps sounds onto meaning, whereas a dorsal stream maps sounds onto articulatory ... 2002). "Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons". Science. 297: 846-848. Bibcode:2002Sci ...
Aleva FE, Voets LW, Simons SO, de Mast Q, van der Ven AJ, Heijdra YF (March 2017). "Prevalence and Localization of Pulmonary ... Those with obstructed airflow may have wheezing or decreased sounds with air entry on examination of the chest with a ...
The criteria for judging the transparency of a translation appear more straightforward: an unidiomatic translation "sounds ... and software localization. [67] Web-based human translation also appeals to private website users and bloggers.[68] Contents of ...
On a napkin on the TV tray he scribbled down the Greek prefix, eu, for good, and then through association and sound, fell upon ... Anderson has made contributions to the theories of localization, antiferromagnetism and high-temperature superconductivity.[11] ... Agnostic for me would be trying to weasel out and sound a little nicer than I am about this.. ...
1878). "The Goulstonian lectures of the localisation of cerebral disease. LectureI (concluded)". Br Med J. 1 (900): 443-7.. ... as well as about victims of other unlikely-sounding brain-injury accidents-see Macmillan 2000).[1]:66-7 Noting dryly that, "The ... the American crowbar case and nineteenth-century theories of cerebral localization". JNeurosurg. 82: 672-682. PMID 7897537.. ... particularly debate on cerebral localization, and was perhaps the first case to suggest that damage to specific parts of the ...
The cotton-top tamarin vocalizes with bird-like whistles, soft chirping sounds, high-pitched trilling, and staccato calls. ... these calls can be modified to better deliver information relevant to auditory localization in call-recipients.[37] Using this ... Researchers describe its repertoire of 38 distinct sounds as unusually sophisticated, conforming to grammatical rules. Jayne ...
... see sound localization, vertical sound localization, head-related transfer function, pinna notch). In various species, the ... Middlebrooks, John C.; Green, David M. (1991). "Sound Localization by Human Listeners". Annual Review of Psychology. 42: 135-59 ... The auricle collects sound and, like a funnel, amplifies the sound and directs it to the auditory canal.[2] The filtering ... In animals the function of the pinna is to collect sound, and perform spectral transformations to incoming sounds which enable ...
speed of sound. frequency. {\displaystyle \lambda ={\frac {c}{f}}={\frac {\text{speed of sound}}{\text{frequency}}}}. ) θ. {\ ... both of which we rely upon for localization clues. ... Q. Sound On Sound, June 2004. What's the difference between ... Sound Systems: Design and Optimization: Modern Techniques and Tools for Sound System Design and Alignment. CRC Press, 2016. p. ... The sound source (e.g., a sound recording or a microphone) must be amplified or strengthened with an audio power amplifier ...
Duchenne's colleagues appended "de Boulogne" to his name to avoid confusion with the like-sounding name of Édouard-Adolphe ... Functional electrical stimulation as a localization test in Neurological examination.. *identified progressive bulbar paralysis ...
The sound produced by a muscle comes from the shortening of actomyosin filaments along the axis of the muscle. During ... found a similar pattern of localization in cnidarians with except with the cnidarian N. vectensis having this striated muscle ... Furthermore, Steinmetz et all showed that the localization of this duplicated set of genes that serve both the function of ... This separation of the duplicated set of genes is shown through the localization of the striated myhc to the contractile ...
... calls and songs, which are produced in the syrinx, are the major means by which birds communicate with sound. This ... "The molecular basis for UV vision in birds: spectral characteristics, cDNA sequence and retinal localization of the UV- ... Thus, a bird's lungs receive a constant supply of fresh air during both inhalation and exhalation.[78] Sound production is ... Some birds also use mechanical sounds for auditory communication. The Coenocorypha snipes of New Zealand drive air through ...
... loss of sensitivity in one ear interferes with sound localization (directional hearing), which can interfere with communication ... Mild to moderate hearing loss may be accommodated with a hearing aid that amplifies ambient sounds. Portable devices with speed ... Web "content" generally refers to the information in a Web page or Web application, including text, images, forms, and sounds ...
Later Milne became an expert on sound localisation.[7] In 1917 he became a lieutenant in the Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve. He ...
Most fMRI scanners allow subjects to be presented with different visual images, sounds and touch stimuli, and to make different ... "Influence of head models on neuromagnetic fields and inverse source localizations". Biomedical Engineering Online. 5 (1): 55. ...
In order to support the localization hypothesis, it would be necessary to show differing cellular signaling pathways are ... Loftis JM, Janowsky A (January 2003). "The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit NR2B: localization, functional properties, ... Berg LK, Larsson M, Morland C, Gundersen V (January 2013). "Pre- and postsynaptic localization of NMDA receptor subunits at ... "The anchoring protein SAP97 influences the trafficking and localisation of multiple membrane channels". Biochimica et ...
Ana María Ochoa-Gautier, Associate Professor of Music, New York University: Music, sound, and modernity in Colombia. ... Michael Goldstein, Professor of Mathematics, University of Toronto: Anderson localization of Eigen functions. ... Rick Altman, Professor of Cinema and Comparative Literature, University of Iowa: Classical Hollywood sound. ...
Acoustic source localization[4] is the task of locating a sound source given measurements of the sound field. The sound field ... This article is about sound localization via mechanical or electrical means. For the biological process, see sound localization ... "Photo of Sound Locator". Retrieved 2006-05-15.. *^ a b Phil Hide (January 2002). "Sound Mirrors on the South Coast". Archived ... Time-of-arrival localization[edit]. Having speakers/ultrasonic transmitters emitting sound at known positions and time, the ...
Many have surmised that this linkage is based on the location of sounds. However, there are numerous distortions of sound when ... Areas of localization on lateral surface of hemisphere. Motor area in red. Area of general sensations in blue. Auditory area in ... When each instrument of a symphony orchestra or the jazz band plays the same note, the quality of each sound is different - but ... The auditory cortex has distinct responses to sounds in the gamma band. When subjects are exposed to three or four cycles of a ...
... in which the speed of sound is faster than in air. Underwater hearing is by bone conduction, and localization of sound appears ... Shupak A. Sharoni Z. Yanir Y. Keynan Y. Alfie Y. Halpern P. (January 2005). "Underwater Hearing and Sound Localization with and ... Fish can sense sound through their lateral lines and their otoliths (ears). Some fishes, such as some species of carp and ... This is a reminder of the common origin of these two vibration- and sound-detecting organs that are grouped together as the ...
sensory perception of sound. • inner ear receptor stereocilium organization. • positive regulation of gene expression. • ... establishment of protein localization. • auditory receptor cell stereocilium organization. • paranodal junction maintenance. • ...
... or inability to perceive distinctions between sounds because of hearing loss. Some distortions of speech sounds, such as a lisp ... "Localisation of a gene implicated in a severe speech and language disorder". Nature Genetics. 18 (2): 168-170. doi:10.1038/ ... Speech sound disorders of unknown cause that are not accompanied by other language problems are a relatively common reason for ... Speech sound disorder (SSD) is any problem with speech production arising from any cause.[26] ...
protein localization to centrosome. • neuronal stem cell population maintenance. • negative regulation of transcription by RNA ... Bruce Lahn maintains that the science of the studies is sound, and freely admits that a direct link between these particular ...
The symmetrical arrangement of the two ears allows for the localisation of sound. The brain accomplishes this by comparing ... Tinnitus is the hearing of sound when no external sound is present.[39] While often described as a ringing, it may also sound ... The human ear can generally hear sounds with frequencies between 20 Hz and 20 kHz (the audio range). Sounds outside this range ... The three ossicles transmit sound from the outer ear to the inner ear. The malleus receives vibrations from sound pressure on ...
Spatial location (see: Sound localization) represents the cognitive placement of a sound in an environmental context; including ... The sound pressure level (SPL) or Lp is defined as L. p. =. 10. log. 10. ⁡. (. p. 2. p. r. e. f. 2. ). =. 20. log. 10. ⁡. (. p ... Sound can also be viewed as an excitation of the hearing mechanism that results in the perception of sound. In this case, sound ... The duration of a sound usually lasts from the time the sound is first noticed until the sound is identified as having changed ...
Friedel, P; Young, BA; van Hemmen, JL (2008). "Auditory Localization of Ground-Borne Vibrations in Snakes". Phys. Rev. Lett. ... "Physiological basis for detection of sound and vibration in snakes" (PDF). J. Exp. Biol. 54 (2): 349-371. Archived (PDF) from ...
sensory perception of sound. • positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • protein transport. • ... "The localization of myosin VI at the golgi complex and leading edge of fibroblasts and its phosphorylation and recruitment ...
Arrival time of a sound pulse and phase differences of continuous sound are used for sound localization. Certain receptors are ... Located in the temporal lobe, the auditory cortex is the primary receptive area for sound information. The auditory cortex is ... how loud a sound is). The location of the receptor that is stimulated gives the brain information about the location of the ...
The localization of the direction and distance of the prey are crucial here. The eyes of M. religiosa are apposition eyes with ... Unlike other sound-processing organs found among different groups of insects, the metathoracic ear has a high sensitivity ... CT.gov: The State Insect; retrieved on August 09, 2010 Rossel, Samuel (1 January 1986). "Binocular Spatial Localization in the ...
Sound localization by the human auditory system[edit]. Sound localization is the process of determining the location of a sound ... For sound localization via mechanical or electrical means, see acoustic location.. Sound localization is a listeners ability ... Bi-coordinate sound localization (owls)[edit]. Main article: Sound localization in owls ... Collection of references about sound localization. *Scientific articles about the sound localization abilities of different ...
All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially ... When the sound localization tests between the control and test groups were compared between the groups with relation to the ... Correct sound source localization by the normal hearing firefighters is depicted in Figure 1. A higher percentage of correct ... Sound localization can be improved with auditory training. This phenomenon is known to occur in musicians, acoustic engineers, ...
Sonar uses sound source localization techniques to identify the location of a target. 3D sound localization is also used for ... Localization cues are features that help localize sound. Cues for sound localization include binaural and monoaural cues. ... Applications of sound source localization include sound source separation, sound source tracking, and speech enhancement. ... 3D sound localization refers to an acoustic technology that is used to locate the source of a sound in a three-dimensional ...
... Author(s). Yellin, Elron A. (Elron Avi) ...
In nature, sounds from multiple sources sum at the eardrums, generating complex cues for sound localization and identification ... of sounds, the major cues for sound localization in owls and humans (Rayleigh, 1907; Moiseff and Konishi, 1983; Peña and ... Localization of two sources. The spatial response profile of one neuron to a single sound source is shown in Figure 4A. As is ... Localization and Identification of Concurrent Sounds in the Owls Auditory Space Map. Clifford H. Keller and Terry T. Takahashi ...
Recently, we developed such an audible sound-based positioning system, based on a spread spectrum approach. It was shown to ... Here, we extend this localization to a moving object by compensating for the Doppler shift associated with the object movement ... Sound-based positioning systems are a potential alternative low-cost navigation system. ... Moving Object Localization Using Sound-Based Positioning System with Doppler Shift Compensation. Slamet Widodo 1,* , Tomoo ...
... localisation in the conventional stereophonic reproduction, which were obtained using natural sound sources of musical ... A New Time and Intensity Trade-Off Function for Localization of Natural Sound Sources. ... localisation in the conventional stereophonic reproduction, which were obtained using natural sound sources of musical ...
The three-dimensional sound is presented via headphones. The head-tracking system was integrated together with the sound ... Six different types of sounds with durations of 0.5, 2, 4, and 6 seconds were presented in random order on any azimuth in the ... The relationship between the duration of a sound presentation and the accuracy of human localization is investigated. ... Localization of 3-D Sound Presented through Headphone - Duration of Sound Presentation and Localization Accuracy. ...
auditory, sound localization, development, HCN channel, GABAB receptor. Subjects:. 500 Natural sciences and mathematics , 570 ... It is therefore quite likely that GABABRs modulate and possibly improve the localization of low frequency sounds even in adult ... It is therefore quite likely that GABABRs modulate and possibly improve the localization of low frequency sounds even in adult ... ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN A NEURONAL CIRCUIT IMPORTANT FOR SOUND LOCALIZATION ACTIVITY-DEPENDENT CHANGES IN A NEURONAL ...
... J Comp Physiol A. 1989 Feb;164(5):629-36. doi: 10.1007 ... that form iso-IID contours and iso-ITD contours form a non-orthogonal grid that relates binaural disparity cues to sound ...
... simulations of interaural time difference decoders show that heterogeneous tuning of binaural neurons leads to accurate sound ... Cats orient their gaze toward a briefly presented sound, a behavioral response that has been used to measure sound localization ... Previously, we considered a simplistic model of sound propagation, in which sounds are simply delayed. In reality, sounds are ... because the sounds were broadband. However, Moore et al. (2008) showed for sources near the midline that sound localization ...
This result suggests that sound localization is estimated by the auditory nuclei using ambiguous binaural information. ... The minimum audible angle test which is commonly used for evaluating human localization ability depends on interaural time ... R. Y. Litovsky and N. A. Macmillan, "Sound localization precision under conditions of the precedence effect: effects of azimuth ... Prediction of Humans Ability in Sound Localization Based on the Statistical Properties of Spike Trains along the Brainstem ...
Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid Applications using Wireless Microphones. Mojtaba Farmani, M. S. Pedersen, Jesper ... Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid Applications using Wireless Microphones. / Farmani, Mojtaba; Pedersen, M. S.; Jensen ... Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid Applications using Wireless Microphones. In 2018 IEEE 10th Sensor Array and ... Sound Source Localization for Hearing Aid Applications using Wireless Microphones. 2018 IEEE 10th Sensor Array and Multichannel ...
So far, many studies on the neural basis of sound localization have utilized sounds containing ITD and ILD cues as stimulus ... but is unlikely to be related to sound localization, as the right-hemispheric dynamic range and localization accuracy both ... causing modulations of the sound spectrum that vary consistently over sound direction. Spectral localization cues are usually ... Role of spectral detail in sound-source localization. Nature. 1998;396:747-749. doi: 10.1038/25526. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] ...
Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization ... Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization ... Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization ... Response of cat inferior colliculus neurons to binaural beat stimuli: possible mechanisms for sound localization ...
1 . Goodman DF, Brette R (2010) Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization. PLoS Comput Biol 6:e1000993 [PubMed] ... Spike-Timing-Based Computation in Sound Localization (Goodman and Brette 2010). Download zip file Help downloading and running ... This code implements the models from: Goodman DFM, Brette R, 2010 Spike-Timing-Based Computation in Sound Localization. PLoS ... We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic ...
The network underlying sound localization is similar in all vertebrates, although the exact mechanisms underlying the use, the ... We study the representation of sound-localization cues at several levels, from the first station of binaural detection in ... Singheiser M, Gutfreund Y, Wagner H (2012) The representation of sound localization cues in the barn owls inferior colliculus ... Wagner H (2004) A comparison of neural computations underlying stereo vision and sound localization. J. Physiol. (Paris) 98: ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
... studying sound localization behaviour of human and non-human primates, and in patients. He regards sound localization as an ... Readers will appreciate that sound localization is inherently a neuro-computational process (it needs to process on implicit ... The localization problem of which sound location gave rise to a particular sensory acoustic input cannot be uniquely solved, ... model-driven approaches to the full action-perception cycle of sound-localization behavior and eye-head gaze ...
above download Sound Source Localization, you can exist a adverse Earth to this school. Join us to be years better! notify your ... Your download Sound Source Localization was a eGift that this progress could Here be. Your catalogue puzzled a neonate that ... Hamlet download Sound Source Localization easily even that they give delayed constructed for. There is automatically visual or ... These happen levels in download Sound Source Localization that ve it as a Download like any invalid, and books of Greek yes ...
... function and development of the avian neuronal nucleus for sound localisation. The ability to locate sound sources is an ... Structure and function of the avian neuronal nucleus for sound localisation. Doctoral thesis , UCL (University College London ... Using theoretical methods I have determined that there is a limitation on acuity for sound localisation using interaural time ... Acuity limitation is due to the geometry of a sound source and a listener and acuity can not be improved by varying the ITD ...
Recent studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation and learning involve multiple mechanisms that operate at ... Because there is no explicit map of auditory space in the cortex, studies of sound localization may also provide much broader ... Recent studies of sound localization have shown that adaptation and learning involve multiple mechanisms that operate at ... Because there is no explicit map of auditory space in the cortex, studies of sound localization may also provide much broader ...
Rights & permissionsfor article Sound localization mechanisms . Opens in a new window. ...
3D Sound Localization Layer. This project is to implement an open source 3D sound layer. The sound layer will allow application ... Sound/Audio (1) * Mixers (1) * Sound Synthesis (1) * Formats and Protocols (3) * Data Formats (2) * Comma-separated values (1) ... The early project will only pan sounds. Later versions will use 3d localization. ... sounds to come from their spatial location on screen. ...
sound source localization September 5, 2017. September 5, 2017. Huntingtons Causes Hearing Problems, Study with a Small Sample ...
Sound localization for industrial applications Lecture Topic: Research & Technology Kevin Farrgfau tech GmbH ...
We also obtained a non-categorized measure of localization accuracy by recording head-orienting movements made during the first ... although responses to sounds presented in the frontal region of space and directly behind the animal remained quite accurate. ... Auditory localization experiments typically either require subjects to judge the location of a sound source from a discrete set ... Sound localization behavior in ferrets: comparison of acoustic orientation and approach-to-target responses. ...
... which tend to show that sound localization acuity actually tends to get better. This could not occur if sound localization ... What is sound? (IX) Sound localization and vision. Publié le 15/04/2013. par romain ... If sound localization acuity reflects visual factors, then it should not depend on properties of the sound, as long as there ... However, the sound localization threshold is determined in a left/right localization task near the midline, and in fact this ...
Sound localization. This functional aspect has a bearing on behaviors such as predator avoidance and prey localization. Ever ... Sound localization​. Central pathways of the brain have a remarkable capacity to compare input signals and discriminate ... There are two mechanisms for this--one is a signal transducer which mechanically amplifies sound via bony levers (middle-ear ... For most vertebrates, the hearing apparatus is comprised of a sound signal collector, a signal amplifier, and a signal ...
  • Neurons sensitive to inter-aural level differences (ILDs) are excited by stimulation of one ear and inhibited by stimulation of the other ear, such that the response magnitude of the cell depends on the relative strengths of the two inputs, which in turn, depends on the sound intensities at the ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only rarely, however, have the responses of the models been compared with those of central auditory neurons involved in auditory localization ( Hartung and Sterbing, 2001 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • The peak decoding theory proposes that the brain can work out the location of a sound on the basis of which neurons responded most strongly to the sound. (elifesciences.org)
  • Calcium is required for sound transduction in the ear as well as for auditory neurons to fire. (washington.edu)
  • Here, we measured the spatial receptive fields of neurons in primary auditory cortex (A1) while ferrets performed a relative localisation task. (nature.com)
  • A subpopulation of neurons encoded spatial position consistently across localisation cue type. (nature.com)
  • One centers on how inhibition shapes the selectivity of individual neurons for frequency modulated sounds during development, and the other on its hypothesized role in the population representation of a communication call in adults. (springer.com)
  • Studies that looked into how the auditory brainstem processes the difference in the intensity of a sound as it reaches each ear may have wrongly assumed which neurons were being recorded. (elifesciences.org)
  • Using theoretical methods I have determined that there is a limitation on acuity for sound localisation using interaural time difference (ITD) detection. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Reliability of interaural time difference-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Background: Previous studies have shown that interaural-time-difference (ITD) training can improve localization ability. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Surprisingly little is, however, known about localization training vis-a-vis speech perception in noise based on interaural time difference in the envelope (ITD ENV). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Please cite this article as: Delphi M, Lotfi Y, Moossavi A, Bakhshi E, Banimostafa M. Reliability of Interaural Time Difference-Based Localization Training in Elderly Individuals with Speech-in-Noise Perception Disorder. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Since localization at low frequencies is mainly influenced by the interaural time difference, two models to adapt this difference are developed and compared with existing models. (logos-verlag.de)
  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of occupational noise on sound localization in different spatial planes and frequencies among normal hearing firefighters. (scielo.br)
  • thus, we were interested in comparing the spatial sound identification capacity of firefighters with that of a control group to investigate the effects of daily occupational noise exposure on sound localization capacity. (scielo.br)
  • 5. The loci of spatial coordinates that form iso-IID contours and iso-ITD contours form a non-orthogonal grid that relates binaural disparity cues to sound location. (nih.gov)
  • Interestingly, the results also suggested that the presence of realistic spectral information within horizontally located spatial sounds resulted in a larger right-hemispheric N1m dynamic range. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The previously described changes in localization-related brain activity, reflected in the enlarged N1m dynamic range elicited by natural spatial stimuli, can most likely be attributed to the processing of individualized spatial cues present already at relatively low frequencies. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the field of auditory neuroscience, an enduring topic of interest is the study of the neural processes underlying the perception of spatial sound properties and the localization of sound sources in the three-dimensional environment. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Stimuli with spatial properties have been used to study sound localization with both psychophysical and neuroscientific measures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Auditory System and Human Sound-Localization Behavior provides a comprehensive account of the full action-perception cycle underlying spatial hearing. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • The morphology of the head and pinna shape the spatial and frequency dependence of sound propagation that give rise to the acoustic cues to sound source location. (nih.gov)
  • We sought to investigate whether the low-level integrative processes underlying sound localization and spatial discrimination are affected in ASDs. (jpn.ca)
  • Although similar in nature, these deficits were less pronounced than those caused by cortical lesions and suggest a specific role for A1 in resolving the spatial ambiguities inherent in auditory localization cues. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Manipulating the availability of binaural and spectral localisation cues had little impact on ferrets' performance, or on neural spatial tuning. (nature.com)
  • Together, these observations suggest that A1 encodes the location of sound sources, as opposed to spatial cue values. (nature.com)
  • Studies of spatial representations in AC have often focused on the encoding of acoustic cues that support sound localisation. (nature.com)
  • While spatial cues can provide redundant information, accurate sound localisation in multisource or reverberant environments frequently requires integration across multiple cue types 19 , 20 . (nature.com)
  • This is because most studies have not considered the effects of systematically manipulating the available localisation cues on coding of spatial location. (nature.com)
  • They also assert that localization confers 2- to 3-dB improvements in the signal-to-noise ratio and also 10-dB increments in spatial dominance. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Localization was assessed using an array of eight loudspeakers, two in each spatial quadrant. (bvsalud.org)
  • The mammalian auditory system serves many functions for an -organism throughout its life, including the spatial localization of sound sources and the recognition of behaviorally-relevant sounds. (springer.com)
  • The first example deals with sound localization and the brainstem circuitry that decodes binaural spatial cues. (springer.com)
  • In particular, these eye movement-related eardrum oscillations may help the brain connect sights and sounds despite changes in the spatial relationship between the eyes and the ears. (pnas.org)
  • Comparison of congruence judgment and auditory localization tasks for assessing the spatial limits of visual capture. (rochester.edu)
  • Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects. (rochester.edu)
  • Plasticity in human sound localization induced by compressed spatial vision. (rochester.edu)
  • All subjects were assigned a sound localization task involving 117 stimuli from 13 sound sources that were spatially distributed in horizontal, vertical, midsagittal and transverse planes. (scielo.br)
  • The three stimuli, which were square waves with fundamental frequencies of 500, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz, were presented at a sound level of 70 dB and were randomly repeated three times from each sound source. (scielo.br)
  • We performed 3 behavioural experiments to probe different connecting neural pathways: 1) horizontal and vertical localization of auditory stimuli in a noisy background, 2) vertical localization of repetitive frequency sweeps and 3) discrimination of horizontally separated sound stimuli with a short onset difference (precedence effect). (jpn.ca)
  • Using broadband noise stimuli, we tested pinnae-removed ferrets and normal ferrets in three sound localization tasks. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The aging of the auditory system leads to physical, sensory, and neural changes in the peripheral and central portion of the system, which may also cause changes in the sections which receive and process the sound stimuli. (intechopen.com)
  • Most mammals are adept at resolving the location of a sound source using interaural time differences and interaural level differences. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most mammals (including humans) use binaural hearing to localize sound, by comparing the information received from each ear in a complex process that involves a significant amount of synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, small mammals like rodents, which are common model organisms for auditory research, perceive airborne sounds for the first time some days after birth, when their ear canals open. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • It turns out that the elephant has one of the lowest localization thresholds in all mammals. (romainbrette.fr)
  • Mechanisms of sound localization in mammals. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The capacity to identify the origin of a sound source is a fundamental feature of human development and is of great importance in the formation of environment perception. (scielo.br)
  • The human brain for instance has to perform a transition after birth from the perception of sound waves transmitted in amniotic fluid to the perception of airborne sounds. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • He regards sound localization as an action-perception problem, and probes the system with fast, saccadic eye-head gaze-control paradigms, to study the very earliest correlates of the underlying neurocomputational mechanisms. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • Philosophically speaking, this corresponds to the classical information-processing view of perception: there is information about sound direction in the ITD, as reflected in the relative timing of spikes, and so sound direction can be estimated with a precision that is directly related to the temporal precision of neural firing. (romainbrette.fr)
  • Students will improve not only their sound localization, but also gain confidence and improve their perception of blindness. (pdrib.com)
  • Auditory cortex is required for sound localisation, but how neural firing in auditory cortex underlies our perception of sound sources in space remains unclear. (nature.com)
  • Conclusion: The present study showed the reliability of an ITD ENV-based localization training in elderly individuals with speech-in-noise perception disorder. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The localization of the sound source in busy environments prompts individuals to turn their face to the source so as to increase their use of visual cues and as such enhance their speech-in-noise perception. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Every time we listen-to speech, to music, to footsteps approaching or retreating-our auditory perception is the result of a long chain of diverse and intricate processes that unfold within the source of the sound itself, in the air, in our ears, and, most of all, in our brains. (mit.edu)
  • It should be considered that the longer an individual has hearing loss, the greater the negative effects on the perception of sound and performance in listening skills. (intechopen.com)
  • Topics in audition will include pitch perception, loudness perception, and sound localization. (indiana.edu)
  • The main drawback of the beamforming approach is the imperfect nature of sound localization accuracy and capability, versus the neural network approach, which uses moving speakers. (wikipedia.org)
  • We tested the performance of various decoders of neural responses in increasingly complex acoustical situations, including spectrum variations, noise, and sound diffraction. (elifesciences.org)
  • We demonstrate that there is insufficient information in the pooled activity of each hemisphere to estimate sound direction in a reliable way consistent with behavior, whereas robust estimates can be obtained from neural activity by taking into account the heterogeneous tuning of cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The simulations show that the results predicted by both models are inconsistent with those observed in real animals, and they propose that the brain must use the full pattern of neural responses to calculate the location of a sound. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the field of auditory neuroscience, much research has focused on the neural processes underlying human sound localization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The network underlying sound localization is similar in all vertebrates, although the exact mechanisms underlying the use, the neural extraction and the neural representation may be different in different vertebrate classes. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Wagner H (2004) A comparison of neural computations underlying stereo vision and sound localization. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • Finally, we show that, due to the sensitivity to precise spike timing, the spatiotemporal neural network is able to mimic the sound azimuth detection of the human brain. (sciencemag.org)
  • The other two examples focus on the neural coding and plasticity of behaviorally relevant sounds at the cortical level. (springer.com)
  • The aging of auditory system determines the physical, sensory, and neural changes in the peripheral and central parts and may cause changes in the reception and sound processing. (intechopen.com)
  • Neural substrates of sound localization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It has been known for a long time that this ability depends on tiny differences in the sounds that arrive at each ear, including differences in the time of arrival: in humans, for example, sound will arrive at the ear closer to the source up to half a millisecond earlier than it arrives at the other ear. (elifesciences.org)
  • Studies in cats and humans have shown that damage to the inferior colliculus on one side of the brain prevents accurate localization of sounds on the opposite side of the body, but the animals are still able to locate sounds on the same side. (elifesciences.org)
  • To localize sound sources in the horizontal plane, humans and many other species use submillisecond timing differences in the signals arriving at the two ears ( Ashida and Carr, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Reverberation profoundly distorts the sound from a source, yet humans can both identify sound sources and distinguish environments from the resulting sound, via mechanisms that remain unclear. (pnas.org)
  • In the auditory brainstem, a recent theory proposes that sound location in the horizontal plane is decoded from the relative summed activity of two populations in each hemisphere, whereas earlier theories hypothesized that the location was decoded from the identity of the most active cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • In mutant mice we can study the role of potassium channels in the sound localization pathway in the brainstem. (washington.edu)
  • Changes in low-level auditory processing could underlie degraded performance in vertical localization, which would be in agreement with recently reported changes in the neuroanatomy of the auditory brainstem in individuals with ASDs. (jpn.ca)
  • Auditory neuroscience : making sense of sound / Jan Schnupp, Israel Nelken, and Andrew King. (mit.edu)
  • Cues for sound localization include binaural and monoaural cues. (wikipedia.org)
  • This aids in vertical sound localization . (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of altering spectral cues in infancy on horizontal and vertical sound localization by adult ferrets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The purpose of this chapter is to use a few of the known examples of how inhibition and inhibitory plasticity subserve the functional processing of sounds to illustrate both the advances that have been made in terms of understanding mechanisms as well as the open questions remaining. (springer.com)
  • While the cellular mechanisms underlying inhibitory plasticity are less clear in these latter cases, taken all together these examples demonstrate the importance and pervasiveness of inhibition in the functional processing of sounds. (springer.com)
  • Loss of synaptic inhibition in the superior olivary complex (SOC) and the inferior colliculus (IC) likely affect the ability of aged animals to localize sounds in their natural environment. (biologists.org)
  • 3,4) Researchers emphasize that if correct localization is achieved, individuals with normal auditory thresholds can comprehend conversation at a lower signal-to-noise ratio. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, ILD-based methods need only one dominant source for accurate localization. (springeropen.com)
  • The sound localization mechanisms of the mammalian auditory system have been extensively studied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the mechanisms of compression and rarefaction, sound waves travel through the air, bounce off the pinna and concha of the exterior ear, and enter the ear canal. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two mechanisms for this--one is a signal transducer which mechanically amplifies sound via bony levers (middle-ear ossicles). (marian.edu)
  • Binaural cues are used mostly for horizontal localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Horizontal localization was unaffected, but vertical localization performance was significantly worse in participants with ASDs. (jpn.ca)
  • Aside from recognizing and distinguishing sound patterns, the ability to localize sounds in the horizontal plane is an essential component of the mammalian auditory system. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • They find that sound localization acuity across mammalian species is best predicted not by visual acuity, but by the width of the field of best vision. (romainbrette.fr)
  • Geisler CD (1998) From sound to synapse : physiology of the mammalian ear. (springer.com)
  • The auditory system uses several cues for sound source localization, including time- and level-differences (or intensity-difference) between both ears, spectral information, timing analysis, correlation analysis, and pattern matching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound localization is the process of determining the location of a sound source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to occupational noise, even when not resulting in hearing loss, may lead to a diminished ability to locate a sound source. (scielo.br)
  • 3D sound localization refers to an acoustic technology that is used to locate the source of a sound in a three-dimensional space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The source location is usually determined by the direction of the incoming sound waves (horizontal and vertical angles) and the distance between the source and sensors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applications of sound source localization include sound source separation, sound source tracking, and speech enhancement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sonar uses sound source localization techniques to identify the location of a target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound from a source directly in front of or behind us will arrive simultaneously at both ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the source moves to the left or right, our ears pick up the sound from the same source arriving at both ears - but with a certain delay. (wikipedia.org)
  • This method is used for multiple sound source tracking and localizing despite soundtracking and localization only apply for a single sound source. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are able to listen selectively to a single sound source in acoustical environments cluttered with multiple sounds and their echoes. (jneurosci.org)
  • The listener must also identify the sound (e.g., comprehend speech) emanating from each source. (jneurosci.org)
  • Having two ears allows animals to localize the source of a sound. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, the way that the brain processes this information to figure out where the sound came from has been the source of much debate. (elifesciences.org)
  • The ear closer to the source receives the sound earlier than the other. (elifesciences.org)
  • In neuron models consisting of spectro-temporal filtering and spiking nonlinearity, we found that the binaural structure induced by spatialized sounds is mapped to synchrony patterns that depend on source location rather than on source signal. (yale.edu)
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  • Acuity limitation is due to the geometry of a sound source and a listener and acuity can not be improved by varying the ITD detection mechanism. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Auditory localization experiments typically either require subjects to judge the location of a sound source from a discrete set of response alternatives or involve measurements of the accuracy of orienting responses made toward the source location. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The auditory system can estimate the ITD of sounds, but to interpret this ITD as the angle of the sound source requires calibration (learning), and this calibration requires vision. (romainbrette.fr)
  • When peripheral signal collectors, like the ears, report diffences in signal intesity (i.e. loudness) and signal arrival time, the central pathways can use these differences to calculate a bearing for the source of the sound. (marian.edu)
  • This paper investigates real-time N -dimensional wideband sound source localization in outdoor (far-field) and low-degree reverberation cases, using a simple N -microphone arrangement. (springeropen.com)
  • Outdoor sound source localization in different climates needs highly sensitive and high-performance microphones, which are very expensive. (springeropen.com)
  • Time delay estimation (TDE)-based methods are common for N -dimensional wideband sound source localization in outdoor cases using at least N + 1 microphones. (springeropen.com)
  • We apply this method to outdoor cases and propose a novel approach for N -dimensional entire-space outdoor far-field and low reverberation localization of a dominant wideband sound source using TDE, ILD, and head-related transfer function (HRTF) simultaneously and only N microphones. (springeropen.com)
  • A special reflector is designed to avoid mirror points and source counting used to make sure that only one dominant source is active in the localization area. (springeropen.com)
  • Experimental results indicate that our implemented method features less than 0.2 degree error for angle of arrival and less than 10% error for three-dimensional location finding as well as less than 150-ms processing time for localization of a typical wideband sound source such as a flying object (helicopter). (springeropen.com)
  • Our goal is real-time sound source localization in outdoor environments, which necessitates a few points to be considered. (springeropen.com)
  • Also, many such sound source signals are wideband signals. (springeropen.com)
  • Here, we intend to introduce a real-time accurate wideband sound source localization system in low degree reverberation far-field outdoor cases using fewer microphones. (springeropen.com)
  • In Section 4, we explain sound source angle of arrival and location calculations using ILD and PHAT. (springeropen.com)
  • Section 5 covers the introduction of TDE-ILD-based method to two-dimensional (2D) half-plane sound source localization using only two microphones. (springeropen.com)
  • In Section 7, we propose, and in Section 8, we implement our TDE-ILD-HRTF-based method for 2D whole-plane and three-dimensional (3D) entire-space sound source localization. (springeropen.com)
  • A plurality of such processed signals corresponding to different sound source positions may be mixed using conventional techniques without disturbing the positions of the individual images. (google.com)
  • Each transfer function is empirically derived to relate to a different sound source location and by providing a number of different transfer functions and selecting them accordingly the sound source can be made to appear to move. (google.com)
  • Reception of the signal is discussed in terms of the characteristics of the elephant's ear with particular attention to the determination of the threshold of hearing and the ability to locate the source of low-frequency sounds. (springer.com)
  • We found that human listeners can estimate the contributions of the source and the environment from reverberant sound, but that they depend critically on whether environmental acoustics conform to the observed statistical regularities. (pnas.org)
  • In everyday listening, sound reaches our ears directly from a source as well as indirectly via reflections known as reverberation. (pnas.org)
  • The results suggest the brain separates sound into contributions from the source and the environment, constrained by a prior on natural reverberation. (pnas.org)
  • But conflicting findings have been obtained regarding whether the BAHA improves the ability to locate the source of a sound. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Headphones/sound system recommended) Some of the calls produced by elephants may be as powerful as 112 decibels (dB) recorded at 1 meter from the source. (elephantvoices.org)
  • These HRTFs are influenced by the torso, head and ear geometry as they describe the propagation path of the sound from a source to the ear canal entrance. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Time differentials are used to determine the precise location of the source of the sound along the pipeline. (google.ca)
  • Influence of sound source width on human sound localization. (rochester.edu)
  • Design: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. (diva-portal.org)
  • Monoaural cues can be obtained via spectral analysis and are generally used in vertical localization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The minimum audible angle test which is commonly used for evaluating human localization ability depends on interaural time delay, interaural level differences, and spectral information about the acoustic stimulus. (hindawi.com)
  • In accord with previous psychophysical findings, the current results indicate that frontal horizontal sound localization and related right-hemispheric cortical processes are insensitive to the presence of high-frequency spectral information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In animals the function of the pinna is to collect sound, and perform spectral transformations to incoming sounds which enable the process of vertical localization to take place. (wikipedia.org)
  • These deficits can be attributed to differences in the spectral localization cues available to the animals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Human sound localization helps to pay attention to spatially separated speakers using interaural level and time differences as well as angle-dependent monaural spectral cues. (logos-verlag.de)
  • Sound is the perceptual result of mechanical vibrations traveling through a medium such as air or water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consequently, sound waves originating at any point along a given circumference slant height will have ambiguous perceptual coordinates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound Reproduction: The Acoustics and Psychoacoustics of Loudspeakers and Rooms, Third Edition explains the physical and perceptual processes that are involved in sound reproduction and demonstrates how to use the processes to create high-quality listening experiences in stereo and multichannel formats. (routledge.com)
  • Animals with the ability to localize sound have a clear evolutionary advantage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Localization cues are features that help localize sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ability to locate sound sources is an important faculty for both predator and prey alike and the precision of sound localisation ability is known as acuity. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Sound localization acuity was measured behaviorally in a left/right discrimination task near the midline, with broadband sounds. (romainbrette.fr)
  • Sound localization acuity is directly related to the temporal precision of firing of auditory nerve fibers. (romainbrette.fr)
  • In terms of angular threshold, sound localization acuity should then be inversely proportional to the largest ITD, and to head size. (romainbrette.fr)
  • It turns out that, of all the quantities the authors looked at, largest ITD is actually the worst predictor of sound localization acuity. (romainbrette.fr)
  • Therefore, sound localization acuity is directly determined by visual acuity. (romainbrette.fr)
  • The authors find again that, once the effect of best field of vision is removed, visual acuity is essentially uncorrelated with sound localization acuity (Fig. 8). (romainbrette.fr)
  • Another evolutionary hypothesis could be that sound localization acuity is tuned for the particular needs of the animal. (romainbrette.fr)
  • In this study, it appears rather clearly that the single quantity that best predicts sound localization acuity is the width of the best field of vision. (romainbrette.fr)
  • In a relative localization task, we measured the acuity with which the ferrets could discriminate between two speakers in the horizontal plane. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Readers will appreciate that sound localization is inherently a neuro-computational process (it needs to process on implicit and independent acoustic cues). (schweitzer-online.de)
  • It was found that the dynamic range of the right-hemispheric N1m response, defined as the mean difference in response magnitude between contralateral and ipsilateral stimulation, reflects cortical activity related to the discrimination of horizontal sound direction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The subjects' behavioral sound direction discrimination was only affected by the removal of frequencies over 600 Hz. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lesion studies suggest that primary auditory cortex (A1) is required for accurate sound localization by carnivores and primates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • By contrast, in another relative localization task that measured localization ability in the midsagittal plane, pinnae-removed ferrets performed less well than normals. (ox.ac.uk)
  • As long as the sound has a broad frequency bandwidth, the sound type has little effect on the localization accuracy. (aes.org)
  • In a stronger version, ITD is represented by the identity of the most active cell in each frequency band, a labeled line code for sound location. (elifesciences.org)
  • The left-hemispheric effect could be an indication of left-hemispheric processing of high-frequency sound information unrelated to sound localization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The type of outgoing signal varies greatly from low frequency, explosively loud sperm whale clicks, to frequency modulated mid-frequency beaked whale sounds, to very high frequency (over 100 kHz) harbor porpoise signals. (oxfordre.com)
  • [2] The filtering effect of the human pinnae preferentially selects sounds in the frequency range of human speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amplification of sound by the pinna, tympanic membrane and middle ear causes an increase in level of about 10 to 15 dB in a frequency range of 1.5 kHz to 7 kHz. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pinna works differently for low and high frequency sounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sound processing involves dividing each monaural or single channel signal into two signals and then adjusting the differential phase and amplitude of the two channel signals on a frequency dependent basis in accordance with an empirically derived transfer function that has a specific phase and amplitude adjustment for each predetermined frequency interval over the audio spectrum. (google.com)
  • The production, transmission, and reception of and the behavioral response to long-distance, low-frequency sound by elephants is reviewed. (springer.com)
  • The LIDA put out an electric field, a magnetic field, light, heat, and sound (of course light and heat are electromagnetic waves, but at a much higher frequency than the low frequencies of the electric and magnetic fields mentioned above). (bibliotecapleyades.net)
  • interaural time disparities (ITDs) are the main cue that animals use to localize low frequency sounds. (physiology.org)
  • Through reflection, refraction and absorption, acoustic signals are degraded by the environment in ways that are often very much greater for high frequency sounds than for low frequency sounds. (elephantvoices.org)
  • Elephants are specialists in the production of low frequency sound and in the use of long-distance communication. (elephantvoices.org)
  • The moving air causes the vocal chords to vibrate at a particular frequency depending upon the type of sound the elephant is making. (elephantvoices.org)
  • Onset dominance in sound localization was examined by estimating observer weighting of interaural delays for each click of a train of high-frequency filtered clicks. (nih.gov)
  • Development of the head, pinnae, and acoustical cues to sound location in a precocial species, the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). (nih.gov)
  • Angular localization of the bottlenose dolphins, for discriminating the minimum audible angles of clicks, is less than one degree in both the horizontal and vertical directions. (oxfordre.com)
  • Dr. Van Opstal is a professor of Biophysics, studying sound localization behaviour of human and non-human primates, and in patients. (schweitzer-online.de)
  • For example, barn owls can snatch their prey in complete darkness by relying on sound alone. (elifesciences.org)
  • So a predator, like a cat, would need a very accurate sound localization system to be able to find a prey that is hiding. (romainbrette.fr)
  • This functional aspect has a bearing on behaviors such as predator avoidance and prey localization. (marian.edu)
  • Toothed whales and dolphins, odontocete cetaceans, produce very loud biosonar sounds in order to navigate and to locate and catch their prey of fish and squid. (oxfordre.com)
  • Beyer RT (1999) Sounds of our times: two hundred years of acoustics. (springer.com)
  • In this thesis I present studies on the structure, function and development of the avian neuronal nucleus for sound localisation. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The question of how intrinsic properties change during auditory development, to what extent auditory experience is involved in these changes and the functional implications of these changes on the sound localization circuitry is only partially answered. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Horizontal plane sound localization was compared in normal- hearing males with the ears unoccluded and fitted with Peltor H10A passive attenuation earmuffs , Racal Slimgard II communications muffs in active noise reduction (ANR) and talk-through-circuitry (TTC) modes and Nacre QUIETPRO TM communications earplugs in off (passive attenuation) and push-to-talk (PTT) modes. (bvsalud.org)
  • However, workers who are exposed to occupational noise, such as firefighters, must orient themselves using sound, including ( 8 ) fire station and fire truck sirens as well as urban noises that are inherent to the profession ( 9 ). (scielo.br)
  • These participants had no sound exposure and exhibited the same audiological parameters mentioned earlier for the firefighters. (scielo.br)
  • The results showed that the localization accuracy is significantly related to the duration of the sound presentation. (aes.org)
  • Overall, the pinnae-removed ferrets also performed poorly in this task compared with normal ferrets: they made significantly fewer correct responses, larger localization errors and more front-back errors. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Brown CH (1994) Sound localization. (springer.com)
  • This structure is primarily concerned with comparing arrival time of the sound from both sides of the head ( Grothe and Sanes, 1994 ). (biologists.org)
  • Listeners could discriminate sound sources and environments from these signals, but their abilities degraded when reverberation characteristics deviated from those of real-world environments. (pnas.org)
  • Existing real-time passive sound localization systems are mainly based on the time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) approach, limiting sound localization to two-dimensional space, and are not practical in noisy conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound localization with communications headsets: comparison of passive and active systems. (bvsalud.org)
  • These cues are also used by other animals, but there may be differences in usage, and there are also localization cues which are absent in the human auditory system, such as the effects of ear movements. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sound localization is a human task that is performed reasonably accurately using binaural hearing. (scielo.br)
  • 3D sound localization is also used for effective human-robot interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the increasing demand for robotic hearing, some applications of 3D sound localization such as human-machine interface, handicapped aid, and military applications, are being explored. (wikipedia.org)
  • The relationship between the duration of a sound presentation and the accuracy of human localization is investigated. (aes.org)
  • More recently, functional neuroimaging methods have been utilized to study human sound localization. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We designed a spiking neuron model which exploited this principle to locate a variety of sound sources in a virtual acoustic environment using measured human head-related transfer functions. (yale.edu)
  • The human auditory system utilizes 2 cues to localize the sound. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Sound localization behavior in ferrets: comparison of acoustic orientation and approach-to-target responses. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1 . Goodman DF, Brette R (2010) Spike-timing-based computation in sound localization. (yale.edu)
  • This code implements the models from: Goodman DFM, Brette R, 2010 Spike-Timing-Based Computation in Sound Localization. (yale.edu)
  • This paper firstly introduces a new set of psychoacoustic values of interchannel time difference (ICTD) and interchannel intensity difference (ICID) required for 10, 20 and 30 localisation in the conventional stereophonic reproduction, which were obtained using natural sound sources of musical instruments and wideband speech representing different characteristics. (aes.org)
  • Therefore, reduction of the number of microphones is very important, which in turn leads to reduced localization accuracies using conventional methods. (springeropen.com)
  • The illusion of distinct sound sources distributed throughout the three-dimensional space containing the listener is possible using only conventional stereo playback equipment by processing monaural sound signals prior to playback on two spaced-apart transducers. (google.com)
  • Although two loudspeakers are required the sound produced is not conventional stereo, however, each channel of a left/right stereo signal can be separately processed according to the invention and then combined for playback. (google.com)
  • Studies have demonstrated that conventional hearing protectors interfere with sound localization . (bvsalud.org)
  • State-of-the-art hearing AIDS (HAs) can connect to a wireless microphone worn by a talker of interest.This ability allows HAs to have access to almost noise-free sound signals of the target talker.In this paper, we aim to estimate the direction of arrival (DoA) of the target signal,given access to the noise-free target signal. (aau.dk)
  • Mostly, there was an agree tal sounds and warning signals. (cdc.gov)
  • respectively applying said first and second channel modified signals that are maintained separate and apart and that have said phase and amplitude differential therebetween to first and second transducer means located within the three-dimensional space and spaced part from the listener to produce a sound apparently originating at a predetermined location in the three-dimensional space that may be different from the location of said sound transducer means. (google.com)
  • Acoustic (that is, sound) signals are omni directional (i.e. they travel in all directions) and can be broadcast to a large audience including intended and unintended listeners, and those in view and hidden from view. (elephantvoices.org)
  • Accordingly, it is possible to efficiently encode multi-channel signals with 3D effects and to adaptively restore and reproduce audio signals with optimum sound quality according to the characteristics of an audio reproduction environment. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The precise time of arrival of that sound is recorded in the boxes using the GPS time signals. (google.ca)
  • However, no such time or level differences exist for sounds originating along the circumference of circular conical slices, where the cone 's axis lies along the line between the two ears. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lateral superior olive (LSO) is believed to encode differences in sound level at the two ears, a cue for azimuthal sound location. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We study the representation of sound-localization cues at several levels, from the first station of binaural detection in nucleus laminaris to the midbrain-nucleus colliculus inferior, where a first remodeling of the representation occurs and the forebrain, where a further remodeling occurs. (rwth-aachen.de)
  • b) signal detection and localization first step toward providing appropriate protective under similar conditions (Abel et al. (cdc.gov)
  • 8. The system of claim 7, further comprising GPS receivers connected to the signal processors for providing and receiving recorded information on locations of the sensors and signal processors, and for providing precise times of detection of the sounds. (google.ca)
  • Subjectively, atypical IRs were mistaken for sound sources. (pnas.org)
  • This investigation will show whether the previously reported BAHA benefits at one month post BAHA sound processor fitting, related to speech recognition in noise and subjective satisfaction, persist at one year, and whether learning effects increase the magnitudes of these benefits from one month to one year post BAHA sound processor fitting. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Results: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Conclusions: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience. (diva-portal.org)
  • Environmental sounds are produced by different sources and arrive at our ears concurrently or in slight sequences. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In an absolute localization task, 12 speakers were spaced at 30 degrees intervals in the horizontal plane at the level of the ferrets' ears. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Sounds produced in the world reflect off surrounding surfaces on their way to our ears. (pnas.org)
  • It is our belief that, by holding its head in a certain posture and by flapping its ears in a particular rhythm and angle an elephant is able to affect the musculature around the larynx, thus modifying a particular call to achieve the desired sound. (elephantvoices.org)
  • Recently, we developed such an audible sound-based positioning system, based on a spread spectrum approach. (mdpi.com)
  • Global positioning system (GPS) satellite receivers provide precise timing of reception of the targeted sound events in milliseconds. (google.ca)