Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Mice, Inbred BALB CImmunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Tetanus ToxoidImmunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Mice, Inbred C57BLVaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Motion Therapy, Continuous Passive: Movement of a body part initiated and maintained by a mechanical or electrical device to restore normal range of motion to joints, muscles, or tendons after surgery, prosthesis implantation, contracture flexion, or long immobilization.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.HemocyaninInjections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Biolistics: Techniques where DNA is delivered directly into organelles at high speed using projectiles coated with nucleic acid, shot from a helium-powered gun (gene gun). One of these techniques involves immunization by DNA VACCINES, which delivers DNA-coated gold beads to the epidermis.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Pneumococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Antibody-Producing Cells: Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Contraception, Immunologic: Contraceptive methods based on immunological processes and techniques, such as the use of CONTRACEPTIVE VACCINES.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Administration, Mucosal: Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Plasmodium yoelii: A species of PLASMODIUM causing malaria in rodents.Alzheimer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat ALZHEIMER DISEASE.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Rats, Inbred LewMice, Inbred C3HMice, Inbred CBAAutoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Tetanus Antitoxin: An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.Antibody Affinity: A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.United StatesConnectin: A giant elastic protein of molecular mass ranging from 2,993 kDa (cardiac), 3,300 kDa (psoas), to 3,700 kDa (soleus) having a kinase domain. The amino- terminal is involved in a Z line binding, and the carboxy-terminal region is bound to the myosin filament with an overlap between the counter-connectin filaments at the M line.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Pneumococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Mumps: An acute infectious disease caused by RUBULAVIRUS, spread by direct contact, airborne droplet nuclei, fomites contaminated by infectious saliva, and perhaps urine, and usually seen in children under the age of 15, although adults may also be affected. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Mice, Inbred DBAEpitope Mapping: Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Advisory Committees: Groups set up to advise governmental bodies, societies, or other institutions on policy. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Immunoglobulin Idiotypes: Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Reminder Systems: Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
Rinaldo C (2005). "Passive Immunization Against Poliomyelitis: The Hammon Gamma Globulin Field Trials, 1951-1953". American ... Hammon W (1955). "Passive immunization against poliomyelitis". Monograph Series. World Health Organization. 26: 357-70. PMID ... In Syria difficulties in executing immunization programs in the ongoing civil war led to a return of polio, probably in 2012, ... in: Immunisation Against Infectious Disease, 2006 (PDF). Edinburgh: Stationery Office. pp. 313-29. ISBN 0-11-322528-8. Archived ...
Sacco, AG (1979). "Inhibition of fertility in mice by passive immunization with antibodies to isolated zonae pellucidae". J ... Naz, RK; R Changanamkandath (2004). "Passive immunization for immunocontraception: lessons learned from infectious diseases". ... there has been research into the approach of contraception through passive immunization as an alternative that would be of less ... In passive immunity the desired antibody titers are achieved by injecting antibodies directly into an animal. The efficacy of ...
George Siber bibliography
The Immunocompromised Host: Passive Immunization In: The Immunocompromised Host. 1985; 2:2-12. Siber GR; Nydegger, U.E. (1986 ... Englund JA, Glezen WP, Turner C, Harvey J, Siber G. Maternal immunization with PRP and PRP-conjugate vaccines for passive ... Santosham, M; Reid, R; Letson, GW; Wolff, MC; Siber, G (Apr 1990). "Passive immunization for infection with Haemophilus ... Ambrosino, DM; Landesman, SH; Gorham, CC; Siber, GR (Jan 1986). "Passive immunization against disease due to Haemophilus ...
Rietveld E, Steyerberg EW, Polder JJ, Veeze HJ, Vergouwe Y, Huysman MW, de Groot R, Moll HA (July 2010). "Passive immunisation ... This is called passive immunotherapy. However, these treatments have inherent problems; passive antibody exposes the body to ... Bakker JM, Bleeker WK, Parren PW (September 2004). "Therapeutic antibody gene transfer: an active approach to passive immunity ...
Monoclonal antibody therapy
... known as passive immunization. In mice expressing APP, both active and passive immunization of anti-Aβ antibodies has been ... several clinical trials using passive and active immunization approaches by development of certain drugs approved by the FDA ... Passive anti-Aβ MAB treatment can be used for preventative attempts to modify AD progression before it causes extensive brain ... Passive monoclonal antibody therapy can ensure consistent antibody concentration, and can control for adverse reactions by ...
... and the loss of passive, inherited antibodies before the age of routine immunization. Clinical diagnosis of measles requires a ... Before immunization in the United States, between three and four million cases occurred each year. As a result of widespread ... Immunization Action Coalition Archived 2008-08-27 at the Wayback Machine.. Stefan Lanka (April 1995). "HIV; Reality or artefact ... "Live attenuated measles vaccine". EPI Newsletter / C Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas. 2 (1): 6. 1980. PMID ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
Prevention of oligomerization of Aβ has been exemplified by active or passive Aβ immunization. In this process antibodies to Aβ ... Aβ42 immunization resulted in the clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease but did not prevent ... Wang CM, Devries S, Camboni M, Glass M, Martin PT (Sep 2010). "Immunization with the SDPM1 peptide lowers amyloid plaque burden ...
Adoptive T-cell therapy is a form of passive immunization by the transfusion of T-cells (adoptive cell transfer). They are ... Immunotherapies can be categorized as active, passive or hybrid (active and passive). These approaches exploit the fact that ... They have the ability to enhance anti-tumor activity and thus can be used as passive cancer treatments. Interferon-α is used in ... Passive immunotherapies enhance existing anti-tumor responses and include the use of monoclonal antibodies, lymphocytes and ...
At the prenatal and neonatal stages of life, the presence of antibodies is provided by passive immunization from the mother. ... These diseases are often treated by inducing a short term form of immunity called passive immunity. Passive immunity is ... other foreign antigen exposure or passive immunization. These antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading ... Ghaffer A (26 March 2006). "Immunization". Immunology - Chapter 14. University of South Carolina School of Medicine. Archived ...
2009 flu pandemic in Taiwan
For passive surveillance, any adverse event happens after H1N1 immunization can be reported to local health bureau and Taiwan ... To prevent further spread of the virus in the coming 9-day holiday of the Chinese New Year, immunization stations were set up ... To ensure and safety and effectiveness of H1N1 vaccine, Taiwan CDC has passive and active surveillance system for vaccine ... However, because of successful school-based immunization program, less than 5 classrooms were suspended daily by the end of ...
This is the regimen to be followed in the event of any exposure of humans to suspect zoonotic vectors, while immunization, ... Post exposure prophylaxis is specific anti-rabies immunoglobulin (or antibody)providing passive protection via neutralization ... However treatment is usually confined to merely immunization. Post exposure prophylaxis is the definitive method in addition to ...
Nuggehalli Raghuveer Moudgal
"Passive immunization with an antibody to the beta-subunit of ovine luteinizing hormone as a method of early abortion-a ... Jeyakumar, M.; Moudgal, N. R. (September 1996). "Immunization of male rabbits with sheep luteal receptor to LH results in ... "Responsiveness of human male volunteers to immunization with ovine follicle stimulating hormone vaccine: results of a pilot ...
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis
This immunisation leads to multiple small disseminated lesions of demyelination (as well as micro-necroses) in the brain and ... It may also be induced by the passive transfer of T cells specifically reactive to these myelin antigens. Depending on the ... The typical susceptible rodent will debut with clinical symptoms around two weeks after immunization and present with a ...
Russell ML, Injeyan HS, Verhoef MJ, Eliasziw M (2004). "Beliefs and behaviours: understanding chiropractors and immunization". ... Spinal manipulation is a passive manual maneuver during which a three-joint complex is taken past the normal range of movement ... Wardle, Jon; Frawley, Jane; Steel, Amie; Sullivan, Elizabeth (2016). "Complementary medicine and childhood immunisation: A ... chiropractors found that about a third believed there was no scientific proof that immunization prevents disease. The ...
Different methods for acute treatment of the disease have been shown not to be very successful; passive immunization after the ... "WHO supports the immunization of 874 000 people against yellow fever in Nigeria. News Release". World Health Organization. 16 ... Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. WHO reference number: WHO/YF/SAGE/16.1". World Health Organization. 20 ... early diagnosis of cases and immunization of large parts of the population are important to prevent outbreaks. Once infected ...
Artificial induction of immunity
"Immunization". UNICEF.. *^ Palmer, Guy H.; McElwain, Terry F. (1995). "Molecular basis for vaccine development against ... This is known as passive immunity, and the serum that is isolated from one subject and injected into another is sometimes ... The use of simple molecules such as toxoids for immunization tends to produce a low response by the immune system, and thus ... giving it passive immunity to whatever its mother became immune to. This allows some protection for the young while ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
List of countries with universal health care
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the placenta before birth, so any antibodies that they need have to be ... Antibodies towards the specific pathogens or antigens that were used in the immunization are present in higher levels than in ... Sawyer, M.; Willadsen, C. H.; Osburn, B. I.; McGuire, T. C. (1977). "Passive transfer of colostral immunoglobulins from ewe to ... have shown that if the immunization is by surface antigens of the bacteria, the Bovine Colostrum Powder  can be used to ...
Recommendations of the Immunization Practices Advisory committee (ACIP)". MMWR Recomm Rep. 40 (RR-10): 1-28. doi:10.1542/peds. ... If the mother has been vaccinated against tetanus, the infants acquire passive immunity and are thus protected. It usually ... Tetanus can be prevented by immunization with the tetanus vaccine. In those who have a significant wound and have had less ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ...
Factor de necrose tumoral alfa, a enciclopedia libre
위키백과:미번역 문서/의학 - 위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전
ಪ್ರತಿರಕ್ಷಣೆ(ಇಮ್ಯೂನೈಸೇಷನ್) - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Passive immunity. Main article: Passive immunity. Individual immunity can also be gained passively, in which antibodies ... National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (2011). "General recommendations on immunization - recommendations of ... Wolfe, R. M. (2012). "Update on adult immunizations". The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 25 (4): 496-510. ... Munoz, F. M. (2013). "Maternal immunization: An update for pediatricians". Pediatric Annals. 42 (8): 153-8. doi:10.3928/ ...
Childhood Immunization Policies Despite nationwide controversies over childhood vaccination and immunization, there are ... Tobacco control policies have been ineffective as China is home to 350 million regular smokers and 750 million passive smokers ... Immunization Action Coalition. (2018). State mandates on immunization and vaccine-preventable diseases. Accessed 3/18/18 from ... Childhood immunizations are largely responsible for the increase in life expectancy in the 20th century. From an economic ...
Low milk supply
Faktor nekroze tumora-alfa - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Immunize.org - Immunization Action Coalition' (nonprofit working to increase immunization rates). *WHO.int - 'Immunizations, ... While vaccination provides a lasting effect, it usually takes several weeks to develop, while passive immunity (the transfer of ... "WHO - World Immunization Week 2012". who.int.. *^ a b "Anti-Vaccination Movement Causes a Deadly Year in the U.S". Healthline. ... "Global Immunization Data" (PDF).. *^ Ehreth J (January 2003). "The global value of vaccination". Vaccine. 21 (7-8): 596-600. ...
Some forms of meningitis are preventable by immunization with the meningococcal, mumps, pneumococcal, and Hib vaccines. ... In a person with a positive Kernig's sign, pain limits passive extension of the knee. A positive Brudzinski's sign occurs when ... Since the 1980s, many countries have included immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type B in their routine childhood ... immunization with this ACW135Y vaccine is now a visa requirement for taking part in Hajj. Development of a vaccine against ...
Oral cholera vaccines in mass immunization campaigns (PDF). WHO. 2010. pp. 6-8. ISBN 978 92 4 150043 2. Archived (PDF) from the ... Inflammatory diarrhea occurs when there is damage to the mucosal lining or brush border, which leads to a passive loss of ... Immunization against the pathogens that cause diarrheal disease is a viable prevention strategy, however it does require ... "Interventions for the control of diarrhoeal diseases among young children: rotavirus and cholera immunization". Bulletin of ...
... and the loss of passive, inherited antibodies before the age of routine immunization. ... "Live attenuated measles vaccine". EPI Newsletter / C Expanded Program on Immunization in the Americas. 2 (1): 6. 1980. PMID ... Before immunization in the United States, between three and four million cases occurred each year. The United States was ... Measles: Questions and Answers, Archived 2013-01-24 at the Wayback Machine Immunization Action Coalition Archived 2008-08-27 at ...
Immunocontraception - Wikipedia
Sacco, AG (1979). "Inhibition of fertility in mice by passive immunization with antibodies to isolated zonae pellucidae". J ... Naz, RK; R Changanamkandath (2004). "Passive immunization for immunocontraception: lessons learned from infectious diseases". ... there has been research into the approach of contraception through passive immunization as an alternative that would be of less ... In passive immunity the desired antibody titers are achieved by injecting antibodies directly into an animal. The efficacy of ...
passive immunization Archives - ExtremeTech
Browsing Publications by Subject "Immunization, Passive"
Mini-strokes from Passive Immunization? | ALZFORUM
... this paper provokes thought because passive immunization is sometimes considered safer than active immunization. ... Scientists led by Mathias Jucker at the University of Basel, Switzerland, report that passive immunization of APP23-transgenic ... Clinical progress with immunization of Aβ42 (AN 1792) recently suffered a setback when a subset of treated patients developed ... Cerebral hemorrhage after passive anti-Abeta immunotherapy. Science. 2002 Nov 15;298(5597):1379. PubMed. ...
Active and passive immunization p... preview & related info | Mendeley
Active and passive immunization protects against lethal, extreme drug resistant-Acinetobacter baumannii infection. *Luo G ... These results define active and passive immunization strategies to prevent and treat highly lethal, XDR A. baumannii infections ... Active and passive immunization protects against lethal, extreme drug resistant-Acinetobacter baumannii infection. PLoS ONE, 7( ... Passive transfer with immune sera recapitulated protection. Immune sera did not enhance complement-mediated killing but did ...
Prevention of HIV infection by passive immunization with HIV immunoglobulin. - PubMed - NCBI
Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles. - PubMed - NCBI
Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles.. Virdi V1,2, Juarez P3,4, Boudolf V3 ... Did you mean: recombinant siga production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles (1 items) ... Did you mean: recombinant siga production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles (1 items) ... Mucosal passive immunization, i.e. the application of pathogen-specific SIgAs at the mucosae, can be an effective alternative ...
Passive Immunization of Farmed Fish | The Journal of Immunology
Can Passive Immunization be the Next HIV Vaccine Alternative?
Passive immunization involves the transfer of antibodies generated by one person directly to another to provide protection, ... They had examined "passive immunization" as an alternative to an HIV vaccine, which experts fear may still be years off. A ... "Passive immunization" involves the transfer of antibodies generated by one person directly to another to provide protection, ...
Browsing by Subject "Immunization, Passive"
Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization...
Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization -- Recommendations , , of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ... Simultaneous active and passive immunization against hepatitis A studied in a population of travellers. Vaccine 1993;11:1027-32 ... Until recently, the primary methods used for preventing hepatitis A have been hygienic measures and passive immunization with ...
Ichor Medical Systems Awarded DARPA Contract for Development of TriGrid Platform for Passive Immunization | Business Wire
Passive Immunization | History of Vaccines
The History of Passive Immunization Antibodies were first used to treat disease in the late 19th century as the field of ... Passive immunization, however, has an advantage in that it is quick acting, producing an immune response within hours or days, ... Passive Immunization Today. Today, patients may be treated with antibodies when they are ill with diphtheria or cytomegalovirus ... Additionally, passive immunization can override a deficient immune system, which is especially helpful in someone who does not ...
Passive Immunization with Hypochlorite-oxLDL Specific Antibodies Reduces Plaque Volume in LDL Receptor-Deficient Mice
Passive immunization with this Moab A7S8 resulted in a significant reduced plaque volume formation in LDLr−/− mice when ... In this study, we hypothesised that passive immunization with anti-oxLDL IgM antibodies specific for hypochlorite (HOCl) may be ... Conclusion Our data show that passive immunization with a natural IgM antibody, directed to HOCl-oxLDL, can reduce ... Passive immunization Is the Subject Area "Passive immunization" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Recent Advances in Anti-Amyloid Passive Immunization - Fight Aging!
Passive immunization against misfolded toxic proteins is a promising approach to treat neurodegenerative disorders. For ... Recent Advances in Anti-Amyloid Passive Immunization. Permalink Read 9 Comments Add a Comment Posted by Reason ... Success against amyloid β using antibodies and passive immunization would mean that success against other forms of ... A subcutaneous cellular implant for passive immunization against amyloid-β reduces brain amyloid and tau pathologies ...
There's No HIV Vaccine Yet But Passive Immunization Is Being Studied: Injecting Anti-HIV Antibodies : Goats and Soda : NPR
As in passive immunization.. Active immunization is what an effective vaccine does. It stimulates the recipient to make ... Theres No HIV Vaccine Yet But Passive Immunization Is Being Studied: Injecting Anti-HIV Antibodies : Goats and Soda The idea ... Momentum behind the passive immunization against HIV is growing. Eight human studies are underway using the approach. ... Two other findings improve the prospects that passive immunization may work in the real world:. *It can be given by ...
Wilson: Vector-Mediated Passive Immunization
Passive immunisation (giving antibodies) for preventing rubella (German measles) after contact with it | Cochrane
AIDS Vaccine Science for Busy Advocates - Passive Immunization: An important piece of the puzzle | AVAC
A one-page document describing passive immunization, the transfer of pre-made antibodies, and its potential for HIV prevention. ... A one-page document describing passive immunization, the transfer of pre-made antibodies, and its potential for HIV prevention. ... AIDS Vaccine Science for Busy Advocates - Passive Immunization: An important piece of the puzzle. ...
Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin | Science
Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ... Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ... Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ... Passive immunization against cachectin/tumor necrosis factor protects mice from lethal effect of endotoxin ...
Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge. | CureHunter
Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge. - Jonas Klingström, Malin Stoltz, Jonas ... Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge.. Abstract. BACKGROUND: Hantaviruses ... Here, we studied the effect of passive immunization on the course of infection in cynomolgus macaques challenged with wild-type ... The results show that passive immunization in monkeys, using serum from previously hantavirus-infected monkeys, can induce ...
Figure - Efficacy of Killed Virus Vaccine, Live Attenuated Chimeric Virus Vaccine, and Passive Immunization for Prevention of...
... and passive immunization with WNV-immune serum; all were tested by using a hamster model of the disease. Each product protected ... Immunization strategies evaluated included a killed virus veterinary vaccine, a live attenuated chimeric virus vaccine ... from clinical illness and death when challenged with a hamster-virulent wild-type WNV strain 1 month after initial immunization ... Results of experiments evaluating the efficacy of three immunization strategies for the prevention of West Nile virus (WNV) ...
Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization...
Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ... Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: ... Prevention of Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Hepatitis A Through Active or Passive Immunization -- Recommendations , , of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices ( ...
Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofi | Open-i
Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofin3D-PF on B. burgdorferi burden in ticks and in murine skin.A-C: Rabbit ... ppat-1004278-g005: Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofin3D-PF on B. burgdorferi burden in ticks and in ... ppat-1004278-g005: Impact of passive and active immunization against Ixofin3D-PF on B. burgdorferi burden in ticks and in ... Bottom Line: Immunization against Ixofin3D and RNA interference-mediated reduction in expression of Ixofin3D resulted in ...
The 2019-2024 Outlook for Antitoxins, Antivenoms, Immune Globulins, and Therapeutic Immune Serums for Therapeutic Use and...
... and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization ... ... Antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding ... and Therapeutic Immune Serums for Therapeutic Use and Passive Immunization Excluding Diagnostics in the United States *June ... and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States.. 1.3.1 ...
Passive immunization may slow down SARS-CoV-2, boost immunity in patients, buy time for vaccine
... by IOS Press ... Passive immunization may slow down SARS-CoV-2, boost immunity in patients, buy time for vaccine. ... Citation: Passive immunization may slow down SARS-CoV-2, boost immunity in patients, buy time for vaccine (2020, May 12) ... medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-passive-immunization-sars-cov-boost-immunity.html ...
Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive...
Implications for Active and Passive Immunization. DSpace/Manakin Repository. * DASH Home ... Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive ... Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive ... "Features of Recently Transmitted HIV-1 Clade C Viruses that Impact Antibody Recognition: Implications for Active and Passive ...
Preventing severe respiratory syncytial virus disease: passive, active immunisation and new antivirals | Archives of Disease in...
Passive immunization of macaques with polyclonal anti-SHIV IgG against a heterologous tier 2 SHIV: outcome depends on IgG dose
Explain how the event of immunization works and explain the difference between active and passive immunization. What is
Prevention of HIV-2 and SIVsm infection by passive immunization in cynomolgus monkeys
ImmunityVaccineInfection by passive immunizationImmunotherapyAntiserumImmunoglobulinDiphtheriaChildhood immunizationInterchangeably with vaccinationVaccinationMacaquesTransfer of antibodiesOligomersInfectious diseaseTetanusMAbsMucosalAntigenicAntibodies directedProtectiveAmyloidExposureDecreasesProteinsTrialsShort-livedInfluenzaVectorsAdverse effectsDiagnostics
- The artificial induction of passive immunity has been used for over a century to treat, What is natural active immunity? (karaoke101.net)
- For example, There are two types of immunity: active and passive. (karaoke101.net)
- Understand how immunity works, including adaptive and innate, natural and artificial, and active and passive immunity. (karaoke101.net)
- Looking for online definition of artificial active immunity in the Medical Dictionary Related to artificial active immunity: artificial For example, a by 31/10/2013В В· Passive Vs. Active Immunity USMLEFastTrack. (karaoke101.net)
- What are some examples of natural passive immunity? (karaoke101.net)
- artifical active, artificial passive, What are some examples of active immunity and passive immunity? (karaoke101.net)
- What Is Artificial Passive Immunity? (karaoke101.net)
- Artificial passive immunity is a type of immunity that is induced via vaccinations. (karaoke101.net)
- A person's passive immunity is immunity that Start studying Naturally vs. artificially acquired immunity. (karaoke101.net)
- Know the distinction between passive and active immunization and their examples of artificial active immunization immunization : Active Immunity. (karaoke101.net)
- Artificial active immunization is where the microbe is injected into the A common example of this form of active immunization is Passive immunity, 14/03/2017В В· Immunity: Active vs Passive Science Sauce. (karaoke101.net)
- Passive Immunity Definition active immunity. (karaoke101.net)
- As an example, What are some examples of natural passive immunity? (karaoke101.net)
- Natural immunity definition, immunity that is present without prior immunization. (karaoke101.net)
- Can Passive Immunization be the Next HIV Vaccine Alternative? (medindia.net)
- They had examined "passive immunization" as an alternative to an HIV vaccine, which experts fear may still be years off. (medindia.net)
- While active immunization with traditional vaccines is effective at stimulating the immune system to generate protective antibodies, such responses are not immediate and may require multiple doses of the vaccine. (businesswire.com)
- Active immunization is what an effective vaccine does. (npr.org)
- Instead of the lifelong protection from a really good vaccine, passive immunization is a temporary bulwark against infection. (npr.org)
- A potential interim solution reported in the International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine may be a passive vaccine, or passive immummization (PI), which can provide instant, short-term fortification against infectious agents. (medicalxpress.com)
- In the United States , recommendations for vaccine use are made by the Public Health Service Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices, in conjunction with the American Academy of Pediatrics, American Academy of Family Practice, American College of Physicians (representing adult medicine specialists), and other professional organizations. (encyclopedia.com)
- Active immunization with living or inactivated vaccine induces development of pathogen-specific memory cells that allow a rapid and specific immune response when re-exposed to the pathogen. (helmholtz-hzi.de)
- The continued public health impact of JE in the region has led to efforts in Thailand and more recently in Vietnam to implement programs of childhood immunization and vaccine production. (cdc.gov)
- doi:10.1016/j.phrp.2011.11.022 Strategies for Control of Pandemic Influenza: Active and Passive Immunization Huan H. Nguyen Head of the Viral Immunology Section, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea. (semanticscholar.org)
- Novel vaccine strategies for early response include the use of attenuated vaccines/vectors administered via novel mucosal immunization routes, therapeutic anti-virals and passive immunization with virus-specific antibodies (Abs). (semanticscholar.org)
- We assessed immunization records for both valid documentation of receipt of vaccine and comparability with the recommended US schedule. (aappublications.org)
- Among the 178 children with documented overseas immunizations, 167 (94%) had valid records and some vaccine doses that were acceptable and UTD under the US schedule. (aappublications.org)
- 4 This document stated that "the acceptability of vaccinations received outside the United States depends primarily on whether receipt of the vaccine was adequately documented and whether the immunization schedule was comparable with that recommended in the United States. (aappublications.org)
- More in particular, the invention relates to means and methods to identify, select and isolate a vaccine component for passive and/or active immunisation against a microorganism that can be killed by opsonophagocytic cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
- The invention relates to a method to identify an opsonophagocytosis inducing antigen as a vaccine component for immunisation against a microorganism. (freepatentsonline.com)
- Hi, After many user suggestions, MedHelp is pleased to announce the opening of our Immunization & Vaccine Medical Community. (medhelp.org)
- The active immunization consists of two preparations - the combined vaccine and the monovalent vaccines. (newsmax.com)
Infection by passive immunization1
- Passive immunotherapy involves the delivery of an agent, such as a monoclonal antibody , that spurs the immune system to attack specific targets. (fightaging.org)
- These results support the use of encapsulated cell implants for passive immunotherapy against the misfolded proteins, which accumulate in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders . (fightaging.org)
- Our data also show that targeting these oligomers with passive immunotherapy leads to some improvement in motor coordination in SCA1 mice and to a modest increase in their life span. (elifesciences.org)
- Despite these advances, it is not clear whether a mostly nuclear protein like ATXN1 will propagate from cell-to-cell in vivo and whether passive immunotherapy targeting oligomers will modify disease course. (elifesciences.org)
- In the present study, we report that polyQ ATXN1 oligomers act as a seed by inducing disease propagation to neighboring but not to distal cells and demonstrate that this cell-to-cell spread can be blocked using passive immunotherapy. (elifesciences.org)
- While active immunization elicits a lasting immune response by the body, passive immunotherapy transiently equips the body with exogenously generated immunological effectors in the form of either target-specific antibodies or lymphocytes functionalized with target-specific receptors. (springer.com)
- Starting with an introduction into passive immunotherapy, this review summarizes the current status of IVT mRNA technology and its application to such immunological interventions. (springer.com)
- Passive immunization with antiserum to a nontoxic alpha-toxin mutant from Staphylococcus aureus is protective in a murine model. (asm.org)
- Passive immunization of mice with rabbit antiserum conferred protection against lethal challenge with wild-type alpha-toxin and against acute lethal challenge with a high-alpha-toxin -producing S. aureus strain. (asm.org)
- The substance taken from the immunized animal or person for passive immunization is called antiserum. (vspages.com)
- Test polyclonal antiserum, raised against the toxin pneumolysin, for the passive treatment of pneumococcal keratitis. (arvojournals.org)
- The serum from the rabbit producing the highest ELISA titer of pneumolysin antiserum was chosen for passive immunization. (arvojournals.org)
- Passive immunization with pneumolysin antiserum significantly reduced the symptoms of S. pneumoniae keratitis. (arvojournals.org)
Interchangeably with vaccination1
- While vaccination is used today in the same sense as immunization, in a strict sense the term refers to its original meaning, which is protection conferred against smallpox by material taken from cow infected with Cowpox virus, which is related to the vaccinia virus (Blakemore and Jennett 2001). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Technologies to Improve Immunization Section 4: Vaccination of special groups 67. (ebay.co.uk)
- Passive immunization protects cynomolgus macaques against Puumala hantavirus challenge. (curehunter.com)
- Here, we studied the effect of passive immunization on the course of infection in cynomolgus macaques challenged with wild-type Puumala hantavirus (PUUV-wt). (curehunter.com)
- Interest in anti-HIV-1 nAbs was renewed when passive immunization with human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) completely protected macaques after intravenous and mucosal challenges with simian-human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIVs) encoding HIV-1 env. (nebraska.edu)
- Future experiments will reveal whether other conserved HIV-1 Env epitopes exist, antibodies against which will be broadly neutralizing in vitro, protective as passive immunization in SHIV-challenged macaques, but lacking autoreactivity. (nebraska.edu)
Transfer of antibodies2
- Also the National Immunisation Program has ensured that diseases like tetanus and polio have disappeared in the UK there's still the chance that it could return. (markedbyteachers.com)
- Tetanus infections can be prevented by active and passive immunizations. (newsmax.com)
- The best preventive mode for tetanus is by an active immunization. (newsmax.com)
- The passive tetanus immunization is for temporary protection against the tetanus infection. (newsmax.com)
- They are focused on the potential of virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to treat COVID-19 by passive immunization. (ucsd.tv)
- These in vivo observations appear to be analogous to the previous characterization of C-independent bactericidal mAbs isolated following immunization with Borrelia burgdorferi or Borrelia hermsii ( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, advancing beyond the hurdles. (nih.gov)
- Recombinant IgA production for mucosal passive immunization, a. (nih.gov)
- Mucosal passive immunization , i.e. the application of pathogen-specific SIgAs at the mucosae, can be an effective alternative to achieve mucosal protection. (nih.gov)
- Active immunization involves administration of an antigenic substance that then induces development of protective antibodies by the person immunized. (encyclopedia.com)
- Section 1 According to http://www.amfar.org/cgi-bin/iowa/bridge.html, immunisation is the administration of antigenic components of an infectious agent to stimulate a protective immune response. (markedbyteachers.com)
- describes the exacerbation of cerebral hemorrhages seen in an aged APP-transgenic model following passive administration of anti-Aβ antibodies directed to amino acids 3-6. (alzforum.org)
- Passive immunization with antibodies directed to Aβ decreases brain Aβ/amyloid burden and preserves memory in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). (biomedcentral.com)
- The program will fund the development and clinical assessment of Ichor's TriGrid™ electroporation system as a DNA-based antibody delivery platform to produce protective antibodies for passive immunoprophylaxis. (businesswire.com)
- Passive protective effect of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins against experimental enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli infection in neonatal piglets. (semanticscholar.org)
- Immunization also can include providing the subject with protective antibodies developed by someone else or another organism (passive immunization). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- However, several of the protective nmAbs were found to exhibit autoreactivity, raising the possibility that B-cell responses against the cognate epitopes may be difficult to induce by active immunization. (nebraska.edu)
- Here, we describe a panel of six highly protective sheep monoclonal antibodies (SMAbs) derived from sheep immunized with BoNT/A1 toxoid (SMAbs 2G11, 4F7) or BoNT/A1 heavy chain C-terminus (HcC) (SMAbs 1G4, 5E2, 5F7, 16F9) with or without subsequent challenge immunization with BoNT/A1 toxin. (mdpi.com)
- Success against amyloid β using antibodies and passive immunization would mean that success against other forms of extracellular aggregate that contribute to the aging process is also plausible via this methodology. (fightaging.org)
- Amyloid beta protein dimer-containing human CSF disrupts synaptic plasticity: prevention by systemic passive immunization. (tcd.ie)
- Passive immunization studies show similar efficacy in reducing brain Aβ/amyloid and preserving memory in transgenic mouse models of AD [ 13 , 14 ], but the passive immunization approach is also limited by excessive neuroinflammation and vasogenic edema in a subset of treated individuals with AD. (biomedcentral.com)
- In many reports of the clinical trials of passive immunization at various hospitals across the province, the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NIVCD) has become one of six institutes chosen to carry out trials by the Sindh government. (technologytimes.pk)
- The passive immunization trials have also been registered with the World Health Organisation and the United States National Institute of Health. (technologytimes.pk)
- The direct delivery of bNAbs into the body-passive immunization-is being explored in several trials. (pipelinereport.org)
- The protection offered by passive immunization is short-lived, usually lasting only a few weeks or months. (historyofvaccines.org)
- This response lasts for as long as the agents are consistently delivered as a therapy, and most are short-lived molecules, meaning that passive immunotherapies are easily halted. (fightaging.org)
- This study covers the latent demand outlook for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States. (reportlinker.com)
- Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each state and city, latent demand estimates are created for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics. (reportlinker.com)
- This study gives, however, my estimates for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States. (reportlinker.com)
- In order to estimate the latent demand for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States, I used a multi-stage approach. (reportlinker.com)