Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.
Compounds in which a methyl group is attached to the cyano moiety.
A widely used industrial solvent.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
A colorless liquid used as a solvent and an antiseptic. It is one of the ketone bodies produced during ketoacidosis.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A broad class of substances containing carbon and its derivatives. Many of these chemicals will frequently contain hydrogen with or without oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and other elements. They exist in either carbon chain or carbon ring form.
A commonly used laboratory solvent. It was previously used as an anesthetic, but was banned from use in the U.S. due to its suspected carcinogenicity.
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A highly polar organic liquid, that is used widely as a chemical solvent. Because of its ability to penetrate biological membranes, it is used as a vehicle for topical application of pharmaceuticals. It is also used to protect tissue during CRYOPRESERVATION. Dimethyl sulfoxide shows a range of pharmacological activity including analgesia and anti-inflammation.
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A highly volatile inhalation anesthetic used mainly in short surgical procedures where light anesthesia with good analgesia is required. It is also used as an industrial solvent. Prolonged exposure to high concentrations of the vapor can lead to cardiotoxicity and neurological impairment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
A colorless liquid made by oxidation of aliphatic hydrocarbons that is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate.
Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.
A computer simulation developed to study the motion of molecules over a period of time.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The isotopic compound of hydrogen of mass 2 (deuterium) with oxygen. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed) It is used to study mechanisms and rates of chemical or nuclear reactions, as well as biological processes.
A group of amides with the general formula of R-CONH2.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
The study of the structure, preparation, properties, and reactions of carbon compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Pollution prevention through the design of effective chemical products that have low or no toxicity and use of chemical processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.
Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (1/5113)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (2/5113)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Specificity of native-like interhelical hydrophobic contacts in the apomyoglobin intermediate. (3/5113)

On exposure to mildly acidic conditions, apomyoglobin forms a partially folded intermediate, I. The A, B, G, and H helices are significantly structured in this equilibrium intermediate, whereas the remainder of the protein is largely unfolded. We report here the effects of mutations at helix pairing sites on the stability of I in three classes of mutants that: (i) truncate hydrophobic side chains in native helix packing sites, (ii) truncate hydrophobic side chains not involved in interhelical contacts, and (iii) extend hydrophobic side chains at residues not involved in interhelical contacts. Class I mutants significantly decrease the stability and cooperativity of folding of the intermediate. Class II and III mutants show smaller effects on stability and have little effect on cooperativity. Qualitatively similar results to those found in I were obtained for all three classes of mutants in native myoglobin (N), demonstrating that hydrophobic burial is fairly specific to native helix packing sites in I as well as in N. These results suggest that hydrophobic burial along native-like interhelical contacts is important for the formation of the cooperatively folded intermediate.  (+info)

A specific transition state for S-peptide combining with folded S-protein and then refolding. (4/5113)

We measured the folding and unfolding kinetics of mutants for a simple protein folding reaction to characterize the structure of the transition state. Fluorescently labeled S-peptide analogues combine with S-protein to form ribonuclease S analogues: initially, S-peptide is disordered whereas S-protein is folded. The fluorescent probe provides a convenient spectroscopic probe for the reaction. The association rate constant, kon, and the dissociation rate constant, koff, were both determined for two sets of mutants. The dissociation rate constant is measured by adding an excess of unlabeled S-peptide analogue to a labeled complex (RNaseS*). This strategy allows kon and koff to be measured under identical conditions so that microscopic reversibility applies and the transition state is the same for unfolding and refolding. The first set of mutants tests the role of the alpha-helix in the transition state. Solvent-exposed residues Ala-6 and Gln-11 in the alpha-helix of native RNaseS were replaced by the helix destabilizing residues glycine or proline. A plot of log kon vs. log Kd for this series of mutants is linear over a very wide range, with a slope of -0.3, indicating that almost all of the molecules fold via a transition state involving the helix. A second set of mutants tests the role of side chains in the transition state. Three side chains were investigated: Phe-8, His-12, and Met-13, which are known to be important for binding S-peptide to S-protein and which also contribute strongly to the stability of RNaseS*. Only the side chain of Phe-8 contributes significantly, however, to the stability of the transition state. The results provide a remarkably clear description of a folding transition state.  (+info)

The Enterococcus hirae copper chaperone CopZ delivers copper(I) to the CopY repressor. (5/5113)

Expression of the cop operon which effects copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae is controlled by the copper responsive repressor CopY. Purified Zn(II)CopY binds to a synthetic cop promoter fragment in vitro. Here we show that the 8 kDa protein CopZ acts as a copper chaperone by specifically delivering copper(I) to Zn(II)CopY and releasing CopY from the DNA. As shown by gel filtration and luminescence spectroscopy, two copper(I) are thereby quantitatively transferred from Cu(I)CopZ to Zn(II)CopY, with displacement of the zinc(II) and transfer of copper from a non-luminescent, exposed, binding site in CopZ to a luminescent, solvent shielded, binding site in CopY.  (+info)

Selecting near-native conformations in homology modeling: the role of molecular mechanics and solvation terms. (6/5113)

A free energy function, combining molecular mechanics energy with empirical solvation and entropic terms, is used for ranking near-native conformations that occur in the conformational search steps of homology modeling, i.e., side-chain search and loop closure calculations. Correlations between the free energy and RMS deviation from the X-ray structure are established. It is shown that generally both molecular mechanics and solvation/entropic terms should be included in the potential. The identification of near-native backbone conformations is accomplished primarily by the molecular mechanics term that becomes the dominant contribution to the free energy if the backbone is even slightly strained, as frequently occurs in loop closure calculations. Both terms become equally important if a sufficiently accurate backbone conformation is found. Finally, the selection of the best side-chain positions for a fixed backbone is almost completely governed by the solvation term. The discriminatory power of the combined potential is demonstrated by evaluating the free energies of protein models submitted to the first meeting on Critical Assessment of techniques for protein Structure Prediction (CASP1), and comparing them to the free energies of the native conformations.  (+info)

The magnitude of changes in guanidine-HCl unfolding m-values in the protein, iso-1-cytochrome c, depends upon the substructure containing the mutation. (7/5113)

Hydrophilic to hydrophobic mutations have been made at 11 solvent exposed sites on the surface of iso-1-cytochrome c. Most of these mutations involve the replacement of lysine with methionine, which is nearly isosteric with lysine. Minimal perturbation to the native structure is expected, and this expectation is confirmed by infrared amide I spectroscopy. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation studies demonstrate that these variants affect the magnitude of the m-value, the rate of change of free energy with respect to denaturant concentration, to different degrees. Changes in m-values are indicative of changes in the equilibrium folding mechanism of a protein. Decreases in m-values are normally thought to result either from an increased population of intermediates during unfolding or from a more compact denatured state. When cytochrome c is considered in terms of its thermodynamic substructures, the changes in the m-value for a given variant appear to depend upon the substructure in which the mutation is made. These data indicate that the relative stabilities and physical properties of substructures of cytochrome c play an important determining role in the equilibrium folding mechanism of this protein.  (+info)

South African public sceptical about new AIDS "cure".(8/5113)


Browse detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies mentioned in Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market research report @ Table of Content Includes:. 1.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Competition by Manufacturers. 2.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type. 3.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Manufacturing Cost Analysis. 4.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Effect Factors Analysis. Further in the report, the Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Industry for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise figures are also given.. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits ...
Solvent vapor annealing of block copolymer thin films can produce a range of morphologies different from the equilibrium bulk morphology. By systematically varying the flow rate of two different solvent vapors (toluene and n-heptane) and an inert gas, phase maps showing the morphology versus vapor pressure of the solvents were constructed for 45 kg/mol polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane diblock copolymer films of different thicknesses. The final morphology was correlated with the swelling of the block copolymer and homopolymer films and the solvent vapor annealing conditions. Self-consistent field theory is used to model the effects of solvent swelling. These results provide a framework for predicting the range of morphologies available under different solvent vapor conditions, which is important in lithographic applications where precise control of morphology and critical dimensions are essential.. ...
Highly polar solvent-induced disproportionation of a cationic Pt(II)-diimine complex containing an o-semiquinonatoHighly polar solvent-induced disproportionation of a cationic Pt(II)-diimine complex containing an o-semiquinonato ...
Research Summary: The report presents detailed overview of the Solvent Compositions and Mixtures market in the world and regions (CIS countries in particular) by contemplating and analyzing its various parameters. Firstly, brief introduction is provided. Thus, solvent compositions and mixtures properties, application areas and manufacturing technologies are considered. Further goes the analysis of global solvent compositions and […].... ...
Background: Pesticides and organic solvents are two classes of neurotoxic substances regularly used in agriculture. Pesticides have been studied in relation to a range of nervous system effects, and have been repeatedly shown to relate to depression in agricultural workers. Likewise, occupational solvent exposure is recognized as a risk factor for central nervous system effects, including mood disturbances and cognitive impairment, across various industries. Many gaps in knowledge regarding the effects of chronic exposure to these substances on mental/neurological health in agricultural workers still exist. The specific aims of the current analysis were to 1.) Estimate associations between metrics of a.) pesticide exposure and b.) organic solvent exposure and results from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale of depressed mood; and 2.) Estimate associations between questionnaire-based organic solvent exposure metrics and measures of central nervous system function assessed from a battery
A solvent is a substance, that becomes a solution by dissolving a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute. A solvent is usually a liquid, but can also be a solid or gas. The most common solvent in everyday life is water.. Most other commonly-used solvents are organic (carbon-containing) chemicals. These are called organic solvents. Solvents usually have a low boiling point and evaporate easily or can be removed by distillation, thereby leaving the dissolved substance behind. Solvents should therefore not react chemically with the dissolved compounds - they have to be inert. Solvents can also be used to extract soluble compounds from a mixture, the most common example is the brewing of coffee or tea with hot water. Solvents are usually clear and colorless liquids and many have a characteristic smell. The concentration of a solution is the amount of compound that is dissolved in a certain volume of solvent. The solubility is the maximal amount of compound that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at ...
New York City, NY: November 13, 2019 - Published via (Wired Release) - The industry analysis report identifying hidden opportunities of Aprotic Solvent Market, which will help to expand operations in the existing markets. The prime goal of the market study is to give a detailed assessment of the Aprotic Solvent business based on type, sector as well as geography. It also offers geological study into several regions with market growth, production, consumption, and revenue. An in-depth study examining the potential of the market and also offers data and estimates on the market structure, dynamics, and trends. The research report looks into growth strategies employed by key players, and how these strategies are poised to change the competitive dynamics in the aprotic solvent market over the forecast period.. Recent News Stories Shows How The Aprotic Solvent Market report presents a top to the bottom picture of product specification, innovation, product type, and production analysis considering ...
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners Market Insights 2018, is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners industry with a focus on the Global market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2018-2025 global Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners market covering all important parameters. Request Sample…. Read More ...
Co-Solvent vapor degreasing is the long term cleaning process of the future.. Normal vapor degreasing uses a single solvent to clean and rinse parts. Because the solvent must be boiled in a single solvent vapor degreasing system only solvent with no flash points can be used.. Solvents with no flash points are found only in chemistries based in Chlorine, Bromine or Fluorine. While all of these can be used in vapor degreasers, they each face serious problems, which can be avoided in a co-solvent system.. Chlorinated solvents all have either environmental issues such as ozone depletion or low-level air pollution in the form of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) or heath issues being suspected carcinogens or reproductive hazards. Some industries such as electronics manufacturing avoid using chlorinated and brominated solvents during the manufacturing process.. Brominated solvents are also ozone depleters, VOCs, suspected carcinogens and reproductive hazards.. Fluorinated solvents are not ozone ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Solvent-induced dimensional changes in EDTA-demineralized dentin matrix. AU - Pashley, D. H.. AU - Agee, K. A.. AU - Nakajima F R Tay, M.. AU - Carvalho, R. M.. AU - Terada, R. S.S.. AU - Harmon, F. J.. AU - Lee, W. K.. AU - Rueggeberg, F. A.. PY - 2001/6/21. Y1 - 2001/6/21. N2 - The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that the re-expansion of dried matrix and the shrinkage of moist, demineralized dentin is not influenced by polar solvents. Dentin disks were prepared from mid-coronal dentin of extracted human third molars. After complete demineralization in 0.5M of EDTA (pH 7), the specimens were placed in the well of a device that measures changes in matrix height in real time. Dry, collapsed matrices were created by blowing dry N2 on the specimens until they shrank to a stable plateau. Polar solvents [water, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, formamide, ethylene glycol, hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), or mixtures of water-HEMA] as model primers then ...
Solvent-induced two-photon absorption cross sections are calculated for a push-pull molecule in solutions using both self-consistent reaction field and internal finite field approaches. It is shown analytically and numerically that the results from the two methods can be connected through induced local reaction field factors. The two-photon cross sections of the studied push-pull polyene are found to be rather insensitive to the choice of cavity shape. The solvent dependence of the two-photon absorption displays a pattern different from that of the first hyperpolarizability.. ...
There is researched the process of low-temperature decomposition of vanadium-containing titanomagnetite in a non-aqueous solvent environment in the following system: monoatomic aliphatic alcohol ROH (R = C7–C8) — mineral acid (HCl). The process of titanomagnetite decomposition by a non-aqueous solvent is found to be affected by the aliphatic alcohol structure, acid concentration in the extract, and the non-aqueous phase and solid phase ratio. According to the influence efficiency on titanomagnetite, the researched alcohols are different in the following range: n-heptanol > n-octanol > iso-octanol. This correlates with the alcohols’ dielectric constant. During the titanomagnetite decomposition process in a non-aqueous environment, it is found that ferrous iron chloride and vanadium are concentrated in the one phase, ferric iron chloride — in the extract, and titanium — in the hardly decomposable mineral part. The stability of non-aqueous solvent in time has been
Unique Solvent Effects on Visible-Light CO2 Reduction over Ruthenium(II)-Complex/Carbon Nitride Hybrid PhotocatalystsUnique Solvent Effects on Visible-Light CO2 Reduction over Ruthenium(II)-Complex/Carbon Nitride Hybrid Photocatalysts ...
Note for Guidance on Impurities: Residual Solvents. The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products Human Medicines Evaluation Unit. CPMP/ICH/283/95, March 1998, ICH Harmonised Tripartite Guideline Q3C. The limits for residual solvents given in Ph Eur, USP and JP are based on the Guidelines for Residual Solvents (CPMP/ICH/283/95, March 1998) which were adopted by the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use and prescribe limits for the content of solvents which may retain in active substances, excipients and medicinal products after processing. The residual solvents are listed in Appendix 1 by common names and structures. They were evaluated for their possible risk to human health and placed into one of three classes as follows:. Class 1 solvents: Known human carcinogens, strongly suspected human carcinogens, and environmental hazards. They are listed in Table 1.. Class 2 solvents (solvents to be limited): Non-genotoxic animal ...
Search results for inorganic solvents at Sigma-Aldrich Contact verified Inorganic Solvents Manufacturers, Inorganic Solvents suppliers, Inorganic Solvents exporters wholesalers, producers, traders in India. inorganic solvents list Wholesalers Directory - find Popular Products from 4 inorganic solvents list online Wholesalers from China. Chlorinated solvents are one of the contaminants most fre- are used to describe rates of transformation of inorganic chemicalspeciesinaqueoussolution . Q3D: Impurities: Guideline for Elemental Impurities . list of inorganic solvents Wholesalers Directory - find Popular Products from 0 list of inorganic solvents online Wholesalers from China. Acid-Base Reactions in Organic Solvents. Read about company and Inorganic Zinc coating provides anti-rust spray corrosion resistance for salt water & solvents for chemical plants, refineries, coastal & offshore installations. The most common solvent, water, is an example of an inorganic solvent. These are carbon based Pioneer ...
Theoretical studies on glycyl-alanyl and seryl dipeptides were performed to determine the probable backbone and side-group conformations that are preferred for solvent interaction. By following the method of Lee & Richards [(1971) J. Mol. Biol. 55, 379-400], a solute molecule is represented by a set of interlocking spheres of appropriate van der Waals radii assigned to each atom, and a solvent (water) molecule is rolled along the envelope of the van der Waals surface, and the surface accessible to the solvent molecule, and hence the solvent accessibility for a particular conformation of the solute molecule, is computed. From the calculated solvent accessibilities for various conformations, solvation maps for dipeptides were constructed. These solvation maps suggest that the backbone polar atoms could interact with solvent molecules selectively, depending on the backbone conformation. A conformation in the right-handed bridge (zetaR) region is favoured for both solvent interaction and intrachain ...
Using enrichment procedures, 45 organic solvent-tolerant lipase producer bacterial strains were screened from areas contaminated by oil and organic solvents. Among the strains, 15 isolates exhibited extreme stability toward organic solvents and high lipolytic activity. The NEB-1 isolate which was later identified as Pseudomonas sp. strain NEB-1 by biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis was selected based on extremely high tolerance to organic solvents and maximum lipase production. Biochemical studies revealed that the crude lipase was stable at temperatures between 20 ºC and 60 ºC and pH ranges of 4 to 11 for 1 h. Optimum pH and temperature of the enzyme were revealed to be 9.5 and 70 ºC, respectively. The crude lipase showed remarkable tolerance in presence of different organic solvents with a broad range of hydrophobicity characteristics. The solvent stable lipase showed an attractive potency for application in biocatalysis in non-aqueous systems and biodiesel
article{cb52f0c6-0700-4b46-948b-c6b9df03eca7, abstract = {,p,Solvent effects on the decomposition of formic acid over a Co(111) surface were studied via density functional theory calculations combined with a continuum implicit solvation model. The solvents used here were water, methanol, and acetone. The adsorption energies of key intermediates, the activation barriers and the rate and equilibrium constants of various elementary reactions in vacuum and in the solvents were obtained. Solvent presences decrease the adsorption energies of species. Formic acid decomposition on the surface goes through HCOO rather than COOH both in vacuum and in the solvents. The most favorable decomposition pathways in vacuum and in acetone are HCOOH → HCOO → HCO → CO. The corresponding rate determining steps are HCOO deoxidation to HCO with activation barriers of 0.78 and 0.76 eV, respectively. In the presences of water and methanol, the preferred pathways are shifted to HCOOH → HCOO → HCOO-m → ...
Degree of crystallinity, crystal morphology, and crystallite size affect many physical properties of semi-crystalline polyesters, including mechanical strength, optical clarity, and biodegradability. Inspired by the literature related to solvent vapor annealing (SVA) in block copolymer films and solvent-induced crystallization in semi-crystalline polymers, we are studying how SVA treatments impact crystal morphology. Using poly(ε-caprolactone) as a model polymer for our studies, we have conducted in-situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments to determine when/if polymer crystals dissolve during solvent uptake and at what solvent concentrations recrystallization occurs during solvent removal. Additionally, we have examined polymer morphology across multiple length scales using a combination of optical microscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy ...
Poly (caprolactone) (PCL) particles with the size distribution from 1 to 100 μm were prepared through solvent-induced phase separation, in which polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) was used as the matrix-forming polymer to stabilize PCL particles. The cloud point data of PCL-acetone-water was determined by the titration method. PCL-acetone and PVA-water solutions, PCL-PVA gel, and PCL particles suspension were recorded by a digital camera. The morphology of PCL-PVA suspension and PCL particles were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The size distribution of PCL particles was investigated by a particle size analyzer. Results from differential scanning calorimeter indicated that the main interaction between PCL and PVA were mediated through hydrogen bonding ...
Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used to probe the effect of solvent polarity on the molecular structure and isomerization dynamics of $4-nitro-4^\prime -dimethylaminoazobenzene$ (DA). In addition, the influence of the polarity and the relaxation behavior of the solvent on the mode-specific vibrational and solvent reorganization energies was investigated. Raman spectra were recorded in solvents with different polarity parameters, n-hexane and benzene, using 11 excitation wavelengths in the range 450-550 nm, scanning every 10 nm using the tunable laser pulse output of an optical parametric oscillator. It was observed that the solvent polarity plays a major role in influencing the excited-state potential energy surfaces of DA. The plot of resonance Raman intensities versus excitation wavelength (Raman excitation profiles) of the Franck-Condon-active fundamentals of DA shows that in n-hexane, the locally excited state is more favorable than that in benzene where the charge-transfer state is more ...
Preface. 1. Modern theories of continuum models.. 1.1 The physical model (J. Tomasi).. 1.2 Integral equation approaches for continuum models (E. Cances).. 1.3 Cavity surfaces and their discretization (C. Pomelli).. 1.4 A Lagrangian formulation for continuum models (M. Caricato, G. Scalmani, M. Frisch).. 1.5 The quantum mechanical formulation of continuum models (R. Cammi).. 1.6 Nonlocal solvation theories (V. Basilevsky & G.N. Chuev).. 1.7 Continuum models for excited states (B. Mennucci).. 2. Properties and spectroscopies.. 2.1 Computational modeling of the solvent effect on NMR molecular parameters by a Polarizable Continuum Model (J. Sadlej & M. Pecul).. 2.2 EPR spectra of organic free radicals in solution from an integrated computational approach (V. Barone, P. Cimino & M. Pavone).. 2.3 Continuum Solvation Approaches to Vibrational Properties (C. Cappelli).. 2.4 Vibrational Circular Dichroism (P. Stephens & F.J. Devlin).. 2.5 Solvent effects on natural optical activity (M. Pecul & K. ...
This study indicates that maternal occupational exposure to solvents may be associated with higher rates of ASD in their children. These results should be interpreted with caution given that this association did not remain significant after correcting the P-values for multiple comparisons. However, these results are consistent with earlier reports that have identified solvents as a potential risk factor for ASD.5 9 28 Research in the non-ASD population has found that solvents can be absorbed into the blood via skin or lungs.29 Water-soluble solvents may be cleared out of the body in urine or faeces, but many solvents are retained in organs including the brain. Solvents can also be metabolised into more toxic secondary substances (eg, methyl-butyl ketone, n-hexane) that are associated with a number of neurological effects and changes.29 In infants, solvents have been found to interfere with the glial guidance process which inhibits neuritic outgrowth.30 Infants of mothers who have been exposed to ...
In this work, we have investigated theoretically the structure/hyperpolarizability correlations of push-pull molecules sing a two-form two-state model. For this, we have defined a parameter MIX characterizing the mixing between the two-limiting resonance forms and thus ruling the molecular structure and polarization. Also, we have analyzed the solvent effect on the structure and on the polarizabilities of push-pull molecules using the Onsager reaction field theory. We have shown that the dependences of the linear and nonlinear polarizabilities on the solvent dielectric constant look similar to the structure/(hyper)polarizability correlations. Finally, we have investigated experimentally the solvent effect on a series of push-pull polyenes of increasing length. In particular, we have determined the scalar (mu) g(Beta) (0) product (where (mu) g is the ground-state dipole and (Beta) (0) the vector part of static quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor) in different solvents using the ...
Within the framework of the Peyrard-Bishop model for DNA melting, sharp denaturation temperature profiles can currently be obtained only if anharmonic base-pair stacking interactions are considered. We show that, when solvent interactions are included, a sharp denaturation of the DNA double helix is obtained without the need for anharmonic nearest-neighbor interactions. Using the concept of pseudo-Schrodinger equations we discuss the analogy of these transition to quantum-mechanical tunneling, and in particular we show that the sharp transitions are similar to resonant tunneling.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
This multicentre case-control study of 1906 cases and 5565 controls provides no evidence of any association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and meningioma in the overall study population or in women or men separately. There were also no significant trends of increasing risk with either increasing cumulative exposure or duration of exposure. However, interpretation of these negative findings should take into account the strengths and limitations of the study.. While the INTEROCC study is the largest case-control study conducted to date investigating associations between occupational exposure to organic solvents and meningioma, the relatively low-exposure prevalence in the study population limited its power to identify significant associations and in particular after stratification by gender. Potential sources of selection and recall bias in the design and conduct of the INTERPHONE study on which this study was based have been addressed in detail elsewhere;28 ,36 however, these ...
India Market Study on Solvents. Industrial solvents are compounds where a solute is dissolved to create a solution. Solvents can either be organic or inorganic and the former is further subdivided into three types - oxygenated solvents, hydrocarbon solvents, and halogenated solvents. We have conducted an in-depth study of the India solvents m
The solvent effect on the self-assembly of polystyrene (PS) colloidal spheres for the fabrication of colloidal crystals (CCs) using the horizontal deposition method was investigated. Solvents containing water and ethanol of different volume fractions were examined. Samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis-near-infrared spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the surface morphology and local structure of the CCs were significantly affected by the solvent. It was also observed that by adding minute quantity of a tetraethyl orthosilicate sol into the colloidal suspension, well ordered three-dimensional PS CCs without cracks were obtained. Experimental conditions were optimized and high-quality CCs in larger domains were fabricated with PS spheres as big as 2 μm in diameter. The success in fabricating CCs using colloidal spheres larger than 1.5 μm in diameter represents a significant work, especially when applications in photonics and tissue engineering are ...
Solvent programmable polymers (SPPs) were developed based on restricted rotation with the ability to respond and remember the stimuli-induced properties. The SPP was prepared via Ring Opening Metathesis Polymerization (ROMP). The recognition properties of SPPs can be modulated by heating in different solvents. At elevated temperatures, the carboxylic acid recognition groups have free rotation and can switch their relative orientations in response to the solvent. On cooling to room temperature, these solvent-induced changes were saved due to restricted rotation about the Caryl-Nimide bonds. Thus, the orientation of the carboxylic acid groups were maintained even when the imprinting solvent is removed or exchanged. The solvent-induced changes are also reversible, and the binding properties can be modulated by cycling between heating the polymer in a polar and nonpolar solvent. The solvent responsive behavior will fall off with |50% crosslinking. Thermodynamic studies showed large enthalpic terms and very
Polar solvents are distinguished by their large partial charges, as opposed to nonpolar solvents, which are more electrically neutral. Chemists recognize two groups of polar solvents, protic and...
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A variety of environmental factors affect fluorescence emission, including interactions between the fluorophore and surrounding solvent molecules (dictated by solvent polarity). This interactive tutorial explores relaxation effects and associated spectral shifts that occur as a function of solvent polarity.
In order to make the model more computationally efficient it has to be simplified. First and most natural simplification concerns the treatment of the solvent. In contrast to explicit solvent, which treats every water molecule in atomic detail, implicit solvent represents the effect of water molecules through effective potentials acting on the protein. As a consequence, a large reduction in the total number of degrees of freedom in the simulated system is achieved. In the present work, simulations with implicit solvent model ran about five times faster than the equivalent explicit solvent model, allowing us to extend the total simulation time by that amount. Another benefit of treating solvent implicitly is accelerated conformational dynamics of the protein. In explicit solvents, the dynamics of solute molecules is controlled by the solvents viscosity or internal friction. The magnitude of the friction is used as a parameter in implicit solvent simulations and thus can be varied to obtain ...
Recent estimates by the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industry have suggested solvents account for the majority of the waste produced in a typical batch process. Solvents are also subject to a number of regulatory controls. For these reasons there has been a large amount of interest in ways to reduce hazardous solvent use and find benign substitutes.. The Alternative Solvents technology platform promotes the use of more sustainable solvents - supercritical / liquid CO2, bio-based solvents and solvents made from waste - as replacements for conventional organic solvents. Here lies an opportunity to reduce the environmental impact of industrial processes as well as making them safer.. Our goal is to develop, apply and promote the implementation of safer, greener and more sustainable solvents into industry. The platform focuses on the use of alternative solvents in a wide range of applications.. Some of the applications already developed using supercritical or bio-based solvents include:. ...
Non-aqueous solvents are removed from a substrate, e.g., paper, by contacting the substrate with a condensable, vaporous heat transfer medium that is in a superheated state, e.g., superheated steam, and maintaining said substrate in contact with said superheated heat transfer medium, while also maintaining said heat transfer medium in superheated state, for a period of time sufficient to effect removal of said non-aqueous liquid from said substrate without concomitant condensation of said superheated heat transfer medium thereon. The superheated heat transfer medium, as well as being the source of energy for evaporating the solvent, acts as a solvent vapor transport medium. Upon evaporation of the solvent, the solvent vapor-heat transfer medium mixture can be sent to a recovery zone to easily recover said solvent via condensation of the mixture and thereby avoid the discharge of said solvent vapors into the atmosphere.
Oxidative cyclizations of a variety of heteroatom nucleophiles onto unactivated olefins are catalyzed by palladium(II) and pyridine in the presence of molecular oxygen as the sole stoichiometric oxidant in a nonpolar solvent (toluene). Reactivity studies of a number of N-ligated palladium complexes show that chelating ligands slow the reaction. Nearly identical conditions are applicable to five different types of nucleophiles: phenols, primary alcohols, carboxylic acids, a vinylogous acid, and amides. Electron-rich phenols are excellent substrates, and multiple olefin substitution patterns are tolerated. Primary alcohols undergo oxidative cyclization without significant oxidation to the aldehyde, a fact that illustrates the range of reactivity available from various Pd(II) salts under differing conditions. Alcohols can form both fused and spirocyclic ring systems, depending on the position of the olefin relative to the tethered alcohol; the same is true of the acid derivatives. The racemic ...
Kinetic solvent effects on hydroxylic hydrogen atom abstractions are independent of the nature of the abstracting radical. Two extreme tests using vitamin E and phenol
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In a study of the solvent effect on the α-effect, second-order rate constants (kNu-) have been determined spectrophotometrically for reactions of a series of substituted phenyl acetates with butan-2,3-dione monoximate (Ox-, α-nucleophile) and p-chlorophenoxide (p-ClPhO-, reference nucleophile) in DMSO-H2O (DMSO = dimethyl sulfoxide) mixtures of varying compositions at 25.0 ± 0.1 °C. The magnitude of the α-effect, kOX-/k p-ClPhO-, increases as the DMSO content in the medium increases up to 40-50 mol %, reaching 500, one of the largest α-effect values, and then decreases on further addition of DMSO, resulting in a bell-shaped α-effect profile regardless of the nature of the substrates. The magnitude of the α-effect is found to be significantly dependent on the substrates (or, more quantitatively, on βnuc). Thus, βnuc is an important predictor of the magnitude of the α-effect. The bell-shaped α-effect profile found in the present system is attributed to the differential change in the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ultrafast measurements of the dynamics of solvation in polar and non-dipolar solvents. AU - Gardecki, J.. AU - Horng, M. L.. AU - Papazyan, A.. AU - Maroncelli, Mark. PY - 1995/1/1. Y1 - 1995/1/1. N2 - The dynamics of solvation of the probe solute coumarin 153 has been measured with ∼ 100 fs time resolution using the fluorescence upconversion technique. A wide variety of solvents, including polar aprotic solvents, hydrogen bonding solvents, and non-dipolar solvents have been examined. For all solvents of even moderate polarity (ε{lunate}0,5), the solvation dynamics observed follows the predictions simple models based on the solvents bulk dielectric response. For a number of non-dipolar solvents such as dioxane and benzene, for which ε{lunate}10,5, we observe surprisingly large time-dependent shifts, which seem to reflect the solute interacting with the large quadrupole (and higher multipole) moments of the solvent molecules. These dynamics represent a solvation distinct ...
A micellar acidic surfactant solvent composition of enhanced oil/organic solvency and method of preparing and using same. The oil solvency of a propoxylated/ethoxylated surfactant and alcohol micellar acidizing system is enhanced by controlling or selecting the molar ratio of alcohol to surfactant as a linearly increasing function of acid concentration. The oil solvency is further enhanced and selectively controlled by addition of an oil solvent (e.g., aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic acid esters, ketones, CS2, etc.) to the micelle.
Aqueous amine solutions are the most used solvents for chemical absorption of CO2. Substituting part of the water by organic solvents in aqueous amine solutions aims to take advantage of the lower partial pressure and higher CO2 solubility. In this work, the influence of four organic solvents on solution density, viscosity, N2O solubility and absorption kinetics are studied. The organic solvents, Monoethylene Glycol (MEG), Diethylene Glycol (DEG), Triethylene Glycol (TEG) and CARBITOL, are blended with two amine solutions: MEA and DEEA-MAPA blend. The results show that the addition of organic solvents increases the density and viscosity. Furthermore, the N2O solubility, used to estimate the physical solubility of CO2 into a reactive system, increases when part of the water is substituted with an organic solvent. The kinetic experiments with a double stirred cell showed that in case of aqueous 5 M MEA, the substitution of part of the water increases both the mass transfer and kinetic coefficients ...
Global Aprotic Solvents Market to Reach US$21.8 Billion by the Year 2027 Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the global market for Aprotic Solvents estimated at US$17.1 ...
The rate of absorption of CO2 into amines in hydrophilic and hydrophobic solvent mixtures was studied in this work using a stopped-flow apparatus and a stirred-tank reactor. Monoethanolamine (MEA, primary amine) and N-methyl benzylamine (NMBZA, aromatic secondary amine) are chosen for this study and diluted in hydrophobic or hydrophilic solvents at different temperatures
Protein 3D structures, determined largely by their amino acid sequences, have been considered as an essential factor for better understanding the function of proteins [1-3]. However, it is exceedingly difficult to directly predict proteins 3D structures from amino acid sequences [4]. Identifying structure properties, such as secondary structure, solvent accessibility or contact number can provide useful insights into the 3D structures [5-7]. Accurate prediction of structural characteristics from the primary sequence is a crucial intermediate step in protein 3D structure prediction [8, 9].. The solvent accessibility (solvent accessible surface area) is defined as the surface region of a residue that is accessible to a rounded solvent while probing the surface of that residue [10]. Solvent burial residues have a particularly strong association with packed amino acids during the folding process [11], and exposed residues give a useful insight into protein-protein interactions and protein stability ...
Rate constants have been measured for the reaction of the light hydrogen isotope muonium with benzene and 2,3-dimethylbutadiene-1,3 in the gas phase and in several solvents. Comparison with H atom data reveals (1) appreciable kinetic isotope effects, (2) a strong contribution of tunnelling for the activated reaction with benzene, (3) encounter controlled reaction for Mu addition to the diene, (4) a mass dependence of the diffusion constant of hydrogen isotopes in solution, and (5) an enhancement of the rate constant in solution over that in the gas phase by a factor, except for water, of the inverse Ostwald solubility coefficient for hydrogen. The isotope-dependent reduction of the solvent effect in water is tentatively ascribed to the dynamics of the clathrate-like structure when the hydrogen atom reacts.. ...
Coordinative halogen bonds have recently gained interest for the assembly of supramolecular capsules. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry and theoretical calculations now reveal the well-defined gas-phase structures of dimeric and hexameric [N⋯I+⋯N] halogen-bonded capsules with counterions located inside their cavities as guests. The solution reactivity of the large hexameric capsule shows the intriguing solvent-dependent equilibrium between the hexamer and an unprecedented pentameric [N⋯I+⋯N] halogen-bonded capsule, when the solvent is changed from chloroform to dichloromethane. The intrinsic flexibility of the cavitands enables this novel structure to adopt a pseudo-trigonal bipyramidal geometry with nine [N⋯I+⋯N] bonds along the edges and two pyridine binding sites uncomplexed. ...
substrates. This ebook seeks to reinforce our figuring out of acids and bases through reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is expounded the place attainable to that during water, yet correlations and contrasts among solvents also are presented.. Fundamental historical past fabric is supplied within the preliminary chapters: quantitative features of acid-base equilibria, together with definitions and relationships among resolution pH and species distribution; the impact of molecular constitution on acid strengths; and acidity in aqueous answer. Solvent houses are reviewed, in addition to the significance of the interplay energies of solvent molecules with (especially) ions; the power of solvents to take part in hydrogen bonding and to just accept ...
It is known that solvent and solvent effect play an important role in many catalytic reactions. Here the effects of solvent on acid catalyzed glucose conversion to HMF were investigated. Ab initio molecular dynamics and metadynamics simulations were used to investigate the reaction mechanisms and associated barriers in various water/DMSO mixtures. The multi-dimensional free energy surfaces (FES) obtained allows accurate determination of both the reaction free energies and barriers in different solvent systems. In addition, complementary experiments were carried out to determine the HMF yields and validate the effects of solvents on sugar reactions. Solvent is found to play a critical role during proton catalyzed sugar reactions. Solvent affects reaction pathways and associated barriers significantly. The thermodynamic equilibrium and the kinetic reaction rate constants were also determined and compared with available experimental data ...
The design of novel solvents for process improvements has stemmed much interest in recent years (Bardow et al., 2010, Folić et al., 2007, Oyarzun et al., 2011). Solvents are used in many industrial processes for separation of useful products from a feed. Consequently improvements in solvent performance are sought after for a more efficient and cost effective process. The properties desired in a solvent vary from process to process and include selectivity, volatility, flammability, toxicity, viscosity, heat capacity and reaction kinetics. Often a trade-off has to be reached between the desired properties as not all desired properties may be achievable within one solvent.. In order to optimize system performance, both process and solvent parameters must be optimized. The simultaneous optimization of a process and solvent is a challenging task. Although process parameters may be continuously optimized, solvent properties are discrete and therefore pose a major hurdle in the optimization process. ...
Solvents and debonders[edit]. Acetone, commonly found in nail polish remover, is a widely available solvent capable of ... softening cured cyanoacrylate.[31] Other solvents include nitromethane, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methylene chloride.[32] gamma- ...
Solvent. 40-43% Solvent extraction[edit]. The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by ... The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as ... After extraction, the solvent is evaporated out by heating the mixture to about 300 °F (149 °C).[18] ... This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent. The extracted oil can then ...
Solvent/detergent (S/D) inactivation[edit]. This process, developed by the New York Blood Center,[6] is the most widely used ... The solvent creates an environment in which the aggregation reaction between the lipid coat and the detergent happen more ...
Solvent-aided[edit]. Dispersing graphite in a proper liquid medium can produce graphene by sonication. Graphene is separated ... The graphene remained at the interface even when exposed to force in excess of 300,000 g. The solvents may then be evaporated. ... Adding a surfactant to a solvent prior to sonication prevents restacking by adsorbing to the graphene's surface. This produces ... The process begins by bathing the graphite in a solvent for intercalation. The process can be tracked by monitoring the ...
Deuterated solvents[edit]. The vast majority of molecules in a solution are solvent molecules, and most regular solvents are ... In order to avoid detecting only signals from solvent hydrogen atoms, deuterated solvents are used where 99+% of the protons ... The chemical shifts of a molecule will change slightly between solvents, and the solvent used will almost always be reported ... Deuterium oxide (D2O) and deuterated DMSO (DMSO-d6) are often used when CDCl3 doesn't work, and other deuterated solvents can ...
Solvent over-enthusiasm?[edit]. Hi there. My guess is that others chem editors are wondering the same thing: I am a little ... Now in principle, virtually anything is a a solvent (I have used molten NaCl, for example). So I am kind of wondering where you ... Now I was splitting the solvents by chemical structure, and the cat sorta stuck there. Sorry, correcting. --Shaddack 08:07, 11 ... There is probably a tacit understanding that this category would be reserved for common solvents in the lab or industry. ...
The solvent 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane has been used for extraction of natural products such as taxol, evening primrose oil, and ... 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol is an oxidation-resistant polar solvent.[28] Organofluorine reagents[edit]. The development of ... Solvents[edit]. Fluorinated compounds often display distinct solubility properties. Dichlorodifluoromethane and ... The development of fluorous technologies (see below, under solvents) is leading to the development of reagents for the ...
... compared to alternative solvents. Thus, it is used widely as a solvent and as a cleaning fluid, especially for dissolving oils ... Solvent[edit]. Isopropyl alcohol dissolves a wide range of non-polar compounds. It also evaporates quickly, leaves nearly zero ... Doolittle, Arthur K. (1954). The Technology of Solvents and Plasticizers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 628.. ... Isopropyl alcohol can also be used similarly to ether as a solvent[24] or as an anesthetic by inhaling the fumes or orally. ...
Drying of solvents[edit]. Toluene is heated under reflux with sodium and benzophenone to produce dry, oxygen-free toluene. The ... Desiccants are also used to remove water from solvents, typically required by chemical reactions that do not tolerate water, e. ... The method generally, though not always, involves mixing the solvent with the solid desiccant. Studies show that molecular ... Williams, D. Bradley G.; Lawton, Michelle (2010). "Drying of Organic Solvents: Quantitative Evaluation of the Efficiency of ...
Solvent[edit]. In the Chevron Phillips slurry process for making high-density polyethylene, isobutane is used as a diluent. As ...
Wax solvents[edit]. Wax can be dissolved by non-polar solvents like mineral spirits.[24] However, some commercial wax solvents ... Klister: a sticky ointment, which may contain a combination of rosins, waxes, solvents and fats[24]-with the formulation ...
As a solvent[edit]. The other main application of THF is as an industrial solvent for polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and in varnishes ... 5] It is an aprotic solvent with a dielectric constant of 7.6. It is a moderately polar solvent and can dissolve a wide range ... It is mainly used as a precursor to polymers.[5] Being polar and having a wide liquid range, THF is a versatile solvent. ... THF is used as a solvent in 3D printing when using PLA plastics. It can be used to clean clogged 3D printer parts, as well as ...
Solvent types[edit]. Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is ... Commonly used solvents for maceration/solvent extraction include ethane, hexane, and dimethyl ether. The product of this ... Maceration/Solvent extraction: The most used and economically important technique for extracting aromatics in the modern ... By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is an alcohol solution typically a mixture of ethanol and water or a ...
solvent) + AgCl. (salt). Because the solvent system definition depends on the solute as well as on the solvent itself, a ... 2, formulated the solvent-based theory in 1925, thereby generalizing the Arrhenius definition to cover aprotic solvents.[21] ... The unique strength of this definition shows in describing the reactions in aprotic solvents; for example, in liquid N. 2O. 4: ... Solvent system definition[edit]. One of the limitations of the Arrhenius definition is its reliance on water solutions. Edward ...
Solvents and Solvent Effects in Organic Chemistry (3rd ed.). Wiley-VCH. ISBN 3-527-30618-8. .. Chapter 4: Solvent Effects on ... It combines with a solvent molecule; when the solvent is water a hydronium ion is formed: H+ + H2O → H3O+. This reaction is ... Solvent properties at 25 °C Solvent. Donor number[34]. Dielectric constant[34] ... The Brønsted-Lowry definition applies to other solvents, such as dimethyl sulfoxide: the solvent S acts as a base, accepting a ...
Further manifestations of solvent hydrogen bonding[edit]. *Increase in the melting point, boiling point, solubility, and ... Pentamer formation of water and alcohols in apolar solvents.. Hydrogen bonds in polymers[edit]. Hydrogen bonding plays an ...
Water as both reactant and solvent[edit]. For reactions in aqueous solution, such as an acid dissociation reaction ... However, reaction parameters like temperature, solvent, and ionic strength may all influence the value of the equilibrium ... from a weak aqueous acid to a solvent molecule: HA + H2O = H3O+ + A− or DA + D2O ⇌ D3O+ + A−. The deuterated acid is studied in ... heavy water, since if it were dissolved in ordinary water the deuterium would rapidly exchange with hydrogen in the solvent.[16 ...
As a reagent and solvent in the laboratory[edit]. Sulfur dioxide is a versatile inert solvent widely used for dissolving highly ... As a result of its very low Lewis basicity, it is often used as a low-temperature solvent/diluent for superacids like Magic ... This reaction is exploited on an industrial scale for the synthesis of sulfolane, which is an important solvent in the ... and even less reactive solvents like SO2ClF must be used at these higher temperatures).[36] ...
Caffeine is a stimulant compound belonging to the xanthine class of chemicals naturally found in coffee, tea, and (to a lesser degree) cocoa or chocolate. It is included in many soft drinks, as well as a larger amount in energy drinks. Caffeine is the world's most widely used psychoactive drug and by far the most common stimulant. In North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.[63] A few jurisdictions restrict its sale and use. Caffeine is also included in some medications, usually for the purpose of enhancing the effect of the primary ingredient, or reducing one of its side-effects (especially drowsiness). Tablets containing standardized doses of caffeine are also widely available. Caffeine's mechanism of action differs from many stimulants, as it produces stimulant effects by inhibiting adenosine receptors.[64] Adenosine receptors are thought to be a large driver of drowsiness and sleep, and their action increases with extended wakefulness.[65] Caffeine has been found to increase ...
Certain opioid medications such as methadone and more recently buprenorphine (In America, "Subutex" and "Suboxone") are widely used to treat addiction and dependence on other opioids such as heroin, morphine or oxycodone. Methadone and buprenorphine are maintenance therapies intended to reduce cravings for opiates, thereby reducing illegal drug use, and the risks associated with it, such as disease, arrest, incarceration, and death, in line with the philosophy of harm reduction. Both drugs may be used as maintenance medications (taken for an indefinite period of time), or used as detoxification aids.[9] All available studies collected in the 2005 Australian National Evaluation of Pharmacotherapies for Opioid Dependence suggest that maintenance treatment is preferable,[9] with very high rates (79-100%)[9] of relapse within three months of detoxification from LAAM, buprenorphine, and methadone.[9][10] According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), patients stabilized on adequate, ...
Some subtle forms of color blindness may be associated with chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE), caused by long-time ... exposure to solvent vapors.[35] Red-green color blindness can be caused by ethambutol,[36] a drug used in the treatment of ... "Solvent neurotoxicity". Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 63 (3): 221-226. doi:10.1136/oem.2005.022400. PMC 2078137 ...
Leading proponents of the 1960s psychedelic art movement were San Francisco poster artists such as: Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, Bonnie MacLean, Stanley Mouse & Alton Kelley, and Wes Wilson. Their psychedelic rock concert posters were inspired by Art Nouveau, Victoriana, Dada, and Pop Art. The "Fillmore Posters" were among the most notable of the time. Richly saturated colors in glaring contrast, elaborately ornate lettering, strongly symmetrical composition, collage elements, rubber-like distortions, and bizarre iconography are all hallmarks of the San Francisco psychedelic poster art style. The style flourished from about 1966 to 1972. Their work was immediately influential to vinyl record album cover art, and indeed all of the aforementioned artists also created album covers. Although San Francisco remained the hub of psychedelic art into the early 1970s, the style also developed internationally: British artist Bridget Riley became famous for her op-art paintings of psychedelic patterns ...
... also binds to and blocks α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs, similarly to gabapentin and pregabalin, and hence is a gabapentinoid.[9][16] Both (R)-phenibut and (S)-phenibut display this action with similar affinity (Ki = 23 and 39 μM, respectively).[9] Moreover, (R)-phenibut possesses 4-fold greater affinity for this site than for the GABAB receptor (Ki = 92 μM), while (S)-phenibut does not bind significantly to the GABAB receptor (Ki , 1 mM).[9] As such, based on the results of this study, phenibut would appear to have much greater potency in its interactions with α2δ subunit-containing VDCCs than with the GABAB receptor (between 5- to 10-fold).[9] For this reason, the actions of phenibut as a α2δ subunit-containing voltage-gated calcium channel blocker or gabapentinoid may be its true primary mechanism of action, and this may explain the differences between phenibut and its close relative baclofen (which, in contrast, has essentially insignificant activity as a gabapentinoid; Ki = 6 ...
... into an assay buffer or solvent such as DMSO or water. In 2017 the Home Office also confirmed that the 1 mg limit applies to ...
... producers would use cheap, readily available but relatively toxic and impure solvents such as battery acid, ... its freebase form is also very soluble in most polar organic solvents (like acetone, ethanol and ethyl acetate).[10] Its ... of toxic substances and contaminants as a result of the drug producers neglecting to remove highly toxic reactants and solvents ...
Sweat patches are opened and the sweat collection component is removed and soaked in a solvent to dissolve any drugs present. ...
The effects of dissociatives can include sensory dissociation, hallucinations, mania, catalepsy, analgesia and amnesia.[5][6][7] The characteristic features of dissociative anesthesia were described as catalepsy, amnesia and analgesia.[5] According to Pender (1972), "the state has been designated as dissociative anesthesia since the patient truly seems disassociated from his environment."[8] Bonta (2004) described dissociative anaesthesia as "... a peculiar anaesthetic state in which marked sensory loss and analgesia as well as amnesia is not accompanied by actual loss of consciousness."[9] Both Pender (1970) and Johnstone et al. (1959) reported that patients under anaesthesia due to either ketamine or phencyclidine were prone to purposeless movements and had hallucinations (or "dreams"[10]) during and after anaesthesia. Some patients found the hallucinations euphoric while others found them disturbing. At sub-anesthetic doses, dissociatives alter many of the same cognitive and perceptual ...
In the United States, there is considerable legal debate about the impact these laws have had on Americans' civil rights. Critics claim that the War on Drugs has lowered the evidentiary burden required for a legal search of a suspect's dwelling or vehicle, or to intercept a suspect's communications.[citation needed] However, many of the searches that result in drug arrests are often "commissions" to search a person or the person's property.[clarification needed]. People who consent to a search, knowing full well that they possess contraband, generally consent because they are ignorant of the fact that they have the right to decline permission to search.[citation needed] Under the laws of most U.S. states, police are not required to disclose to suspects that they have the right to decline a search. Even when a suspect does not give permission to search, police are often known[citation needed] to state in arrest affidavits and even provide sworn testimony that the suspect consented to the search, ...
organic solvents Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa ... It is a colourless solid that dissolves in organic solvents. It slowly reacts with water. The main use for this compound is as ...
This is because the organic solvent is exposed to lithium and water in the presence of oxygen when the bottle tips, and the ...
Solvent effect on the synthesis of monodisperse amine-capped Au nanoparticles. Chin. Chem. Lett. 24, 457-462 (2013). doi: ...
Organic solvents can be carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and neurotoxins. Carcinogenic organic solvents include benzene, ... Organic solvents are carbon-based substances capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances. ... Organic solvents can be carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and neurotoxins. Carcinogenic organic solvents include benzene, ... Organic solvents are used in many industries. They are used in paints, varnishes, lacquers, adhesives, glues, and in degreasing ...
solvent substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution ... Media in category "Solvents". The following 35 files are in this category, out of 35 total. ... 2008-07-06 Bottle of Goo Gone solvent.jpg 2,592 × 3,888; 3.23 MB. ... Retrieved from "" ...
... as well as a other aromatic solvents sold under the ShellSol* name. ... Our aromatic solvents include pure aromatics like toluene and xylene (isomer mix) ... More in hydrocarbon solvents. Special boiling point solvents Special boiling point (SBP) solvents are versatile fast to medium ... Our key strengths in hydrocarbon solvents. *Broad product line: Our wide range of solvents enables us to cover most - if not ...
... * 1. MICROBIAL PRODUCTION OF SOLVENTS * 2. SOLVENT Liquid that dissolves any kind of solute. ... Common solvents * Ethanol * Acetone * Butyl alcohol * Glycerol etc.. * 3. COMMON USES  Dry cleaning (tetrachloroethylene)  ... GLYCEROL Main uses :  solvent in food colouring agents  Lubricant in toothpastes, candies, cake icings  Cosmetic & ... possible to produce cheap ethanol to meet the organic solvents & automative fuel requirements of the world. ...
3 Physical properties of common solvents *3.1 Properties table of common solvents ... A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute ... Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning (e.g. tetrachloroethylene), as a paint thinner (e.g. toluene, turpentine ... In 2005, the worldwide market for solvents had a total volume of around 17.9 million tons, which led to a turnover of about 8 ...
Solvents for ear wax.. Br Med J 1968; 4 doi: (Published 21 December 1968) Cite this as ...
... bio-based solvents and solvents made from waste - as replacements for conventional organic solvents. Here lies an opportunity ... Bio-based solvents and modelling. Solvents from biomass and food waste are viewed as one of the most promising types of ... Carbonates as alternative solvents. The use of wastes to make low cost solvents is a highly appealing concept. The utilisation ... S4 - Sustainable solvent selection service. The GCCE has developed the S4 (Sustainable Solvent Selection Service) programme to ...
Nevertheless, it may well prove to be one of the most versatile solvents known. Maintained at its melting point of 132° ( ... It then combines the solvent properties of water with that of alcohols. ... its solvent properties do not appear to have been fully appreciated by chemists. ... Nevertheless, it may well prove to be one of the most versatile solvents known. Maintained at its melting point of 132° ( ...
The many end use applications that depend on solvents, together with glycol ethers range from paints to cleaning products, from ... Solvents: GTL fluids and solvents Shell chemicals companies are leading global suppliers of GTL Fluids and Solvents - next- ... Solvents: hydrocarbon We produce a wide range of hydrocarbon solvents for different applications and industrial processes. ... Solvents: chemical A range of chemical solvents with different performance properties for industrial processes and product ...
Millions of workers are exposed to solvents on a daily basis. Health hazards associated with solvent exposure include toxicity ... Solvents share many chemical, physical, and biological properties that warrant national attention be directed to them as a ... Exposures to solvents are addressed in specific OSHA standards for the general industry, maritime, and construction. ... In addition, many solvent groups or individual substances have special properties requiring more specialized control measures ...
As a solvent benzene can be substituted with a variety of less hazardous ones. Toluene is a similar solvent to benzene. It has ... 6. SOLVENTS. Exposure to solvents and other organic liquids is one of the most common chemical health risk at places of work. ... how easily the solvent evaporates at the ambient temperature? * what are the characteristics of that solvent; is it water ... Solvents may damage the liver, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, bone marrow and the nervous system. The solvents which pose the ...
There is a strong association between exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis risk, especially among those who ... Exposure to organic solvents seems to be a risk factor for developing a variety of autoimmune diseases, including MS. A meta- ... Organic solvents also have direct effects on the central nervous system (CNS), which may be relevant to gene-environment ... In addition, those exposed to both smoking and organic solvents and who carry HLA-DRB1*15 and lack HLA-A*02 had a 30-fold ...
The high vapor densities of the halogenated solvents make it possible to maintain a definite vapor level in the degreaser, ... keeping solvent vapor concentrations in the operators breathing zone below the maximum recommended time-weighted average (TWA ...
... is a Brønsted acid (CHEBI:39141) protic solvent (CHEBI:48356) is a polar solvent (CHEBI:48354) ... acetic acid (CHEBI:15366) has role protic solvent (CHEBI:48356). butan-1-ol (CHEBI:28885) has role protic solvent (CHEBI:48356) ... butane-1,4-diol (CHEBI:41189) has role protic solvent (CHEBI:48356). decan-1-ol (CHEBI:28903) has role protic solvent (CHEBI: ... propan-1-ol (CHEBI:28831) has role protic solvent (CHEBI:48356). propan-2-ol (CHEBI:17824) has role protic solvent (CHEBI:48356 ...
People who breathe Stoddard solvent can experience headaches; dizziness; and eye, skin, or throat irritation. This substance ... Exposure to stoddard solvent occurs mainly in the workplace. ... What is Stoddard solvent?. *What happens to Stoddard solvent ... Stoddard solvent is a petroleum mixture that is also known as dry cleaning safety solvent, petroleum solvent, and varnoline; ... How can Stoddard solvent affect my health?. Most of the information on the health effects of Stoddard solvent comes from ...
Kodak Solvent Recovery takes this concept to your bottom line.. Our philosophy is built around the principle that all spent ... Just as Kodak has undergone a transformation, the Kodak Solvent Recovery group is about change. Our model changes the paradigm ... Our strength is managing high volume, high water content, mixed organic streams and extracting the solvent locked within these ... Built from a legacy of quality, commitment, and innovation once dedicated to the film manufacturing industry, Kodak Solvent ...
a substance that dissolves another to form a solution: Water is a solvent for sugar. ...
... emotion is a human solvent and a sort of friendliness had sprung up between us. Walter de la Mare, All Hallows, 1927 Thank you ... I am having difficulties understanding what a human solvent means. Can anybody help me? The spectacle of grief in any human ... the question was out of my lips; emotion is a human solvent and a sort of friendliness had sprung up between us.. Walter de la ... I am having difficulties understanding what a human solvent means. Can anybody help me?. The spectacle of grief in any human ...
Biomolecules are often purified via solvent gradient batch chromatography. Here smooth linear solvent gradients are applied to ... The discontinuous mode of operation allows exploiting the advantage of solvent gradients, but it implies high solvent ... Multicolumn Countercurrent Solvent Gradient Purification (MCSGP) is a form of chromatography that is used to separate or purify ... It shows that the MCSGP process can increase the productivity by a factor of 10 and reduce the solvent requirement by 90%.[2] ...
The decision by the Trump administration to shelve a ban on the toxic solvent methylene chloride is already responsible for ... Needless Deaths: Toxic Solvents in Paint Strippers. March 28, 2018 Daniel Rosenberg Erik D. Olson ... The other two solvents are known by their acronyms, NMP and TCE). EPA proposed bans on specific uses of MC, NMP and TCE-the ... One of the last actions taken by EPA during the Obama Administration was to propose a ban on the use of a toxic solvent in ...
Solvents synonyms, Solvents pronunciation, Solvents translation, English dictionary definition of Solvents. adj. 1. Capable of ... Related to Solvents: polar solvents, Organic solvents. sol·vent. (sŏl′vənt, sôl′-). adj.. 1. Capable of meeting financial ... sol′vent•ly, adv. sol·vent. (sŏl′vənt). A substance that can dissolve another substance, or in which another substance is ... solvent قادِر على تَسْديد الدَّيْن платежоспособен solvente solventní zahlungsunfähig solvent φερέγγυοςsolvente maksevõimeline ...
Some plants still use Stoddard solvent. This solvent irritates the eyes, nose, throat and skin. It also has effects on the ... We did not know exactly which solvents besides perc and Stoddard solvent, workers were exposed to. ... Perc and Other Solvent Levels. About 90% of all dry-cleaning plants still use perc as a dry-cleaning fluid. If you still work ... Also, if solvent exposure is related to cancer, those with a longer exposure (five years or longer) should have a higher risk ...
Toxicological Profile for Stoddard Solvent. CAS#: 8052-41-3 Toxicological Profile Information. The ATSDR toxicological profile ... Toxicological profile for Stoddard Solvent. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. ...
... : Regulatory Data Sheet. Choose Propyl CELLOSOLVE™ Solvent Please Contact Dow for distribution ... Propyl CELLOSOLVE™ Solvent No Technical Data Sheets are available online for this material. Please Contact Dow for additional ... formulations may require less Performance solvent than P or E Series ...
Solvents, Plasma,ARUP Laboratories is a national reference laboratory and a worldwide leader in innovative laboratory research ...
Our GC solvents have been specially developed and tested for ECD, FID and MS detection or for headspace gas chromatography to ... SupraSolv® GC Solvents Specifications. SupraSolv® solvents. SupraSolv® Headspace for analysis of residual solvents. SupraSolv® ... Every residual solvent of class 1 acc. CH ≤ 1 µg/g. Every residual solvent of class 2 acc. CH ≤ 10 µg/g. Every residual solvent ... Every residual solvent of class 1 acc. CH ≤ 1 μg/g Every residual solvent of class 2 acc. CH ≤ 10 μg/g Every residual solvent ...
These products are referred to as volatile substances or solvents. Examples are toluene, butane and other volatile hydrocarbons ... Products that may contain solvents include aerosols (e.g. air fresheners, hair sprays and deodorants), some paints ... Solvents are gases, glues or aerosols that are inhaled. They vary from normal household products to petrol and laughing gas. ... Solvents and glue often perceived as a losers habit in many circles ...
Check out Breakthrough Solvents available at Mounts Plus. Choose a non-toxic solvent from our inventory at 5% OFF. ... Breakthrough Solvents. Cleaning firearms has always been a tricky process as standard solvents contain petroleum and other ... Effective: This solvent will remove all residue and fouling in your firearms as well as from different materials as well such ... Breakthrough Solvents. Number of Products to Show. * View. 12 Items/Page. 24 Items/Page. 48 Items/Page. All Items. ...
... J.T.Baker® ULTRA LC/MS solvents are designed to meet the needs of the most demanding ultra-high-pressure liquid ... Macron Fine Chemicals™ UltimAR™ Solvents. Macron Fine Chemicals™ UltimAR solvents offer purity, consistency and excellent ... This grade of solvents is intended to extend the useful life of UHPLC columns by significantly reducing particles and ... UltimAR solvents meet or exceed ACS specifications for HPLC and UV spectrophotometry applications, and give you the mobile ...
  • Millions of U.S. workers are exposed to organic solvents. (
  • Exposure to organic solvents seems to be a risk factor for developing a variety of autoimmune diseases, including MS. A meta-analysis based on 15 studies found that the OR for MS among participants exposed to organic solvents was 1.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 - 2.29). (
  • Pregnant women exposed to organic solvents on the job are 13 times more likely to deliver a baby with major birth defects. (
  • Problems among women exposed to organic solvents were most often found among those who worked in factories, as laboratory technicians, in graphic design or printing, and as chemists, according to the study. (
  • McCrank E, Rabheru K. Four cases of progressive supranuclear palsy in patients exposed to organic solvents. (
  • Children of mothers exposed to organic solvents during their pregnancies had lower scores on certain tests of language, behavior, and cognitive functioning, according to a new study. (
  • Children of mothers exposed to organic solvents during their pregnancies had lower scores on certain tests of language, behavior, and cognitive functioning, according to an article in the October issue of The Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, one of the JAMA/Archives journals. (
  • of The Hospital for Sick Children and the University of Toronto, Ontario, and colleagues compared the cognitive, language and motor skills and behavioral achievements of 32 children (age range, 3 to 9 years old) whose mothers were occupationally exposed to organic solvents during pregnancy to a matched control group of children whose mothers were not exposed to solvents during pregnancy. (
  • Furthermore, children who were exposed to organic solvents in utero showed reduced ability in recalling sentences, even when their global scores were within the normal range. (
  • Neurophysiologic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging diagnostic tools have been used to evaluate individuals and groups exposed to organic solvents. (
  • In 1987, NIOSH reported that 9.8 million workers were exposed to organic solvents in occupational settings. (
  • Common solvents * Ethanol * Acetone * Butyl alcohol * Glycerol etc. (
  • 3. COMMON USES  Dry cleaning (tetrachloroethylene)  Paint thinner (toluene, turpentine)  Nail polish removers & glue solvents( acetone, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate)  Spot removers(hexane, petrol ether)  Detergents( citrus terpenes)  Perfumes (ethanol) &  Chemical synthesis. (
  • Our model changes the paradigm of managing industrial solvents like methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone. (
  • Pharmaceutical products can be synthesized using chemical reactions that involve solvents like alcohol, acetone and methylene chloride. (
  • other polar solvents include acetone , acetonitrile , dimethylformamide (DMF), dimelthylsulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol , isopropanol , and methanol . (
  • He specified how acetone and methanol, both chemical solvents, can be used in this process, although industry watchers note that Canadian health-supplement products have been moving away from these solvents for years due to relatively tight Canadian regulation. (
  • Solvent systems under study included: acetone/chloroform (a-c), acetone/quadricyclane (a-q) and acetonitrile/chloroform (an-c). (
  • Examples of aprotic solvents include acetone and ethyl acetate. (
  • Arkema oxygenated solvents are acetone derivatives widely used in many applications such as cosmetics, aromas and fragrances, agrochemicals, cleaning products, paints and coatings. (
  • Hexylene Glycol or HG is an oxygenated solvent derived from acetone which has two alcohol functions. (
  • The effects of swallowing Stoddard solvent are not known. (
  • Shell chemicals companies are leading suppliers of isoparaffins, a group of high purity, relatively high boiling synthetic hydrocarbon solvents. (
  • The difference between the types of hydrocarbon solvents is mainly due to their different hydrocarbon classes and their carbon chain length distribution. (
  • Due to the variability in the composition of the starting materials, many hydrocarbon solvents fall under the definition of a UVCB substance. (
  • The global aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners market has been driven primarily by the growth of the construction industry in recent years, as this has created a stable need for paints and coatings, of which aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners comprise a key part. (
  • Due to the favorable physical properties of aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners, they are used in paints and coatings as diluents and solvents on a large scale. (
  • Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners are mixtures of a range of paraffins and are produced from crude oil by the distillation process. (
  • As such, the global aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners market is likely to comprise a large share of the global petrochemicals sector in the coming years. (
  • The use of paints and coatings by the booming construction industry in Asia Pacific and the Middle East is likely to remain a vital driver for the global aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners market. (
  • The Middle East is also likely to emerge as a key contributor to the global aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners market in the coming years due to the rapid growth of the industrial as well as residential construction sectors in dynamic economies in the region such as the UAE and Saudi Arabia. (
  • The role of aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners in other activities such as rubber manufacture, degreasing, and disinfectant manufacture is also likely to be crucial to the global aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners market in the coming years due to the growing automotive and transportation industries. (
  • Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners, the mixtures of either long straight chain, branched chain, saturated, or cyclic paraffins, are produced from the distillation of crude oil by appropriate boiling point range fraction. (
  • Aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners find extensive usage as diluents or solvents in coatings and paints. (
  • Kerosene and gasoline are some of the most commonly occurring examples of aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents. (
  • This report on the global aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners market presents a thorough overview of the growth dynamics of the market in present times and includes several forward-looking statements regarding the market and its key segments over the course of 2017 and 2025. (
  • The global market for aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners has witnessed a steady yet moderately rising demand in the past few years. (
  • Environment concerns related to the emission of VOCs from petroleum-based paints and coatings due are expected to lead to declining use of aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners across a number of application areas, especially across developed economies with stringent environment-related guidelines. (
  • Demand for aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners is also expected to remain slow owing to the slow pace of growth of the construction sector across regional markets such as North America and Europe. (
  • Of the key regional markets for aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and thinners examined in the report, the Asia Pacific market is presently the leading contributor to the global market's revenues. (
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions about stoddard solvent. (
  • Exposure to Stoddard solvent occurs mainly in the workplace. (
  • What is Stoddard solvent? (
  • Stoddard solvent is a colorless, flammable liquid that smells and tastes like kerosene. (
  • What happens to Stoddard solvent when it enters the environment? (
  • Because Stoddard solvent is a mixture of many chemicals, these chemicals may react differently in the environment. (
  • It is not known whether Stoddard solvent will build up in plants or animals living in contaminated soil or water, but some of the chemicals that make up Stoddard solvent might build up in these situations. (
  • How might I be exposed to Stoddard solvent? (
  • Using products containing Stoddard solvent such as a paint or paint thinner, and breathing the vapors, or getting the vapors in your eyes. (
  • Breathing contaminated air where Stoddard solvent is manufactured, used, or spilled. (
  • Ingesting contaminated soil or water near waste sites containing Stoddard solvent. (
  • How can Stoddard solvent affect my health? (
  • Exposure to Stoddard solvent in the air can affect your nervous system and cause dizziness, headaches, or a prolonged reaction time. (
  • Rats, cats, and dogs that breathed in large amounts of Stoddard solvent for several hours suffered seizures. (
  • Breathing Stoddard solvent has caused bronchitis in guinea pigs, but neither seizures nor bronchitis have been reported when humans breathed it. (
  • It is not known whether Stoddard solvent can cause birth defects or affect reproduction. (
  • How likely is Stoddard solvent to cause cancer? (
  • The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that Stoddard solvent is not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans. (
  • Very few studies have been located that study the carcinogenic effects of Stoddard solvent in humans or animals. (
  • Is there a medical test to show whether I've been exposed to Stoddard solvent? (
  • There is no routinely used test to show whether you have been exposed to Stoddard solvent. (
  • Because Stoddard solvent is a mixture of many chemicals, some of these chemicals can be detected in your breath, blood, urine, and fat. (
  • However, the tests cannot tell you if you have been exposed to the specific mixture of chemicals found in Stoddard solvent. (
  • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set a maximum exposure limit of 500 parts of Stoddard solvent per 1 million parts of air (500 ppm) for an 8-hour workday, 40-hour workweek. (
  • Some machines also use other solvents, usually Stoddard solvent. (
  • These individuals each worked for at least one shop that used perc and at least one shop that used another dry cleaning solvent, usually Stoddard solvent. (
  • Stoddard solvent poisoning occurs when someone swallows or touches this chemical. (
  • This list may not include all products containing Stoddard solvent. (
  • Below are symptoms of Stoddard solvent poisoning in different parts of the body. (
  • If Stoddard solvent get into the lungs (aspiration), serious and possibly permanent lung damage can occur. (
  • The hydrocarbon chain length ranges from C7 to C12, although a form of Stoddard solvent called 140 flash contains C5 and C6 hydrocarbons as well. (
  • Stoddard solvent may be released to the environment during its use as a solvent in dry cleaning plants or as an industrial degreasing agent. (
  • Biodegradation is expected to be the primary fate process for Stoddard solvent in soil and water, except that fraction which has volatilized. (
  • The rate of biodegradation is dependent on the ambient temperature, the presence of a sufficient number of microorganisms capable of metabolizing these hydrocarbons, and the concentration of Stoddard solvent in or on the soil or water. (
  • Exposure of the general population to Stoddard solvent may result primarily from inhalation or dermal contact when it is used for such commercial purposes as dry cleaning, degreasing in machine shops, and in paints. (
  • Individuals living in areas where Stoddard solvent may have contaminated the soil may be exposed if it has entered their homes through volatilization from the soil, has been transported in flowing groundwater, or if they play or otherwise come in direct contact with contaminated soil. (
  • 5. POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE machine shops where it is used as a degreasing agent, and other industries where Stoddard solvent is used for a variety of purposes. (
  • Dermal exposure is also possible if machine parts that have been degreased in Stoddard solvent are not dry when handled or protective clothing is not worn. (
  • Stoddard solvent may be released to the atmosphere in the exhaust emissions of dry cleaning plants. (
  • Fugitive emissions from other industrial or domestic uses (such as incompletely sealed or punctured barrels) may contribute to levels of Stoddard solvent in the environment, including contributions to general levels of volatile organic carbon. (
  • In addition, surface water contamination may occur as a result of direct spills of Stoddard solvent onto surface waters, runoff from spills to soil with subsequent transmission to nearby water sources, or from improper disposal, such as pouring Stoddard solvent down drains. (
  • Accidental spills of Stoddard solvent to various media are reported to the Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) maintained by EPA. (
  • In addition, no spills of Stoddard solvent were reported in 1993 (ERNS 1993). (
  • 5. POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN EXPOSURE seven NPL sites where Stoddard solvent is present in waste materials or containers. (
  • No information was located on releases of Stoddard solvent to the atmosphere. (
  • Stoddard solvent may be released to surface waters as a result of spills, in runoff from industrial facilities where it is used as a solvent, or from the intentional disposal of excess solvent down drains. (
  • however, not all forms of mineral spirits, white spirits, or naphtha are considered to be Stoddard solvent. (
  • Rothman and Emmett 1988) and must meet the specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials designation for Type I mineral spirits (Stoddard solvent) (ASTM 1988, 1992). (
  • The U.S. companies that produce and/or distribute Stoddard solvent are Ashland Chemical, Inc. (
  • Since Stoddard solvent is not required to be reported under SARA Section 313, there are no data for this compound in the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI90 1992). (
  • No information regarding the import or export of Stoddard solvent was located. (
  • Stoddard solvent is a multipurpose petroleum solvent (McDermott 1975). (
  • Stoddard solvent is commonly used at air fields as a degreaser for precision engine parts in machine shops and in automotive repair applications. (
  • Stoddard solvent has been designated as a hazardous waste by the Department of Transportation and, as such, should not be poured down domestic sewage drains. (
  • and a mix of C10 or higher hydrocarbons known as Stoddard solvent. (
  • Organic solvents recognized as neurotoxins include n-hexane, tetrachloroethylene, and toluene. (
  • The aromatic solvents available from Shell chemicals companies include pure aromatics like toluene and xylene (isomer mix) as well as a range of heavier C9 and C10 aromatic solvents sold under the ShellSol* name. (
  • Our discoveries include Cyrene™, a replacement for toxic polar aprotic solvents in materials science and synthesis, and tetramethyloxolane, a broad substitute for toluene. (
  • Nonpolar solvents include alkanes ( pentane , hexane , and heptane ) and aromatics (benzene, toluene , and xylene). (
  • As a leading supplier of high-purity, research grade solvents, we have the toluene to meet your exact needs. (
  • This segment currently accounts for a 23% share of the global Aprotic Solvents market. (
  • The Aprotic Solvents market in the U.S. is estimated at US$4.9 Billion in the year 2020. (
  • There are protic and aprotic solvents. (
  • Aprotic solvents do not contain an -OH group. (
  • Many solvents, including chlorocarbons and hydrocarbons, are classifiable as aprotic, but polar aprotic solvents are of particular interest for their ability to dissolve salts. (
  • Exposure to solvents and other organic liquids is one of the most common chemical health risk at places of work. (
  • Workers such as graphic designers and printers also may experience memory impairment, muscular weakness and cancer from long-term exposure to solvents in the workplace. (
  • A new study found that mothers of autistic children had more frequent exposure to solvents. (
  • The study of almost 1,000 families can't prove cause and effect, but researchers report that mothers of autistic children had more frequent exposure to solvents than mothers of children without autism. (
  • Mothers of autistic children had more frequent exposure to solvents than mothers of children without autism. (
  • Long-term, moderate-level exposure to solvents at work among women was associated with a near doubling in the risk of having a child with autism, the team noted. (
  • Carcinogenic organic solvents include benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethylene. (
  • Amongst the most hazardous solvents are benzene, carbon disulphide and carbon tetrachloride. (
  • Chloroform and benzene, commonly found in gasoline, are carcinogenic in addition to other solvents. (
  • 2. SOLVENT Liquid that dissolves any kind of solute. (
  • A solvent (from the Latin solvere, "loosen") is a liquid, solid, or gas that dissolves another solid, liquid, or gaseous solute , resulting in a solution that is soluble in a certain volume of solvent at a specified temperature . (
  • When something is dissolved, molecules of the solvent arrange themselves around molecules of the solute. (
  • This arrangement is mediated by the respective chemical properties of the solvent and solute, such as hydrogen bonding , dipole moment and polarizability . (
  • A dilute solution has a low concentration of the solute compared to the solvent. (
  • Unsaturated solutions are solutions that contain less solute than the actual amount of solute that the solvent can dissolve. (
  • The water or milk in your cup is the solvent, and the powder that you pour into the cup is the solute. (
  • A solvent, on the other hand, is the substance in which the solute is dissolved. (
  • You're letting the saliva in your mouth act as the solvent-the material in which the candy solute will eventually dissolve. (
  • That's because stirring spreads the solute evenly in the solvent. (
  • being such a great solvent, water washing through the kidneys dissolves these substances and sends them on the way out of our bodies. (
  • The most common and "universal" solvent is water, which dissolves more substances than any other. (
  • They learn about solvents by timing how quickly chocolate dissolves in their mouth when they chew it, use their tongue to move the chocolate around, and by letting it melt on their tongue without any movement of their mouth. (
  • Pentane is a high purity aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent primarily used as propellants in aerosols, as blowing agents in foams and as reaction media in polymerisation processes. (
  • A leading manufacturer of high purity solvents used in semiconductor-related manufacturing processes. (
  • Find product line features, applications, and ordering information for the full line of High-Purity Chromasolv Solvents available in North America. (
  • Micropure EG (electronic grade) solvent, a high purity grade of N-Methyl-2-Pyrrolidone (NMP), is used to prepare solutions of polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) for use as a cathode binder. (
  • A person shall not discharge into the atmosphere more than 3,000 pounds of organic materials in any one day, nor more than 450 pounds in any one hour, from any article, machine, equipment or other contrivance in which any non-photochemically reactive organic solvent or any material containing such solvent is employed or applied, unless said discharge has been reduced by at least 85 per-cent. (
  • The GCCE has developed the S4 (Sustainable Solvent Selection Service) programme to replace hazardous solvents and to promote benign alternatives. (
  • A protic solvent is a solvent containing a hydrogen bonded to an electronegative atom. (
  • The object of the invention is an antiadhesive, stain remover and cleaning liquid composition, characterized in that it contains denatured alcohols of the 95 ethanol type and a mixture of carbonated solvents. (
  • If you work in an industry that uses organic solvents, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (
  • Recent estimates by the pharmaceutical and fine chemical industry have suggested solvents account for the majority of the waste produced in a typical batch process. (
  • ALTHOUGH urea is an inexpensive laboratory chemical, its solvent properties do not appear to have been fully appreciated by chemists. (
  • Solvents share many chemical, physical, and biological properties that warrant national attention be directed to them as a group. (
  • Knowing it would take time for the new system to be established and get started, Congress specifically authorized the Agency to take action on methylene chloride and two other toxic solvents based on evaluations of the chemical the Agency had recently completed. (
  • Essentially, Breakthrough is a chemical solvent that is based on petroleum, but thanks to new technology has been distilled to the point where all the hazardous waste and carcinogens have been removed. (
  • It is based on the research program 'Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media' on the initiative of the 'GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik' (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). (
  • Contains results of projects within the research program on 'Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media' on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. (
  • It is water's chemical composition and physical attributes that make it such an excellent solvent. (
  • Whenever any organic solvent or any constituent of an organic solvent may be classified from its chemical structure into more than one (1) of the above groups of organic compounds, it shall be considered as a member of the most reactive chemical group, that is, that group having the least allowable percentage of the total volume of solvents. (
  • Solvents are classified by chemical groups or families. (
  • Any person using organic solvents or any materials containing organic solvents shall supply the Air Pollution Control Officer, upon request and in the manner and form prescribed by him, written evidence of the chemical compositions, physical properties and amount consumed for each organic solvent used. (
  • Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles that use a chemical solvent rather than water. (
  • Further support can be found through the Hydrocarbon Solvent Producers Association (HSPA), a sector group of the European Council of the Chemical industry (CEFIC). (
  • Solvents are used extensively as a medium for chemical reactions and analytical separations and are available in various purity grades and packaging options. (
  • Learn about Fisher Chemical Elite 8 Solvents, the most commonly used stockroom, analytical laboratory, and production solvents. (
  • Eastman Omnia solvent from the Eastman Chemical Company adheres to state and federal regulations and even carries third-party certifications for safety and environmental friendliness, yet it cleans more effectively than even harsh products on the market. (
  • It may be produced using clean technology or with chemical solvents. (
  • B.C., and he'll explain how some producers use chemical solvents to extract ingredients. (
  • By systematically varying the structures of the imidazole and/or amine components, we have characterized the key physical (viscosity, density), thermodynamic (vapor-liquid equilibrium and heat of reaction) and chemical properties of these systems, and have developed structure-property relationships and empirical models that accurately describe the properties of imidazoles and imidazole-amine hybrid solvents. (
  • Organic solvents are some of the most common sources of workplace chemical exposure reported by pregnant women. (
  • According to the article, organic solvents are some of the most common sources of workplace chemical exposure reported by pregnant women. (
  • Organic solvents are widely used for dissolving or dispersing substances, such as fats, oils, and waxes, as well as in chemical manufacturing. (
  • Organic solvents are a chemical class of compounds that are used routinely in commercial industries. (
  • Commercial Solvents Corporation (CSC) was an American chemical and biotechnology company created in 1919. (
  • Other common nonpolar solvents include acetic acid , chloroform , diethyl ether , ethyl acetate , methylene chloride , and pyridine . (
  • Organic solvents are carbon-based substances capable of dissolving or dispersing one or more other substances. (
  • It is used as a solvent in many areas of industries, such as rubber and shoe manufacturing, and in the production of other important substances such as styrene, phenol and cyclohexane. (
  • Our solvents for headspace gas chromatography are developed specifically for the analysis of residual solvents in drug substances, excipients, and drug products according to Ph. (
  • Residual solvents analysis in drug substances and products acc. (
  • With Breakthrough, you can put away the old toxic solvents of the past and now rely upon one that works better while containing very few harmful substances. (
  • Water is called the "universal solvent" because it is capable of dissolving more substances than any other liquid. (
  • Hydrocarbon solvent substances are commonly derived from petroleum feedstocks and contain one or more hydrocarbon classes (e.g. linear, branched or cyclic alkanes and aromatics). (
  • The major process for transforming petroleum feedstocks into hydrocarbon solvent substances is a combination of various process steps that may include distillation of the feedstock, hydrodesulphurisation, mild or heavy hydrogenation, and finally a distillation and a stripping of light components. (
  • The invention relates to solvent type cleaners with quick breaking emulsion properties, for cold cleaning of metal surfaces, concrete structures, brickwork, etc. which have been soiled with dirty mineral oil residues, oily and greasy dust, tarry substances and the like. (
  • Solvents are often categorized as polar or nonpolar, a factor of the solvent's structure and charge that determines the types of substances that it can dissolve. (
  • Polar solvents have a "positive" and a "negative" charge at different places in their structures and will dissolve other polar substances. (
  • Where substances are sufficiently stable, removal of solvents from recrystallized materials presents no problems. (
  • In the dry cleaning process, clothing or other fabrics to be cleaned are contacted with a solvent that removes dirt, oil and other substances from the clothing. (
  • Multicolumn Countercurrent Solvent Gradient Purification (MCSGP) is a form of chromatography that is used to separate or purify biomolecules from complex mixtures. (
  • Fluid phase equilibria of binary mixtures with supercritical solvents with in-situ concentration measurements by Raman spectroscopy (A. Stratmann, G. Schweiger). (
  • However, most occupational exposures involved solvent mixtures. (
  • SETS are homogeneous mixtures of an organic solvent and water which have the inherent property to split into a heterogeneous mixture under moderate CO 2 pressure. (
  • Shell Chemicals are leading global suppliers of solvents, with strategically located plants offering continuous long term supply. (
  • Shell Chemicals have in-depth knowledge of solvents products, their applications, and health, safety and environment issues. (
  • Provides general sources for information on toxic chemicals, including solvents. (
  • Cleaning firearms has always been a tricky process as standard solvents contain petroleum and other toxic chemicals that may do harm when exposed to over a long period of time. (
  • Macron Fine Chemicals™ UltimAR solvents offer purity, consistency and excellent performance in HPLC applications along with the economy of a "universal" solvent suitable for multiple applications. (
  • Available in 13 oz cans and 9 lb canisters, Type WT-AR removes solvent-based adhesives and does not contain any chemicals on the Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP)list. (
  • The term solvent is used to describe a group of organic chemicals. (
  • Organic solvents are one of the most widely used groups of chemicals in the workplace. (
  • They found that the men with the highest exposure to chemicals such as pesticides and solvents tended to have lower sperm quantity and quality. (
  • Children of mothers who are often exposed to solvent chemicals in the workplace appear to have an increased risk of autism, a new study finds. (
  • More research is needed, he said, but in the meantime, "caution around these chemicals may be appropriate for parents-to-be and for employers who handle these solvents. (
  • It is essential in the manufacture of detergents, pesticides, solvents and paint removers. (
  • Nonpolar organic solvents are used as spot removers, paint thinners, nail polish removers, glue solvents, and in perfumes and detergents. (
  • This report describes neurological and respiratory symptoms among 26 engineers and contract labourers who used organic solvents and detergents to remove polychlorinated biphenyl contamination from a poorly ventilated factory basement. (
  • The ShellSol grades constitute a versatile range of high boiling, highly aromatic solvents. (
  • Most of the organic solvents are combustible, often highly volatile and extremely flammable and they should always be handled with care. (
  • When flammable solvents are used, precautions shall be taken in accordance with the requirements of 1915.36. (
  • Workers at dry-cleaners often breathe fumes from dry-cleaning fluids (also known as solvents). (
  • Maximizing solvent use and minimizing waste, Solvent Savers(TM) hose and gun cleaners mix solvents and compressed air to flush paint lines and passages to eliminate chances for color contamination. (
  • Perchloroethylene (perc) has been the leading dry cleaning solvent used in the dry cleaning industry and is still being used by the majority of dry cleaners in many countries. (
  • As the health risk associated with perc is causing public concern and cleaners in the US and elsewhere face increasingly restrictive and costly regulations, safer dry cleaning solvent alternatives are required to replace its use. (
  • The solvent type cleaners are used in cold immersion cleaning. (
  • Solvent cleaners of this type are preferably used for cleaning heavily soiled automotive engines and moving parts, such as wheels. (
  • Many known solvent type cleaners do not produce a sufficiently quick breaking emulsion, and are therefore disadvantageous in use. (
  • Effective: This solvent will remove all residue and fouling in your firearms as well as from different materials as well such as copper, brass and carbon. (
  • UltimAR solvents are tested for use in extraction/concentration sample clean-up protocols for trace level organic residue analysis. (
  • That's why even if you cannot visually see residue on the surface, it's a good idea to do a quick cleaning with our solvent. (
  • First, wiping down surfaces to be painted surfaces with the appropriate solvent to remove dirt and residue promotes better paint adhesion. (
  • The high vapor densities of the halogenated solvents make it possible to maintain a definite vapor level in the degreaser, keeping solvent vapor concentrations in the operator's breathing zone below the maximum recommended time-weighted average (TWA) concentration with both manual and automatic degreasers. (
  • BioSolv Gold® EPA-approved, bio-based parts and degreaser solvent is 100% biodegradable and can be used as a direct replacement for isopropyl alcohol. (
  • Degreaser and Safety Solvent works on electric motors. (
  • Finally, the delamination and subsequent swelling processes of BA-clay in a water/acetonitrile binary solvent system are very sensitive to composition, a result that is directly linked to the partitioning process. (
  • The manufacture of organic solvents, or the transport of organic solvents or materials containing organic solvents. (
  • Emissions of organic materials to the atmosphere from the cleanup with photochemically reactive solvent, as defined in section (J), of any article, machine, equipment or other contrivance described in sections (A), (B), or (C) shall be included with the other emissions or organic materials from that article, machine, equipment or other contrivance for determining compliance with this rule. (
  • A substantial effort has been made by the Green Chemistry Centre of Excellence (GCCE) to promote the use of new alternative solvents - supercritical/liquid CO 2 , bio-based solvents and solvents from food-waste - as sustainable and economically attractive alternatives to conventional organic solvents. (
  • Golf Grip Solvent Substitutes" last modified May 13, 2017. (
  • Organic solvents are hydrocarbon compounds widely used in many industries, including paint and varnishing, dry cleaning, adhesives, and cosmetics. (
  • Once solvents are absorbed, they distribute widely throughout the body. (
  • Solvents are widely used painting prep tools. (
  • Chloroform-d, its deuterated form, is the most widely used solvent for organic NMR spectrometry. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), a research institute funded by the U.S. federal government, has identified 335 different occupations which have the potential to expose workers to solvents. (
  • NIOSH estimates that, in the United States, three million women and six million men are occupationally exposed to solvents. (
  • Dear all, I am looking for solubility data of BSA in (preferentially aprotic) polar organic solvents like THF, 1,4-Dioxan, DMF, etc. etc. (
  • Featuring a unique signal-to-noise specification, Thermo Scientific Methanol is ideal when solvent quality is linked directly to the sensitivity of the mass spectrometer. (
  • Organic Solvent: includes diluents and thinners which contain VOCs, is liquid at standard conditions and which is used as a dissolver, viscosity reducer, or cleaning material, except that such material exhibiting a boiling point higher than 220oF at 0.5 millimeter mercury absolute pressure or having an equivalent vapor pressure shall not be considered to be an organic solvent unless exposed to temperatures exceeding 220oF. (
  • Health hazards associated with solvent exposure include toxicity to the nervous system, reproductive damage, liver and kidney damage, respiratory impairment, cancer, and dermatitis. (
  • Breakthrough is very low in toxicity while having no odor, making it a highly desirable solvent for cleaning firearms. (
  • The introduction of chlorinated solvents in the 1920s led to reports of toxicity. (
  • They are valued for their high solvent power and their low toxicity. (
  • Adding solvents to your paint destabilizes the molecules and will never wear as well as more pure paints. (
  • There are lots of ways to thin your paints and clean up you materials that use no solvents at all, and are thus, far less bad for your health. (
  • Manufacturers often recommend a specific solvent/thinner for use with 1-part paints and 2-part paints and epoxy-based finishes. (
  • Solvents such as mineral spirits can effectively function as a paint thinner for enamel paints and varnish. (
  • Organic solvents are used in dry cleaning, manufacturing, jobs involving paints and plastic adhesives, nail salons and medical laboratories, and in many other industries. (
  • Carbon dioxide is a non-polar solvent once pressurised into a liquid or supercritical state. (
  • Supercritical carbon dioxide as solvent for organic compounds present in aqueous salt solutions (G. Sieder, G. Maurer). (
  • or liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) cleaning, in which carbon dioxide is pressurized into a liquid solvent that safely cleans clothing. (
  • The hydrocarbon solvent carbon chain lengths are typically narrow cuts of hydrocarbon lengths over C5 and below C20. (
  • Exposures to solvents are addressed in specific OSHA standards for the general industry, maritime, and construction. (
  • Provides information about the evaluation of occupational exposures to solvents. (
  • Among other things, participants were asked to provide detailed information on occupational exposures to organic solvents, painting products, and varnish. (
  • Table 1 lists common sources of organic solvent exposures. (
  • One of the last actions taken by EPA during the Obama Administration was to propose a ban on the use of a toxic solvent in paint strippers. (
  • Toxic cleaning solvents. (
  • 1915.32 - Toxic cleaning solvents. (
  • Employees shall be protected against toxic vapors by suitable respiratory protective equipment in accordance with the requirements of subpart I of this Part and, where necessary, against exposure of skin and eye contact with toxic solvents and their vapors by suitable clothing and equipment. (
  • D5 is a clear, odorless and non-toxic silicone based solvent (siloxane) considered to be both non-toxic and non-hazardous. (
  • Feldman RG, Ratner MH, Ptak T. Chronic toxic encephalopathy in a painter exposed to mixed solvents. (
  • Organic solvents are toxic and can harm the central nervous system. (
  • Our wide range of solvents enables us to cover most - if not all - solvents customer requirements. (
  • Aliphatic mineral spirits contains an extremely wide range of solvents, having flash points in the range of 35°C up to 120°C with numerous product and process applications. (
  • UltimAR solvents meet or exceed ACS specifications for HPLC and UV spectrophotometry applications, and give you the mobile phase purity you need for success in general lab use as well. (
  • Perform liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) applications with this 99.5%-pure DMF solvent (MW 73.09, CAS 68-12-2) with low UV-absorptivity. (
  • The following resources provide information about occupational exposure to organic solvents. (
  • Chronic solvent-induced encephalopathy (CSE) is a known condition and occupational exposure to organic solvents is associated with alcoholism, cataracts, and the loss of hearing and color vision. (
  • Occupational exposure to organic solvents and lymphoid neoplasms in men: results of a French case-control study. (
  • The results of this study suggest some adverse fetal effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents during pregnancy as measured by neurocognitive, behavioral, and motor coordination measures," the authors write. (
  • The provisions of this rule shall apply to any source operation that uses organic solvents unless the source operation is exempted under Section 4.0. (
  • The "Alternative Solvents" technology platform promotes the use of more sustainable solvents - supercritical / liquid CO 2 , bio-based solvents and solvents made from waste - as replacements for conventional organic solvents. (
  • The use of inorganic solvents (other than water) is typically limited to research chemistry and some technological processes. (
  • Imidazole-amine hybrids are able to exceed the 1:2 (mol:mol) stochiometric limitations of CO2-amine chemistry in a non-aqueous solvent, and are found to absorb up to 1:1 (mol:mol) CO2 per amine, while maintaining viscosities as low as 10 cP in a highly CO2-rich state. (
  • The report Ink Solvents Market by Chemistry Type & by Application - Global Forecasts to 2019 report analyzes the global ink solvents market with respect to market drivers, opportunities, challenges, and trends in different regions. (
  • Spray Solvent pre-cleans paint guns. (
  • Use our water- based solvent to clean metal, primed metal and painted surfaces prior to the application of primer and paint. (
  • Best Solvent For Oil-Paint. (
  • I am looking for a strong paint solvent for oil-based paint. (
  • If you are using paint that is full of solvent outdoors, it's a good idea to varnish the work when you're done. (
  • What Do You Use Marine Paint Solvents For? (
  • While you paint, certain solvents may be used to improve paint flow and make it easier to maintain a wet or working edge. (
  • If you accidentally get paint somewhere it should not be, various solvents may be used to clean up the excess paint. (
  • These solvents effectively remove wax, grease, oil, dirt, and other contaminants that could negatively impact the quality of the paint job. (
  • Brush cleaner is a milder, water-rinsable solvent that is ideal for removing paint, varnish, and shellac from nylon and natural-bristle brushes. (
  • Studies have shown that chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene and perchloroethylene used in dry cleaning facilities, cause a variety of cancers. (
  • The efficacy of these fibers, for removing chlorinated organic solvents, was tested using perchloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) as model compounds. (
  • Gasoline, lighter fluid and trichloroethylene can be used as golf grip solvent substitutes. (
  • Imidazoles are unique classes of organic solvents that feature properties similar to aqueous amine solvents and ionic liquids (ILs), both of which have received a great deal of attention for CO2 capture applications. (
  • However, to date, the utility of the imidazole platform has not been considered, despite its potential advantages over both ILs and aqueous amine solvents. (
  • For treatment of chlorinated solvents, cultures can be injected directly into the aquifer or applied to onsite bioreactors. (
  • The anaerobic bioremediation process uses native or introduced microorganisms (Dehalococcoides) to degrade chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) to innocuous end products including ethene and ethane. (
  • Novel fibers for the sorption of chlorinated solvents were developed by the Department of Textile Engineering at Auburn University. (
  • According to the previous expert consensus approach, two types of congenital heart defects were associated with exposure to any solvent and to chlorinated solvents, although these associations were only of borderline significance. (
  • They can especially replace glycol ethers or chlorinated solvents. (
  • Petroleum-Free Solvent is suited for industrial parts. (
  • The platform focuses on the use of alternative solvents in a wide range of applications. (
  • Solvents from biomass and food waste are viewed as one of the most promising types of alternative solvents. (
  • The "Alternative Solvents" technology platform also operates a state of the art semi-preparative supercritical chromatography system. (
  • Current projects within the GCCE are investigating the use of carbonates as alternative solvents in various synthetic transformations, including solid phase peptide synthesis. (
  • However, the health risks of perc as a dry cleaning solvent has spurred interest in alternative solvents to replace its use. (
  • what is the concentration of the solvent in the air at the place of work? (
  • Colloid stability depends on both solvent and metal concentration. (
  • However, major drawbacks of SMB are the inability of separating a mixture into three fractions and the lack of solvent gradient applicability. (
  • In German patent application No. 1935510 a solvent type cleaner is disclosed comprising a hydrocarbon solvent and a nonionic emulsifying agent, consisting of a mixture of dinonylphenol condensed with 4-6 ethylene oxide and monononylphenol condensed with 4-6 ethylene oxide. (
  • Partitioning, or the tendency for sorbed and bulk phases to have different compositions, was shown to be sensitive to the dielectric properties of the 2 solvents of the binary mixture and to the surface charge density on the clay, among other factors. (
  • A case study on co-exposure to a mixture of organic solvents in a Tunisian adhesive-producing company. (
  • The invention relates to a liquid antiadhesive degreasing and cleaning product, composed of denatured 95 alcohol, and of a mixture of carbonated solvents. (
  • Preferably, the composition is characterized in that the alcohol is present in a proportion varying from 35% to 55% by volume, and the solvents mixture is present in a complementary proportion. (
  • There is disclosed a process for the extraction of volatile solvents entrained in a polymer-based pharmaceutical composition designed for sustained release of drug over an extended period of time prepared in microcapsule form wherein the composition comprises at least one hormonally active water-soluble. (
  • The improvement comprises a process for extracting volatile solvents entrained in the polymer-drug microcapsule pharmaceutical composition comprising the steps of (1) contacting the polymer-drug microcapsule pharmaceutical composition with a dense, that is, pressurized, gas and (2) then removing the dense gas, and the volatile solvents therein which have been extracted, from the polymer-drug microcapsule composition. (
  • Organic solvents can be carcinogens, reproductive hazards, and neurotoxins. (
  • Organic solvents recognized as reproductive hazards include 2-ethoxyethanol, 2-methoxyethanol, and methyl chloride. (
  • Solvent selection guides concur that carbonates pose few environmental, health and safety hazards. (
  • Provides references that aid in recognizing solvent hazards in the workplace. (
  • Provides references about possible solutions for solvent hazards in the workplace. (
  • Special boiling point (SBP) solvents are versatile fast to medium evaporating aliphatic hydrocarbon fluids with very low impurities and aromatics content and narrow boiling ranges. (
  • For these reasons there has been a large amount of interest in ways to reduce hazardous solvent use and find benign substitutes. (
  • The solvents which pose the most serious risk to health should be substituted by less hazardous ones. (
  • For most of the hazardous solvents it is possible to find a substitute with the same characteristics but less drastic effects on health. (
  • Long-term exposure to some solvents can be hazardous to worker health, however. (