Soot: A dark powdery deposit of unburned fuel residues, composed mainly of amorphous CARBON and some HYDROCARBONS, that accumulates in chimneys, automobile mufflers and other surfaces exposed to smoke. It is the product of incomplete combustion of carbon-rich organic fuels in low oxygen conditions. It is sometimes called lampblack or carbon black and is used in INK, in rubber tires, and to prepare CARBON NANOTUBES.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Air Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Fuel Oils: Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Kerosene: A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Acenaphthenes: Tricyclic ethylene-bridged naphthalene derivatives. They are found in petroleum residues and coal tar and used as dye intermediates, in the manufacture of plastics, and in insecticides and fungicides.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Polycyclic Compounds: Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Chemistry, Organic: The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Organic Chemicals: A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.FiresAerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Tars: Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic: A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)Air Movements: The motion of air currents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Optics and Photonics: A specialized field of physics and engineering involved in studying the behavior and properties of light and the technology of analyzing, generating, transmitting, and manipulating ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION in the visible, infrared, and ultraviolet range.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate: A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Refractometry: Measurement of the index of refraction (the ratio of the velocity of light or other radiation in the first of two media to its velocity in the second as it passes from one into the other).Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Library Services: Services offered to the library user. They include reference and circulation.United StatesClimate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.San FranciscoMotor Vehicles: AUTOMOBILES, trucks, buses, or similar engine-driven conveyances. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.Astronomical Phenomena: Aggregates of matter in outer space, such as stars, planets, comets, etc. and the properties and processes they undergo.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Institute of Medicine (U.S.): Identifies, for study and analysis, important issues and problems that relate to health and medicine. The Institute initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice.Neuropsychology: A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.
Particulates and soot IPCC 4th Assessment Report, 2005 Albrecht, B.A. (1989). "Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional ... indirect and semi-direct aerosol effects resulting in a large uncertainty in the radiative forcing due to aerosols. ... Aerosol particles act as CCNs creating more droplets of a smaller size. These take more time to coalesce to raindrop size (>100 ... Lohmann, U. (2006). "Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Climate". Space Sci Rev. 125 (1-4): 129-137. Bibcode:2006SSRv..125..129L. ...
In aerosols, airborne particles may equally aggregate and form larger clusters (e.g., soot). A well dispersed colloidal ... Aerosol Colloid Clarifying agent Double layer forces DLVO theory (stability of colloids) Electrical double layer Emulsion ...
doi:10.1016/S0921-8181(99)00017-X. Haywood, J. M.; Shine, K. P. (1995). "The effect of anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosol ...
... whereas soot has an SSA of 0.23, showing that it is a major atmospheric aerosol absorber. The Indirect aerosol effect consists ... The Semi-direct effect concerns any radiative effect caused by absorbing atmospheric aerosol such as soot, apart from direct ... Aerosol particles of natural origin (such as windblown dust) tend to have a larger radius than human-produced aerosols such as ... Another important aerosol type is elemental carbon (EC, also known as black carbon, BC): this aerosol type includes strongly ...
The Laboratory of Aerosol Optics collects information on temperature, humidity, soot, and atmospheric scattering at Tomsk. The ... Aerosol particle size is measured by using six different wavelengths for the laser. The institute was founded in 1969 by ... The Laboratory of Optical Signals Propagation gathers satellite data on aerosols, ozone, and Earth reflectivity over Siberia. ...
In respect to soot carbon (as an aerosol called black carbon) these light reflecting particles are collectively called brown ... "Aerosol Physics & Environmental Physics » Black and Brown Carbon in Atmospheric Aerosols". Retrieved ... This particulate matter appears light brown, and not black as would be expected for pure soot particles. Aerosols in are one of ... Light absorbing aerosols have become an interest of study because of its effects on atmospheric warming. While the function of ...
Albrecht effect Sulfate Aerosols and soot IPCC 4th Assessment Report, 2005 Hartmann, Dennis L. Global Physical Climatology. ... Cloud droplets normally form on aerosol particles that serve as CCN. Increasing the number concentration of CCN can lead to ... doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9053-6. Lohmann, U. (2006). "Aerosol Effects on Clouds and Climate". Space Sci Rev. 125 (1-4): 129-137. ... 2.0.CO;2. Rosenfeld, D. (2006). "Aerosol-Cloud Interactions Control of Earth Radiation and Latent Heat Release Budgets". Space ...
Indirect effects of aerosols represent the largest uncertainty in radiative forcing. Soot may either cool or warm Earth's ... Radiative forcing due to aerosols is temporally limited due to the processes that remove aerosols from the atmosphere. Removal ... aerosols have indirect effects on the Earth's radiation budget. Sulfate aerosols act as cloud condensation nuclei and thus lead ... IPCC, "Aerosols, their Direct and Indirect Effects", pp. 291-292 in IPCC TAR WG1 2001. Ramanathan, V.; Chung, C.; Kim, D.; ...
Fossil fuel soot, as a result of mixing with cooling aerosols and particulate matter, has a lower 20-year GWP of 2,530, and a ... When the aerosols and particulate matter are accounted for, fossil fuel and biofuel soot are increasing temperatures by about ... See Figure 1.) In addition to black carbon, fossil fuel and biofuel soot contain aerosols and particulate matter that cool the ... In addition, it assigns 50% of the aerosol indirect effect (which causes cooling) to soot (BC/OC)."). Id., at 425 (The "climate ...
"Aerosol monitoring at multiple locations in China: Contributions of EC and dust to aerosol light absorption". Tellus B. 60 (4 ... The word aethalometer is derived from the Classical Greek verb 'aethaloun', meaning 'to blacken with soot'. The gas stream ( ... Lu, Hui; Wei, Wenshou; Liu, Mingzhe; Gao, Weidong; Han, Xi (2012). "Aerosol optical absorption by dust and black carbon in ... Allen, G (1999). "Field validation of a semi-continuous method for aerosol black carbon (aethalometer) and temporal patterns of ...
We also don't go into how aerosols also cause Global dimming or how CO2 generation mechanism's also generate soot particles etc ... We also don't go into how aerosols also cause Global dimming or how CO2 generation mechanism's also generate soot particles etc ... There is a link to it (in the navigation box at the bottom) as well as one to Ocean acidification, Aerosols etc etc. A lot of ... Discussing the role of clouds in the energy budget is beyond the scope the article, just like discussion of aerosols is beyond ...
... such as aerosols, droplets, bubbles, precipitates, powders, dust, soot, etc. Moments of the Boltzmann equation are solved to ... This method was used mainly for aerosol sprays and droplets by tracking their diameters through phenomenon such as breakage, ...
The effect of aerosols was assessed to be the dominant uncertainty in radiative forcing. A 2008 Report for the US Climate ... "2009Dec-FallAGU-Soot-PressConference-Backgrounder-Kargel-1" (pdf). Satellite-era glacier changes in High Asia. University of ... This was based on an earlier 2006 paper that elicitated the judgment of twenty-four experts on aerosol forcing. The CCSP Report ... Background support presentation for NASA "Black Carbon and Aerosols" press conference originally associated with Fall AGU, Dec ...
Dust particles and other aerosols such as soot affect the amount of sunlight received by the atmosphere and earth, and are ...
Many of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons known to be tumorigenic or mutagenic are found in atmospheric aerosols, which is ... and the formation of soot in combustion. Thermal rearrangements of aceanthrylene and acephenanthrylene can yield fluoranthene, ... connected to the thermal rearrangement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fast soot formation during combustion. Scott, L. ...
1997). Levitation of stratospheric and mesospheric aerosols by gravito-photophoresis, J. Aerosol Sci. 27,467-475. C. Helmbrecht ... in the determination of thermal conductivity and temperature of microscopic grains and also in the transport of soot particles ... I. Yalamov, V. B. Kutukov, and E. R. Shchukin, "Theory of the Photophoretic Motion of the Large-Size Volatile Aerosol Particle ... The use of light in the separation of particles aerosols based on their optical properties, makes possible the separation of ...
Aerosols produced are primarily black carbon. industrial air pollution, which produces soot and airborne sulfates, nitrates, ... to aerosols, which are small particles or droplets suspended in the atmosphere. Key sources to which anthropogenic aerosols are ... Geerts, B. "Aerosols and Climate". [verification needed] UCAR FAQ: How much has global temp. risen over the past 100 years? ... Other human effects are relevant-for example, sulphate aerosols are believed to have a cooling effect. Natural factors also ...
... which includes diesel soot and aerosols such as ash particulates, metallic abrasion particles, sulfates, and silicates. When ... Mortality from diesel soot exposure in 2001 was at least 14,400 out of the German population of 82 million, according to the ... With the greater soot production, EGR is often combined with a particulate matter (PM) filter in the exhaust.[full citation ... "A Real-Time Soot Model for Emission Control of a Diesel Engine" (PDF). IFAC Proceedings Volumes. 43 (7): 226. doi:10.3182/ ...
So as aerosols cut down sunlight by large amounts, they may be spinning down the hydrological cycle of the planet." Large scale ... They believe that soot will absorb solar energy and transport it to other areas such as the Himalayas where glacial melting ... Aerosols in the stratosphere last years instead of weeks - so only a relatively smaller (though still large) amount of sulfate ... Sulfate aerosols have declined significantly since 1970 with the Clean Air Act in the United States and similar policies in ...
Novakov's aerosol research group, which included Hal Rosen, Ted Chang, Anthony Hansen, Ray Dod, and Lara Gundel, developed new ... The aethalometer, the name of which is derived from a Greek word that means "to blacken with soot", is today the mostly widely ... "Carbonaceous Aerosols and Climate Change: How Researchers Proved Black Carbon is a Significant Force in the Atmosphere". ... He later founded an Aerosol Research Group which traveled the world conducting ground breaking research on climate change. In ...
Some aerosols produce clouds which cool the Earth by reflecting sunlight back to space, while others, like soot, produce thin ... aerosol particles result in about 800,000 premature deaths. Aerosol loading is sufficiently important to be included among the ... On balance, anthropogenic aerosols probably produce a net negative radiative forcing (cooling influence). Worldwide each year, ... For example, the large projected demand for HFCs could significantly contribute to climate change." Aerosol particles in the ...
20 to 30 lb/1000 ft³ (300 to 500 g/m³) of oily soot can be created during combustion. Major pollution problems led to the ... 1910 CWG plant Tar aerosols (tar extractors, condensers/scrubbers, Electrostatic precipitators in 1912) Light oil vapors (oil ... The illuminating power of a gas was related to amount of soot-forming hydrocarbons ("illuminants") dissolved in it. These ...
... thereby injecting the soot into the stratosphere where it would take years for the sun blocking effect of this aerosol of soot ... 2005). "Teratogenicity of depleted uranium aerosols: A review from an epidemiological perspective". Environmental Health. 4 (1 ... was soot."[With the remaining 2%, being oil that did not undergo any initial combustion]. Peter V. Hobbs also narrated a short ... of global emissions and emissions of soot were 3400 metric tons per day. In a paper in the DTIC archive, published in 2000, it ...
Aerosol indirect effect. Aerosols modify the properties of clouds through a subset of the aerosol population called cloud ... James Hansen & Larissa Nazarenko, Soot Climate Forcing Via Snow and Ice Albedos, 101 Proc. of the Nat'l. Acad. of Sci. 423 (13 ... As per the effects are: Aerosol direct effect. Aerosols directly scatter and absorb radiation. The scattering of radiation ... Aerosols (very fine particles/droplets in the atmosphere) have both direct and indirect effects on Earth's radiative balance. ...
... it was known that firestorms could inject soot smoke/aerosols into the stratosphere but the longevity of this slew of aerosols ... Soot propertiesEdit. See also: Tihomir Novakov and Aethalometer. Sooty aerosols can have a wide range of properties, as well as ... Once the quantity of soot is decided upon by the researchers, the climate effects of these soot clouds are then modeled.[10] ... Historical data on residence times of aerosols, albeit a different mixture of aerosols, in this case stratospheric sulfur ...
Graham, S. C, Homer, J. B., and Rosenfeld, J. L. J. (1975) "The formation and coagulation of soot aerosols generated in ... Oxidation of the molecules and soot particles reduces soot formation. Soot, particularly diesel exhaust pollution, accounts for ... The soot particles can be mixed with metal oxides and with minerals and can be coated with sulfuric acid. Many details of soot ... Soot causes cancer and lung disease, and is the second-biggest human cause of global warming. Soot as an airborne contaminant ...
Injury to the lungs and airways is not only due to deposition of fine particulate soot but also due to the gaseous components ... 2010) Acute lung injury: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment, J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 23:243-52. [3] Meesun, Vera ...
Alternatively it could cause it to last much shorter, as there would be more water vapor for the rocky aerosol particles to ... These wood fires might release enough amounts of water vapor, ash, soot, tar and carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to perturb ... sized aerosol particles into the atmosphere. Anything larger would fall quickly back to the surface. These particles would then ... cooling the planet in a similar fashion as the sulfurous aerosol rising from a megavolcano, producing deep global dimming. This ...
definitions history - patterns & principles examples: so 2 , acid rain, ozone, particulates (aerosols and soot) . definitions. ...
Industries, factories, vehicles, aerosol cans, etc are all causes for "acid rain". This is because all of these things increase ... which has stopped the blackening of his face from soot; however, acid rain continues to compromise the structural integrity of ...
... LONDON, UK, August 12, 2002 (ENS) - A hazy brown cloud covering South Asia ... "These initial findings clearly indicate that this growing cocktail of soot, particles, aerosols and other pollutants are ... Comprehensive regional models and regional aerosol and climate observations are needed for verification. Project Asian Brown ... South Africa to gather aerosol data for INDOEX. (Photo courtesy NOAA). This blanket of pollution cuts the amount of sunlight or ...
... Khalizov, Alexei F.; Zhang, Renyi ... Ergonomics and Aerosol Technology publishing date. 2009. type. Contribution to journal publication status. published. subject. ... Restructuring of the soot agglomerates and filling of the voids that accompany the condensation of water-soluble materials and ... Restructuring of the soot agglomerates and filling of the voids that accompany the condensation of water-soluble materials and ...
... model is used to simulate the fractal structure of the soot aerosols in random orientation using Monte-Carlo method,and the ... and the extinction characteristics of solar radiation by soot aerosols are mainly determined by the radius and the number of ... diameter and the number of primary particles on the extinction characteristics of soot aerosols in random orientation are ... scattering and extinction efficiency factors of fractal soot aerosols in random orientation are simulated in the solar ...
Large Variability in Morphology, Hygroscopicity and Optical Properties of Soot Aerosols during Atmospheric Processing. Alexie ... Coating with sulfuric acid and subsequent hygroscopic growth enhance the optical properties of soot aerosols, increasing ... The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of ... and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. We present ...
Soot-like components of atmospheric aerosol is known to be one of an important factor of air pollution. This matter is ... Soot-like components of atmospheric aerosol is known to be one of an important factor of air pollution. This matter is ... In contrast to usual background atmospheric aerosol, solar radiation is especially absorbed by soot-like components in passing ... Atmospheric Aerosol Volume Content Sulfate Aerosol Microphysical Parameter Amplification Coefficient These keywords were added ...
A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and ... Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass ... Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass ... 5Aerosol Dynamics, Inc., Berkeley, CA 94710, USA. *6Department of Public Health, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 ...
Engineering , News , Law of soot light absorption: Current climate models underestimate warming by black carbon aerosol ... The particles are mixed, or coated, with organic aerosols that are co-emitted with soot from a combustion system. It turns out ... Law of soot light absorption: Current climate models underestimate warming by black carbon aerosol ... Expertise: Atmospheric aerosols in Earths energy balance and aerosol formation in combustion systems toward synthesis of high ...
Characterization of black carbon-containing particles from soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer measurements on the R/V ...
... Lee, Alex K. Y.; Willis, Megan D. ... identified as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), and cooking emission organic aerosol ( ... In this study, we demonstrate for the first time the capabilities of the Aerodyne Soot-Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer ... Single particle characterization using the soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS). ...
Organic carbon aerosols thus accompany and tend to be absorbed by soot aerosols, and they are believed to increase the toxicity ... Black carbon (soot) aerosols absorb sunlight and, even though this can cause a local cooling of the surface in regions of heavy ... One recent study that accounts for the larger absorption that soot can cause when it is mixed internally with other aerosols ... What other emissions are contributing factors to climate change (e.g., aerosols, CO, black carbon soot), and what is their ...
Relating aerosol mass spectra to composition and nanostructure of soot particles. Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Artikel ... and the efficacy of soot mitigation technologies. We used laser-vaporization, electron-ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (or ... These results have implications for assessments of soot particle mixing state and brown carbon absorption in the atmosphere and ... The composition and carbon nanostructure of soot are important parameters influencing health and climate effects, ...
E3 BC (soot). Annual maps for TOA warming and surface cooling by present-day total and anthropogenic soot (BC) are shown in Fig ... atmosphere and surface for all aerosol, for fine-mode aerosol, for coarse-mode aerosol and for individual aerosol components. ... The determination of aerosol impacts requires two simulations: one with aerosol and one with less or no aerosol. Usually ... Aerosol direct radiative effects are changes to the atmospheric energy distribution from the aerosol (or the extra aerosol) ...
... aerosol monitoring) equipment from Aerodyne, Magee Scientific, microAeth and other leading brands. Compare and contact a ... Aerodyne - Model SP-AMS - Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) makes ... Black Carbon Aerosol Particle (Aerosol Monitoring) equipment Related terms for "black carbon aerosol particle ": black carbon ... Aerodyne - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer System (AMS). The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is the only currently available ...
... aerosol monitoring) equipment from Aerodyne, Magee Scientific, microAeth and other leading brands. Compare and contact a ... Aerodyne - Model SP-AMS - Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. The Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) makes ... Aerodyne - Aerosol Mass Spectrometer System (AMS). The Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) is the only currently available ... Model PAS 2000 - Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor (PAS). Since 1991, EcoChem has pioneered the use of the Photoelectric Aerosol ...
Atmospheric Aerosols. 3. organic. carbon. SO42-. NH4+. NO3-. dust,. sea salt. soot .... ... 20th Century: Was the Sahel drought internal noise? Forced Signal? Anthropogenic? GHG or Aerosols? .... ...
... and coated soot aerosols on different substrates. The samples were inspected by electron microscopy before and after exposure ... For coated soot, the imaging results were compared against mass-mobility measurements of airborne particles that underwent ... different substrates is commonly used in laboratory and field studies to investigate the morphology and mixing state of aerosol ... soot; sodium chloride; sulfuric acid; sampling substrate; morphology; electron microscopy; aerosols; soot; sodium chloride; ...
The occurrences of soot are mainly in cities, although there have been observations of these aerosols occurring in sparsely ... How much do anthropogenic carbon aerosols (soot) affect the atmospheric radiation budget?. Ask Question ... Their findings was that the total direct forcing of BC, independent of co-emitted aerosol species and including all sources ( ... Anthropogenic carbon or black carbon (BC), particularly soot, is a product of many human activities, a major one being ...
Freshly emitted soot is an example of a hydrophobic aerosol type; after chemical transformation in the atmosphere (e.g. ... An exception is e.g freshly emitted soot, which is far from spherical (see some pictures of archetypical aerosol types here; ... Climate effects of aerosols. Aerosol particles can influence climate in several ways: They scatter and absorb (in the case of ... Aerosol growth. Condensation of more vapor onto the nucleated aerosol makes it grow in size. However, other processes hamper ...
Soot aggregate sizes, primary-particle sizes, and volume fractions grow as particles age in the flame [4,5]. At high ... Emissions of aerosols and gaseous pollutants from burning biomass have major impacts on air quality, public health and climate ... This talk will also cover the gaps in our understanding of soot chemistry, some reasons for these gaps, and what we may need to ... Soot Formation and Chemical Evolution during Combustion. Hope A. Michelsen, University of Colorado Boulder. There are ...
4. The health effects of San Joaquin Valley aerosol can be directly related to the emissions source of the fine and ultrafine ... in the number of neutrophils recruited when comparing control animals to animals instilled intranasally with 15ug of iron soot ... Center: San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC). Center Director: Wexler, Anthony S.. Title: Project ... R832414 San Joaquin Valley Aerosol Health Effects Research Center (SAHERC) Subprojects under this Center: (EPA does not fund or ...
Experimental and numerical analyses of laminar diffusion flames were performed to identify the effect of fuel mixing on soot ... Waldmann, L. and Schmitt, K. H. (1996). Thermophoresis and Diffusionphoresis of Aerosols. Aerosol Science (Davies, C. N. Edn). ... Soot Counterflow Light extinction/scattering Synergistic effects Number density This is a preview of subscription content, log ... Lee, U. J., Oh, K. C. and Shin, H. D. (2005). Soot formation in inverse diffusion flames of diluted ethane. Fuel, 84, 543. ...
46] for soot aerosol.. 3.3. Impact of Dust on Surface Radiative Balance. It is well known that dust can reduce the surface net ... defined as the differential change in these quantities per change in the dust aerosol optical depth at 0.5 μm, :. where RFPAR ... Aerosols can affect this ratio in a more complicated way, depending on the spectral dependence of the aerosol optical ... Given that changes in total PAR and its diffuse fraction are controlled by the aerosol type, especially by aerosol burden and ...
  • Thus, it is crucial to determine how long it takes freshly emitted soot particles in an urban environment to convert to aged coated spheres to confidently predict atmospheric heating rates by using the core-shell assumption. (
  • Here we address the impact of mineral aerosol (dust) that involves the radiative transfer processes, focusing on aerosol-induced changes in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 0.4−0.7 μ m) and surface radiative balance (SRB, 0.3−20 μ m). (
  • 3 ] found that dust aerosol decreased the SW radiation by up to −137 Wm −2 (regional mean) in North Africa, resulting in a significant decrease in surface temperature and sensible heat. (
  • 4 ] reported that dust caused a monthly mean SW surface forcing of −2.0 Wm −2 over East Asia, where the surface forcing was defined as the difference in SW fluxes between clean and aerosol-laden conditions. (
  • 5 ] found that dust aerosol caused a daily-mean surface SW forcing of up to −41.9 Wm −2 over the Taklamakan desert. (
  • It's common, for example, for particles of black carbon from soot or smoke to mix with nitrates and sulfates, or to coat the surfaces of dust, creating hybrid particles. (
  • Sea salt, dust, and volcanic ash are three common types of aerosols. (
  • High aerosol concentrations were observed over western and central Africa (a mixture of dust from the Sahara and smoke from agricultural fires), northern India (where urban and industrial pollution concentrates against the foothills of the Himalaya Mountains), and northeastern China (urban and industrial pollution ). (
  • The composition of particulate matter that generally causes visual effects such as smog consists of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, mineral dust, organic matter, and elemental carbon also known as black carbon or soot. (
  • Aerosols also scatter longwave radiation, although this is significant only for larger aerosols like soil dust, and is neglected by all three of the studies discussed here. (
  • By including the auxiliary data of surface reflectivity and aerosol mixing weight, the optical properties of mineral dust, or more specifically, the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single-scattering albedo (SSA), can be retrieved with improved accuracy. (
  • However, the retrievals can be underestimated by as much as 11.9% for AOD and overestimated by up to 4.1% for SSA in the case of polluted dust with an estimated 10% (in terms of the number-density mixing ratio) of soot aggregates if the black carbon effect on dust aerosols is neglected. (
  • 5. - 6 The long-range dust transport can influence the regional and global aerosol loading, radiative energy budget, rainfall pattern, air quality, public health and global climate systems. (
  • We emphasize developments in black carbon absorption alteration due to coating and ageing, brown carbon characterization, dust composition, absorbing aerosol above cloud, source modeling and size distributions, and validation of high-resolution modeling against a range of observations. (
  • Some aerosols, such as dust and sea salt, have a natural origin. (
  • Airborne particles include a wide range of pollutants -- road dust, diesel soot, fly ash, wood smoke, nitrates and sulfates. (
  • Flanner and his colleagues think that aerosols , especially black carbon and mineral dust might be responsible for this difference. (
  • He was the first to quantify the errors in dust-aerosol retrievals with passive satellite instruments resulting from the neglect of par-ticle nonsphericity. (
  • Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as directly in the exhaust plumes of individual heavy-duty (HD) diesel trucks. (
  • OA mass spectra measured for HD truck exhaust plumes show cycloalkanes are predominate in exhaust OA emissions relative to saturated alkanes (i.e., normal and iso-paraffins), suggesting that lubricating oil rather than fuel is the dominant source of primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions in diesel vehicle exhaust. (
  • One resultant cluster is dominated by rBC mass spectral signals (C+1 to C+5) while the organic signals fall into a few major clusters, identified as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), and cooking emission organic aerosol (COA). (
  • A large experimental intensive examined changes to optical properties (scattering and absorption) of BC particles upon condensation of secondary sulfate and organic aerosol, with analysis of results still ongoing. (
  • The formation and evolution of "brown carbon" (BrC, light-absorbing organic aerosol) was also examined, by measuring the optical properties of secondary organic aerosol (which under low-NO x conditions were shown to be only weakly absorbing) and examining how primary BrC (from biomass burning) evolves both chemically and optically. (
  • We used laser-vaporization, electron-ionization aerosol mass spectrometry (or SP-AMS) to systematically investigate relationships between aerosol mass spectra, carbon nanostructure (HRTEM), and composition (thermal-optical carbon analysis) for soot with varying physicochemical properties. (
  • This refractory organic carbon material was incompletely detected with conventional aerosol mass spectrometry (flash vaporization at 600 °C). This suggests that (SP-AMS) refractory carbon cluster analysis provides insight to chemical bonding and nanostructures in refractory carbon materials, lowcarbons (C≤5+) indicate mature soot and large carbons indicate refractory organic carbon and amorphous nanostructures related to C5-components. (
  • Researchers tested air samples using a combination of real-time techniques, including aerosol mass spectrometry and photoacoustic spectroscopy. (
  • The most prevalent trace gases do not generally nucleate new aerosols (or even condense onto existing ones), because they are too volatile (i.e. they have a high saturation vapor pressure and thus evaporate readily). (
  • Certain plants produce gases that react with other substances in the air to yield aerosols, such as the "smoke" in the Great Smoky Mountains of the United States. (
  • Because aerosols cause respiratory and other health problems and acid rain, they have been regulated more aggressively than greenhouse gases. (
  • In the twenty-first century, aerosol levels are anticipated to drop faster than greenhouse gases in response to future emission reductions, which will leave greenhouse warming unopposed and unmoderated. (
  • The March campaign was designed to examine the chemical and physical transformations of gases and aerosols in the polluted outflow from the Mexico City metropolitan area. (
  • This dataset provides information on greenhouse gases and human-produced air pollution, including atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), tropospheric ozone (O3) and black carbon (BC) aerosols, collected during airborne campaigns conducted by NASA's Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) mission. (
  • Firefighters use the term "smoke" when addressing the solids, aerosols, and gases being produced by incomplete burning or heat degradation of contents (pyrolysis). (
  • 2011 to 2017: Atmospheric Physicist/Chemist (Band 6), Reactive gases and Aerosols group, CEH, Edinburgh. (
  • This matter is especially high priority near the sources of industrial pollution and the composition of atmospheric aerosol would be the most quantity here. (
  • Start Forskningsoutput Relating aerosol mass spectra to composition and nanostructu. (
  • The composition and carbon nanostructure of soot are important parameters influencing health and climate effects, and the efficacy of soot mitigation technologies. (
  • But in a paper just published in Nature Communications the scientists from Los Alamos and Michigan Technological University analyzed the morphology and composition of the specific aerosols emitted by the Las Conchas fire. (
  • Black carbon (BC) particles play a significant role in climate forcing, yet the effects of aging-atmospheric processes that affect the mass, size, shape and chemical composition of aerosol particles-on their radiative properties are poorly constrained. (
  • Changes to the chemical composition of soot from heterogeneous oxidation reactions. (
  • The composition of aerosols and particles depends on their source. (
  • The chemical composition of the aerosol directly affects how it interacts with solar radiation. (
  • But the scientists who study these particles -- called aerosols -- have long struggled to accurately measure their composition, size, and global distribution. (
  • Cairns' technique measures polarization more accurately, integrates more longwave and shortwave polarization information into the mathematical models, and is the first to provide accurate estimates of aerosol size and composition over land. (
  • Up to now, the understanding of BB aerosol composition modification during long-range transport (LRT) is still very limited due to the lack of observational data. (
  • Using an instrument that measures the size, chemical composition and optical properties of aerosols in real time, they showed that jagged bits of fresh soot quickly become coated with a spherical shell of other chemicals, particularly sulfate, nitrate, and organic carbon, through light-driven chemical reactions. (
  • Morphology, size, elemental composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). (
  • Local aerosol composition impacts human health, as toxicity depends on particle concentration, composition, and size. (
  • We have thus studied local aerosol composition in University Park, PA from September-November of 2014 and 2015 to determine the composition and morphology of ambient particles using Transmission Electron Microscopy. (
  • In particular, we explored how local aerosol composition is affected as local and regional power plants converted from coal to natural gas consumption. (
  • Analysis of light scattering form soot using optical cross sections for aggregates. (
  • Asia and Africa are two major source regions of black carbon, the main component of soot aggregates. (
  • Mishchenko performed the first comprehensive theoretical studies of the effects of nonspherici-ty and complex morphology on radiative, polarization, and depolarization properties of mineral aerosols, fractal soot aggregates, and young contrail particles. (
  • Distinct differences in morphological properties such as primary particle diameter, fractal dimension, and microstructure were observed among the different types of fresh soot particles. (
  • However, for fresh soot aerosols, such core-shell models may be unreliable for accurately predicting the optical properties of highly nonspherical particles with small coatings ( 5 , 16 , 19 ). (
  • These ubiquitous specks of matter are known as aerosols, and they can be found in the air over oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice, and every ecosystem in between. (
  • A quantification of aerosol impacts on global scales, however, is difficult. (
  • Tropospheric aerosol is highly variable in space and time, and the needed preindustrial reference for anthropogenic impacts is poorly defined. (
  • The impacts of aerosols on climate are significant, but also very uncertain. (
  • These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify the relative impacts of soot on climate, thus limiting our ability to make effective policy decisions ( 14 ). (
  • In addition to their air quality impacts, aerosols can interfere with sunlight reaching the planet's surface, which means they play a role in the climate. (
  • Until now, scientists have had to assume how soot is mixed with other chemical species in individual particles and estimate how that ultimately impacts their warming potential," said Kimberly Prather, professor in the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. (
  • The resulting smog and soot had serious health impacts on the residents of growing urban centers. (
  • These initial findings clearly indicate that this growing cocktail of soot, particles, aerosols and other pollutants are becoming a major environmental hazard for Asia," warned Toepfer. (
  • One of the key objectives of the Los Alamos team now is to integrate the net radiative effects of all pollutants: carbon dioxide, aerosols and ozone, and changes in the amount of light that reaches the ground that are observed in Mexico City could help determine the global warming potential of a megacity. (
  • The ALA defines particle pollution (formerly referred to as soot) as "the most dangerous, and deadly, of the widespread outdoor air pollutants. (
  • These pollutants are called aerosols and they include soot as well as compounds of nitrogen and sulfur and other stuff into the air. (
  • Mahowald's results suggest that reducing those pollutants could be an even bigger problem than realized, when you consider that aerosols help remove carbon dioxide from the air by encouraging plant growth. (
  • Rajan Chakrabarty , assistant professor in the School of Engineering & Applied Science at Washington University in St. Louis, and William R. Heinson, a National Science Foundation postdoctoral fellow in Chakrabarty's lab, took on that challenge and discovered something new about soot, or rather, a new law that describes its ability to absorb light: the law of light absorption. (
  • They then turned to work done by different research groups who measured ambient soot light absorption across the globe, from Houston to London to Beijing. (
  • With so many differing values for light absorption enhancement in soot, Chakrabarty said that the climate modelers are confused. (
  • We've found that substances resembling tar balls dominate, and even the soot is coated by organics that focus sunlight," said senior laboratory scientist Manvendra Dubey, "Both components can potentially increase climate warming by increased light absorption. (
  • His research focuses on development and application of real time, in situ measurement methods for aerosol light absorption, scattering, extinction, and asymmetry parameter, and new optical remote sensing techniques. (
  • Soot-like components of atmospheric aerosol is known to be one of an important factor of air pollution. (
  • According to recent research , air pollution, including soot, is linked to heart disease, some cancers and, in the United States, as many as 150,000 cases of diabetes every year. (
  • During the twentieth century, natural sources of sulfate aerosols were overwhelmed by the contribution from pollution, in particular from the burning of fossil fuels. (
  • A very regular daily profile has emerged revealing peak concentrations of both hydrogen and soot in early morning caused by the high traffic volume and pollution close to the ground. (
  • Fully mitigating soot can also save 1-2 million lives by avoiding the disease from soot pollution. (
  • When we introduce a little more of our own pollution-especially when it's dark black soot-there's a more dramatic effect on warming," said Craig Corrigan, a climate scientist from Scripps and a co-author on the study. (
  • Radiative effects caused by the aerosol presence (direct effects) and by aerosol modified clouds (indirect effects) are examined. (
  • Atmospheric aerosol modulates the radiative energy budget directly (by the aerosol presence) and indirectly (by modifying the properties of clouds). (
  • The image isn't a perfect representation of annual global aerosols because passive remote sensors (sensors that simply observe reflected light) like MODIS have trouble measuring aerosol interference over areas that are very bright because of clouds, snow, deserts, or sunglint (the direct reflection of sunlight into the sensor's "eye. (
  • Hydrophobic soot exerts a very different impact on clouds than hydrophilic soot. (
  • Soot, or aerosols, can have both heating and cooling effects on clouds. (
  • Weizmann Institute scientists and colleagues have now developed a model of this complex relationship, showing when aerosols rising into the clouds will result in heating or cooling. (
  • Dr. Ilan Koren and Hila Afargan of the Weizmann Institute's Environmental Sciences and Energy Research Department, together with colleagues from UMBC and NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, have, for the first time, developed an analytical model that puts all of these factors together to show when aerosols rising into the clouds will heat things up and when they will cool them off. (
  • But the larger the ratio of open sky to clouds, the more aerosol particles absorb radiation, thus hastening the heating of the remaining cloud cover, reducing cloud cover, and heating the system. (
  • The coast of Namibia is one of three places on Earth with persistent low-level clouds, and the only such location with a steady supply of tiny aerosol particles in the form of smoke from inland fires that mix with the clouds. (
  • NASA's Observations of Aerosols Above Clouds and their Interactions (ORACLES) mission will observe and measure how these particles interact with clouds and change their ability to warm or cool the planet. (
  • When aerosols encounter clouds, they also change the properties of the clouds they are ingested into. (
  • ORACLES flights will complement and validate current satellite observations of aerosols and clouds, and test instruments that may fly on future satellites, by making detailed observations that are impossible to make from space with current capabilities. (
  • Unlike a satellite, which generally gets one pass per day over a certain location, both aircraft will be able to sample clouds and aerosols throughout the day over the entire study area to see how they evolve. (
  • Together, data from the two aircraft will provide a comprehensive picture of how aerosols behave in the presence of clouds - and how aerosols directly or indirectly change how clouds behave. (
  • Indeed, he draws a distinction between the darker-colored aerosols - such as those found in the brown clouds - and lighter-colored ones which don't absorb solar energy. (
  • The aerosols reflect sunlight back into space, or they stimulate clouds that keep us cool. (
  • Some sources have been shown to have a much higher oxidative potential compared to diesel soot. (
  • The reactive oxygen intermediates may also explain some of the direct adverse health effects of diesel soot and tobacco smoke particles. (
  • Beyond its impact on health, soot, known as black carbon by atmospheric scientists, is a powerful global warming agent. (
  • Because of its ability to absorb sunlight and directly heat the surrounding air, climate scientists incorporate soot into their models - computational systems which try to replicate conditions of the real world - and then predict future warming trends. (
  • Immediately after Los Alamos National Laboratory reopened to scientists and staff, the team set up an extensive aerosol sampling system to monitor the smoke from the smoldering fire for more than 10 days. (
  • A group of more than 60 scientists combined their research from around the world to learn more about what happens to aerosols floating through the skies. (
  • Scientists think that on balance, the whole budget of aerosols ends up cooling the planet slightly. (
  • UPTON, N.Y. - Scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), working with colleagues from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), will conduct a field campaign this summer and fall in the skies over the Pacific Northwest and Tennessee to measure the evolution of aerosols in wildfires and prescribed agriculture burns, respectively. (
  • A new detection technique and a new satellite instrument developed by NASA scientists, the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS), should help ease the struggle. (
  • The scientists tested their model on data from the Amazon, finding it reflected the true situation on the ground so accurately they could rule out the possibility that random changes in cloud cover - rather than aerosols from burning forests - were at work. (
  • Now, scientists from the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) - a joint venture of Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, the German Max Planck Society and the University of Hamburg - have used the world's most powerful x-ray laser, the LCLS, at the US Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory in Stanford, Calif., to image a single soot particle floating through a laser beam. (
  • From this pattern, the scientists reconstructed the structure of the soot particle. (
  • Natalie Mahowald, a climate researcher at Cornell University, says so far, scientists have mostly tried to understand what those aerosols do while they're actually in the air. (
  • Recent studies of the Sahel drought and major increases since 1967 in rainfall over the Northern Territory, Kimberley, Pilbara and around the Nullarbor Plain have led some scientists to conclude that the aerosol haze over South and East Asia has been steadily shifting tropical rainfall in both hemispheres southward. (
  • The scientists have for the first time detected long lived reactive oxygen intermediates on the surface of aerosol particles. (
  • The term aerosol commonly refers to the particulate/air mixture, as opposed to the particulate matter alone. (
  • The current device making it possible to collect these soot are called High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters. (
  • The intermediate forms of oxygen develop when ozone reacts with particulate matter such as soot, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or pollen proteins. (
  • Concentrations of some aerosols have decreased over the United States and Europe in recent decades as a result of environmental laws, although an increase has been observed in many thrid world regions, where economic development is a priority. (
  • Aerosol concentrations have been measured downwind of sources over the past few decades, but the number of observing sites is limited and the analysis is laborious. (
  • While reducing CO2 concentrations is extremely important, changes we make today will not be felt for quite a while, whereas changes we make today on soot and sulfate could affect our planet on timescales of months," Prather said. (
  • Methods are presented for the targeted extraction of surfactants present in atmospheric aerosols and the determination of their absolute concentrations and surface tension curves in water, including their Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). (
  • In this paper we present recently developed methods for 1) the targeted extraction of all the surfactants from atmospheric aerosol samples and for the determination of 2) their absolute concentrations in the aerosol phase and 3) their static surface tension curves in water, including their Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). (
  • article{be32b370-8be2-4074-9128-7f3626ae8843, abstract = {The hygroscopic properties of submicron soot particles during internal mixing with gaseous sulfuric acid have been investigated using a combined tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM) technique. (
  • Soot particles exposed to subsaturated sulfuric acid vapor exhibit a marked change in morphology, characterized by a decreased mobility-based diameter but an increased fractal dimension and effective density. (
  • Sampling on different substrates is commonly used in laboratory and field studies to investigate the morphology and mixing state of aerosol particles. (
  • Monthly global maps for aerosol properties of the Max Planck Aerosol Climatology version 2 (MACv2) are applied in an offline radiative transfer model to determine aerosol radiative effects. (
  • Figure 1 Annual average maps of the MACv2 aerosol climatology. (
  • He and his group developed an innovative algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol properties from multi-channel ISCCP radiance data and composed a global satellite climatology of aerosol optical thickness and size for the full period of satellite observations. (
  • Such human-made aerosols have complicated effects on the planet. (
  • In contrast, two articles published last December on the same day arrive at very different and incompatible estimates of the effect of human-made aerosols on the radiative budget of the planet (Bellouin et al. (
  • In the experiment, the team wafted individual soot particles up to 3.25 µm in diameter into the path of the laser beam. (
  • The team recorded patterns from 174 individual soot particles and measured their compactness using fractal dimension. (
  • Other research methods have probed the fractal properties of soot, but the LCLS' ability to examine those of individual soot particles, airborne and in their natural state, revealed surprising diversity and complexity in their fractal dimensions. (
  • Fine/ultrafine ambient particles were collected and concentrated onsite using a Versatile Aerosol Concentrator Enhancement System (VACES). (
  • Toxicologists refer to aerosols as ultrafine, fine, or coarse matter. (
  • Fine/ ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. (
  • Using his advanced theoretical techniques, Mishchenko performed a seminal sensitivity analysis of various passive algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol properties from space using radiance and polarization data and exposed the power of polarimetric remote sensing of tropospheric aerosols. (
  • This development led to the discovery of a possible downward trend in the global amount of tropospheric aerosols between the pre-Pinatubo period and early 2000s. (
  • The global aerosol patterns in 2006 were similar to previous years. (
  • The atmospheric effects of soot aerosols include interference with radiative transfer, visibility impairment, and alteration of cloud formation, and are highly sensitive to the manner by which soot is internally mixed with other aerosol constituents. (
  • We present experimental studies to show that soot particles acquire a large mass fraction of sulfuric acid during atmospheric aging, considerably altering their properties. (
  • The hygroscopic properties of submicron soot particles during internal mixing with gaseous sulfuric acid have been investigated using a combined tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) and differential mobility analyzer-aerosol particle mass analyzer (DMA-APM) technique. (
  • We suggest that determination of the hygroscopic properties of soot particles using a TDMA alone can be inconclusive. (
  • The variations in the size and hygroscopicity of soot particles during atmospheric processing influence their optical properties, cloud-forming potential, and human health effects. (
  • This is a sensitive, high-resolution, fast-response instrument for measuring optical aerosol properties relevant for climate radiative forcing and carbon particle sensing. (
  • The direct forcing by soot depends not only on its optical properties but also on the altitude of the layer and the amount of reflection from below. (
  • The 2.2 micrometer channel is critical because it provides the only passive method we have to retrieve accurate and detailed aerosol properties over land surfaces," said Michael Mishchenko, Glory's project scientist. (
  • The new retrieval technique also integrates more information about short-wave polarized light into models used to determine aerosol properties. (
  • The radiative energy balance of the planet is sensitive to the amount, size, and chemical properties of atmospheric aerosol particles from natural [ 1 , 2 ] and anthropogenic sources. (
  • Comprehensive aerosol properties were resolved for PM2.5 water-soluble inorganic ions, carbonaceous content, water-soluble/insoluble organic carbon (WSOC/WIOC), dicarboxylic acids and their salts (DCAS), and anhydrosugars. (
  • Here we review recent progress towards global and regional constraints on aerosol absorption from observations and modeling, considering physical properties and combined approaches crucial for understanding the total (natural and anthropogenic) influences of aerosols on the climate. (
  • Changes in the properties of the cloud layer caused by aerosols could also have an effect on regional coastal fisheries by altering the amount of sunlight reaching the ocean surface that drives currents and ocean upwelling. (
  • Thus, the particle size distribution and concentration, their physical nature and optical properties (extinction and diffusion coefficients, refractive index) will be linked to the type of fuel in order to establish a correlation between fire conditions and the properties of the generated soot. (
  • Immediately after sunrise, soot particles begin to age by developing a coating of secondary species including sulfate, ammonium, organics, nitrate, and water. (
  • Secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosols are strong light-scatterers. (
  • Secondary aerosols, for example-make the haze that gives the U.S.'s Great Smoky Mountains their name . (
  • Soot decreased from 16.9% at the T1 site to 4.6% at the T2 site and sulfate particles decrease from 35.9% at the T2 site to 15.7% at the T1 site, suggesting that long-range transport air masses experienced more aging processes and produced more secondary particles. (